WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing terrorist motivations

  1. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  2. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  3. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  4. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  5. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  6. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  7. Needs of Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  8. Assessing Environmental Stewardship Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramston, Paul; Pretty, Grace; Zammit, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stewardship networks flourish across Australia. Although the environment benefits, this article looks to identify what volunteers draw from their stewardship. The authors adapted 16 questions that purportedly tap environmental stewardship motivation and administered them to a convenience sample of 318 university students and then to…

  9. Risk assessment due to terrorist actions on public transportation networks : a case study in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, João M.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed in collaboration with one of the largest Public Transportation Operator in Portugal and addresses the problem of risk assessment due to terrorist actions involving explosions at different levels. First, a region of the Operator is selected. The elements in the Operator's network with the highest associated risk are highlighted for each threat using the COUNTERACT guidelines. Subsequently, from the group of elements with the highest associated ris...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  11. METHOD OF FORMING AND ASSESSMENT OF READINESS OF SEAMEN TO COUNTER PIRATES AND TERRORISTS AT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Every year pirates attack hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors. So, by the end of 2014 violent actions of the pirates have undergone more than 5,000 sailors. In 2015, the pirates attacked 246 vessels they had captured 15 ships and 271 of a sailor. While one sailor was killed and 14 wounded. The economic damage from pirates was tens of billions of dollars. For these reasons, the fight against piracy and Maritime terrorism becomes a major concern of the world community. In today's complex for a variety of reasons conditions, convoy of transport ships warships for the passage of areas endangered by pirates is considered the most effective and reliable means of coping with the corsairs of the XXI century, precluding the capture of the ship and its crew. At the same time, the training of personnel to solve specific problems impeding reoperate requires performing the whole complex of preparatory measures, including psychological and physical training of sailors for the upcoming action of a dangerous nature. The article reveals the content of the methodology of forming and evaluating the readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea represents a set of methods, forms and means of pedagogical influence with the purpose of providing soldiers pedagogical assistance in the development of military-professional activities, standards of behavior and support in preparation for military service in the areas endangered by pirates; the development of military-professional competence; the full realization of personal potential of specialist fleet

  12. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  13. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events-among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability.

  14. The Relationship between Second Language Motivation and Assessment Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱玲; 杨纾

    2014-01-01

    L2 motivation has been acknowledged as a crucial tool to push L2 learners on. This paper reviews on the classifications of motivation and assessment strategies first, and then summarizes the relationship between L 2 motivation and assessment strate-gies.

  15. A Scale to Assess Entrepreneurial Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    V. Vijaya; T.J. Kamalanabhan

    1998-01-01

    Much of the research conducted in India in the area of entrepreneurship considers personality characteristics and motivation interchangeably. This article argues that there is a need to treat entrepreneurial motivation as a separate entity and objectively measure and classify different types of motivation to draw meaningful inferences. The authors attempt here to develop a scale relevant to the Indian context to measure entrepreneurial motivation. The sample for the study was drawn from 195 p...

  16. Motivation and assessment of the human resources in chosen firm

    OpenAIRE

    VESELÁ, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of my bachelor work is to analyse staff motivation and assessment in one chosen firm. The existent system of employee's motivation was analyzed for initial determination of the motivation level. I suggested some ways how to better the situation in the company and make the emplyees satisfied.

  17. The Threat of Terrorism: Putting Human Rights to the Test : Assessing the Counterterrorist Policies of France in the Aftermath of the 13th of November 2015 Terrorist Attacks 

    OpenAIRE

    Poidevin, Fiore

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred in Paris on the 13th of November 2015, mark a shift for counterterrorism in France. Indeed, the magnitude of the terrorist attacks persuaded the French government to call for stricter counterterrorist policies. However, the effects of these measures on human rights have been interrogated widely. Therefore, in this thesis, I wish to address the conflict between state security and individual human rights. First, I will assess if the current situation of Franc...

  18. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  19. Assessing Motivation To Read. Instructional Resource No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    The Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) is a public-domain instrument designed to provide teachers with an efficient and reliable way to assess reading motivation qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating students' self-concept as readers and the value they place on reading. The MRP consists of two basic instruments: the Reading Survey (a…

  20. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT – A MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR FOR SMES

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D Student Alexandra Maria Fira

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the human resources assessment policy in SMEs. Based on the fact that the assessment policy of the human resources has as important premises internal promotion and career management, as well as detecting the dysfunctionalities, motivation inadequacies and dissatisfactions. Finally, we concluded that the development of individual performance model evaluation in the SMEs can be a motivational factor with strong influences on economic performance. This article was fi...

  1. Teachers Job Satisfaction and Motivation for School Effectiveness: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince

    2006-01-01

    Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This study assessed the…

  2. An Expectancy Theory Motivation Approach to Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry A.; Cox, Pamela L.; Maher, Larry E.

    2008-01-01

    Group projects are an important component of higher education, and the use of peer assessment of students' individual contributions to group projects has increased. The researchers employed an expectancy theory approach and an experimental design in a field setting to investigate conditions that influence students' motivation to rate their peers'…

  3. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approximately 23.7 wt% 240Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the 239Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. 240Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% 238Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% 238Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating 237Np to 238Pu are also reported. However, these modifications increased the disloaded heavy metal mass

  4. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001 (Internal Post Box 360), Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    The approximately 23.7 wt% {sup 240}Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the {sup 239}Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. {sup 240}Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% {sup 238}Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% {sup 238}Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating {sup 237}Np to {sup 238}Pu are also reported. However, these

  5. Assessment of Learners’ Motivation during Interactions with Serious Games: A Study of Some Motivational Strategies in Food-Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfi Derbali; Claude Frasson

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated motivational strategies and the assessment of learners’ motivation during serious gameplay. Identifying and intelligently assessing the effects that these strategies may have on learners are particularly relevant for educational computer-based systems. We proposed, therefore, the use of physiological sensors, namely, heart rate, skin conductance, and electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as a theoretical model of motivation (Keller’s ARCS model) to evaluate six motivatio...

  6. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critica...

  7. Terrorist transgressions: exploring the gendered representations of the terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Malvern, Sue; Koureas, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The primary aim of the Terrorist Transgressions network which is presented here was to analyse the myths inscribed in images of the terrorist and identify how agency is attributed to representation through invocations and inversions of gender stereotypes. Although terrorism, its contexts, histories and forms, has been the focus of intense academic activity in recent years, especially in the fields of politics and international relations, cultural representations of the terrorist hav...

  8. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, P.; Horgan, J; HUNTER, S.; Cushenbery, L.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a conceptual framework with which we can understand the complex nature and multiple drivers of creativity and innovation within terrorist organizations. ...

  9. Cyberspace and Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav Yogev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cyberspace as a primary warfare arena between enemies or hostile nations has always been fertile ground for fantasy and lurid scenes on the silver screen. However, cyberspace is rapidly becoming a genuine central arena for future wars and hostile actions undertaken by various types of adversaries. These may include terrorist organizations, although until now they have relied primarily on physical violence to promote their own goals and those of their sponsors. In light of such threats, many nations in the West have in recent years established special authorities to use innovative technological means to prepare for war-like actions against strategic infrastructure targets. This essay focuses on an analysis of the factors that are likely to make terrorist organizations use cyber tools to perpetrate attacks on critical infrastructures of sovereign institutions and symbols, commercial and industrial infrastructures and systems, and public civilian targets. In addition, it examines the question of whether the threat is actual and imminent, or whether it is a far-fetched possibility that surfaces from time to time in the general discourse on the subject.

  10. Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Dorte

    Bogen præsenterer relevant teori om motivation fra international forskning, som hidtil ikke har været brugt i Danmark. Med afsæt i denne forskning giver bogen med inspiration og praktiske anbefalinger et bud på, hvordan man som lærer også får anvendt teorien i praksis. Forfatterens overordnede...... pointe er, at elevers motivation er et resultat af deres skoleerfaringer og oplevelse af læreren. Derfor har man som lærer stor indflydelse på, hvordan eleverne vælger at engagere sig i skolearbejdet. Bogen henvender sig til undervisere, der gerne vil blive klogere på: * Hvad er det, der sætter elever i...... gang med og i stand til at arbejde engageret i skolen? * Hvordan påvirkes elevers motivation af mødet med skolen? * Hvad kan virke negativt på motivationen? * Hvilken rolle spiller lærerne ift. elevernes motivation? * Hvad kan læreren i praksis gøre for at styrke elevernes arbejdsglæde? Bogen indgår i...

  11. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  12. Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the

  13. Assessment of Teacher Motivation Approaches in the Less Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliya, Amos; Ifeoma, Loko Grace

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move toward a goal. Therefore, this paper examines both traditional and new approaches to teacher motivation, threats to teacher motivation and measures for shaping teacher motivation. The paper concludes that intrinsic rewards such as self-respect, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment…

  14. Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D; Langens, T A; Puca, R M

    2000-02-01

    In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes. PMID:10779937

  15. Automated Bone Age Assessment: Motivation, Taxonomies, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mansourvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone age assessment (BAA of unknown people is one of the most important topics in clinical procedure for evaluation of biological maturity of children. BAA is performed usually by comparing an X-ray of left hand wrist with an atlas of known sample bones. Recently, BAA has gained remarkable ground from academia and medicine. Manual methods of BAA are time-consuming and prone to observer variability. This is a motivation for developing automated methods of BAA. However, there is considerable research on the automated assessment, much of which are still in the experimental stage. This survey provides taxonomy of automated BAA approaches and discusses the challenges. Finally, we present suggestions for future research.

  16. Public Opinion and Terrorist Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the dimensions of public opinion relevant for supporting terrorism and their relationship with terrorist attacks. We link the 2007 PEW survey data on justification of suicide terrorism and opinions in 16 countries of the Middle East, Africa and Asia on nine regional powers to the NCTC data on international terrorist incidents between 2004 and 2008. We find that justification of suicide terrorism and unfavorable opinion on regional powers are correlated with the occurrence o...

  17. The fight against terrorist financing

    OpenAIRE

    Clunan, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    According to a well-informed former participant, the effort to combat terrorists' access to financial resources has been "the most successful part" of the global community's counterterrorism endeavor since the al Qaeda 11 September 2001 attacks on the United States. Genuine success, however, hinges on U.S. ability to successfully frame terrorist financing as a collective action problem, both internally, to overcome interagency rivalries, and internationally, to overcome the benefits of free-...

  18. Developing an instrument to assess information technology staff motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Belfo, Fernando Paulo; Sousa, Rui Dinis

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor that influences individual effort, which, in turn, affects individual and organizational performance. Nevertheless, motivation at work depends on the organizational rewards and incentives, according to individual goals. This paper reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the motivation of Information Technology people at their workplace. Psychology theories and work addressing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation have been studied. Some motivati...

  19. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hoetzel, Katrin; von Brachel, Ruth; Schlossmacher, Lena; Vocks, Silja

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transthe...

  20. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  1. Motivation of Academics: An Empirical Assessment of Herzberg's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Aycan Cicek

    2007-01-01

    This study examined academics' viewpoints according to sex, academic title, and professional seniority to establish how much the university presented to its staff hygiene and motivation factors and to find out the effect of these factors in motivating the staff. The findings show that there is not a statistical difference among the academics'…

  2. Skill and Will: Test-Taking Motivation and Assessment Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklof, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    An achievement test score can be viewed as a joint function of skill and will, of knowledge and motivation. However, when interpreting and using test scores, the "will" part is not always acknowledged and scores are mostly interpreted and used as pure measures of student knowledge. This paper argues that students' motivation to do their best on…

  3. Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

  4. Reactions to Skill Assessment: The Forgotten Factor in Explaining Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bradford S.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The study presented here examined the effects of trainees' reactions to skill assessment on their motivation to learn. A model was developed that suggests that two dimensions of trainees' assessment reactions, distributive justice and utility, influence training motivation and overall training effectiveness. The model was tested using a sample of…

  5. Evidence for the Impact of Assessment on Mood and Motivation in First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Rosanne; Gilleard, Wendy; Baglin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Learning, and particularly assessment practices, that encourages a self-determined approach enhances feelings of well-being and achievement motivation. Students (n = 137) in a common first-year unit were the participants for an evaluation of the impact of assessment. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Brunel Mood Scale were used to assess…

  6. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following chemical terrorist attack: Introduction and key assessment considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  7. A Study on the Correlation between Second Language Learning Motiva-tion and Formative Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱玲; 杨坚

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between motivation and assessment and find out the assessment strategies which could motivate students better in L2 learning based on the data and responses collected from 30 non-English majors in a regional university. The data and responses revealed that formative assessment could motivate students better, especially during the process of English learning. It also revealed some problems existing in the assessment strategies implemented in this study, such as the im-partiality of peer-assessment and the poor efficiency of group work.

  8. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of a...

  9. AN ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER MOTIVATION BASED ON TWO-FACTOR THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    KUSHAL DE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on an original study carried out to assess hygienemotivation factors prevailing in the workplaces of secondary schoolteachers. The presence of motivators is essential to enhance performance but hygiene factors and motivators are equally important for performance optimisation. Dissatisfaction can be avoided by taking care of the hygiene factors and presence of adequate motivators leads to job satisfaction and progress. This study, though subjective, tries to project the gro...

  10. Instruments assessing motivation for change in eating disorders and their psychometric properties – a review.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Most patients with an eating disorder are not motivated to change their behavior. Prior research has demonstrated the prognostic value of a stages of change model in predicting outcome. Further, identifying the factors which influence an individual’s decision to change may bolster treatment effectiveness. An instrument with good reliability and validity for assessing motivation in eating disorders is necessary to correctly identify the patient’s motivational state. T...

  11. 'A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE'S PERCEPTION TOWARDS MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES OF ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN SATARA’

    OpenAIRE

    Sarang S. Bhola; SUPRIYA SURESH RASKAR

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a planned managerial process which stimulates the people work to the best of their capabilities; by providing them monitory and non-monitory benefits with motives which are based on their unfulfilled needs. Present research involves comparative assessment of employee's perception towards motivational practices applied in selected five engineering units in Satara M.I.D.C. Sample units are selected by using purposive sampling method. So workers working in respective sample units a...

  12. Ultimate nightmare: what if terrorists go nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing numbers of contenders in the international nuclear arms race are seen to be an enabling factor in favor of terrorist access to nuclear weapons. This article gives an overview of studies and literature which postulate a nuclear terrorist incident. Louis Rene Beres, a political scientist, lists some factors which give credence to the hypotheses: easy access to nuclear materials, ready availability of weapons resources, terrorist willingness for self-sacrifice, cooperation among terrorist groups, and a general international tolerance of terrorism. Nearly all experts and commentators agree that nuclear reactors constitute the prime terrorist targets of the future. 90 references

  13. Assessing treatment motivation among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy: A multidimensional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Eric; McKirnan, David J.; Cervone, Daniel; Matthew S. Johnson; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Using multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS), this study examined how patient conceptualisations of treatment motivation compare with theoretically-based assumptions used in current assessment approaches. Patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS (n = 39) rated for similarity all possible pairings of 23 treatment descriptions, including descriptors of intrinsic, extrinsic, approach, and avoidance motivation. MDS analyses revealed that patient perceptions of intrinsic and extrin...

  14. Say Cheese! A Snapshot of Elementary Teachers' Engagement and Motivation for Classroom Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Glenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is a complex function requiring an understanding of student learning, assessment principles, practices, and purposes of data to implement effective classroom assessment. The purpose of this study was to add to the growing base of knowledge about teachers' engagement with assessment data and their motivation for classroom…

  15. Toward Motivating Participants to Assess Peers' Work More Fairly: Taking Programing Language Learning as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Ai, Wenguo; Liang, Yaowen; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is an efficient and effective learning assessment method that has been used widely in diverse fields in higher education. Despite its many benefits, a fundamental problem in peer assessment is that participants lack the motivation to assess others' work faithfully and fairly. Nonconsensus is a common challenge that makes the…

  16. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  17. A Sociospatial Approach to Understanding Terrorist Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist networks operate in hybrid space where activities in social and geographic spaces are necessary for logistics and security. The Islamist terrorist network is analyzed as a sociospatial system using social network analysis, Geographic Information Science (GISc), and novel techniques designed for hybrid space analyses. This research focuses on identifying distance and sociospatial dependencies within the terrorist network. A methodology for analyzing sociospatial systems is developed and results lead to a greater understanding of terrorist network structures and activities. Distance and sociospatial dependencies are shown to exist for the Islamist terrorist network structure. These findings are discordant with recent literature that focuses on terrorist network tendencies toward decentralization in the information age. In this research, the Islamist terrorist network is theorized to use multiple structures of hierarchical and decentralized organization for effectiveness, efficiency, and resilience. Implications for counterterrorism policy and strategies are given.

  18. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted;

    2014-01-01

    Organic food systems are based on a complex of value criteria that often are not explicitly considered when agents think, communicate, and make decisions concerning organic food. Multicriteria assessment (MCA) refers to a group of tools that help the user to tackle such highly complex issues. The...... question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We...... discuss an economic, a psychosocial, and a relational perspective on motivation and MCA. Using the example of a consumer assessing and choosing products in the supermarket, the economic conception of motivation offers a focus on decision-making processes. The psychosocial approach to motivation draws...

  19. Assessing competence in the use of motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B; Martin, Tim; Manuel, Jennifer K; Hendrickson, Stacey M L; Miller, William R

    2005-01-01

    This report presents reliability, validity and sensitivity indices for the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale. Factor analysis of MI treatment sessions coded with the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC) was used to derive 10 elements of MI practice, forming the MITI. Canonical correlation revealed that the MITI captured 59% of the variability in the MISC. Reliability estimates for the MITI were derived using three masked, independent coders. Intra-class coefficients ranged from .5 to .9 and were generally in the good to excellent range. Comparison of MITI scores before and after MI workshops indicate good sensitivity for detecting improvement in clinical practice as result of training. Implications for the use of this instrument in research and supervision are discussed. PMID:15723728

  20. On the Comparative Impact of Self-assessment and Teacher-assessment on Iranian EFL Learners' Academic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Salimi; Vahid Nowrozi Larsari

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the function of language teaching and testing has been paid much attention by researchers. There is an overall notion in the literature that motivation, as driving force, is one of the likely learners' traits. The aim of this study was to examine the comparative impact of self-assessment and teacher-assessment on learners' academic motivation. The participants were 60 intermediate students in two groups at Novin-Rezvan Foreign institute. At the beginning of semester, the instructor ...

  1. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed. PMID:20587476

  2. A survey to assess family physicians' motivation to teach undergraduates in their practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Germany, family physicians (FPs are increasingly needed to participate in undergraduate medical education. Knowledge of FPs' motivation to teach medical students in their practices is lacking. PURPOSE: To describe a novel questionnaire that assesses the motivation of FPs to teach undergraduates in their practices and to show the results of a subsequent survey using this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed based on a review of the literature. Previously used empirical instruments assessing occupational values and motivation were included. A preliminary version was pretested in a pilot study. The resulting 68-item questionnaire was sent to 691 FPs involved in undergraduate medical education. Reliability was assessed and subgroups were analyzed with regard to differences in motivation. RESULTS: A total of 523 physicians in n = 458 teaching practices participated (response rate 75.7%. 'Helping others' and 'interest' were revealed as the predominant motives. Responses showed a predominantly intrinsic motivation of the participating FPs. Their main incentives were an ambition to work as a medical preceptor, to generally improve undergraduate education and to share knowledge. Material compensation was of minor importance. Time restraints were indicated as a barrier by some FPs, but were not a general concern. CONCLUSION: German FPs involved in medical education have altruistic attitudes towards teaching medical students in their practices. Motivational features give an important insight for the recruitment of FP preceptors as well as for their training in instructional methods.

  3. The Effects of Motivation on Student Performance on Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Tina Heard

    Academic achievement of public school students in the United States has significantly fallen behind other countries. Students' lack of knowledge of, or interest in, basic science and math has led to fewer graduates of science, technology, engineering, and math-related fields (STEM), a factor that may affect their career success and will certainly affect the numbers in the workforce who are prepared for some STEM jobs. Drawing from self-determination theory and achievement theory, the purpose of this correlational study was to determine whether there were significant relationships between high school academic performance in science classes, motivations (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation), and academic performance in an introductory online college biology class. Data were obtained at 2 points in time from a convenience multiethnic sample of adult male ( n =16) and female (n = 49) community college students in the southeast United States. Correlational analyses indicated no statistically significant relationships for intrinsic or extrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, or self-regulation with high school science mean-GPA nor college biology final course grade. However, high school academic performance in science classes significantly predicted college performance in an entry-level online biology class. The implications of positive social change include knowledge useful for educational institutions to explore additional factors that may motivate students to enroll in science courses, potentially leading to an increase in scientific knowledge and STEM careers.

