WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing target goal

  1. The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Varughese, Mili

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated goal for water has recently been endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of Goal #6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6...

  2. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  3. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  4. Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic design and evaluation criteria have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation seismic input from probabilistic seismic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. Conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but with a sound, rigorous basis for the achievement of goals

  5. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-12-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear methods to derive consistent corporate target setting that keeps cumulative corporate GHG emissions within a specific carbon budget (for example, 550-1,300 GtCO2 between 2011 and 2050 for the 2 °C target). Here we propose a method for corporate emissions target setting that derives carbon intensity pathways for companies based on sectoral pathways from existing mitigation scenarios: the Sectoral Decarbonization Approach (SDA). These company targets take activity growth and initial performance into account. Next to target setting on company level, the SDA can be used by companies, policymakers, investors or other stakeholders as a benchmark for tracking corporate climate performance and actions, providing a mechanism for corporate accountability.

  6. Goals in Interdisciplinary Sciences and the Role of Goals in Universities’ Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosseini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Goals play crucial role in the development of any system. In education systems too the goals determine the attitudes and resource allocation program. Furthermore, not only goals incite the personnel and help to improve their work, but also offer a good criteria through which one could evaluate the organizational efficiency. The present study attempts to explore the role goals and goal-setting process play in the interdisciplinary sciences. Therefore, first the process of goal-making and the related theories would be explained. Then, different kinds of goals and measuring instruments in goal-evaluating process in universities would be explored. Finally, analyzing the role goals play in the academic processes, some strategies for goal-setting in programming and assessment in universities would be suggested

  7. Setting Writing Revision Goals after Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of goal setting for revision in an EFL writing classroom where principles of assessment "for" learning (AfL) were followed. Following draft writing, instruction, and assessment, college freshmen were put into control, goal, and goal+ groups. Before students started to revise their drafts, individuals in…

  8. Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Goal Attainment Rate and Physician Perceptions about Target Goal Achievement in Korean Patients with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenie Yoonoo Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aims to investigate the discrepancy between clinicians' perceptions and actual achievement rates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in Korean patients with diabetes according to updated American Diabetes Association (ADA/American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACC recommendations.MethodsThis is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional, observational study. Diabetic patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had been diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or were receiving a lipid-lowering therapy between May 2010 and August 2010. The information was obtained by reviewing medical records and using a self-completed questionnaire to examine physician perceptions.ResultsA total of 2,591 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Highest-risk and high-risk patients accounted for 61.9% and 38.1% of the patients, respectively. Although most (96.3% underwent a statin monotherapy or a statin-based combination therapy, just 47.4% of patients attained the LDL-C target. However, the physicians' perceptions on target achievement rate (70.6% were different from the actual results (47.4%. Many patients (65.3% remained on the starting doses of statins, despite evidence of poor achievement of lipid goals.ConclusionOnly less than half of patients with diabetes attained the LDL-C goal. The surveys showed that poor physician performance might be due to the lack of recognition on ADA/ACC consensus causing a low LDL-C target attainment rate. Therefore, changes in doctor perception are needed to attain target LDL-C level and reduce cardiovascular risk in Korean patients with diabetes.

  9. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  10. An Assessment of the UN's Millennium Development Goals and its Millennium Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations’ Millennium Declaration, passed by the General Assembly in September 2000, is assessed with particular attention being given to the Millennium Development Goals and associated targets outlined in the Declaration. The focus of the article is not so much on the extent to which these goals are being met but on the adequacy of the Declaration itself. The fundamental values outlined in the Declaration are listed and assessed. The Millennium Development Goals are means for the at...

  11. Transcriptome sequencing goals, assembly, and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing provides quick, direct access to the mRNA. With this information, one can design primers for PCR of thousands of different genes, SNP markers, probes for microarrays and qPCR, or just use the sequence data itself in comparative studies. Transcriptome sequencing, while getting cheaper, is still an expensive endeavor, with an examination of data quality and its assembly infrequently performed in depth. Here, we outline many of the important issues we think need consideration when starting a transcriptome sequencing project. We also walk the reader through a detailed analysis of an example transcriptome dataset, highlighting the importance of both within-dataset analysis and comparative inferences. Our hope is that with greater attention focused upon assessing assembly performance, advances in transcriptome assembly will increase as prices continue to drop and new technologies, such as Illumina sequencing, start to be used. PMID:22065435