  4. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  5. Advancing methods for reliably assessing motivational interviewing fidelity using the motivational interviewing skills code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Can, Doğan; Yi, Michael; Marin, Rebeca; Dunn, Christopher W; Imel, Zac E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-02-01

    The current paper presents novel methods for collecting MISC data and accurately assessing reliability of behavior codes at the level of the utterance. The MISC 2.1 was used to rate MI interviews from five randomized trials targeting alcohol and drug use. Sessions were coded at the utterance-level. Utterance-based coding reliability was estimated using three methods and compared to traditional reliability estimates of session tallies. Session-level reliability was generally higher compared to reliability using utterance-based codes, suggesting that typical methods for MISC reliability may be biased. These novel methods in MI fidelity data collection and reliability assessment provided rich data for therapist feedback and further analyses. Beyond implications for fidelity coding, utterance-level coding schemes may elucidate important elements in the counselor-client interaction that could inform theories of change and the practice of MI. PMID:25242192

  6. Motivating student learning using a formative assessment journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darrell J R; Zeun, Paul; Stanier, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Providing formative assessment opportunities has been recognised as a significant benefit to student learning. The outcome of any formative assessment should be one that ultimately helps improve student learning through familiarising students with the levels of learning required, informing them about gaps in their learning and providing feedback to guide the direction of learning. This article provides an example of how formative assessments can be developed into a formative assessment journey where a number of different assessments can be offered to students during the course of a module of teaching, thus utilising a spaced-education approach. As well as incorporating the specific drivers of formative assessment, we demonstrate how approaches deemed to be stimulating, interactive and entertaining with the aim of maximising enthusiasm and engagement can be incorporated. We provide an example of a mixed approach to evaluating elements of the assessment journey that focuses student reaction, appraisal of qualitative and quantitative feedback from student questionnaires, focus group analysis and teacher observations. Whilst it is not possible to determine a quantifiable effect of the assessment journey on student learning, usage data and student feedback shows that formative assessment can achieve high engagement and positive response to different assessments. Those assessments incorporating an active learning element and a quiz-based approach appear to be particularly popular. A spaced-education format encourages a building block approach to learning that is continuous in nature rather than focussed on an intense period of study prior to summative examinations. PMID:24111930

  7. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  8. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  9. Human rights against anti-terrorist laws

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Friðgeir Ísaksson

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I will try to answer the question: Are human rights in the UK in jeopardy because of the nation’s increasing anti-terrorist laws? I will focus on the UK, how anti-terrorist laws have been implemented and how they have been used in the UK after the events of the terrorist attacks on 9/11. I chose the UK because of its long tradition of anti-terrorist laws since their dealings with the IRA in the last few decades of the last century. I wanted to take a look at different count...

  10. Development and Validation of the Teacher and Motivation (TEMO) Scale: A Self-Report Measure Assessing Students' Perceptions of Liked and Disliked Teachers as Motivators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents a newly developed measurement: the TEMO (Teacher and Motivation) scale, which assesses adolescent students' perception of liked and disliked teachers and the resulting impact on their academic motivation. A total of 1,088 students from secondary schools in Germany participated in this study. To explore the underlying…

  11. Validation of decisional balance inventory test in Italian: assessment of motivation in weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Giulia Falchi; Chiara Muggia; Ilaria Grecchi; Ilaria Michelini; Annalisa De Silvestri; Carmine Tinelli

    2015-01-01

    The decisional balance inventory (DBI) test is a valuable tool to assess motivation to change; we consider its application in enhancing motivation of losing weight. Our aim is the translation, cultural adaption and validation in Italian of this test originally designed and drafted in English. The questionnaire has been translated according to an English → Italian → Italian → English algorithm with reconciliation of the differences. Pilot study and retests were performed on 47 cases [body mass...

  12. The Role of Effectiveness and Efficiency in the European Union's Counterterrorism Policy: The Case of Terrorist Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Brzoska, Michael

    2011-01-01

    European Union policy to counter terrorist financing is marked by uncertainty about causes and consequences. The paper addresses the role of evaluations of the effectiveness and efficiency of counter terrorist financing policies performed by international standard setting organizations in such a policy environment. It is found that assessments of effectiveness have shaped counter terrorist financing, but partially in a way biased towards their extension without strong evidence of their effect...

  13. The Effects of Motivational Instruction on College Students' Performance on Low-Stakes Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Borden, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Assessments of student learning outcomes (SLO) have been widely used in higher education for accreditation, accountability, and strategic planning purposes. Although important to institutions, the assessment results typically bear no consequence for individual students. It is important to clarify the relationship between motivation and test…

  14. Canonical Correlational Models of Students' Perceptions of Assessment Tasks, Motivational Orientations, and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at deriving correlational models of students' perceptions of assessment tasks, motivational orientations, and learning strategies using canonical analyses. Data were collected from 198 Omani tenth grade students. Results showed that high degrees of authenticity and transparency in assessment were associated with positive…

  15. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  16. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Læssøe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic food systems are based on a complex of value criteria that often are not explicitly considered when agents think, communicate, and make decisions concerning organic food. Multicriteria assessment (MCA refers to a group of tools that help the user to tackle such highly complex issues. The question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We discuss an economic, a psychosocial, and a relational perspective on motivation and MCA. Using the example of a consumer assessing and choosing products in the supermarket, the economic conception of motivation offers a focus on decision-making processes. The psychosocial approach to motivation draws attention to the influence of cognitive structures and experience-based emotional drivers. Finally, the relational approach stresses that motivation is situated in the relations between agents. We discuss how the three perspectives converge and diverge regarding the purpose of using an MCA tool, the scope of the MCA, the strategic focus, and challenges and potentials associated with an MCA tool. Through this multiple-perspective approach, the general idea of MCA is expanded and elaborated to refine the design of an MCA tool for organic food systems.

  17. 'A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE'S PERCEPTION TOWARDS MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES OF ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN SATARA’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARANG S. BHOLA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a planned managerial process which stimulates the people work to the best of their capabilities; by providing them monitory and non-monitory benefits with motives which are based on their unfulfilled needs. Present research involves comparative assessment of employee's perception towards motivational practices applied in selected five engineering units in Satara M.I.D.C. Sample units are selected by using purposive sampling method. So workers working in respective sample units are taken as sample. It is found that individual financial incentive, Salary increment, company's welfare facilities, regular training program etc. are the most effective motivational practices which helps to increase employee productivity, employee work efficiency and employee loyalty, But each organizations internal environment, rules and regulations and policies are different hence, results are also varies as per organization.

  18. Assessing Students' Motivation to Engage in Sustainable Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Mary; Bielefeldt, Angela R.; Swan, Christopher W.; Paterson, Kurtis G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design an assessment instrument to evaluate students' attitudes toward sustainable engineering (SE). Factors that impact SE beliefs could then be explored. Design/methodology/approach: Using the definition of sustainability from the Brundtland report and expectancy value theory, students' sentiment toward…

  19. ASSESSING AND MEASURING TEAM ROLES BALANCE - IMPROVING TEAM MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Simona, LUPULEAC; Zenica-Livia, LUPULEAC

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to design a model for assessing and measuring team roles balance and to test the model analyzing the relationship between team roles balance and team motivation. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a sample of 32 project management teams on POS DRU program, out of a population of 145 members. Team roles were identified applying BTRSPI. To assess team current level of motivation was used a tool proposed by Woodcoock and Francis (2008). ...

  20. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  1. Time on Test, Student Motivation, and Performance on the Collegiate Learning Assessment: Implications for Institutional Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, Braden J.

    2010-01-01

    Using results from the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) administered at Central Connecticut State University, a public Carnegie master's-larger programs university in the Northeast, this study demonstrates time on spent on the test, student motivation, and to a lesser extent the local institutional administration procedures represent…

  2. Motivational Beliefs, Student Effort, and Feedback Behaviour in Computer-Based Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Caroline F.; Braber-van den Broek, Jannie; van den Berg, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Feedback can only be effective when students seek feedback and process it. This study examines the relations between students' motivational beliefs, effort invested in a computer-based formative assessment, and feedback behaviour. Feedback behaviour is represented by whether a student seeks feedback and the time a student spends studying the…

  3. Assessing the Role of Motivation on Teacher Performance: Case Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Irwandy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the role of motivation on teacher performance in Indonesia. This study in an assessment of this aim used deductive approach where a qualitative survey was conducted among students at Universitas Negeri Medan (UNIMED, Indonesia who are assumed to be future teachers. The survey was intended to get their responses on what they feel are the best factors that could motivate them as future teachers among a list of ten motivational factors. In the light of this the study sets to identify the most ranked factors among the ten motivational factors. The analysis from the empirical findings showed that Good Salary was the most ranked factor for both sub groups that made up the sample survey. However, a study from previous researches used in this study showed that different results could be obtained from different groups of already working employees. This study therefore can be seen as an introduction to a more detailed study to be carried by future researchers in the field of teachers’ motivation.

  4. Reflections on the Impact of Absence of Summative Assessment on Students’ Motivation and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Munzur, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued for many years whether assessment and grading systems make students learn better and motivate them toward learning. Grades are seen as the external agents that are taken from formative assessment which have summative value in the process of learning. The primary goal of grading is to measure students’ achievement of the learning in a curriculum. These numerical signs serve as evidence about students’ competence and their performance in the learning process. In some cases, g...

  5. The development of a quick-running prediction tool for the assessment of human injury owing to terrorist attack within crowded metropolitan environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel J

    2011-01-27

    levels of each affected body part are then summated and a triage state assigned for each individual crowd member based on the criteria specified within the 'injury scoring system'. To attain a comprehensive picture of a particular event, it is important that a number of simulations, using what is substantively the same scenario, are undertaken with natural variation being applied to the crowd distributions and the PBIED output. Accurate mathematical representation of such complex phenomena is challenging, particularly as the code must be quick-running to be of use to the stakeholder community. In addition to discussing the background and motivation for the algorithm and GUI development, this document also discusses the steps taken to validate the tool and the plans for further functionality implementation. PMID:21149351

  6. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  7. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly. PMID:26322953

  9. An assessment of the motivational impacts of a career ladder/merit pay pilot program

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, Otis

    1987-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive investigation were (l) to construct a reliable instrument for assessing attitudes toward teaching of high school teachers, and (2) to determine if there was a difference in attitudes toward teaching between those high school teachers who were and those who were not involved in a career ladder/merit pay pilot program. Frederick Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the theoretical basis for the investigation. Analysis of work moti...

  10. Assessment of the prevailing motivation within the sports teams from the city of Iasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.

  11. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes ...

  12. Terrorist threat to nuclear facilities and the role of the public in countering them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The general public is an important stakeholder whose vital interests are consistent both with the prevention of terrorist attempts to attack nuclear power infrastructure and appropriate mitigation of the consequences of any such attack. Terrorist attacks can easily bring about systemic disasters characterized by a series of uncertain, interconnected and disruptive events that would affect the population at large as well as a wide range of societal institutions. Hence, the public must no longer be looked upon just as potential victim s or panicked masses but rather as an important contributing factor to better nuclear security throughout all stages of any potential incident. By getting the public on board and recognizing it as an important stakeholder, a meaningful risk communication strategy and other relevant arrangements must be developed and implemented in pursuance of five interrelated objectives: 1. Reach a common risk assessment enabling the public to be educated and prepared. 2. Encourage a well-informed and well-motivated public to contribute to a healthy nuclear security culture not only at the nuclear plant and associated units but also nationally. 3. Build up public vigilance, persuading citizens to cooperate more closely with law enforcement. 4. Reduce the immediate and long-term physical and psychological impact of a terrorist incident by fencing off panic, boosting morale, maintaining credibility, and providing guidance. 5. Integrate acts of nuclear terrorism into the general scheme of All-Hazards approach. The success of this public focused campaign would depend on its ability to develop a balanced and realistic understanding of the risk and the relationship between safety and security as two sides of the same process which is trouble-free operation of the nuclear power infrastructure under any conceivable circumstances. To this end, it is imperative to use as many public channels as possible, reaching groups that differ educationally

  13. Assessing Online Textual Feedback to Support Student Intrinsic Motivation Using a Collaborative Text-Based Dialogue System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Deneen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses textual feedback to support student intrinsic motivation using a collaborative text-based dialogue system. A research model is presented based on research into intrinsic motivation, and the specific construct of feedback provides a framework for the model. A qualitative research methodology is used to validate the model.…

  14. Assessing and Predicting College Students' Use of Strategies for the Self-Regulation of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Benzon, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    College students ("N" = 215) completed a self-report instrument designed to assess different regulation of motivation strategies as well as aspects of their motivational beliefs, use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies, and procrastination. The study serves to extend the research on the self-regulation of motivation…

  15. Utility of the Athlete Drinking Scale for assessing drinking motives among high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Tracy E; Zamboanga, Byron L; Olthuis, Janine V; Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Martin, Jessica L; McAfee, Nicholas W; Martens, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Research suggests that high school athletes are at greater risk for heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Drinking motives unique to the athletic experience may contribute to elevated use. The Athlete Drinking Scale (ADS) was designed to assess sport-related motives for alcohol use, but has not yet been validated among high school athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ADS among a sample of high school athletes. Participants were 216 high school student-athlete drinkers who completed anonymous self-report surveys. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a revised three-factor solution with a satisfactory overall model fit. Path analyses indicated that the Positive Reinforcement motives subscale was the only ADS subscale that was significantly associated with alcohol use and alcohol-related problems when controlling for the effects of the other factors (i.e., age and gender) in this population. The ADS may be a valuable assessment tool for researchers and clinicians involved in alcohol prevention efforts for high school athletes. PMID:27082264

  16. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism. PMID:25600017

  17. Effect Of Performance Assessment on Employee Motivation in Hotel X Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Gita Subakti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of an organization comes from the ability of employees to meet performance standards that have been made by the management of operational activities to be running well. Therefore, knowing how well the employee's performance is a must for the management. A tool used to determine how well the employee's performance is by conducting a performance appraisal. The performance evaluation is one tool used by hotels or other business types to evaluate the performance of employees and also as a tool to motivate the employee. With a good performance assessment will produce a form of accurate data regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the employees and also will motivate employees to perform their tasks

  18. What we need to know ...and when. Educating the public about nuclear terrorist risks can help raise levels of security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    all stages of a possible incident. Risk perception and stages in risk communication like public information sharing, public outreach and public involvement are discussed. By getting the public on-board and recognizing it as an important stakeholder, a meaningful risk communication strategy can achieve four interrelated missions: (a) reach a common risk assessment enabling the public to be educated and prepared, (b) encourage a well-informed and well-motivated public to contribute to a healthy nuclear security culture, (c) build up public vigilance, persuading citizens to cooperate more closely with law enforcement, and (d) reduce the immediate and long-term physical and psychological impact of a terrorist incident. Ultimately, it all comes down to creating a more resilient and prepared population in the face of terrorist adversaries. Resilience is usually defined as the ability to handle disruptive challenges, characterized as emergencies that can lead to or result in cr

  19. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  20. The Role of Motivation in School Evaluation. Teachers and Students Partners in the Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maria CHISIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available School evaluation is one of the educational activities with a strong contribution to pupil's personality structure, especially to young pupils. We wanted this experiment to have an argument for an assessment conducted following the principles of humanistic psychology, where the teacher and the student are partners to prove what he/she knows and what he/she can do with the knowledge accumulated by the student. The proposed experiment is conducted in a 4th form, under various conditions: test paper in order to determine the expression of various capacities, without receiving a grade; announced assessment, unannounced evaluation with grades, which are taken into account at the end of the school situation. Sets of samples were used for evaluations, developed by Foundation for evaluation in education aiming curriculum core content and competencies. The results were interpreted and were used to demonstrate that the variables that increase motivation and performance are the optimal conditions for achieving assessment. The experiment confirmed that the motivation of performance occurs especially when the subject knows that his actions will be judged by a standard of achievement and the result of his action will be subject to assessment. It was also confirmed that the relation of partnership between the teacher and the students leads to better results. It is preferable that the student should be informed about school experiences and he should know their purpose.

  1. Assessment lessons from K-12 education research: Knowledge representation, learning, and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2012-02-01

    Research on teaching to the test in K-12 settings has documented the lack of generalized understanding of underlying principles in tested subjects. This is similar to the experience of physics students who can complete computational problems without conceptual understanding. The PER community is well aware of the importance of explicit representations of learning goals as well as the role of the formative assessment process, especially feedback and self assessment, in promoting or deterring students' engagement and willingness to take responsibility for their own learning. Key principles from socio-cultural learning theory and research on motivation are summarized and used to identify instructional and assessment practices that hold the most promise for engaging students in developing deep conceptual understanding.

  2. Gravity Helped Terrorists Destory Twin Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆增

    2002-01-01

    Though terrorists triggered (触发) the collapse (倒塌) of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, much of the energy--calculated by a physicist to have been at least 2 percent that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima(广岛)--was supplied by nature's most ubiquitous(普通存在的)force: gravity.

  3. Malaysia and Singapore's terrorist rehabilitation programs : learning and adapting to terrorist threats

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this thesis examines how Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore learned and adapted successful terrorist disengagement programs and policies; through their unique and non-military rehabilitation programs. The methodology is a comparative case study analysis of Malaysia and Singapore. In order to understand how the countries of Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore adapted a colonial-era counter-insurgency program to disengage Communist Terrorists into a program that now rehabilitates r...

  4. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan)

    OpenAIRE

    Maghfur Maghfur; Siti mumun Muniroh

    2013-01-01

    Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-su...

  5. Me and My Reading Profile: A Tool for Assessing Early Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn B.; Gambrell, Linda B.; Mazzoni, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that motivation plays a central role in literacy development. Recent investigations have revealed that reading motivation begins to erode as early as second grade. Therefore, it can be suggested that motivation must be carefully considered during early literacy instruction. However, such motivating instruction can be effectively…

  6. Motivating and hindering factors during the reemployment process: the added value of employment counselors' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A J

    2014-01-01

    Because unemployment negatively affects people's well-being, it is of crucial importance that unemployed individuals move back to work. The process of getting reemployed, however, is difficult and complex. Therefore, many unemployed job seekers are assisted by employment counselors. The present study focuses on motivating and hindering factors in the reemployment process, examining the added value of the counselors' assessment of job seekers' attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors. The results of a 3-wave study with job seeker self-ratings and counselor-ratings indicated that perceived health problems is the most consistent predictor of job search and reemployment status. The findings further provide some convergent validity evidence for self- and counselor-rated situational-level motivators (i.e., attitude, social pressure, self-efficacy) and job search intensity. Although method effects did not seem to threaten the validity of the prediction of job search intensity and procrastination, employment counselors' assessments of job seekers' job search intensity and procrastination were significantly more strongly related to reemployment success than job seekers' self-ratings. Future research should therefore include other-reports, in addition to job seeker self-reports, to get a more complete view of people's job search behavior. Also reemployment counseling firms may want to use the expert knowledge of their employment counselors more systematically. PMID:24447217

  7. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  8. Trying Al Qaeda: Bringing Terrorists to Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Bell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were attacked, the United States embarked on a mission to bring those responsible for the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 to justice. A tremendous effort ensued to find and capture the individuals who were responsible or associated with these events. Many of the individuals who were captured have remained imprisoned for an indefinite amount of time due to the political debate regarding what is the most appropriate venue to try suspecgts arrested and charged with acts of terrorism. The choices come down to trial either by a trial by a Military Commission or a U.S. Federal District Court. There are unique challenges for effective prosecution in both venues. Which venue the Obama Administration will deem appropriate to try the terrorists captured by the former administration remains uncertain at this point in time.

  9. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clauset

    Full Text Available We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  10. STEMs: A Proposal for Calibrated Classroom Assessments That Increase Student Motivation and Provide Authentic Evaluation of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrieta, Hector; Amerson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the development and proposal of what the authors call STEMs (Standards Tests to Evaluate Mastery) and have defined them as calibrated classroom assessments that increase student motivation and provide authentic evaluation of student learning. Theoretical and empirical research on classroom assessment and…

  11. Terrorist financing beyond 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Loretta Napoleoni

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of counter-terrorism policies, e.g., the Patriot Act and the war in Iraq, on the financial structure of European terror networks and argues that such policies, far from defeating Jihadist activities, ended up boosting them. In response to such measures, terror finances have been skillfully restructured, the main changes being the decentralization of funding activity in Europe and in the Middle East and the declining cost of terrorist attacks.

  12. Combating Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Haigner, Stefan; Schneider, Friedrich; Wakolbinger, Florian

    2012-01-01

    International policy standards in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing are set forth by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations on Anti-money laundering (AML)/Combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) policies. While those standards are very high and require, for example, financial businesses to strictly pursue the "know your customer principle", countries compliance with the standards is low. In putting efforts in increasing compliance and harmonizing en...

  13. Validation of decisional balance inventory test in Italian: assessment of motivation in weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Giulia Falchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The decisional balance inventory (DBI test is a valuable tool to assess motivation to change; we consider its application in enhancing motivation of losing weight. Our aim is the translation, cultural adaption and validation in Italian of this test originally designed and drafted in English. The questionnaire has been translated according to an English → Italian → Italian → English algorithm with reconciliation of the differences. Pilot study and retests were performed on 47 cases [body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2] and 15 controls (BMI value between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. The internal consistency of the Italian version of DBI test, was satisfied (Cronbach α 0.87 on patients; test-retest shows a good concordance in pilot [Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.68-0.90] and in patient sample (Lin’s CCC 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67 0.99.Our study demonstrated the trans-cultural adaptation and validation of DBI test in Italian.