  12. Trees, poverty and targets: Forests and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, James

    2007-04-15

    Where are the forests in the MDGs? When players in the forestry world get together they are good at setting goals. They are a good match for the political leaders that gave us the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since the 1980s there has been a proliferation of international dialogues dealing with forests and, a bit like the football World Cup, every four years or so they come up with a feast of goals. If forestry goals were all we needed to make progress, then sustainable and pro-poor forestry would have long since become a worldwide reality. Of course, implementation still lags well behind aspiration, but at least there is now a considerable body of international knowledge and agreement on how forests can contribute to development.

  13. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops. PMID:24154954

  14. Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion

  15. Integrating Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Goal Structure, Target Areas and Means of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Lucas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations’ discussions on defining a new set of post-2015 development goals focus on poverty eradication and sustainable development. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for poverty eradication, which is also one of the foundations of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. Based on an assessment of current proposals of goals and targets, and a quantitative pathway analysis to meet long term biodiversity and food security goals, this paper discusses how biodiversity and ecosystem services can be integrated into a broad set of goals and targets, and concludes with relevant target areas and means of implementation for which specific targets need to be defined. Furthermore, it responds to the call of the CBD to consider the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the related Aichi biodiversity targets in the post-2015 development agenda. The paper’s analysis identifies three overlapping but also supplemental ways to integrate biodiversity and ecosystem services in the post-2015 agenda: integrated goals, goals addressing earth system functioning and goals addressing environmental limits. It further concludes seven target areas to be included under the goals to address biodiversity and ecosystem services in the context of food and agriculture: access to food, demand for agricultural products, sustainable intensification, ecosystem fragmentation, protected areas, essential ecosystem services and genetic diversity. The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity provides a good basis for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in the post-2015 development agenda. Many Aichi targets address the proposed target areas and the means of implementation discussed, while they need to be complemented with targets that specifically address human well-being, as well as institutions and governance.

  16. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments...

  17. The Positive Impact of Personal Goal Setting on Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Marla

    2012-01-01

    This action research is a quantitative study of personal goal setting and how it affects the academic performance of third grade students on weekly Math, Reading, and Language Arts assessments in a proactive effort to increase individual performance on standardized tests. The students' weekly performance was indicative of their expected…

  18. Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga) questionnaire from English

    OpenAIRE

    Piault Elisabeth; Doshi Sameepa; Brandt Barbara A; Angün Çolpan; Evans Christopher J; Bergqvist Agneta; Trocio Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the...

  19. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  20. Comprehensive SDG goal and targets for non-communicable diseases and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Harry; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Goetzke, Kathryn; THORNICROFT, GRAHAM

    2015-01-01

    The negotiations on the SDG goals and targets, leading to the sustainable development Declaration in September 2015, are now in the final stages. Ensuring that people with mental disorders are not left behind in the global development program from 2015 to 2030 will require specific and explicit commitments and targets against which progress in mental health can be measured and reported. The arguments for inclusion of explicit mental health targets in the SDGs are compelling. The final negotia...

  1. Vital Registration in Rural Africa: Is There a Way Forward to Report on Health Targets of the Millennium Development Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, R; Mwagomba, B.; Misinde, D; Mandere, B C; Bemeyani, A; Ginindza, T; Cortier, H; Bissel, K; Jahn, A.; Harries, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    Vital registration - the systematic recording of births and deaths - has both legal and health significance. In particular, accurate recording and reporting of vital statistics are public goods to enable the monitoring of progress towards achieving health related targets of the 2015 United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The reality in Africa is that most births and deaths cannot be traced in legal records or official statistics and as such, there is currently no way of assessing ...

  2. Setting goals and targets for performance standards within the Swedish health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Svensson, P G

    1994-01-01

    The development of any health care system towards setting goals and targets and intended outcomes--with national guidelines, a legislative framework, limited resources, consumer influence and competitive forces--makes great demands on the control mechanisms required. The Swedish health care system has no tradition of goal formulation of this type. Hence, the purpose of this article is to clarify the goal-setting process of performance standards, and to examine whether goal setting is a relevant method within the organization of a Swedish county council. Goal setting can be seen partly as a control method and partly as an administrative process. The approach used is a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Data have been collected from interviews, observations, notes taken in the field and available performance statistics. The analysis shows that working towards a goal is made easier through a common and simple concept. It 'stands and falls' with the management of the work and its manager. Good communications and information are important prerequisites if goal formulation, through dialogue, is to succeed. This process takes time and can be described as an iterative process, in which a common behaviour pattern develops a 'we-feeling' which spreads among the staff. It is important that the goal is relevant and directly related to the basic objects of the work. It is also crucial that the goal is realistic and reflects a priority. Goal formulation relating to performance standards can be a contributing factor to staff's experience of job satisfaction through increased engagement and motivation, and to the satisfaction of patients/relatives with the care given. It is difficult to formulate performance standards; there are many problems and obstacles. If goal formulation as a control method within the health care system in Sweden is to work, clearer manifestations of political will are necessary and also better measuring methods in order to guage

  3. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  4. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  5. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  6. A FRAMEWORK OF SETTING UP GOAL CONTROL LIMITS OF TARGET COSTING FOR NON-NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsin-Hung WU; Fong-Jung YU

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a framework of target costing to extend its original scope when the underlying distribution is non-normal. The new specification limits can be derived by listening to the market price from Taguchi loss function. Later, the new specification limits can be linked through the non-normality-based (C)pk value along with non-normality-based X-R control charts to derive goal control limits. Moreover, an example is provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed framework of target costing by relentlessly reducing cost and improving product quality to gain competitiveness in the marketplace.

  7. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to ...

  8. Optimizing outcome in SLE: treating-to-target and definition of treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Andrea; Gatto, Mariele; Zen, Margherita; Iaccarino, Luca; Punzi, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Patients affected with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display poor-long term prognosis and increased mortality in respect of general population. This may be due to continuous organ damage accrual which is fostered both by persistent disease activity (mainly in the short term) and prolonged corticosteroid exposure (mainly in the long term). The effort of defining novel therapeutic goals to which patients should be treated in order to have their prognosis improved is named treat-to-target. Remission in SLE was shown to be associated with better outcome and prolonged survival; in clinical practice, patients may experience either complete or clinical remission, which are defined as complete clinical/serological healing or no clinical signs of lupus with active serology, respectively. The main treat-to-target in SLE is complete remission, however since longitudinal observations suggest that clinical remission or low disease activity even with minimal corticosteroid intake do improve patients prognosis and survival as well, they may be assumed as acceptable alternative targets. Suitable therapeutic strategies have to be defined in order for these goals to be achieved including early diagnosis, effective treatment and proper corticosteroid tapering which in turn require development of more reliable serum biomarkers for early disease detection and less toxic targeted therapies with a steroid-sparing potential. PMID:24480071

  9. Middle School Assessments that Contribute to Literacy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Whitley, Meredith A.; Manson, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in physical education is not new. What is new is a national focus on teacher evaluation systems that include the use of student achievement scores from administered assessments. An additional educational focus is on the implementation of Common Core Learning Standards in all subject areas, including physical education. Physical…

  10. Treat-to-target strategies in pulmonary arterial hypertension: the importance of using multiple goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galiè

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major advances have occurred in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH over the past decade. The advent of PAH-specific pharmacological treatments has offered hope to patients with a debilitating, progressive disease and a poor prognosis. Combined drug treatment offers improved benefits over monotherapy, and current treatment guidelines for PAH recommend a sequential add-on approach to combination therapy for patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA/World Health Organization functional class (WHO FC II–IV. Goal-oriented therapy determines the timing of treatment escalation by inadequate response to known prognostic indicators. Close monitoring of patients aids the early identification of inadequate response, so that treatment can be escalated promptly and before the patient's condition deteriorates further. Existing treatment goals are based on baseline values of prognostic indicators, but it is vital to identify risk factors that are both relevant during treatment and that can be assessed during follow-up appointments. Data from different PAH aetiologies indicate that NYHA/WHO FC is the most appropriate prognostic marker, with 6-min walk distance and several haemodynamic parameters representing alternatives. Future refinement of goal-oriented therapy could include the use of multiple prognostic markers, while additional, large clinical trials will answer questions concerning choice and combination of treatment goals.