  14. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  15. A utilitarian argument against torture interrogation of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Jean Maria

    2004-07-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the "ticking bomb" scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official U.S. program of torture interrogation from a practical perspective. The central element of program design is a sound causal model relating input to output. I explore three principal models of how torture interrogation leads to truth: the animal instinct model, the cognitive failure model, and the data processing model. These models show why torture interrogation fails overall as a counterterrorist tactic. They also expose the processes that lead from a precision torture interrogation program to breakdowns in key institutions-health care, biomedical research, police, judiciary, and military. The breakdowns evolve from institutional dynamics that are independent of the original moral rationale. The counterargument, of course, is that in a society destroyed by terrorism there will be nothing to repair. That is why the actual causal mechanism of torture interrogation in curtailing terrorism must be elucidated by utilitarians rather than presumed PMID:15362710

  16. Assessing Individual-Level Factors Supporting Student Intrinsic Motivation in Online Discussions: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.; Coombes, John

    2008-01-01

    Research has established that intrinsic motivation has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of different technology-supported learning activities on student intrinsic motivation or whether such learning activities significantly enhance student intrinsic motivation compared to traditional…

  17. The Development of a Novel Measure to Assess Motives for Compensatory Eating in Response to Exercise: The CEMQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Samantha J; Landau, Aaron J; Hearon, Bridget A; Stein, Aliza T; Greathouse, Lee; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory eating in response to exercise may be an obstacle to achieving weight-loss and fitness goals. In this study we develop and conduct a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of the Compensatory Eating Motives Questionnaire (CEMQ), a self-report questionnaire of motives for compensatory eating. Development and testing of the CEMQ was conducted in two student samples. Of respondents, 75% reported engaging in compensatory eating. Factor analysis yielded factors representing three domains of motives for compensatory eating: Eating for Reward, Eating for Recovery, and Eating for Relief. Internal consistency of the factors was adequate, and the factor structure was replicated. Correlations between the CEMQ subscales and trait questionnaires supported hypotheses for convergent and divergent validity. These results encourage further investigation of compensatory eating as a potential obstacle to weight loss, and support the continued assessment of the CEMQ as a tool to measure three conceptually distinct motives for compensatory eating. PMID:25148129

  18. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-01-01

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required. PMID:25323086

  19. Vulnerability to terrorist attacks in European electricity decarbonisation scenarios: Comparing renewable electricity imports to gas imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decarbonised future European electricity system must remain secure: reliable electricity supply is a prerequisite for the functioning of modern society. Scenarios like Desertec, which partially rely on solar power imports from the Middle East and North Africa, may be attractive for decarbonisation, but raise concerns about terrorists interrupting supply by attacking the long, unprotected transmission lines in the Sahara. In this paper, I develop new methods and assess the European vulnerability to terrorist attacks in the Desertec scenario. I compare this to the vulnerability of today's system and a decarbonisation scenario in which Europe relies on gas imports for electricity generation. I show that the vulnerability of both gas and electricity imports is low, but electricity imports are more vulnerable than gas imports, due to their technical characteristics. Gas outages (and, potentially, resulting blackouts) are the very unlikely consequence even of very high-number attacks against the gas import system, whereas short blackouts are the potential consequence of a few attacks against the import electricity lines. As the impacts of all except extreme attacks are limited, terrorists cannot attack energy infrastructure and cause spectacular, fear-creating outages. Both gas and electricity import infrastructure are thus unattractive and unlikely terrorist targets. - Highlights: • A comparison of terrorism risks of importing solar power and gas for power generation. • Both scenarios show low vulnerability to terrorist attacks. • Within low vulnerabilities, gas imports are less vulnerable than electricity imports. • Causing spectacular, large and long outages is very difficult for attacker. • The attractiveness of gas and power import infrastructure as terrorist target is low

  20. Self-assessment of need, relevance and motivation to learn as indicators of participation in continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R D; Harvill, L M

    1984-07-01

    This study examined the validity of using physicians' self-assessed needs, relevance and motivation to learn about clinical topics as a means for setting objectives and priorities for continuing medical education (CME) programmes. In an initial survey family doctors were asked to rate their need, relevance and motivation to learn about 120 different clinical topics. Eight months later, the same population was sent a second mail survey asking respondents to indicate if they had learned about a set of sixteen topics taken from the initial survey and, if so, in what kind of learning activities. Eight of the sixteen topics were highly rated and eight were low rated in the initial survey. In terms of actual participation of family doctors, self-assessed motivation to learn exhibited a strong positive relationship with actual participation. Both self-assessed need and relevance were negative to only moderately positive in their association with actual participation. This evidence contributed to the value of using self-assessed motivation as an indicator of future participation of family doctors in CME and questioned the value of using self-assessed need and relevance as indicators of future patterns of participation. PMID:6738401

  1. The Assessment of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Amotivation: Validity and Reliability of the Greek Version of the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George; Sideridis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination theory provides an integrated conception of school- and academic motivation. The theory proposes a continuum comprising three types of motivation: intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM), characterised by seven dimensions (IM = to know, to accomplish and to experience stimulation, EM = external…

  2. Appeasing Nihilists? Some Economic Thoughts on Reducing Terrorist Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Schnellenbach

    2005-01-01

    Recent contributions to the economics of terrorism have given contradicting recommendations for campaigning against terrorism, from the proposal to deprive terrorists of their resources to the proposal of raising the opportunity costs of terrorism by increasing the wealth of the affected regions. Within a simple framework which differentiates between the decision to become an active terrorist and the decision to support terrorists and which allows for reciprocal reactions to anti- terrorism p...

  3. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure.......Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  4. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  5. Improving Learning Achievements, Motivations and Problem-Solving Skills through a Peer Assessment-Based Game Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…

  6. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  7. Using Extrinsic Motivation to Influence Student Attitude and Behavior toward State Assessments at an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to discover the influence of a student achievement program implemented at one large urban high school that employed extrinsic motivation to promote student achievement on state assessments. Using organismic integration theory as the theoretical framework, 19 randomly selected students participated…

  8. Supporting Girls' Motivation in Science: A Study of Peer- and Self-Assessment in a Girls-Only Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nadine; Winterbottom, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the use of self- and peer-assessment within a girls-only biology class can support students' motivation. The study took place over 22 weeks in a rural comprehensive school, and the participants were girls between 15 and 16 years of age. Data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, notes from lesson observations…

  9. Assessing The Motivational Factors In Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB) : A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Othman, Siti Maslinda

    2003-01-01

    Motivation is a contemporary concept that is widely applied in all organizations. Nonetheless, limited number of motivation research was conducted in the government and semi-government organizations in Malaysia. The primary focus of this dissertation is to study the motivational factors among the employees in Malaysian timber Industry Board (MTIB). This semi-government organization is constituted under the Ministry of Primary Industries in Malaysia. Based on the literature, six main objective...

  10. Assessment the effect of the CBT on motivation of the nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Behzadi, Somayeh; Sabouri, Farhad; Alavi, Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. Materials and Methods: This s...

  11. Assessment of the prevailing motivation within the sports teams from the city of Iasi

    OpenAIRE

    Oana RUSU

    2013-01-01

    Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several facto...

  12. NEXUS OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION WITH HRM AND WORKPLACE BEHAVIOUR: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE DOMINANT FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Dilip Kumar MONDOL; Ali, Ayub

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a factor that always remained as black box. It is a principal constituent of the black energy that operates through the performance of the employee. This paper deals with the extrinsic motivation of the employee and is a thorough investigation on the nature of the relationships between Employee Motivation and Human Resource Management (HRM), Work Place Support (WPS) and Work Place Undermining (WPU). This study is based on primary data of 305 permanent employees of different orga...

  13. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1 Juraiporn Somboonwong,2 Vorapol Jaroonvanichkul,1 Pongsak Wannakrairot3 1Medical Education Unit, 2Quality Management Division and Department of Physiology, 3Academic Affairs Division, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study.Design and methods: An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance.Results: Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (P<0.001. Moreover, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (P<0.001. This is related to the enjoyment of passing academic milestones, and a step

  14. An Assessment of Motivation Among Indian Students in the Todd County School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Harold

    The paper pointed out the need for an understanding of what motivates the young American Indian student to attend school and to want to achieve in a school setting. The Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Engelmann-Becker Follow Through Program in motivating students. At the…

  15. Motivation Filtering on a Multi-Institution Assessment of General College Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedle, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Possible lack of motivation is a perpetual concern when tests have no stakes attached to performance. Specifically, the validity of test score interpretations may be compromised when examinees are unmotivated to exert their best efforts. Motivation filtering, a procedure that filters out apparently unmotivated examinees, was applied to the…

  16. Factorial and Construct Validity of a New Instrument for the Assessment of Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefele, Ulrich; Schaffner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Reading motivation has been defined consistently as a multidimensional construct. However, there is some disagreement regarding the number and nature of the dimensions of reading motivation. In particular, there is a lack of studies investigating the dimensional structure and measurement invariance (e.g., across gender) of reading motivation…

  17. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  18. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  19. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions to...

  20. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  1. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  2. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  3. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study. Design and methods An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (Pmotivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (Pacademic milestones, and a step ahead of autonomous motivation. Amotivation level declined significantly (Pacademic motivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). Conclusion After experiencing a three-day intervention, the new students’ motivation advanced along the continuum of self-determination toward

  4. The language of Islamic extremism: Towards an automated identification of beliefs, motivations and justifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, S.; Rayson, P.; Taylor, P

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have sought to understand individuals' motivations for terrorism through terrorist material content. To date, these studies have not capitalised on automated language analysis techniques, particularly those of corpus linguistics. In this paper, we demonstrate how applying three corpus

  5. The Threat of Terrorist Organizations in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the threat of terrorism in cyberspace and examines the truth of the perceptions of this threat that have formed in recent years. It examines the capabilities that a non-state actor can achieve and whether these can constitute a real threat to the national security of states. For an analysis of the main threats facing a state from a multi-year perspective and in light of anticipated changes in a state’s strategic balance, the factors that threaten the state are presented and the roots of the threat are identified. The article thus examines whether terrorism, whose impact is generally tactical, could make (or perhaps has already made the transition to a cyber weapon capability with strategic impact. Specifically, the question is could terrorists develop cyber weapon capabilities that could inflict widespread damage or damage over time, of the sort that brings states to their knees and causes critical systems to crash.

  6. Tracking terrorist finances: The SWIFT program and the American Anti-Terrorist Finance Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruce Bulloch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political and legislative history of a formerly classified anti-terrorist finance program initiated in the days after 9/11 that subpoenaed millions of financial records from the Belgian-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT without the knowledge of European authorities.  The European outrage in response to its public disclosure in 2006 — and the subsequent struggle to generate support for the continuation of the program — has been interpreted by many as further evidence of a strategic divide concerning American and European efforts to thwart terrorism.  This research will investigate the dramatic changes to the American anti-terrorist finance regime after 9/11, and will demonstrate that the European reluctance to cooperate with this program represents a fundamental disagreement concerning the prioritization of privacy rights rather than an unwillingness to take the steps necessary to combat the financing of terror.

  7. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  8. Tracking terrorist finances: The SWIFT program and the American Anti-Terrorist Finance Regime

    OpenAIRE

    David Bruce Bulloch

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political and legislative history of a formerly classified anti-terrorist finance program initiated in the days after 9/11 that subpoenaed millions of financial records from the Belgian-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) without the knowledge of European authorities.  The European outrage in response to its public disclosure in 2006 — and the subsequent struggle to generate support for the continuation of t...

  9. ASSESSING MOTIVATION AS A TOOL TO ENHANCE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE : Case; New Life Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, Titi

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important goals of every organisation is to have employees who are highly performing and are motivated to work at all time. Achieving this dream has been cumbersome because of dynamic and complex behaviour of workers. The subject matter of this thesis aims to analyse effective ways through which employees can be motivated so that high performance will be attained within the company. Therefore trained and skilful managers should handle such tasks. To have a deeper meaning o...

  10. Cognitive control and motivation in children with ADHD: How reinforcement interacts with the assessment and training of executive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Dovis, S.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the interaction between two neuropsychological processes that are proposed to play a pivotal role in explaining the problems of children with ADHD: executive functioning (EF) and motivation. We examined the effects of reinforcement on assessment and training of EF in children with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory (WM) is considered the most impaired EF in children with ADHD, and is composed of short-term memory and a central executive. Conclusions: (1) both execu...

  11. How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the potential to de-radicalize a terrorist, and if so how could this be achieved? The article also outlines the distinction between de-radicalization, counter-radicalization and disengagement. In order to understand the potential of de-radicalization techniques, research examines the factors that might lead to initial radicalization. The strategy of some state-based de-radicalization programs, particularly the Saudi Arabian de-radicalization program are examined and the importance of unique tailoring in these programs is identified. The relevance of ideology and life skill training within de-radicalization programs is also examined. The extensive impact that information communication technology has had on radicalization is also addressed and following on, the potential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization through information communication platforms is also discussed. The importance of an accurate and appropriately delivered counter-narrative message is examined and the value of such a counter-narrative is discussed in terms of it possibly planting the seed of question in a terrorist, which may eventually support the terrorist questioning of terrorist group ideology. Highly relevant to the future de-radicalization of an ‘in organisation’ terrorist is the issue of how states might manage the potential return of terrorists who are known to be overseas and whether the best solution is or is not to prevent the terrorist from returning to a home-country, which is examined within. It could be presumed that a terrorist who is returning to a home-country may face some term of incarceration, as an extension of this issue that states must address, the effect that incarceration might have on a terrorist is also examined. The discussions in this article are relevant to policy-makers, de-radicalization program designers and security sector actors.

  12. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    OpenAIRE

    Sir David Omand

    2012-01-01

    The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining te...

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Gold, Joel; Bucuvalas, Michael; Kilpatrick, Dean; Stuber, Jennifer; Vlahov, David

    2002-01-01

    Estimates of acute mental health symptoms in the general population after disasters are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in residents of Manhattan 5–8 weeks after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. We used random-digit dialing to contact a representative sample of adults living in Manhattan below 110th Street. Participants were interviewed about prior life events, personal characteristics, exposure to the events of Septe...

  14. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  15. MODIFICATION OF STUDENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AS A CONDITION OF MOTIVATION INCREASING FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Revenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the rationale for the changes assessment criteria student performance in physical education on the basis of individualtypological variants of age development.The main task of PE lessons is formation of steady need for systematic occupations by physical exercises. However, there is an obvious tendency of interest decrease of school students to occupations by physical culture and their extremely low physical activity that is reflected on health of younger generation. The common unified requirements for control standards don't promote development of motivation to occupations by physical culture of considerable part of school students. The obligatory accounting of specific features of age development is necessary for optimization of the organization of physical training.Methods. Motor abilities of school students are studied based on the measurements of the strength, strength endurance, speed and power abilities, speed, and aerobic endurance. The general physical development of each student is calculated by transferring the absolute values of the test points in the program «Presidential race». Dynamics of general physical development is calculated by comparing the indicators of physical development at the beginning and the end of the school year.The study of mental abilities of 8, 10, and 11th grade pupils is carried out by R. Amthauer tests adopted by L. A. Yasukova, and the study of mental abilities of 6th grade students is carried out by intellectual test (GIT. Typological peculiarities of manifestation of the nervous system properties – the power of the nervous system, mobility of excitation and inhibition, the balance on the «external» and «internal» balance sheets are investigated with the use of arbitrary motor methodologies proposed by E. P. Ilyin.Results. It is experimentally established that during adolescence there is a mismatch in time of the dynamics peaks of motor abilities and intelligence. So, the

  16. On the Assessment of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education: Evidence on the Concurrent and Construct Validity of the Academic Motivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, Robert J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studied concurrent and construct validities of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) (English translation of a scale developed in French) with 107 male and 110 female junior college students in Montreal (Canada) who completed the AMS and other motivation assessments. Findings support both concurrent and construct validity of the AMS. (SLD)

  17. Development and Validation of the Relationship and Motivation (REMO) Scale to Assess Students' Perceptions of Peers and Teachers as Motivators in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…

  18. Motivations-Attributes-Skills-Knowledge Model as Framework for Leadership Assessment Balanced Scorecards: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of history many leaders have made their mark on society. These leaders have led uprisings, movements, and organizations that have left legacy's in today's society. Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Adolph Hitler, and Jack Welch have displayed behaviors and leadership competencies which motivated their followers. These…

  19. Assessing health care students' intentions and motivations for learning: the Healthcare Learning and Studying Inventory (HLSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa; Mattick, Karen; Kuyken, Willem

    2013-08-01

    Inventories that measure approaches to learning have revealed that certain approaches are associated with better academic performance. However, these inventories were developed primarily with higher education students on non-vocational courses and recent research shows they fail to capture the full range of healthcare students' intentions and motivations for learning. To develop a new inventory measuring approaches to learning that addresses these shortfalls and is relevant to students on vocational courses in healthcare. In depth interviews with healthcare students were performed to understand the full range of healthcare students' intentions and motivations. The data were used to create a draft inventory, which was reviewed by interview participants and then tested with medical students. The final inventory was piloted with 303 healthcare students across six disciplines. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify groups of related items within the inventory. The research produced a 32 item scale based on rich qualitative data, with a four factor structure and good internal consistency. A desire to link theory and practice was a distinctive feature of healthcare students. The new inventory contains nuanced items that enable a better understanding of their common and distinctive intentions and motivations. This study suggests that healthcare student populations have some unique intentions and motivations for learning and therefore require a bespoke inventory to ensure that important aspects are not missed. It offers a new tool for meaningful future research, the Healthcare Learning and Studying Inventory (HLSI). PMID:22717990

  20. Ability and Motivation: Assessing Individual Factors that Contribute to University Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Gene M.; Edwards, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored individual differences in ability and motivation factors of retention in first-year college students. We used discrete-time survival mixture analysis to model university retention. Parents' education, gender, American College Test (ACT) scores, conscientiousness, and trait affectivity were explored as predictors of…

  1. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  2. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism...

  3. Transporting nuclear wastes from energy production sites: What can terrorists do and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent discussions in the United States and among NATO allies have debated the vulnerability of nuclear waste shipments, their transports, and the engineered packaging they transport within to terrorist attack. These debates generally focus on the regulatory and engineered controls necessary to protect such shipments, but in the post-September 11, 2001 reality of a potential mass suicide attack using asymmetrical weapons and tactics, can the underlying 'safe' assumptions of regulators and security personnel be questioned? This paper will offer a history of the debates surrounding how safe such shipments from energy faculties are to dedicated terrorist attack and then focus on recent research that looks at several transportation related scenarios that may bring into question heretofore un-assessed vulnerabilities for highway and railway transports, routes, and cargoes of highly radioactive wastes that come from such energy production sites. (author)

  4. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  5. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect, Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohammed M.; Rasmussen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public display, distribution unlimited "On October 6-7, 2011, experts gathered for a workshop at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland to discuss the factors that both facilitate and hinder terrorist innovations. This workshop is part of a two-year Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) sponsored research project that aims to shed light on the preconditions, causes, and predictive indicators associated with terrorist innovation in weapons of mass effect (WMEs). Organized joi...

  6. Can counter-terrorist internment ever be legitimate ?

    OpenAIRE

    de Londras, F.

    2011-01-01

    Counter-terrorist internment is generally rejected as illegitimate from a human rights perspective. However, while the practice of counter-terrorist internment has long resulted in the infringement of human rights, this article argues that the concept of internment holds some potential for legitimacy. This potential can only be realized if four legitimacy factors are fully embraced and complied with: public justificatory deliberation, non-discrimination, meaningful review, and effective tempo...

  7. The body of the terrorist in contemporary cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Paraic; Duggan, R

    2007-01-01

    This article will explore the presentation of the body of the terrorist in a range of British and American films with a particular emphasis on how these films combine political and romantic plotlines. As part of a broad consideration of how the terrorist is presented, this essay will concentrate in particular on Cal (1984), The Crying Game (1992), The Dancer Upstairs (2002) and The Quiet American (2002). Rather than fully engage with the more complex discourse of politics, often these films a...

  8. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  9. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a practice of government that works through a number of political or discursive moves. The article begins with an examination of the media battles over the names, numbers and definition...

  10. Disorders of diminished motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Robert S; Wilkosz, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of diminished motivation occur frequently in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Motivation is an ever-present, essential determinant of behavior and adaptation. The major syndromes of diminished motivation are apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism. Depending on their etiology, disorders of diminished motivation may be a primary clinical disturbance, a symptom of another disorder, or a coexisting second disorder. This article presents a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of motivational impairments in patients with traumatic brain injury. The recognition and differential diagnosis of disorders of diminished motivation, as well as the mechanism and clinical pathogenesis, are discussed. PMID:16030444

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature among Highly Exposed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Digrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2011-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly…

  12. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  13. Travel Motivations of Seniors: A Review and a Meta-Analytical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Patuelli; Peter Nijkamp

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, leisure travel has become increasingly popular in older segments of the world population, as a consequence of global factors such as a rise in life expectancy, improved health conditions, a higher disposable income, and increased availability of discretionary time in retirement age. Consequently, researchers have become more interested in studying the motivations for travel of seniors. A number of questions may be raised or have been addressed in the recent past: Wha...

  14. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    OpenAIRE

    Aung MN; Somboonwong J; Jaroonvanichkul V; Wannakrairot P

    2015-01-01

    Myo Nyein Aung,1 Juraiporn Somboonwong,2 Vorapol Jaroonvanichkul,1 Pongsak Wannakrairot3 1Medical Education Unit, 2Quality Management Division and Department of Physiology, 3Academic Affairs Division, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an ac...

  15. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study is to explore gambling pathology, gambling behavior, and gambling motives among Iranian-Americans using a convenience sample (N=182) at a September ...

  16. Assessing motivation and satisfaction in an emerging kind of sports tourism : paddle tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Hurtado, José Manuel; Paralera Morales, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to analyse two major research questions on paddle tennis as a new type of sports tourism. Using data collected through a survey of paddle tennis tourists playing in Islantilla (Spain), motivation and satisfaction characteristics were examined: (1) to identify the socioeconomic characteristics of paddle tennis tourists; (2) to identify reasons why tourists choose paddle tennis tourism, and (3) to measure the satisfaction achieved during the experience. The a...

  17. Assessing Joint Service Opportunities through a Consideration of the Motivating and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Borman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In a wide range of industries services are increasingly being developed, or evolving, to support groups of organisations. Not all such joint service initiatives though have been successful. The paper aims to highlight potential issues that need to be addressed when investigating the introduction of a joint service by identifying the motivators and constraints. The approach outlined draws upon network externality theory to provide the motivation for a joint service, and resource based and dependency theories to highlight the constraining factors. Three instances of joint services – in the Banking, Telecommunications and Travel sectors – are subsequently examined. It is concluded that as well as providing externality benefits joint service initiatives can also improve the terms of access to a service – in particular through realising economies of scale. Furthermore it would appear that organisations will have to think carefully about the best way to create, structure and manage a joint service initiative – including who to partner with – given their own particular circumstances, as multiple alternative approaches, with potentially differing ramifications, are available.

  18. Faculty Attitudes toward General Education Assessment: A Qualitative Study about Their Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Sarah K.; Williams, Laura M.; Lazowski, Rory A.; Horst, S. Jeanne; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    As assessment becomes an ever more critical facet of higher education, it is apparent that some faculty do not always value assessment (Crossley & Wang, 2010; Ebersole, 2009). Further, faculty may react with resistance, particularly when they perceive that assessment is being imposed upon them from external sources (Crossley & Wang, 2010;…

  19. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  20. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when infrastructures

  1. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  2. Assessment of Consumer Motivations to Attend Farmers' Markets, Their Preferences, and Their Willingness To Pay for Differentiated Fresh Produce: Three Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Gumirakiza, Jean Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed consumer primary motivations for attending farmers' markets, preferences for product features, and differentiated produce. We used consumer survey data collected at farmers' markets in Nevada and Utah during summers of 2008 and 2011, respectively. This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay employed binary and multinomial logistic models to assess primary consumer motivations for attending farmers' markets. Results indicate that many consumers attend...

  3. Social Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  4. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of a work motivation. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part, a theoretical one, is focused on a general concept of motivation and characteristics of basic terms associated with the work motivation. This part defines a theoretical basis for practical solutions. This part of the thesis was basedon a literature search. The sources of motivation, the terms like a motive, a stimulus, a stimulation or motivational types are listed i...

  5. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hrouda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of a work motivation. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part, a theoretical one, is focused on a general concept of motivation and characteristics of basic terms associated with the work motivation. This part defines a theoretical basis for practical solutions. This part of the thesis was basedon a literature search. The sources of motivation, the terms like a motive, a stimulus, a stimulation or motivational types are listed i...

  6. Influence of Terrorist Activities on Financial Markets: Evidence from KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of terrorist activities taking place in Pakistan on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange for the period of 01/2005 to 12/2010 using the GARCH & GARCH- EVT to identify the relationship between these two variables, the study establishes that the terrorist activities adversely affect the financial markets and in case of KSE, it is highly significant relation. Reason for the negative relationship exists because of the foremost increase in number of terrorism attacks in Pakistan.

  7. Is Reaction to Terrorist Attacks a Localised Phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Law

    2011-01-01

    Research found that the terrorist attack of 9/11 was associated with a temporary decline in US Arab and Muslim men’s weekly earnings and real wages of around 9 to 11 per cent. This has been interpreted as an increase in discrimination against those groups following the attack. However, other evidence shows that in Sweden the terrorist attack did not change Middle East immigrants’ job-searching behavior because of increased discrimination from employers. A possible explanation is that, since 9...

  8. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    ), small groups, and individuals who communicate, coordinate and conduct their campaign in a network-like manner. There is a pressing need to automatically collect data on terrorist networks, analyze such networks to find hidden relations and groups, prune datasets to locate regions of interest, detect key...... measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need to...... of the networks involved in those tragic events....

  9. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily oper...

  10. Entrevista motivacional e escalas de motivação para tratamento em dependência de drogas Motivational interview and scales used to assess the degree of motivation for treatment in drug abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle M. Lobo Dinis Castro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e rever os instrumentos que explorem a motivação como fator capaz de predizer o resultado de tratamento da dependência de substâncias psicoativas e que vêm sendo utilizados na última década. MÉTODO: Revisão bibliográfica abrangente de literatura científica indexada sobre escalas que aferem o grau motivação. RESULTADO: Identificaram-se quatro instrumentos e suas propriedades psicométricas, os dois primeiros com versões validadas em português: Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eargness Scale (SOCRATES, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ, Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ. CONCLUSÃO: A teoria motivacional vem sendo regularmente estudada na última década, permitindo avaliação pragmática de seus parâmetros por meio de escalas com validade e confiabilidades que variam de boa a excelente.OBJECTIVE: To identify and review tools used in specialized services to explore aspectos of motivation as a predictive factor of treatment outcome in drug-abusing patients. METHOD: Comprehensive literature review of scales used to assess the degree of motivation. RESULT: Four scales to evaluate stages of behavioural change related to motivation were identified and described, together with their associated psychometric properties - Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eargness Scale (SOCRATES, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ, Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ; The first two have Portuguese validated versions. CONCLUSION: Motivacional theory has been regularly studied in the last decade, allowing the definition of pragmatic evaluation parameters in scales with validity and reliabilities that vary from good to excellent.

  11. Assessment of the relationship between the engagement in leisure time and academic motivation among the students of faculty of education

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ihsan; CETIN, Mehmet Cagri; Erdi KAYA; GULLE, Mahmut; kahramanoğlu, Recep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between leisure time motivation and academic motivation among the students who studied at the Faculty of Education of Mustafa Kemal University. 260 students (Xyears: 21.29±2.11) constituted the sample of the study. For the analyses of the data; Leisure Motivation Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were employed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation test and regression analysis. According to the findi...

  12. Increasing Motivation of Elementary and Middle School Students through Positive Reinforcement, Student Self-Assessment, and Creative Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Tina; Maxwell, Lee; Provo, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    This is an abstract for an action research project report on improving student motivation. Students struggle with motivation to perform well in school. This study was designed to increase student motivation in the classroom setting. The targeted population consisted of one third grade classroom, one fourth grade classroom, and three periods of…

  13. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-01-01

    In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code).

  14. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  15. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code.

  16. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Goede

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  17. Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Helic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

  18. Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

  19. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Asiyah; Nailatin Fauziyah; Siti Khorriyatul Khotimah; Soffy Balgies

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitativ...

  20. Motives for SMS Use

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Oscar; Almekinders, Johan; Buren, van, Anne; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience and SMS use. We located four types of motives for using SMS: entertainment, social interaction, immediate access, and efficiency (in time). Immediate access and social interaction were most salient...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  2. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfur Maghfur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-suspects’ wives are more dominant is exclusive patterned- if it is compared to moderate or inclusive ones. In terms of adjustment, the wives are just accept the fate and tend to be indifferent to the activities of their husbands. The wives also nullifying the public’s negative perception and judgment, but some are closed to the social interaction. While the pattern of relationships that were frequently built tent to be more owner property and head-complement in characteristics. Wives are positioned as husband’s complement for all activities in the fields of social, religious and political.

  3. A Two-Stage Multi-Agent Based Assessment Approach to Enhance Students' Learning Motivation through Negotiated Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, Abdelhafid; Bendella, Fatima; Tranvouez, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an Agent-based evaluation approach in a context of Multi-agent simulation learning systems. Our evaluation model is based on a two stage assessment approach: (1) a Distributed skill evaluation combining agents and fuzzy sets theory; and (2) a Negotiation based evaluation of students' performance during a training…

  4. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. Purpose To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Results Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while

  5. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  6. Motives for SMS Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Oscar; Almekinders, Johan; Buren, van Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature Among Highly Exposed Populations

    OpenAIRE

    NERIA, YUVAL; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2011-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based o...

  8. The effects of formative assessment on student self-regulation, motivational beliefs, and achievement in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa Digennaro

    Goals 2000 set forth a bold vision for U.S. students: they would be "first in the world in science and mathematics" by the year 2000. Performance indicators such as the TIMSS-R (1999) and NAEP (2000) reports suggest that U.S. students have not yet reached that goal. This study intended to learn how specific assessment strategies might contribute to improved student performance in science. This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of formative assessment with reflection on students' motivational beliefs, self-regulatory skills, and achievement in elementary science. The study aimed to find out whether and how classroom applications of formative assessment during science instruction might influence fifth-grade students' attitudes and self-perceptions about science learning, self-regulatory learning behaviors, and achievement. To explore the effects of the assessment intervention, the study utilized a mixed methods approach involving quantitative and qualitative investigations of treatment and control groups during a four-week intervention period. Quantitative measures included student self-report surveys administered pre- and post-treatment and an end-of-unit science test. Qualitative measures included classroom observations, student interviews (post-treatment), and a teacher interview (post-treatment). Findings indicated that the fifth-grade students in this study had positive attitudes toward science and high levels of self-efficacy for science. Results suggested that these elementary students employed a wide variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to support science learning. Findings revealed that these fifth graders believed formative assessment with reflection was beneficial for science learning outcomes. Research results did not show that the formative assessment intervention contributed to significant differences between treatment and control groups. However, the data revealed different levels of academic achievement and self

  9. Assessing family members' motivational readiness and decision making for consenting to cadaveric organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, M L; Levesque, D A; Redding, C A; Johnson, J L; Prochaska, J O; Rohr, M S; Peters, T G

    2001-09-01

    This study assessed the applicability of two important components of the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) to family consent for cadaveric organ donation. Men and women (N = 169), who consented or refused to donate the organs of a family member, completed a telephone survey reflecting the stage of change and decisional balance constructs. Psychometric analyses resulted in a two-factor decisional balance scale: a seven-item scale representing negative perceptions of consent (cons), and a seven-item scale representing positive perceptions of consent (pros). The pros and cons were significantly associated with stage of readiness for donation consent and with the family consent decision. Research utilizing this measure has the potential to enhance intervention programs to increase donation consent rates. PMID:22049451

  10. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  11. Consequence assessment of attacking nuclear spent fuel pool by terrorist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of spent fuel pool and spent fuel assemblies are described in this paper for a typical 1000 MW PWR nuclear power station as an example. Based on the analysis of sabotage-induced cases and release source term of spent fuel pool, consequences are calculated by using MACCS system. The results show that in the three cases of 1) Zircaloy fire propagates throughout entire spent fuel inventory in the pool, 2) Zircaloy fire involves only the last fuel batch to be discharged, and 3) there are gap releases from 3 last discharged fuel batches, the radiuses of areas in which there are the danger of acute death are about 6 km, 3 km and 0 km, respectively; the radiuses of areas in which effective dose is larger than 50 mSv are about 80 km, 34 km and 9 km, respectively; the radiuses of areas in which avertable dose of shelter is larger than 10 mSv are about 100 km, 48 km and 11 km, respectively. (authors)

  12. Assessing the recent terrorist threat to the Malacca Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Chalk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    "In light of these recent threats this article examines the likelihood of sea-based extremist violence in the region, JI (Jemaah Islamiya) capacity to operate in an offshore environment and whether Southeast Asia is a place that al-Qaida would seek to exploit in terms of maritime attacks."

  13. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  14. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  15. Developing a tool to assess motivation among health service providers working with public health system in India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Maneskar, Abhishek; Saxena, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background Addressing the shortage of health service providers (doctors and nurses) in rural health centres remains a huge challenge. The lack of motivation of health service providers to serve in rural areas is one of the major reasons for such shortage. While many studies have aimed at analysing the reasons for low motivation, hardly any studies in India have focused on developing valid and reliable tools to measure motivation among health service providers. Hence, the objective of the stud...

  16. Macroeconomic Effects of Terrorist Shocks in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Larocque; Geneviève Lincourt; Michel Normandin

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural vector autoregression model to assess the dynamic effects of terrorism on output and prices in Israel over the post-1985 period. Long-run restrictions are used to obtain an interpretation of the effects of terrorism in terms of aggregate demand and supply curves. The empirical responses of output and prices suggest that the immediate effects of terrorism are similar to those associated with a negative demand shock. Such leftward shift of the aggregate demand ...

  17. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is the work motivation. The work is divided into two parts. The theoretical part speaks about the basic concepts and the motivation theory. It also deals with the motivation of employees, their evaluation and remuneration. The second, empirical part, is focused on exploration and evaluation of individual preferences affect the performance of employees. The research aim determines how the motivational tools in the work are effective or inefficient and how employee...

  18. External dosimetry in the aftermath of a radiological terrorist event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews external dosimetry in emergency preparedness planning for a potential terrorist release of radioactive material in a densely populated area. The radiation dose received by response workers and members of the public is needed to understand health risks. The existing framework for dosimetry of routinely occupationally exposed workers is not directly applicable to all emergency workers who would respond to a radiological terrorist event. Emergency preparedness plans incorporate various old and new dosimetry technologies, including quartz fibre electrets, electronic dosemeters, personnel badges and wallet cards. Environmental monitoring and dose calculations are the usual methods for determining public dose. However, during the late-phase response, after removable contamination has been eliminated, it may be easier and more straightforward to provide individual dosimetry for members of the public who may be moving through a city with varying contamination areas. Doing so could allow resumption of normal activities earlier and promote confidence in reusing the site. (authors)

  19. Estimating the historical and future probabilities of large terrorist events

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Quantities with right-skewed distributions are ubiquitous in complex social systems, including political conflict, economics and social networks, and these systems sometimes produce extremely large events. For instance, the 9/11 terrorist events produced nearly 3000 fatalities, nearly six times more than the next largest event. But, was this enormous loss of life statistically unlikely given modern terrorism's historical record? Accurately estimating the probability of such an event is complicated by the large fluctuations in the empirical distribution's upper tail. We present a generic statistical algorithm for making such estimates, which combines semi-parametric models of tail behavior and a non-parametric bootstrap. Applied to a global database of terrorist events, we estimate the worldwide historical probability of observing at least one 9/11-sized or larger event since 1968 to be 11-35%. These results are robust to conditioning on global variations in economic development, domestic versus international ...

  20. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  1. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  2. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  3. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  4. Foreign Aid Designed to Diminish Terrorist Atrocities can Increase Them

    OpenAIRE

    Spagat, M; Mandler, M.

    2004-01-01

    A domestic power faces an enemy and commits terrorist atrocities to increase the liklihood of victory. A foreign patron can grant aid to the power but prefers fewer or no atrocities. The domestic power responds by acquiescing in the creation of uncontrollable paramilitaries that commit even more atrocities. Once the paramilitaries are set up, aid flows and the atrocity level is high. Now suppose the foreign patron is uncertin whether the domextic power can control the paramilitaries. At a poo...

  5. Foreign Aid Designed to Diminish Terrorist Atrocities can Increase Them

    OpenAIRE

    Mandler, Michael; Spagat, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A domestic power faces an enemy and commits terrorist atrocities to increase the likelihood of victory. A foreign patron can grant aid to the power but prefers fewer or no atrocities. The domestic power responds by acquiescing in the creation of uncontrollable paramilitaries that commit even more atrocities. Once the paramilitaries are set up, aid flows and the atrocity level is high. Now suppose the foreign patron is uncertain whether the domestic power can control the paramilitaries. At a p...

  6. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  7. Infrasonoc fluidic oscillator for use in anti-terrorist warfare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Smyk, E.

    Southampton: WIT Press, 2015 - (Brebbia, C.; Garzia, F.; Poljak, D.), s. 179-189 ISBN 978-1-84564-928-9. ISSN 1746-4498. [Safety and Security Engineering /6./. Opatija (HR), 06.05.2015-08.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anti-terrorist warfare * synthetic jet * impinging jet * infrasonoics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  9. Jihad in Europe : exploring the sources of motivations for Salafi-Jihadi terrorism in Europe post-millennium

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The thesis analyzes and problematizes the motivations of radical Islamists with alleged ties to al-Qaida, who conspired to launch terrorist attacks on multiple targets in Europe, post-millennium. Islamist terrorism in Europe in the past was mainly motivated by political developments in the Middle East and North Africa (e.g. the GIA s terrorist campaign in France and Belgium 1994-1996). The findings of this study indicate that the motivations for the planned operations in Europe were more com...

  10. Motivated explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T; Barbey, Aron K

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of "motivated thinking," its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or "epistemic" criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, "directional" motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that "real life" explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  11. Can the use of clickers or continuous assessment motivate critical thinking? A case study based on Corporate Finance students

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of clickers as a tool to support, encourage and motivate critical thinking in higher education students. A case study was carried out with a cohort of undergraduate students undertaking the BSc. in Accounting and Finance during the academic year 2009/10, were corporate finance was a major component. Since the students in this sample had previously demonstrated passivity during their corporate finance classes, it was proposed that clickers would help motivate them t...

  12. "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior": Correction to Dufner et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior" by Michael Dufner, Ruben C. Arslan, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt and Jaap J. A. Denissen (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 109[4], 662-676). In this article an erroneous statement was made regarding the high cutoff filter for the EMG raw signal. The high cutoff filter reported in Appendix B in the Technical Details of the EMG Recording Procedure section should be 300 Hz. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37761-001.) According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281355

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL METHODS IN HETEROGENIOUS GROUPS OF ADULT LEARNERS IN FURTHER EDUCATION AS A TOOL TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vladimirovna Zarudnaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational system in the Russia provides opportunities for life-long learning, which presupposes availability of studying foreign languages at every stage, including further education (MBA and Presidential Program. Although adult learners realize the importance and necessity of mastering a foreign language, they might lack motivation due to a number of factors, such as different sociocultural backgrounds, social status, lifestyle, and knowledge of the foreign language. We have conducted research in order to analyze existing problems and develop a system of tasks to control and assess progress in a foreign language (English proficiency in heterogeneous groups of adult learners. The developed approach to designing assessment materials is aimed not only at controlling students’ progress, but also at increasing their motivation.

  14. Biting the hand that feeds you abuse of Islamic charities by terrorist organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Reddan, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Since September 12, 2001, countering terrorist financing has been one of the many major fronts used in the war on terrorism. Outside of monitoring communications through high technology, the next most important task for intelligence-gathering entities against terrorist organizations is to learn how they raise, store, and move money in the financing of their operations. Although there are many conduits that a terrorist can choose from when...

  15. Power, value, and the individual exchange: towards an improved conceptualization of terrorist finance

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Timothy Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis finds that the term ‘terrorist financing’ is a misnomer in that much of the activity encompassed by that term involves neither terrorism nor money. Instead, terrorist financing more accurately refers either to the flow of economic and material value to ‘terrorist’ actors or specific material expressions of support to ‘terrorism,’ however that contested term is defined. This finding not only directly challenges the dominant ways terrorist finance is now conceptualized, but also p...

  16. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-01-01

    Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are ...

  17. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Patterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking”, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  18. Compatible or incompatible?: Intelligence and human rights in terrorist trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine Eijkman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article focuses on the special criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorism-related court cases in Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since 9/11 and the terror attacks in London and Madrid, both gathering intelligence as well as the prosecution of suspects of terrorist crimes have become strategic tools in countering terrorism. By reviewing the special procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorist trials, their compatibility with human rights standards, including the right to fair trial, is discussed. Among others concerns include: the extent to which disclosure is made possible and to who. The differences in criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorist trials raise questions when intelligence information origins from a third state, in which different regulations with regard to disclosure of information apply.

  19. KAMEDO Report 90: terrorist attacks in Madrid, Spain, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Roger; Ehrlin, Ylva; Forsberg, Rebecca; Rüter, Anders; Soest, Vivian; Vikström, Tore; Ortenwall, Per; Brändström, Helge

    2007-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the medical responses to the bombings by terrorists in Madrid on 11 March 2004. The nature of the event, the human damage, and the responses are described. It describes the: (1) nature and operations associated with the alarm; (2) assignment of responding units and personnel; (3) establishment and operations of casualty collection points; (4) medical transport and distribution of injured victims; (5) prioritization and command; (6) hospital care; (7) psychosocial care; (8) identification of the dead; and (9) police investigation and actions. Each of these descriptions is discussed in terms of what currently is known and the implications for future planning, preparedness, and response. PMID:17894223

  20. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Martínez Pastor; Clara Simón

    2015-01-01

    The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S.) and 11/04/2004 (Spain). The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04...

  1. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  2. Libye : la conversion d'un " État terroriste "

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Luis

    2004-01-01

    [Libya: the conversion of a “terrorist state”] Libya’s spectacular return to the international scene, confirmed by the U.N.’s lifting of sanctions in September 2003, is rooted in the convergence of security and oil interests. For Libya, economic and political strife have made normalization a necessity. For the United States and the United Kingdom, given the chaos reigning in Iraq, Libya now looks like an Arab country that might offer new perspectives in oil supplies and assurances of secur...

  3. Disrupting Terrorist Networks — A Dynamic Fitness Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip V.; Clemens, Jonathan P.; Wright, Roxana; Post, Jonathan Vos; Dadmun, Matthew

    The study of terrorist networks as well as the study of how to impede their successful functioning has been the topic of considerable attention since the odious event of the 2001 World Trade Center disaster. While serious students of terrorism were indeed engaged in the subject prior to this time, a far more general concern has arisen subsequently. Nonetheless, much of the subject remains shrouded in obscurity, not the least because of difficulties with language and the representation or translation of names, and the inherent complexity and ambiguity of the subject matter.

  4. Situating Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  5. Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Arslan, Ruben C; Hagemeyer, Birk; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2015-10-01

    According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. PMID:26280840

  6. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received...... sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control...

  7. Chronic thought suppression and posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Hervás, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sales, Pau

    2008-12-01

    Although a considerable number of people either witnessed directly or in the mass media the traumatic scenes of the terrorist attack that took place on March 11th, 2004 in Madrid, only a fraction of Madrid citizens developed posttraumatic symptoms. In this study, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, degree of exposure, coping strategies related to the attack, and chronic attempts to avoid intrusive thoughts (i.e., thought suppression) were assessed in a general population Madrid sample (N=503) 2-3 weeks after the attacks. Our results showed that participants with higher scores in chronic thought suppression exhibited higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Higher scores in chronic thought suppression also correlated positively with the use of avoidant coping strategies after the attacks. We discuss the possible common roots of avoidance of intrusive thoughts and avoidant coping strategies and the implications of this relationship for the emergence of stress-related symptoms as well as for public health policies. PMID:18329844

  8. Assessing community health workers’ performance motivation: a mixed-methods approach on India's Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Saji Saraswathy; Mohanty, Satyanarayan; Das, Ashis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the performance motivation of community health workers (CHWs) and its determinants on India's Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) programme. Design Cross-sectional study employing mixed-methods approach involved survey and focus group discussions. Setting The state of Orissa. Participants 386 CHWs representing 10% of the total CHWs in the chosen districts and from settings selected through a multi-stage stratified sampling. Primary and secondary outcome measures The level of performance motivation among the CHWs, its determinants and their current status as per the perceptions of the CHWs. Results The level of performance motivation was the highest for the individual and the community level factors (mean score 5.94–4.06), while the health system factors scored the least (2.70–3.279). Those ASHAs who felt having more community and system-level recognition also had higher levels of earning as CHWs (p=0.040, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.12), a sense of social responsibility (p=0.0005, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.25) and a feeling of self-efficacy (p=0.000, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.54) on their responsibilities. There was no association established between their level of dissatisfaction on the incentives (p=0.385) and the extent of motivation. The inadequate healthcare delivery status and certain working modalities reduced their motivation. Gender mainstreaming in the community health approach, especially on the demand-side and community participation were the positive externalities of the CHW programme. Conclusions The CHW programme could motivate and empower local lay women on community health largely. The desire to gain social recognition, a sense of social responsibility and self-efficacy motivated them to perform. The healthcare delivery system improvements might further motivate and enable them to gain the community trust. The CHW management needs amendments to ensure adequate supportive supervision, skill and knowledge enhancement and enabling working

  9. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  10. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  11. Motivation to take part in integrated care – an assessment of follow-up home visits to elderly persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, U; Hendriksen, Carsten; Hansen, K

    2011-01-01

    to elderly persons. Theory and methods: The analysis is based on inter-organizational network theory in an attempt to explain the role of motivation in network formation between organizational systems. The empirical findings are based on focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital staff...

  12. A Cross-Cultural Three-Step Process Model for Assessing Motivational Interviewing Treatment Fidelity in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koken, Juline A.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Umasa, Sanya; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan; Rongkavilit, Chokechai

    2012-01-01

    The provision of culturally relevant yet evidence-based interventions has become crucial to global HIV prevention and treatment efforts. In Thailand, where treatment for HIV has become widely available, medication adherence and risk behaviors remain an issue for Thai youth living with HIV. Previous research on motivational interviewing (MI) has…

  13. Lost in translation : congruency of teacher and student perceptions of assessment as a predictor of intrinsic motivation in ethnodiverse classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pat El, Ron Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Students' and teachers' perceptions of the level to which Assesment for Learning (AfL) is practiced in classrooms are largely incongruent. Teachers perceived more practice of AfL than students. Congruency in perceptions of AfL predicted higher student intrinsic motivation. In accordance with Self-De

  14. Assessing the Effects of Interactive Blogging on Student Attitudes towards Peer Interaction, Learning Motivation, and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Chang, Y. -S.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs have been increasingly used to supplement traditional classroom lectures in higher education. This paper explores the use of blogs, and how student attitudes towards online peer interaction and peer learning, as well as motivation to learn from peers, may differ when using the blog comments feature, and when students are encouraged to read…

  15. Assessing Teachers' Judgements of Students' Academic Motivation and Emotions across Two Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjing; Urhahne, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the accuracy of teachers' judgements about students' motivation and emotions in English learning with two different rating methods. A sample of 480 sixth-grade Chinese students reported their academic self-concept, learning effort, enjoyment, and test anxiety via a questionnaire and were rated on these…

  16. Assessment of the Temperament, Motivation, and Capability of a School System District for Emergency Management/Crisis Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional study of leadership and staff of a public school system in Georgia concerning their temperament type, emergency management motivation and emergency management knowledge in relation to Emergency Management/Crisis performance (ERCM). The study consisted of an inclusive questionnaire that contains questions on four…

  17. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  18. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who are...... grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research to the...

  19. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.;

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  20. Intrinsic and External Factors and Influences on the Motivation of Suicide Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide terrorism is the most extreme example of asymmetrical warfare. It is dramatic, frightening and can be very effective for the terrorist group which employs it. The psychological effects are out of proportion to the damage caused. The individual attackers have a mixture of motivations and the combination of motivators varies between the individual attackers, their groups and their causes. The terms “suicide terrorism”, “suicide attacks”, “suicide missions” and “suicide bombing” have specific meanings. Pape (1 limits the term “suicide attack” to an attack which is only successful with the death of the terrorist. The terrorist deploys in the expectation of certain death to ensure the success of the mission. “Suicide bombers”are a specific example of this genre as are hijackers who fly aircraft into buildings. “Suicide missions” are carried out by terrorists who realistically do not expect to survive the mission and do not have an escape plan but sometimes survive. The success of the mission is not dependent on their death. Examples are the 1972 attack on Lod Airport and the 2008 attack on Mumbai. “Suicide terrorism” is an all-embracing term that covers all of these events. Participants in suicide attacks have significant differences in their aims, psychological profiles and motivation from those who participate in suicide missions. This paper is specifically directed to the motivation of suicide attackers.

  1. Mediating the female terrorist: Patricia Hearst and the containment of the feminist terrorist threat in the United States in the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Third, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In January 1976, the trial of Patricia Campbell Hearst caused a Western media sensation. Representing the culmination of her spectacular kidnapping and conversion to the terrorist cause of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), Hearst was on trial for her participation in the Hibernia National Bank robbery almost two years earlier. As of the commencement of the trial, the story of the heiress-come-female-terrorist had been captivating Western media audiences for two years. This article analyse...

  2. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Přikrylová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis called "Work Motivation" is divided into five basic parts. The introduction describes the reason why this topic was chosen and its motivational meaning in people´s life. The second part is the core of this thesis targeting the work and methodology used in the practical part. The third part contains a literature research, which is composed by a couple of topics, which are basic for understanding ways to resolve issues. The theoretical part defines basic terms related to th...

  3. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Asiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods. The study finds that the pattern of interactions between the family of former terrorist convicts and their surrounding communities can be divided into two phases, before and after the arrest. It also maintains that the social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts occurs when they are dealing with people outside the village of Tenggulun, in the form of isolation, token and reserve discrimination. The prejudice and social discrimination on the family of former terrorist convicts impact on their self-worth, self-esteem and well being. Coping behavior by former terrorist convicts and their families are two kinds, namely emotion focused coping and problem-focused coping.

  4. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  5. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  6. A Cross-Cultural Three-Step Process Model for Assessing Motivational Interviewing Treatment Fidelity in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Koken, Juline A.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Umasa, Sanya; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan; Rongkavilit, Chokechai

    2012-01-01

    The provision of culturally relevant yet evidence-based interventions has become crucial to global HIV prevention and treatment efforts. In Thailand, where treatment for HIV has become widely available, medication adherence and risk behaviors remain an issue for Thai youth living with HIV. Previous research on motivational interviewing (MI) has proven effective in promoting medication adherence and HIV risk reduction in the United States. However, to test the efficacy of MI in the Thai contex...

  7. Corporate social responsibility in the supply chain : an assessment of Norwegian textile companies' motivation, use of standards and external services

    OpenAIRE

    Huseby, Jeanette L.

    2013-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has since the last 60 years developed and increased its importance within companies. Within companies CSR can be used as a strategy. The literature of CSR is limited but existing theories have different viewpoints of CSR and how it should be used by companies in business. Today companies’ motivation and use of different standards related to CSR is an important and much debated theme in media and organizations. This thesis discovers how different compan...

  8. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Myo Nyein

    2015-01-01

    Myo Nyein Aung,1 Juraiporn Somboonwong,2 Vorapol Jaroonvanichkul,1 Pongsak Wannakrairot3 1Medical Education Unit, 2Quality Management Division and Department of Physiology, 3Academic Affairs Division, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of a...

  9. A Focus Group Assessment to Determine Motivations, Barriers and Effectiveness of a University-Based Worksite Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Hill-Mey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study explores university employee perceptions and under-standing about its Worksite Health Promotion Program (WHPP. The WHPP included a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA, biometric screening, publicity for on-campus health programs and facilities, and health coaching. Methods: A qualitative design was used based on a grounded theory approach. Four 90 minutes focus groups with 6-8 participants in each were con-ducted within a two 2 week period among employees, representing faculty/participants, faculty/nonparticipants, staff/participants, and staff/nonparticipants. Responses to questions about motivations, barriers, and perceived health benefits that impacted participation in the WHPP were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded for themes. Results: Incentives effectively motivated participation. Biometric screening had the largest impact on behavior change, followed by the information learned from the HRA. However, despite two-thirds of the employees participating in the program, lack of a full understanding of WHPP benefits and services lowered participation in follow-up services and supplemental pro-grams. Conclusions: Biometric screening and HRAs effectively motivate program participation. Communication of benefits and services are important when providing WHPPs.

  10. A Focus Group Assessment to Determine Motivations, Barriers and Effectiveness of a University-Based Worksite Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores university employee perceptions and under­standing about its Worksite Health Promotion Program (WHPP). The WHPP included a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), biometric screening, publicity for on-campus health programs and facilities, and health coaching. Methods: A qualitative design was used based on a grounded theory ap­proach. Four 90 minutes focus groups with 6-8 participants in each were conducted within a two 2 week period among employees, representing fac­ulty/participants, fac­ulty/nonparticipants, staff/participants, and staff/nonparticipants. Responses to questions about motivations, barriers, and perceived health benefits that impacted participation in the WHPP were digi­tally recorded, transcribed and coded for themes. Results: Incentives effectively motivated participation. Biometric screening had the largest impact on behavior change, followed by the information learned from the HRA. However, despite two-thirds of the employees partici­pating in the pro­gram, lack of a full understanding of WHPP benefits and services lowered partici­pation in follow-up services and supplemental pro­grams. Conclusions: Biometric screening and HRAs effectively motivate program par­ticipation. Communication of benefits and services are important when providing WHPPs. PMID:24688965

  11. Guarding nuclear reactors and materials from terrorists and thieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The September 11 attacks were a wake-up call alerting us to the need to strengthen standards for protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear material from theft and sabotage, the subject of possible revisions to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. The May 2001 Final Report of the Experts convened to consider amending this Convention did not make recommendations for stronger standards for physical protection though they did recommend extending the Convention to domestic use, storage and transport and to sabotage as well as theft. Data collected confidentially by the Stanford physical protection project shows great variation from country to country on what threats countries actually protect against, and what protection they actually provide. For example, some countries do not perceive any threat that their weapons-usable material may be stolen by insiders for sale to terrorists, or that it may be stolen by the terrorists themselves. The May 2001 Final Report also opposed any form of international oversight for physical protection, thus permitting parties to continue to ignore standards established by the Convention or recommended by the INFCIRC/225. In light of the September 11 attacks, we urge amendment of the Convention to provide some form of cooperative oversight, some basic minimum standards for protection and some requirement to take INFCIRC/225 recommendations into account. Pending such an amendment going into force, we urge immediate action to comply with the new fundamental principles for physical protection approved by the Board of Governors. We also urge an upgrading of INFCIRC/225 and institution of some form of cooperative international oversight for national physical protection programs. (author)

  12. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On... acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace...

  13. Ready for nuclear energy?: An assessment of capacities and motivations for launching new national nuclear power programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency reports that as of July 2009 there were 52 countries interested in building their first nuclear power plant. This paper characterizes and evaluates these 'Newcomer Countries' in terms of their capacity and motivations to develop nuclear power. It quantifies factors historically associated with the development of nuclear energy programs and then benchmarks the Newcomers against these data. Countries with established nuclear power programs, particularly where nuclear facilities are privately owned, are typically larger, wealthier and politically stable economies with high government effectiveness. Nuclear power was historically launched during periods of high electricity consumption growth. Other indicators for the potential of nuclear power include: the size of the national grid, the presence of international grid connections and security of fuel supply for electricity production. We identify 10 Newcomers which most closely resemble the Established Nuclear Power Countries and thus are most likely to deploy nuclear energy, 10 countries where the development of nuclear energy is uncertain due to high political instability, 14 countries with lower capacities where pursuing nuclear energy may require especially strong international cooperation and 18 countries where the development of nuclear power is less likely due to their significantly lower capacities and motivations. - Research Highlights: →Historically, nuclear power was used in larger, wealthier, politically stable economies. →Nuclear power was typically launched in periods of high electricity demand growth. →Only 10 out of 52 'Newcomer' countries share similar characteristics. →10 other 'Newcomers' with high motivations and capacities are politically unstable. →Nuclear power would need international help in 14 countries and is unlikely in the rest (18).

  14. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship b...

  15. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  16. The Impact of Pretrauma Analogue GAD and Posttraumatic Emotional Reactivity Following Exposure to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farach, Frank J.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Smith, Rita L.; Mandelbaum, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The relation between analogue generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) assessed the day before the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11), and long-term outcome was examined in 44 young adults who were directly exposed the following day to the terrorist attacks in New York City. After controlling for high exposure to the attacks, preattack analogue GAD was associated with greater social and work disability, loss of psychosocial resources, anxiety and mood symptoms, and worry, but not symptoms of po...

  17. Motivation and Transfer in Professional Training: A Meta-Analysis of the Moderating Effects of Knowledge Type, Instruction, and Assessment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis (148 studies, k = 197, N = 31,718) examined the relationship between motivation and transfer in professional training. For this purpose, motivation was conceptualized in the following nine dimensions: motivation to learn, motivation to transfer, pre- and post-training self-efficacy, mastery orientation, performance orientation,…

  18. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport: the Brunel Music Rating Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Terry, P C; Lane, A M

    1999-09-01

    Equivocal results of the psychophysical effects of music have been explained in part by the insensitivity of researchers to important personal and situational variables when selecting music. The aim of the present study was to operationalize a conceptual framework for the prediction of psychophysical responses to music into a music rating inventory to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. An initial item pool was developed and administered to 334 aerobics instructors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a 13-item, four-factor structure (association, musicality, cultural impact and rhythm response), which accounted for 59.2% of the variance. This model demonstrated acceptable fit indices when tested using confirmatory factor analysis on 314 exercise-to-music participants, and was better than an alternative two-factor model. When cross-validated using multisample confirmatory factor analysis, the model also showed an acceptable fit overall, although some invariance in the rhythm response factor was evident that can be attributed to the exclusive use of synchronous music by aerobics instructors. The Brunel Music Rating Inventory appears to be a valid and reliable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. PMID:10521002

  19. A Cross-sectional Study Assessing Predictors of Essential Medicines Prescribing Behavior Based on Information-motivation-behavioral Skills Model among County Hospitals in Anhui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Wu Zhao; Jing-Ya Wu; Heng Wang; Nian-Nian Li; Cheng Bian; Shu-Man Xu; Peng Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:The self-consciousness and practicality of preferentially prescribed essential medicines (EMs) are not high enough in county hospitals.The purposes of this study were to use the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to identify the predictors of essential medicines prescribing behavior (EMPB) among doctors and to examine the association between demographic variables,IMB,and EMPB.Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess predictive relationships among demographic variables and IMB model variables using an anonymous questionnaire administered in nine county hospitals of Anhui province.A structural equation model was constructed for the IMB model to test the instruments using analysis of moment structures 17.0.Results:A total of 732 participants completed the survey.The average age of the participants was 37.7 ± 8.9 years old (range:22-67 years old).The correct rate of information was 90.64%.The average scores of the motivation and behavioral skills were 45.46 ± 7.34 (hundred mark system:75.77) and 19.92 ± 3.44 (hundred mark system:79.68),respectively.Approximately half(50.8%) of respondents reported that the proportion of EM prescription was below 60%.The final revised model indicated a good fit to the data (x2/df=4.146,goodness of fit index =0.948,comparative fit index =0.938,root mean square error of approximation =0.066).More work experience (β =0.153,P < 0.001) and behavioral skills (β =0.449,P < 0.001) predicted more EMPB.Higher income predicted less information (β =-0.197,P < 0.001) and motivation (β =-0.204,P < 0.001).Behavioral skills were positively predicted by information (β =0.135,P < 0.001) and motivation (β =0.742,P < 0.001).Conclusion:The present study predicted some factors of EMPB,and specified the relationships among the model variables.The utilization rate of EM was not high enough.Motivation and behavior skills were crucial factors affecting EMPB.The influence of demographic

  20. Training, SEVIS, and NSEERS will they stop terrorists from entering the U.S.?

    OpenAIRE

    Bugarin, Darwina S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to commit attacks against the U.S. homeland, terrorists must enter the country. Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S. immigration, visa, customs, and border security systems. This thesis will consider the implementation of the 9/11 Commission's key recommendations for immigration: 1) provide...

  1. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  2. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  3. The human body as a terrorist weapon: hunger strikes and suicide bombers

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Marcello; Dingley, James

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that a major factor in terrorist acts is an appeal to the actor's own community at an emotional and symbolic level, through acts of sacrifice, particularly self-sacrifice. Although other aims also exist, a prime concern is to recall the actor's home audience to the struggle, because the actor regards himself as acting on their behalf. This utilizes the imagery and symbolism of traditional religion, implying a strong communal and non-material impetus to terrorist acts, rath...

  4. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder of Florida State (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincide with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder shows that terrorist attacks against the U.S. have affecte...

  5. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder in the State of Ohio. (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder warns that terrorist attacks against the U....

  6. Southern Thai Insurgency and the Prospect for International Terrorist Group Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Brannon, III, Bradford M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the cause of the southern Thailand insurgency and the possibility that international terrorist groups have become involved in it. The insurgency began as an ethnic struggle by Malay Muslims for independence from predominantly Buddhist Thailand. But with the advent of the global war on terrorism, some scholars believe it has become an increasingly religious one. They fear that if the insurgency has become Islamist, it will attract support from international terrorist group...

  7. Correspondence between images of terrorists and preferred approaches to counterterrorism: the moderating role of ideological orientations.

    OpenAIRE

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined the moderating effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on the relationship between terrorist images (soldiers vs. criminals) and preference for counterterrorist actions (military aggression vs. criminal prosecution). Study 1 indicated that the perception of Al-Qaeda terrorists as soldiers was related to preference for military counterterrorism, especially among people high in social dominance orientation. The relationship between the percep...

  8. Failures of imagination: terrorist incident response in the context of crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, New York in September 2001, the focus on terrorism and the ability of society and organisations to withstand such incidents has sharpened considerably. At the same time, business continuity and dealing with crises have moved to the forefront of organisations' awareness, not least due to improved regulatory requirements and guidelines. However, this thesis contends that the current methodological framework for responding to terrorist i...

  9. Impact assessment of nutritional education and motivation of mothers in food supplementation of malnourished 2-5 years old in an urban slum of Ludhiana: A field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragini .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in all its forms remains a major public health problem throughout the developing world and is an underlying factor in child mortality. India is home to 40 percent of the world’s malnourished children. 2 million children die in India, accounting for one in five child deaths in the world. More than half of these deaths could be prevented if children were well nourished.  Objectives: To assess the impact of maternal education and motivation in the nutritional supplementation of malnourished 2-5 years olds in an urban slum area of Ludhiana. Methodology: A community-based interventional study was carried out in 101 eligible children in an urban slum of Ludhiana. The mothers were given nutritional and health education and were also taught how to prepare different types of low cost energy-dense supplementary foodstuffs for the children. The results were seen in terms of continuation of the practice after educating and motivating the mothers of malnourished under-fives to provide the supplementary nutrition. The data was analyzed using Epi-Info version-6 software and SPSS version 16. Result: Post intervention showed that number of days in a month the mother gave nutritional supplement declined from mean 17.5 days to 10.5 days from first to sixth month follow up. Conclusion: Nutritional status of the children improves with continued nutrition and health education of the mothers.

  10. Terrorist profiling as a Counterinsurgency Strategy: Applying the Concept to Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of terrorism is fundamentally psychological. Similarly, psychological profiling is widely accepted in detecting crimes in both law enforcement operations and the study of criminology. However, there is a need to transfer its appearance from old traditional criminal environment to the context of counterterrorism. This research argues that most prevalent method of interrogating suspects to achieve distinction between guilty and innocent is to establish a set of psychological attributes and factors. This paper proposes that terrorist's profiling is value-added intelligence that may add a new dimension in counterterrorism to identify the individual behind a terrorist act. It is important to constructs a terrorist profile before designing a paradigm that should determine the probability of terroristic trends within the individual as well as certain perceptible qualities with which an observed suspect can be likened to. This article proposes a personality-guided model of interrogation with different categories to steer clear of oversimplified thinking about individual terrorist or groups. The objective is to adapt the style and content of questioning to obtain a clear overall picture of the suspect's knowledge with appropriate interviewing and interrogation methods. This profiling will provide thorough understanding of the ideology that drives terrorism and more awareness of the likely means and likely targets used by terrorists. This paper is a shift in direction – focusing rather on the development of evidence-based methods that could lead to an effective counterinsurgency strategy and the extraction of innocent's involvement in the terrorism.

  11. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  12. Motivation Change in Therapeutic Community Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Keith; Kressel, David

    2010-01-01

    Latent growth curve analysis was used to assess motivation change across 3 time points for 120 therapeutic community residents. Models included the time-invariant predictor of readiness for treatment, which significantly predicted initial treatment motivation but not the rate of motivation change over time. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  13. Comment on the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks in the United States of America. Vienna, 11 September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The attacks in September 2001 were, however, a wake-up call to the world nuclear community that more can and must be done. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, Member States of the IAEA meeting in the Agency's General Conference adopted a resolution requesting that the IAEA Director General initiate a thorough review of the Agency's activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The Agency moved rapidly to respond. It devised and is presently implementing an integrated action plan which includes enhanced and new activities to upgrade nuclear security worldwide and to combat nuclear terrorism. The plan covers eight areas: (1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; (2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; (3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; (4) security of radioactive sources; (5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; (6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; (7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines; and (8) co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters. National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities remain uneven in their substance and application. There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be further strengthened. Through its International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS), the Agency provides Member States with assessment services, together with associated advice and follow up actions to improve security arrangements at nuclear facilities. It also provides training and workshops, notably in assessing threats, as well as other supporting

  14. Does Pay Motivate Volunteers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Frey; Götte, Lorenz

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer work is an increasingly large, yet ill-understood sector of the economy. We show that monetary rewards undermine the intrinsic motivation of volunteers. A unique data set from Switzerland allows us to assess the effects of financial rewards on the effort put into volunteer work. There is a fairly standard pattern regarding the volunteers reaction e.g. to more labor market work hours. But we obtain the puzzling result that, when rewarded, volunteers work less. These findings are in l...

  15. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model is a...... motivational paradox....

  16. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    Interviewing. Second Edition. London. SAGE.Miller, W.R. & Rollnick, S. (1995). What is Motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(4), 325-34.Miller, W.R. & Rose, G.S. (2009). Toward a Theory of Motivational interviewing. American Psychologist, 64(6), 527-537. Morrison-Sandberg, L...... in obesity treatment and obesity prevention should be analysed to assess where her efforts may have greatest impact – at individual child level or at school level. References: Emmons, K.M. & Rollnick, S. (2001). Motivational interviewing in Health Care Settings. Opportunities and Limitations. American......., & Rollnick, S. (2006). Motivational interviewing for Pediatric Obesity: Conceptual Issues and Evidence Review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 20(1), 2024-2036.Rubak, S., Sandbæk, A., Lauritzen, T., & Christensen, B. (2005). Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta...

  17. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Ekasawin, Suparat; Chakrabhand, Somchai; Suwanmitri, Soawaluk; Duangchun, Orawan; Chantaluckwong, Thananet

    2011-10-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals. PMID:21991280

  18. Mobile system for radiation reconnaissance after terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-timed radiation reconnaissance aimed at identifying a source of radiation contamination and drawing up a contamination map represents an important and complex problem, the solution of which allows for the reduction of the irradiation dose, the implementation of decontamination works, and finally minimizing the consequences of a terrorist attack. New opportunities for operational gathering of radiation contamination data and corresponding space coordinates can be associated with the development of mobile systems which provide measurements of ionizing radiation dose rate and corresponding space coordinates, and subsequent transferral to the crisis centre server where these data are processed and used for mapping radiation contamination. In such a way, the data obtained on radiation contamination could be incorporated in a timely manner as input data to computer models, describing the dispersion of radionuclides in an environment that makes it possible not only to forecast the development of a situation but to define necessary protection measures for mitigating and localizing the consequences. The mobile reconnaissance system was developed as a prototype of such a solution, based on a cellular terminal such as the Nokia 12i (Teltonika BoxGPS). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine space coordinates. A Russian BDMG device measured the dose rate of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent data were transferred to the server of the crisis centre of the Nuclear Safety Institute of RAS (IBRAE). The main operation regime involved setting the GPRS connection, transferring data, and switching off the connection. A change of the operation regime can be produced via SMS commands from the crisis centre's terminal or with the help of a cellular phone. When a connection is not available, the data are aggregated in memory and transferred to the server when the connection channel arises. A few data transfer protocols, including FTP and HTTP/HTTPS, are provided

  19. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  20. Learning-related motives and the perception of the motivational quality of the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Tapia, Jesús; Ruiz Díaz, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    How can university students' motivation to learn be enhanced? To achieve this, first we should know: What motivational value do students attribute to each particular component of learning environments? To which degree is this value mediated by students' motivational orientations? To respond to these questions, 1,166 university students were administered two questionnaires, one for assessing their motivational orientations and the other, their perceptions of the characteristics of their learning environment. Descriptive and multiple-regression analyses were performed to respond to the questions. Results support predictions concerning both questions, suggesting that motivation modulates the motivational effect of learning environments. PMID:17959114

  1. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  2. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  3. Practical Approaches to Addressing the Evolving Perception of Terrorist Threats to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and subsequent events has effected perceptions of the terrorist threat to the U.S. in general, and nuclear power plants in particular. These concerns have given rise to calls by government and private organizations for reevaluations of both the nature of the threat and protection against it. This paper suggests a general framework for a balanced approach to these reevaluations and highlights some practical and cost effective approaches for improving nuclear power plant safeguards protection. (authors)

  4. Warning of and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces mainly the research status and developing focuses of warning of and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incidents and discusses the system and technology of warning and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incident. The system of warning and response of nuclear and radiation incident is comprised of information acquirement and management, analysis and decision-making, and emergency response. The system is based on threat evaluation. The content and technology of the system is analyzed in the paper, in particular the importance of information flow, such as information collection, estimation, release and so on. (author)

  5. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB)

  6. Solving the counter-terrorist puzzle after the El Masri verdict and Smilkovci terrorist attack: legal and strategic considerations for the South East European intelligence community

    OpenAIRE

    Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2014-01-01

    Both anecdotal and empirical evidences confirm that the complex political, ethnic and religious dynamics in the region of South East Europe (SEE) create the perfect environment for radical groups and individuals affiliated with Al Qaeda and its goals. Supported by their strategic western partners and allies SEE countries have seriously considered threats from modern terrorism. Hence, active involvement in the global counter-terrorist efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq and intelligence cooperatio...

  7. Factors that impact students’ motivation in an online course: Using the MUSIC model of academic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sehmuz Akalin; Joan Monahan Watson; Lee Rakes; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors that motivate students in large online courses. Specifically, the purposes were: (a) to document how highly men and women rated motivational beliefs in a large online course; (b) to determine why men and women rated their motivational beliefs the way in which they did; and (c) to provide recommendations for how to intentionally design online courses to motivate students. Using a mixed methods design, we used a questionnaire to assess undergradu...

  8. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  9. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by... persons, including Usama bin Laden, who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. Because...

  10. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by... persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On February 16, 2005, by Executive...

  11. A Daily Diary Study of Reading Motivation inside and outside of School: A Dynamic Approach to Motivation to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative literacy motivation research increasingly documents students' divergent motivations to read in and outside of the school setting. However, commonly used assessments of literacy motivation do not measure the contribution of in-school and outside-school settings to students' motivation to read. Consequently, quantitative research has not…

  12. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  13. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  14. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  15. Ranking Terrorists in Networks : A Sensitivity Analysis of Al Qaeda’s 9/11 Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Burg, T.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Lindelauf, R.

    2014-01-01

    All over the world intelligence services are collecting data concerning possible terrorist threats. This information is usually transformed into network structures in which the nodes represent the individuals in the data set and the links possible connections between these individuals. Unfortunately

  16. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  17. Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the terrorist attacks on children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. These children may be adversely affected in a number of ways including inattentiveness, increased restlessness, crying, sleeplessness, use of profanity, and even inappropriate laughter. Several suggestions are offered to…

  18. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...-- #0;The President ] Notice of September 9, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect...

  19. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  20. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  1. Motivation in tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M

    2007-01-01

    Motivation underpins successful tennis performance, representing one of the game's foremost psychological skills. This paper elaborates on its role in tennis play, and takes an overview of the current state of motivation research applied to tennis. First, the importance of motivation in player and coach performance is explored. The body of evidence pertaining to players' motives for participation and the relevance of goal achievement motivation in tennis is then examined. Finally, the efficac...

  2. Motivation as a ledership

    OpenAIRE

    Fuxová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor thesis has been focused on the motivation as a way of management and leadership. The main objective of the first part is to gain theoretical knowledge in the HR area. First the term management is analysed: it´s origin, development, structuring and managers as people being involved. Other terms such as motive, motivation and major motivation theories follow. Further the terms stimulus and stimulation are described, the differences between stimulus and motive, subsequently between ...

  3. Motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kvidera, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis deals with the topic of motivation and job performance, which is desired all over the world. The target of attention are cultural factors of motivation, which cause differences among national populations. These differences often lead to misunderstanding between different cultures, including leadership and employee motivation. The literature retrieval part describes basic terms connected with motivation and well-known motivation theories using propriate literature. Conf...

  4. Work motivation at company

    OpenAIRE

    Skřivánková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with work motivation of the employees at company Jindřich Valenta – ELKO Valenta. The aim of the bachelor work was to describe an existing motivation program, figure out which motivation factors are the most important for the employees and also find out satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees with actual motivation factors in the company. Eventually propose improvement in motivation program. Questionnaire method was chosen as research technique. It appears from ...

  5. Context-Specific Motivations to Read for Adolescent Struggling Readers: Does the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire Tell the Full Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak

    2014-01-01

    Commonly used literacy motivation assessments do not specifically explore literacy motivation in school. These context-general assessments may be problematic for struggling adolescent readers, as qualitative research documents that these adolescents exhibit different levels of cross-context motivation. The present study explores whether an…

  6. Student Motivation in Constructivist Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between constructivist learning environment and students'motivation to learn science by testing whether students' self-efficacy in learning science, intrinsically and extrinsically motivated science learning increase and students' anxiety about science assessment decreases when more…

  7. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  8. Children's Moral Motivation, Sympathy, and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika; Buchmann, Marlis

    2009-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of children's moral motivation and sympathy in prosocial behavior. Study 1 measured other-reported prosocial behavior and self- and other-reported sympathy. Moral motivation was assessed by emotion attributions and moral reasoning following hypothetical transgressions in a representative longitudinal sample of…

  9. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply to...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....... other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...

  10. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  11. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public security, public areas and ensuring public safety. In the study, the author used scientific methods (hypothesis, analysis, synthesis, deduction, and induction, special used historical, legal and technical, interdisciplinary, comparative legal, system and other methods of scientific knowledge. The author researches of the problems of qualification of crimes related to the terrorist organization and community participation in it are discussed in detail. The article analyzes the modern jurisprudence on the application of Article 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The author examines the conditions of qualification criminal groups as a terrorist or terrorist organization community. The author comes to the conclusion about the need to improve the legal regulation of criminal responsibility for the commission of terrorist-related crimes. So, the author proposes to supplement the dispositions of article 205.4 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation indicating that the terrorist community a stable group of persons can be considered, united not only in Russia, but also in other states as well as international organizations, concerned other grounds specified in Art. 205.4 of the Criminal Code. The author considers it necessary to clarify the question of qualification of crimes under Art. 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in the Resolution of the Plenum of the Russian

  12. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  13. Mixed Motives and Motivic Birational Covers

    OpenAIRE

    Pelaez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a tower of localizing subcategories in Voevodsky's big (closed under infinite coproducts) triangulated category of motives. We show that the tower induces an interesting finite filtration on the motivic cohomology groups of smooth schemes over a perfect field. With rational coefficients, this finite filtration satisfies several of the properties of the still conjectural Bloch-Beilinson-Murre filtration.

  14. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  15. Terrorist Groups: Using Internet and Social Media for Disseminating Ideas. New Tools for Promoting Political Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane ROTHENBERGER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the essential problems of our times. Most commonly, terrorist organizations have their origins in social movements that presume that they cannot reach their goal of promoting political change other than through violence. This paper deals with the use of the Internet, and especially social media, by terroristgroups. Social media seem to be an essential part in the groups'strategic communication concepts. They do not only use it for the groups' internal organization but mainly for the dissemination of ideas to a broader public. If the government wants to counteract terrorist movements, it also has to counteract their use of socialmedia. Therefore, theoretical concepts of terrorism as communication, PR and propaganda will be presented as well as results of case studies in order to show the interconnectedness of terrorism and social media.

  16. Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika G. Bartoszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarising some findings from a doctoral dissertation discusses European converts to Islam. It explores the conditions under which conversion leads to radicalisation and terrorist violence; it analyses recrudescent concomitances of causal mechanisms of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it explores possible pathways existing between conversion, radicalisation and terrorist violence; identifies key variables pertaining to causal pathways and processes; provides hypotheses regarding the radicalisation pathways, and establishes a typology that can serve as a basis for further studies. By dispelling stereotypes on European New Muslims (ENM this research note offers a new, contextual approach to the issue under consideration. In doing so it invites the reader to reconsider the concepts of “convert”, “radicalisation” and “potential”- concepts crucial for questioning the widely expressed assumptions that European converts to Islam are a homogenous “risk group” and a security threat.

  17. Management of medical and psychosocial consequences of a radiological or nuclear terrorist event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical, psychological, and social consequences of a terrorist event involving the release of ionizing radiation will differ significantly from attacks with 'classical' explosives. Victims of a detonation of a 'dirty bomb' or a nuclear device can actually or allegedly absorb various doses of radiation and should be viewed as radiologically contaminated patients. Hence, both first responders and medical personnel should behave and act accordingly. General rules, guidelines, and procedures are described that should be implemented at all levels of medical management from the on-site emergency care until admittance to and treatment of the victims at a specialist hospital ward. The causes, manifestations and management of psychosocial sequelae of radiological terrorist incidents are also discussed. (author)

  18. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  19. Prison radicalization in county jails: disrupting terrorist acts through information sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Prisons have long been recognized as an environment ripe for radicalization. In some cases, individuals radicalized while in prison have later committed acts of terrorism. While many countries employ deradicalization programs in their prisons, the United States relies on the timely reporting of terrorism-related intelligence from prison officials, in hopes of disrupting the terroristic acts. In 2011, California Governor Jerry Brown ena...

  20. A model of cyclical terrorist murder in Colombia, 1950-2004. Forecasts 2005-2019

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper continues a research born in 1993 as a consequence of the growing concern regarding the escalation of violence in Colombia; its objective is to create an econometric model capable of forecasting the path of terrorist murder under different policy options and helping the country in the design of state policy drawing the lineaments for reaching the pacification of the country. I claim that the approach presented here is the only way of creating an econometric model for ter...

  1. A study of life-meaning orientations and levels of terrorist threat experience in three generations

    OpenAIRE

    Buzykina Y.S.; Konstantinov V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a brief review of concepts of informational violence in mass media, post-traumatic stress disorder as a delayed psychological effects of terrorism, and life-meaning orientations. We describe the results of a study of life-meaning orientations and experience of terrorist threat in different age groups. Nowadays the problem of life-meaning orientations is of particular importance in the context of the ongoing social and economic changes and dramatically increasing number of...

  2. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Washington.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder in the State of Washington. (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder warns tha...

  3. Control of a Terrorist Network: Lessons from the 9/11 Commission Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mayntz, R.

    2006-01-01

    The 567-page 9=11 Commission Report traces the actions of the Al Qaeda terrorists that led up to the 9=11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and describes in detail the counter-terrorism activities of the organizations and offices in the American security community, focusing on the missed opportunities to prevent the attack. A careful analysis of the report permits us to identify the organizational, managerial, and cognitive preconditions of successful prevention. The analysi...

  4. Terrorists or cowards: negative portrayals of male Syrian refugees in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rettberg, Jill Walker; Gajjala, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines images and words shared on the Twitter hashtag #refugeesNOTwelcome to understand the portrayal of male Syrian refugees in a post-9/11 context where the Middle-Eastern male is often primarily cast as a potential terrorist. Queer theorist Jasbir Puar (2007) and Middle- East scholar Paul Amar (2011) provide us with a theoretical approach to make sense of the contradictions we see emerging in this social media context.

  5. The analysis of criminal and terrorist organisations as social network structures: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Mainas, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    The need to tackle organised crime and terrorism threats indicates, among other things, the importance of analysing efficiently and effectively the patterns of criminal ties. Social network analysis (SNA) offers conceptual frameworks, techniques and software tools to measure and visualise empirical networks of any kind. The aim of this study was to test, examine and consider the usefulness of SNA as a principal approach for the analysis and investigation of criminal and terrorist organisation...

  6. Suppressing Foreign Terrorist Fighters and Supporting Principled Humanitarian Action: A Provisional Framework for Analyzing State Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Burniske, Jessica; Lewis, Dustin Andrew; Modirzadeh, Naz Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, reports suggested that a surge of foreign jihadists were participating in armed conflicts in Syria, Iraq, and elsewhere. The United Nations Security Council responded by imposing in Resolution 2178 (2014) an array of obligations on member states to counter the threat posed by “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs). In the intervening year, those states have taken a range of actions — though at various speeds and with varying levels of commitment — to implement the FTF obligations impose...

  7. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  8. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  9. Jewish terrorist activities and the British government in Palestine, 1939-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    From 1939 to 1947 two Jewish terrorist organizations, the Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Lohamei Herut Israel (known to Jews by its Hebrew acronym, Lehi, and to the British as "The Stern Gang") challenged Britain's rule over Palestine. Those eight years began with the publication of the White Paper in May 1939 and ended in September 1947 with the decision taken by the British Government to surrender its League of Nations Mandate and withdraw from Palestine. This thesis examine...

  10. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  11. The (hidden) financial flows of terrorist organizations: A literature review and some preliminary empirical results

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich G. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the financial means of international (mostly Islamistic) terror organizations are analysed. First, some short remarks about the organization of international terror organizations are made. Second and in a much more detailed way a literature review is provided about the financing of terrorist and organized crime organizations, their sources and the various methods they use. Third, a first attempt is made to estimate the financial means of terror organizations with the help of a l...

  12. Decomposing violence: terrorist murder in the twentieth century in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of murder in the United States (1900-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, alternation in power, social, and political unrest overseas as wars, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in the country. The cyclical com...

  13. A strategic analysis of the origins of international terrorist attacks on aviation and the British responses

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Omar

    1997-01-01

    This research examines the effects on Great Britain of international terrorist attacks on aviation. The methodology is utilitarian. It is also eclectic, drawing upon scholarly and operational sources. The first objective was factual: to establish the origins of international attacks on aviation, their effects on Great Britain, and the British responses. It found that the attacks were a "blocked tactic!' product of the Palestine conflict. They had neither political nor economic ...

  14. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  15. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder;

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  16. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. PMID:26143220

  17. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  18. Motivation and achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanova, Sladzana; Miceski, Trajko

    2015-01-01

    Motivation of employees as management function is an important factor in encouraging, guiding and strengthening the behavior of employees in organizations. For one organization is very important the employees to be motivated, only thus will be achieved its objectives. The manager is usually responsible for the motivation of employees and for fulfilment their needs in the workplace, but it is recommended the employees to motivate themselves. Generally, employees are working t...

  19. Leadership and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yarovaya, Anastasiya

    2013-01-01

    The given bachelor thesis focuses on leadership and motivation. It consists of theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part delineates the conception of leadership and motivation of employees. It is also consists information about major theories of leadership and motivation. The main goal of the practical part is to analyze real situation of particular working group, their satisfaction with leadership and motivation. The research was conducted in the jewelry company Lapis Diamond s....

  20. Learner motivation and interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  1. Motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Maturkanič, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis named Motivation as a leadership is focused on methods and possibilities of employee motivation leading to their development and well-being. Managers controls human resources using managerial functions ensuring compilance of business objectives. First part describes main theoretical definition such as management and manager. Managerial functions, motivation, motivation strategy and other terms are described in next chapters. The practical part includes acquired knowl...

  2. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  3. Academic Failure of First-Year Engineering and Technological Students in India and Assessment of Motivation Factors--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvalath, Reena

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to show that there is a recent trend in engineering colleges in India that students who are considered to be highly intelligent show poor academic performance during their 1st year. This article is proposed to examine the role of motivation factors such as teaching methods and learning material in the academic…

  4. Assessing the Effectiveness of Two Theoretically Motivated Computer-Assisted Reading Interventions in the United Kingdom: GG Rime and GG Phoneme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona; Kujala, Janne; Richardson, Ulla; Lyytinen, Heikki; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We report an empirical comparison of the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions (CARI) based on the Finnish GraphoGame CARI: English GraphoGame Rime (GG Rime) and English GraphoGame Phoneme (GG Phoneme). Participants were 6-7-year-old students who had been identified by their teachers as being…

  5. Sandwich or sweets? An assessment of two novel implicit association tasks to capture dynamic motivational tendencies and stable evaluations towards foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, A.A.; Piqueras-Fiszman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly with the

  6. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism. PMID:23390971

  7. Sizing up the threat: the envisioned physical formidability of terrorists tracks their leaders' failures and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2013-04-01

    Victory in modern intergroup conflict derives from complex factors, including weaponry, economic resources, tactical outcomes, and leadership. We hypothesize that the mind summarizes such factors into simple metaphorical representations of physical size and strength, concrete dimensions that have determined the outcome of combat throughout both ontogenetic and phylogenetic experience. This model predicts that in the aftermath of tactical victories (e.g., killing an enemy leader), members of defeated groups will be conceptualized as less physically formidable. Conversely, reminders that groups possess effective leadership should lead their members to be envisioned as more physically formidable. Consonant with these predictions, in both an opportunistic study conducted immediately after Osama bin Laden's death was announced (Study 1) and a follow-up experiment conducted approximately a year later (Study 2), Americans for whom the killing was salient estimated a purported Islamic terrorist to be physically smaller/weaker. In Studies 3 and 4, primes of victorious terrorist leaders led to inflated estimates of terrorists' physical attributes. These findings elucidate how the mind represents contemporary military power, and may help to explain how even largely symbolic victories can influence reasoning about campaigns of coalitional aggression. PMID:23333835

  8. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.Keywords: Media discourse analysis, Norway terrorist attacks, Islam, Western media

  9. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks. PMID:27423458

  10. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  11. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  12. Using the Beveridge & Nelson decomposition of economic time series for pointing out the occurrence of terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    This paper continues my research program on violence and terrorism started 15 years ago. It presents in the first part through empirical exercises, the suitability of The Beveridge and Nelson decomposition of economic time series for pointing out the occurrence of terrorist attacks. It presents the simulation results of the hypothetical case of U.S., and Colombia experiencing, additional, and first three terrorist attacks similar to 9/11, 2001: for the U.S. additional attacks are simulated oc...

  13. How Fear Played a Role in Response to Terrorist Attacks In Five Different Countries: USA, Spain, England, Norway and France

    OpenAIRE

    Sunna Sasha Larosiliere 1991

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of fear and anxiety on politics in five Western countries in the aftermath of terrorist attacks in the first two decades of the 21st century. With the transformation of terrorist incidents into major media and social spectacles in the contemporary world, it has become necessary to understand how the perceived threat of violent terrorism affects those who believe they are threatened. This thesis explores how public fear and anxiety play into democratic politics, b...

  14. Terrorist murder, cycles of violence, and attacks index for the City of Philadelphia during the last two centuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the reconstructed time series of murder of the City of Philadelphia (1826-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in to the United States. The estimated cyclical terrorist mur...

  15. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious mea...

  16. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  17. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  18. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  19. Motivation, démotivation et transmotivation

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Verstraeten

    2012-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous partons des trois facteurs qui construisent la motivation selon Vroom : la valence, l’instrumentalité et l’expectation de soi. Nous décrivons à l’aide d’exemples concrets comment les carences d’un des trois facteurs neutralisent la motivation. En enrichissant quelque peu le modèle, nous développons dans un deuxième temps plusieurs scénarios d’intervention qui permettent d’agir sur la motivation d’un individu à accomplir une action précise. Nous décrivons enfin comment l...

  20. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  1. Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniewski, Amy; Schwartz, Barry; Cong, Xiangyu; Kane, Michael; Omar, Audrey; Kolditz, Thomas

    2014-07-29

    Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time. PMID:24982165

  2. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally. At...... the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking...... whether or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is...

  3. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  4. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  5. The Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers (WTMST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Claude; Senecal, Caroline; Guay, Frederic; Marsh, Herbert; Dowson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The authors developed and validated a measure of teachers' motivation toward specific work tasks: The Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers (WTMST). The WTMST is designed to assess five motivational constructs toward six work tasks (e.g., class preparation, teaching). The authors conducted a preliminary (n = 42) and a main study among…

  6. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  7. The Role of Executive and Motivational Laboratory Tasks in the Assessment of Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in ADHD-C and Non-ADHD-C Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The current study utilized laboratory tasks (Connersâ Continuous Performance Test, CPT; Behavioral Inhibition Task, BIT) to examine the relationships among motivation, executive functioning, and parent and teacher-reported attention, internalizing, and externalizing problems in a clinical sample of 132 children with or without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type (ADHD-C; 69% male, mean age = 9.88). Specificity was examined through total, unique, and interactive effects v...

  8. An Assessment of the Levels of Job Motivation and Satisfaction as Predictors of Job Performance of Library Personnel in Nigerian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Katamba Abubakar; Salman, Abdulsalam Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of motivation, job satisfaction and job performance of library personnel in government and privately-owned universities in North-Central, Nigeria. Three research questions were raised. Survey research method was employed. The study covers six states, namely Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, Plateau States and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja. Survey method tested the relationships among variables thereby making generalizations about the library pheno...

  9. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  10. Motivation, démotivation et transmotivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Verstraeten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous partons des trois facteurs qui construisent la motivation selon Vroom : la valence, l’instrumentalité et l’expectation de soi. Nous décrivons à l’aide d’exemples concrets comment les carences d’un des trois facteurs neutralisent la motivation. En enrichissant quelque peu le modèle, nous développons dans un deuxième temps plusieurs scénarios d’intervention qui permettent d’agir sur la motivation d’un individu à accomplir une action précise. Nous décrivons enfin comment le contexte organisationnel des services publics favorise la « transmotivation », c’est-à-dire le déplacement d’un schéma de motivation initial utile pour l’organisation vers un schéma de motivation sans intérêt ou nuisible pour celle-ci.

  11. Motivation and Sport Injuries in Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.

  12. Empathy: a motivated account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil

    2014-11-01

    Empathy features a tension between automaticity and context dependency. On the one hand, people often take on each other's internal states reflexively and outside of awareness. On the other hand, empathy shifts with characteristics of empathizers and situations. These 2 characteristics of empathy can be reconciled by acknowledging the key role of motivation in driving people to avoid or approach engagement with others' emotions. In particular, at least 3 phenomena-suffering, material costs, and interference with competition-motivate people to avoid empathy, and at least 3 phenomena-positive affect, affiliation, and social desirability-motivate them to approach empathy. Would-be empathizers carry out these motives through regulatory strategies including situation selection, attentional modulation, and appraisal, which alter the course of empathic episodes. Interdisciplinary evidence highlights the motivated nature of empathy, and a motivated model holds wide-ranging implications for basic theory, models of psychiatric illness, and intervention efforts to maximize empathy. PMID:25347133

  13. Motivation hos ledige

    OpenAIRE

    Schytte, Frederik J.J; Knudsen, Rasmus Kristoffer; Kappel, Kevin Bossen; Walander-Andersen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motivation of the unemployed. Émile Durkheim and Abraham Maslow’s theories are used to describe the motivation of the unemployed along with reforms dating from 1994 to 2013. In the second part of the study, it tries to analyze the motivation of the unemployed by using Durkheim and Maslows’ theories while combining them with the aforementioned reforms. The third part of the study discusses the intentions of the danish government for implementing new reforms about unempl...

  14. Performance management, motivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lichý, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with the question of worker motivation and its effect on the labour performance of employees. This work is divided into two parts – the literature research and the proper work. The literature research is based on studying of the scientific literature and my own knowledge and it presents basic terms as the human resource management, the labour performance and efficiency, motivation, stimulation, stimulation factors and motivational programme. The caracteristic of m...

  15. Motivation and will

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some edu...

  16. Second Language Learning Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students...

  17. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pakdel, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The concept of motivation is always considered in human societies especially for researchers and experts of education. Especially, in recent decades, many theorists and researchers in Educational Psychology have been put validity and particular role for motivational and psychological patterns on educational behaviors. So, at this article, we explain historical process of concept of motivation; compare it to goal and then providing the process of social, psychological and educational motivatio...

  18. Motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Lundáková, Sára

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis concerns about motivation as the most efficient way of leadership given that a manager has a possibility to achieve a company's goals through its employees. A manager needs to have knowledge about employees, their attitudes, interests and by the use of motivational tools incite employees to perform better. The aim of this thesis is to find out to what extent are managers concerned about the motivation of their subordinates and what kinds of incentives they use the most...

  19. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  20. Motivation and remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  1. Motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Holeček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the motivation as a manner of leadership of people. I chose this topic because I have worked in a company which employs workers with trade certificate for 8 years. This form of employment shows certain differences against the ordinary employment from the perspective of motivation. The aim of this work is to find out which importance the managers give to the motivational stimulus in the process of leadership of people. For the purposes of evaluation the guided interview w...

  2. Employee motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    akah, ndang william

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  3. Work motivation in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Lenártová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation deals with work motivation in the studied organization. The main objective of this thesis is to examine the level of existing incentive program at ZZN Pelhřimov a.s., including a proposal for its improvement. Questionnaire survey technique was used to determine the level of motivation in the company. The theoretical background of motivation and basic concepts associated with it are based on professional literature in the first part of this work. Individual theories of mot...

  4. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Richard A; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accom...

  5. The Nation That Cried Lone Wolf : A Data-Driven Analysis of Individual Terrorists in the United States Since 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Eby, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Lone-wolf terrorist attacks have occurred in the United States throughout the countrys history. Attempted attacks from individual terrorists unaffiliated with terrorist groups may be becoming more prevalent. Both the general public and government officials acknowledge the presence and importance of these attacks; however, relatively little literature exists on the subject compared to group terrorism. Much of the information on lone wol...

  6. Motivation og Tillidsbaseret ledelse

    OpenAIRE

    Jupin, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with motivation and trust-based management in the workplace. The financial incentive no longer seems to be enough to motivate people to work. This is why it is important to explore how else human motivation can be affected. Much research points to the importance of employee motivation in the context of achieving positive effects. The concept of trust is popular these days and used by more and more leaders. Trust-based management is also said to ensure positive results in the...

  7. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services. PMID:25573077

  8. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckner, TA; Y. Kim; Lubens, P; Singh, A.; Snowden, L; Chakravarthy, B

    2016-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children’s emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999–2003; N = 127,200 visit...

  9. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public ...

  10. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  11. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  12. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Motivation and Sport Injuries in Handball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna, María; Blas, Amador; Olmedilla, Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21). Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999) and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for in...

  14. Differences in motivations and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the effect of pupils’ self-motivation on academic achievement in science across countries. By using the OECD´s Programme for International Student Assessment 2006 (PISA 2006) test, we find that self-motivation has a positive effect on students’ performance. Instrumental Variables Quantile Regression is used to analyze the existence of different estimated coefficients over the scores distribution, allowing us to deal with the potential endogeneity of self-mo...

  15. The level of motivation process in company

    OpenAIRE

    HAVLÍČKOVÁ, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis is to analyze and assess the level of the motivation process in the company Elektrárny Opatovice, a.s. This thesis is divided into two sections, theoretical and practial. The theoretical section, contains literature data related to management and motivation. Information expressed in the theoretical section, is based on literature contained in the literature review. In the practical section, information is applied from the theoretical section. Concurrently, there...

  16. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    . Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  17. Mange unge mangler motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  18. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...

  19. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  20. What is this Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  1. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  2. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  3. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  4. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  5. Motivated Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Motivated learning is a research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. This book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment

  6. Motivation in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis wer

  7. Methods for Dissecting Motivation and Related Psychological Processes in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    Motivational impairments are increasingly recognized as being critical to functional deficits and decreased quality of life in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disease. Accordingly, much preclinical research has focused on identifying psychological and neurobiological processes which underlie motivation . Inferring motivation from changes in overt behavioural responding in animal models, however, is complicated, and care must be taken to ensure that the observed change is accurately characterized as a change in motivation , and not due to some other, task-related process. This chapter discusses current methods for assessing motivation and related psychological processes in rodents. Using an example from work characterizing the motivational impairments in an animal model of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we highlight the importance of careful and rigorous experimental dissection of motivation and the related psychological processes when characterizing motivational deficits in rodent models . We suggest that such work is critical to the successful translation of preclinical findings to therapeutic benefits for patients. PMID:26272262

  8. Reports of past alcohol and drug use following participation in a motivation enhancing intervention: Implications for clinical assessment and program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the value of motivational approaches that enhance participant readiness to change, but less is known about clients’ self-reports of problematic behavior when participating in such interventions. Methods We examined whether participants in a motivationally-based intervention for DUI offenders changed their reports of substance use at postintervention (when reporting on the same 30 days that they reported on at preintervention. Specifically, Study 1 (N = 8,387 tested whether participants in PRIME For Life (PFL changed their reports about baseline substance levels when asked at postintervention versus at preintervention. Study 2 (N = 192 compared changes in self-reported baseline drinking between PFL and intervention as usual (IAU participants. Results Many participants in Study 1 did not change their reports about how much they used substances during the 30-day period before baseline. Among those who did, the most common change was an increase in reported amounts of baseline drug use, and typical and peak alcohol use. This sample also showed changes in reports of their baseline pattern of high-risk-use (consistent versus occasional. At postintervention, participants who were younger, single, or endorsing more indicators of alcohol dependence were more likely to later report greater frequency of baseline drug use, and greater peak and typical number of baseline drinks. Gender, education, and race were also associated with reporting inconsistency on some behaviors. In Study 2, PFL participants showed greater increases in reports of peak alcohol use compared to IAU, but both conditions showed similar increases for drugs and typical alcohol use. Conclusions In both research and clinical settings, a segment of participants may initially report less substance use than they do when asked later about the same baseline period. These preliminary findings suggest clinicians and researchers may

  9. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent......We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  10. Enkele perspektiewe op Motivering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Van Wyk

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Different motivational theories in the literature seem to claim unique explanations of motivational behaviour. When these theories are evaluated against basic concepts and the process of motivation, it becomes clear that theory building in motivational terms really focuses on the same basic phenomenon. The implications and practical applications of the more job related contemporary theories of motivation are discussed. OpsommingDie indruk wat verskillende motiveringsteorieë in die literatuur skep, is dat elke teorie 'n unieke verklaring gee van gemotiveerde gedrag. Indien die basisbegrippe en die motiveringsproses egter as ankers gebruik word om teorieë te ontleed is dit moontlik om aan te toon dat teoriebou in die motiveringsliteratuur, niks anders is as beligtingsaspekte van dieselfde fenomeen nie. Die beligtingskant van kontemporêre teorieë is weliswaar meer werksverwant en die implikasies en toepassing daarvan word aangetoon.

  11. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs. PMID:22276390

  12. Differentiating the threat of radiological/nuclear terrorism: Motivations and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reviewing the spectrum of terrorist groups in terms of motivation, incentives and constraints, for nearly all groups, nuclear terrorism could be highly counter-productive. The constraints are particularly severe for large-scale mass casualty terrorism for groups that are concerned with their constituents--social revolutionary and nationalist separatist terrorists--although discriminate low level attacks are possible. Right-wing extremists, including individuals who are members of the right-wing virtual community of hatred, represent a distinct danger for low level discriminate attacks against their targets. Religious fundamentalist terrorist groups represent a particular threat, because they are not trying to influence the West but to expel Western modernizing influences. Moreover, they believe that their acts of violence are given sacred significance. The severe constraints against catastrophic terrorism for most groups argues for continuing to protect against the greatest danger - conventional terrorism - and to devote significantly increased resources to monitoring more closely the groups at greatest risk for nuclear terrorism. (author)

  13. Development of SRM 2907 trace terrorist explosives simulants for the detection of Semtex and triacetone triperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrehan, William; Moore, Stephanie; Hancock, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Effective and accurate detection of trace explosives is crucial in the effort to thwart terrorist explosives attacks. A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) has been developed for the evaluation of trace explosives detectors that sample by collection of residue particles using swiping or air filtration. SRM 2907 Trace Terrorist Explosives Simulants consists of two materials individually simulating the residues of the plastic explosive Semtex [for pentaerytritol tetranitrate (PETN)] and the improvised explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Unique challenges were encountered in the development of these materials, including the selection of suitable inert substrates, material preparation, thermal stability testing, and analytical method development. Two independent analytical methods based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection, LC-UV and LC/MS, respectively, were developed and used to certify the mass fractions of PETN and TATP. These materials were further evaluated for their suitability on a field swipe-sampled trace explosives detectors based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). PMID:22004378

  14. iWEDS-An Intelligent Explosive Detection and Terrorist Tracking System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Hariharan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the greatest threats to national security nowadays. Military or police forces are not sufficient to prevent these activities. In the year 2009 India faced one of the biggest terrorist attacks in Mumbai. According to the report published by Times of India, more than 600 people have been killed and several hundreds of people ravaged in various terrorist attacks in India in the last 6 years. The main problem behind this massacre is the group which is acting behind this who already know the ineffectiveness of our security systems. Even now we are following traditional metal detection doors and hand held metal detectors. No autonomous system is being used by any security forces in India till now. The main problem with the traditional systems is their bulkiness so that the intruder can easily bypass the security mechanism by following an alternate path. Here we are proposing a highly effective wireless sensor network solution; intelligent Wireless Explosive Detection System (iWEDS to tackle this problem. The sensors are organized in such a manner that it has been embedded with the road reflectors, so that nobody even knows about the security system and no one can bypass it. Other key advantages are: these systems are low powered, fully automated and can support real-time tracking. Though iWEDS can perform automated operation we are proposing it only for assisting the police and military forces.

  15. La Mauritanie à l’épreuve de l’islamisme et des menaces terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Choplin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En quelques semaines, la Mauritanie a été confrontée à plusieurs attaques terroristes revendiquées par Al-Qaïda au Maghreb. L’islamisme radical n’est pas nouveau dans ce pays mais le terrorisme et la violence des actes perpétrés sont quant à eux inédits. Si les courants radicaux gagnent en audience, ils ne doivent pour autant être confondus avec le terrorisme qui n’a pas d’ancrage en Mauritanie. La menace vient pour l’instant de l’extérieur.Since a few weeks, Mauritania is in front of several terrorist attacks claimed by Al-Qaïda in Maghreb. Radical Islamism is not new in this country but terrorism and violence of these acts are totally unheard. If radical tendencies grow their audience, they do not must be confused with terrorism which have not any rooting in Mauritania. For this moment, threats are coming from outside.

  16. Radiological preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)

  17. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  18. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  19. Combating the terrorist use of mass destruction weapons, particularly nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks of mass destruction weapons vary and also forms of damages resulting therefrom. While the effects of nuclear weapons are focused, sudden and comprehensive, the chemical weapons have limited impacts relatively unless used intensively severe prejudice to the element of surprise, and thus impaired the efficacy of their influences,especially that they affect exceptionally the individuals in the area of injury and biological weapons do not announce themselves except through their effect that appears later than the time of use as they affect exceptionally the organisms in the area of injury.The mass destruction weapons have turned from being a purely military means in the early twentieth century and have now become the means of violence against governments and countries that they should prepare themselves for and respond in ways of successful and effective countermeasures. Despite the fact that the acquisition of mass destruction weapons can be considered as a priority objective, which terrorist groups and organizations steadily seek but their accessibility is flanked by a lot of difficulties. Addressing the risk of further spread of nuclear weapons, and especially after doubling the power of those high-risk weapons, the international community has an approach to take a number of arrangements that complement each other to control and resist nuclear proliferation, either for the states or for terrorist groups.

  20. Measuring Teacher Perceptions of the "How" and "Why" of Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Davis, Kendrick A.; Sullivan, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In the field of educational psychology, there is diverse and active research in motivation for learning and achievement. Many instruments exist for assessing students' motivation, primarily as self-report. Fewer instruments are available for assessing "teachers'" perceptions of their students' motivation, and fewer still for assessing teachers'…

  1. A study on the trend of international radioactive material regulation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have tried to obtain the radioactive material which could be used to make a dirty bomb, and their documents relating to dirty bombs were found in the January 2003. International communities especially, the United States has made efforts to improve infrastructure of radiation regulation and security of radioactive material for protecting its people from radiological attacks. This study examines the likelihood of radiological terrorism and the radiological dispersal devices which could be used by determined terrorists, and the trend of international communities to respond it through improvement on radiation regulation and security

  2. Uncertainty Measurement and Visual Analysis on Terroristic Attacks Data%恐怖袭击事件不确定性度量及可视分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺怀清; 王赫

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,terroristic activities occur more frequently and have seriously affected the regional stability and the world peace. With the development of information technology, the researchers are able to obtain information of terroristic attacks from many aspects. However, with the constant enlargement of the scale of data sets,how to explore the underlying information and analyze the uncertainty from a large number of data has become an important issue in the analysis process of terroristic attacks. On Global Terrorism Database,based on visual analysis and uncertainty measurement theory,we propose the measurement and visual analysis methods on data records and uncertainty of attributes. By integrating results of uncertainty measurement with parallel coordinates, histogram, area chart and interactive methods,the data uncertainty is clearly displayed without influence on its representation and provides information base for situation assessment based on uncertainty theory the next step.%近年来,全球范围内恐怖主义活动愈发频繁,已经严重影响了地区稳定和世界和平.随着信息技术的发展,研究者们得以从多个方面获取恐怖袭击事件信息.然而,随着数据集规模的不断扩大,如何从大量数据中发掘隐含的信息、分析其中包含的不确定性,成为恐怖袭击事件分析过程中的重要问题.针对全球恐怖主义数据库,基于可视分析和不确定度量理论,提出了数据记录和属性不确定性的度量及可视分析方法.通过将不确定性度量结果与平行坐标、柱状图、面积图和交互式方法相结合,在不影响数据源表达的同时清晰地展示了其中包含的不确定性,为下一步基于不确定性理论的态势评估提供了信息基础.

  3. A Web-Based Peer-Assessment Approach to Improving Junior High School Students' Performance, Self-Efficacy and Motivation in Performing Arts Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Lu-Ho; Huang, Iwen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a web-based peer-assessment approach is proposed for conducting performing arts activities. A peer-assessment system was implemented and applied to a junior high school performing arts course to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A total of 163 junior high students were assigned to an experimental group and a…

  4. Delegation and Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour a...... delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals and...

  5. Lessons in Student Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Craig Sull

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools students have at their ready to do well are really amazing: engaging, thorough, and colorful textbooks; the Internet, of course; faculty who know how to teach and offer a plethora of information; and seemingly endless possibilities for optimal learning environments. Yet with all these improved “mousetraps” there is one factor that, if missing, will keep each of these silent – and the student will learn little or naught: motivation. Indeed, if the student is not motivated to learn, and his or her motivation is not kept up throughout a course, there is little the student will take away from the course.

  6. Motivation and will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some educational consequences are sketched out.

  7. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  8. Development and Validation of the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess work role motivation in school principals: the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP). The WRMS-SP is designed to measure intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation (identified, introjected, and external), and amotivation with respect to…

  9. The motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Zajícová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is important for any human activity. Appropriate motivation and effective leadership is a strategy of all organization. In the area of empolyement is positive working motivation an desired effect which every employer wants to achieve as a result of using suitable motivating factors supporting employee’s satisfaction from their work. Management should be involved in process of motivation and be benefit to company. A dissertation on „Motivation as and effective way of leadership“...

  10. TOURIST MOTIVATION FOR RURAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  11. A Study of Direct and Indirect Costs Resulting from a Radiological Attack by Terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uncontrolled release of radioactivity caused by a terrorist attack is expected to result in an - incident of national significance - and have the potential consequence of a significant economic impact. The magnitude of the economic impact and the range of impacted entities are somewhat controversial. This paper will discuss the elements and methodology that comprise the buildup of an estimate for a specific critical infrastructure. The radiological attack event was studied by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to estimate the health and economic impacts of a radionuclide attack. The cost estimate was based on response actions outlined in the DHS National Response Plan and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents. A response plan was developed to support the options for the estimate. Several response and cleanup options were evaluated to determine a range of potential costs. It is the breakdown of the cost elements and their relative size that is discussed in this paper. The first step in the estimating process was the development of the terrorist attack characteristics that were to be estimated. Example response timelines were developed to determine what immediate operational response actions are possible to mitigate the attack consequences. Based on the attack assumptions, costs were estimated for a number of response and remediation options that may be employed. Finally, each parameter was evaluated to account for the range of values possible and its effect on the total cost. Cost estimates were based on data from standard references, internet searches on specific subjects, and information from recent terrorist activities. These costs were broken down into Micro-economic Level Costs (primarily associated with Medical Treatment, Remediation, and Business Interruption) and Macroeconomic Level Costs (primarily associated with the value of life lost

  12. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Doosje; A. Zimmermann; B. Küpper; A. Zick; R. Meertens

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and perce

  13. The Fear of Being Assessed: An Auto-Ethnographic Case Study on Attempts to Engage and Motivate an Individual Disaffected Access Student

    OpenAIRE

    Lebor, Merv

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how a tutor engaged an individual student who was abusive to teachers and would not carry out coursework assessments which tutors had set him in the Lifelong Learning Sector. It offers strategies to overcome barriers to achievement, particularly where a student resists carrying out required assessment tasks. It is a self-reflexive, auto-ethnographic case study. The research is based on observation, interview and a narratology of the researcher’s own involvement in the situ...

  14. Handling motivation the Kindergarten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will investigate the construction of motivation in interactions between educators and pre-school children. Hitherto research on this subject has typically been preoccupied with the minds and motives of children at the expense of their sensuous and bodily presence. On the basis of...... field work observations in a Danish Kindergarten, and interpretations drawing on theorizations of embodiment I intend to show how children’s motivation to engage can be developed from the ways the educators apply themselves bodily in the educational environment, and act upon and manipulate the bodily...... presence of the children, rather than explaining the intellectual or instrumental reasons behind the activities. Furthermore I will argue that the prerequisites for motivation is developed when educators hold on to activities; that is making the children repeat activities and over time making them capable...

  15. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  16. From appraisal to motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudkovsky V. N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects related to identifying the level of the necessary personnel competence and motivation on introdusing the quality managament system in research and production enterprises are quoted.

  17. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  18. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  19. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  20. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Mann, Nikki; Phills, Curtis E

    2010-07-01

    In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects. In Study 4 the effect of a different relational anxious uncertainty threat on implicit approach motivation was heightened by manipulated salience of personal ideals. Results suggest a RAM account for idealistic and ideological reactions in the threat and defense literature. Speculative implications are suggested for understanding diverse social and clinical phenomena ranging from worldview defense, prejudice, and meaning making to narcissism, hypomania, and aggression. PMID:20565191

  1. Performance management, motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Šplíchalová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation, on the basis of the existing theory, of the detailed analysis of the current status and on the basis of the research investigation, is concerning of the current topic of the employees motivation as an instrument of the performance management. The empirical research of the employees motivation and its impact on the labor performance was executed among the employees of the leading Czech travel agency. The selected research strategy was the questionnaire. The research ...

  2. Lessons in Student Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Errol Craig Sull

    2007-01-01

    The tools students have at their ready to do well are really amazing: engaging, thorough, and colorful textbooks; the Internet, of course; faculty who know how to teach and offer a plethora of information; and seemingly endless possibilities for optimal learning environments. Yet with all these improved “mousetraps” there is one factor that, if missing, will keep each of these silent – and the student will learn little or naught: motivation. Indeed, if the student is not motivated to learn, a...

  3. Performance management, motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Myslivcová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the performance and motivation of employees in the company. The first part focuses on the management of human resources, which is closely linked to the performance of employees on the basis of the selection and qualification of staff. The next section describes and explains the concepts of performance management and employee motivation. Theoretical knowledge I subsequently applied in practice to the selected firm. As a research tool, I chose a survey, which took place ...

  4. Performance management, employee motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Korytová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to performance management and staff motivation. The goal is to find out how performance and motivation of staff of the Police of the Czech Republic - Territorial Department of Pribram is managed. This work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The first chapter focuses on management and leadership in the organization and on its nature, purpose and differences. Furthermore I analyze the influences that determine the management and approaches to management ...

  5. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.; Alois Stutzer

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  6. Motivation and Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Macešková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the analysis and evaluation of the work environment ( job satisfaction ) in connection with motivation and stimulation in the selected company. The intention of the thesis is to analyze the company, to point out the importance of optimal motivation in connection with an appropriate working environment to identify potential weaknesses and propose solutions for efficient use of the human potential. In the theoretical level, based on studied professional literature,...

  7. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  8. A case study of conspiracy theories about Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack

    CERN Document Server

    Golo, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The results of the public opinion poll performed in January 2015, just after the terrorist attack on the French satirical weekly magazine Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris, when 17 people were killed, showed that a significant number of French citizens held conspiratorial beliefs about it (17 %). This gave reason to an alternative analysis of public opinion, presented in this paper. We collected 990 on-line articles mentioning Charlie Hebdo from Le Monde web site (one of the leading French news agencies), and looked at the ones that contained words related with conspiracy (in French: `complot', `conspiration' or `conjuration'). Then we analyzed the readers response, performing a semantic analysis of the 16490 comments posted on-line as reaction to the above articles. We identified 2 attempts to launch a conspiratorial rumour. A more recent Le Monde article, which reflects on those early conspiratorial attempts from a rational perspective, and the commentary thereon, showed that the readers hav...

  9. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity. PMID:23205002

  10. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained. PMID:26113544

  11. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People's Council Also Known as People's Liberation Army of Nepal Also Known as CPN(M) as a...

  12. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  13. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  14. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  15. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  16. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  17. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  18. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism. PMID:20528299

  19. Motivation of schoolchildren and students for health related tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyk K.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for different kinds of health related tourism. Material: In the research 50 pupils of 5-9 forms and 50 first and forth year students participated. They were offered to attentively read 15 motives and assess their significance by 10-points scale. Results: questioning permitted to study schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for tourism. It was found that with age priority of motivation for health related tourism changes. For example, motives of health as well as social ones are to larger extent intrinsic to students. At the same time emotional motives (enjoyment with trainings are important for schoolchildren. Conclusions: the highest motivation was found in wish to develop physical qualities (1217 points, pleasant spending of time (1135 points and enjoying with trainings (1240 points.

  20. Factors that impact students’ motivation in an online course: Using the MUSIC model of academic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehmuz Akalin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the factors that motivate students in large online courses. Specifically, the purposes were: (a to document how highly men and women rated motivational beliefs in a large online course; (b to determine why men and women rated their motivational beliefs the way in which they did; and (c to provide recommendations for how to intentionally design online courses to motivate students. Using a mixed methods design, we used a questionnaire to assess undergraduate students’ perceptions of the components of the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation (i.e., eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest, and Caring in an online course and their suggestions for changing the course. Overall, men and women provided high ratings for their motivational beliefs in the course. The suggestions students provided for changing the course were similar for both sexes and revealed a preference for instructional strategies that were consistent with the tenets of the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation, including: offering more and/or varied assessments, providing interactive activities, including videos and/or video lectures, and offering face-toface meetings. Other suggestions for improving the online course design are provided.

  1. Assessing English Vocabulary and Enhancing Young English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners' Motivation through Games, Songs, and Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, English was only officially taught at the secondary and tertiary levels before 2001. Since 2001, English courses have been formally incorporated into the curriculum in primary schools. Research on teaching and assessing English in primary school education is relatively new compared with research on other levels of education in Taiwan.…

  2. A Goal Orientation Analysis of Teachers' Motivations to Participate in the School Self-Assessment Processes of a Quality Assurance System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen; Madrid, Romina; Fernández, María Beatriz; Ahumada, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the goal orientations that could be inferred from how teachers from six municipal schools in Chile described their understandings, emotions, and behaviors during their participation in the assessment phase of the School Management Quality Assurance System. Content analysis of focus group interview transcripts evidenced…

  3. Motivating Millennials : A study on generation Y motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ingnäs, Gustav; Heikkilä, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores generation Y motivators. They are a growing group of young people among the general workforce, and they have different behavior and motivators at work. This paper explores effective motivating factors for this group of employees by studying a company, LinkedIn, which successfully motivates generation Y employees. Data is gathered through several interviews done with LinkedIn employees working at their Dublin office. The data is analyzed with the help of a motivational the...

  4. The relationship of trait to state motivation: the role of self-competency beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hong; Saperstein, Alice M; Medalia, Alice

    2012-08-01

    Even when people with schizophrenia describe themselves as generally motivated and eager to engage in activities, they may not actually be motivated in the present moment. In order to better understand the relationship between trait and state motivation, we aimed to assess trait motivation and state intrinsic motivation, and investigate their relations to each other and to criterion-related variables including cognition, negative symptoms, and beliefs about one's own competency-also known as perceived competency (PC). Further, we investigated whether PC mediates the relationships between state intrinsic motivation (IM) and trait motivation dimensions. Forty individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were administered two self-report measures of motivation, the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P., 2000. Individual differences in work motivation: further explorations of a trait framework. Appl. Psychol. 49 (3), 470-482) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for Schizophrenia Research (Choi, J., Medalia, A., 2010. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample. Schizophr. Res. 118, 12-19), as well as measures of PC, cognition and symptoms. The results showed that in people with schizophrenia, trait approach motivation, but not trait avoidance motivation, is positively correlated with state intrinsic motivation and PC. There was evidence that PC partially mediates the relationship between trait approach motivation and state intrinsic motivation to do the task. These results support the role of therapies that directly address self-competency beliefs and set the groundwork for future investigations on the impact of such treatments on motivation. PMID:22627122

  5. Motivation Strategy in EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying SHU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the leading factors which can affect learners learning foreign languages, it has been observed by researchers for a long time. Since 1990s, the study of motivation puts more attention on the combination between the main motivation theories and the practical school study situation. If learners’ motivation can be cultivated, it can accelerate other factors to promote learners’ ability.
    Key Words: motivation,theory review,strategy study
    Résumé La motivation est un des facteurs cruciaux qui peuvent influencer les apprennants des langues étrangères, ce qui a été observé par les chercheurs pour longtemps. Depuis les années 90 du 20e siècle, l’étude de la motivation prête plus d’attention à la combinaison entre les théories de mativation et la situation d’apprentissage dans les écoles de pratique. Si la motivation des apprenants peut être cultivée, elle peut aussi accélérer d’autres facteurs pour promouvoir la compétence des apprenants.
    Mots-clés : motivation, revue de théorie, étude de la stratégie
    摘 要 學習動機是影響學生外語學習的主要因素之一,長期以來受到外語學習研究者的廣泛關注。進入二十世紀九十年代以來,外語學習動機研究更注重將動機理論與學校外語教育情景相結合。通過激發學習者英語學習動機,以動機教育促進其他因素的發展,能更好地促進學生的英語學習。
    關鍵詞:學習動機;理論回顧;策略研究

  6. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and motivation in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shevatekar Sharada Vasant

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship between achievement motivation and academic achievement in adolescents. The adolescents (442-Boys and 358girls) were assessed using the achievement motivation Scale. Academic scores were taken from the school records. Achievement motivation appeared to influence of academic performance. Urban and rural subjects are significant differences about their educational achievement. The area being urban or rural as well as granted or non-granted, it doe...

  7. Quantifying self-motives: functional links between dispositional desires

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, A; Hepper, E; Sedikides, C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has sought to establish the existence, or gauge the relative strength, of key self-evaluation motives (i.e., self-enhancement, self-verification, self-assessment, self-improvement). Here, we attempted, across five samples, to quantify individual differences in self-motive strength, and explore their empirical ramifications. We devised brief self-report indices for each self-motive, and checked their factor structure, reliability, and validity. We found that self-enhancement ...

  8. The Czech adaptation of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Jakesova; Karla Hrbackova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical and methodological insights into the process of self-regulated learning, and to describe the adaptation of The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), developed by Pintrich et al. (1993). This Likert-scaled instrument was designed to assess motivation orientations and use of learning strategies. The adaptation concerned only the first section, the learning strategies section was not part of the adaptation. The motivation scales o...

  9. Adults' motivation of learning English as a second language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梦楠

    2005-01-01

    English learning is extensive among adults. Their motivations are classified into two types: the integrative one and the instrumental one.Obviously the integrative motivation makes the learners more active and joyful in learning process. Teachers find ways to cultivate and inspire the adult learners' motivation of learning L2, to design and deliver language instruction with care and sensitivity, and to assess rather than test the learners' learning for inducing a positive reaction.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION BETWEEN VOLLEYBALL AND HOCKEY PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Chand Yadav; Avadhesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to find out the psychological differences between volleyball and hockey players in the relation to sports achievement motivation. In this study, hundred male volleyball (N=50) and hockey (N=50) players were randomly selected as the subjects for the study. The subjects selected from the state of Uttar Pradesh. The age levels of the subjects were ranged from 18 to 25 years. To assess the achievement motivation, with help of Sports Achievement Motiv...

  11. Motivation of employees as a tool for performance management

    OpenAIRE

    Žoudlíková, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    The submitted thesis based on the topic „Motivation of Employees – The Tool of Performance Management“ analysis the area of the personnel management and describes the effect of motivation in the company on the work performance of employees and thus of the whole company. The main goals of this thesis were to evaluate the current motivation programm, to assess its structure and suggest some recommendations to the several parts of the personnel management. The theoretic part includes analysi...

  12. Motivation of workers of specific production in a small firm

    OpenAIRE

    Navrátilová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with the motivation of human resources in a small firm producing the specialized medical equipment. The aim is to analyse the actual situation of a motivation stucture and work satisfaction through the use of an empirical research and to suggest recommendations for the improvement of this area of the company's human resource management. The theoretical part characterizes a question of work motivation, system of assessment and remuneration of workers including employee be...

  13. Adults' motivation of learning English as a second language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梦楠

    2005-01-01

    English learning is extensive among adults. Their motivations are classified into two types: the integrative one and the instrumental one Obviously the integrative motivation makes the learners more active and joyful in learning process. Teachers find ways to cultivate and inspire the adultlearners' motivation of learning L2, to design and deliver language instruction with care and sensitivity, and to assess rather than test the learners learning for inducing a positive reaction.

  14. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected to be...... vital, and this paper investigates how the perception of a specific command system – obligatory student plans – is associated with two types of employee motivation (public service motivation and intrinsic task motivation). Using a dataset with 3439 school teachers in Denmark, the analysis shows that the...... perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with different types of employee motivation, indicating that motivation crowding happens. Although the strength of the associations varies between the investigated types of motivation, the findings imply that practitioners should...

  15. Adapting the Academic Motivation Scale for Use in Pre-Tertiary Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades…

  16. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  17. Motivation and episodic memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaosuvan, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    In everyday life, motivation and learning are connected like music and dancing. Many educators realize this and work hard to improve their students' motivation. A motivated student may repeat and self-rehearse the content of a chapter more often, which leads to better learning. However, from a cognitive psychology point of view, it is still uncertain if motivation without differences in repetition or attention, affects episodic memory performance. That is, would a motivated student perform be...

  18. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-IlKim

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three subprocesses, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous subprocesses, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision making, and goal-directed control. Reward...

  19. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Rewa...

  20. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...