  11. Positive Biases in Self-Assessment of Mathematics Competence, Achievement Goals, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Escribe, Christian; Huet, Nathalie; Regner, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how biases in self-evaluations of math competence relate to achievement goals and progress in math achievement. It was expected that performance goals would be related to overestimation and mastery goals to accurate self-assessments. A sample of French high-school students completed a questionnaire measuring their math…

  12. Assertive outreach in Slovenia; identification of target group and goals of treatment in a new program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-09-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple and severe difficulties functioning and retaining their progress after discharge. Our goals were to improve patient participation in treatment before and after discharge, less and shorter hospitalizations and better integration of patients into society. Initial results are very positive, which leaves me much hope for further implementation of assertive outreach and community care in Slovenia. PMID:19789482

  13. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 °C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO2 emissions between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO2 emissions thereafter. Because of residual non-CO2 emissions, net zero is always reached later for total GHG emissions than for CO2. Net zero emissions targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO2 emissions. (letter)

  14. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  15. Formative Assessment in High School Chemistry Teaching: Investigating the Alignment of Teachers' Goals with Their Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Benjamin; Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    A 2011 report by the Department of Education states that understanding how teachers use results from formative assessments to guide their practice is necessary to improve instruction. Chemistry teachers have goals for items in their formative assessments, but the degree of alignment between what is assessed by these items and the teachers' goals…

  16. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  17. Team Check-Up: Use 4 Goals to Assess a Professional Learning Community's Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirao, Daniel R.; Morris, Susan C.; Klein, Victor; Jackson, Joyce W.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences in the school districts highlighted in this article clarify a set of broad goals that all professional learning communities can use to assess their effectiveness: (1) Culture; (2) Knowledge; (3) Practice; and (4) Achievement. These schools and districts have an ongoing commitment to all four goals. All of them have instituted…

  18. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators

  19. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    sustainable development goals. Essential, uncertain and limited interactions are mapped out as a result, their overview indicates that a full reconciliation between these policies and sustainability goals is not always attainable. The careful alignment and contextual examination of interactions between...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development.......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  20. The Process of Transforming an Advanced Lab Course: Goals, Curriculum, and Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Lewandowski, H J

    2012-01-01

    A thoughtful approach to designing and improving labs, particularly at the advanced level, is critical for the effective preparation of physics majors for professional work in industry or graduate school. With that in mind, physics education researchers in partnership with the physics faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder have overhauled the senior-level Advanced Physics Lab course. The transformation followed a three part process of establishing learning goals, designing curricula that align with the goals, and assessment. Similar efforts have been carried out in physics lecture courses at the University of Colorado Boulder, but this is the first systematic research-based revision of one of our laboratory courses. The outcomes of this effort include a set of learning goals, a suite of new lab-skill activities and transformed optics labs, and a set of assessments specifically tailored for a laboratory environment. While the particular selection of advanced lab experiments varies widely between institu...

  1. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  2. 34 CFR 361.29 - Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and progress reports. 361.29 Section 361.29 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  3. The Implications of Learners' Goal Orientation in a Prior Learning Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study was designed to investigate students' persistence in an online Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) Program by researching the implications of goal orientation and other academic, institutional, and student-related factors of non-traditional students enrolled in such a program at the University of St.…

  4. Target-specific membrane potential dynamics of neocortical projection neurons during goal-directed behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takayuki; Petersen, Carl CH

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior involves distributed neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including diverse regions of neocortex. However, the cellular basis of long-range cortico-cortical signaling during goal-directed behavior is poorly understood. Here, we recorded membrane potential of excitatory layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in primary somatosensory barrel cortex (S1) projecting to either primary motor cortex (M1) or secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) during a whisker detection task, in which thirsty mice learn to lick for water reward in response to a whisker deflection. Whisker stimulation in ‘Good performer’ mice, but not ‘Naive’ mice, evoked long-lasting biphasic depolarization correlated with task performance in S2-projecting (S2-p) neurons, but not M1-projecting (M1-p) neurons. Furthermore, S2-p neurons, but not M1-p neurons, became excited during spontaneous unrewarded licking in ‘Good performer’ mice, but not in ‘Naive’ mice. Thus, a learning-induced, projection-specific signal from S1 to S2 may contribute to goal-directed sensorimotor transformation of whisker sensation into licking motor output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15798.001 PMID:27328320

  5. Inflation targeting or Exchange Rate Targeting: Which Framework Supports The Goal of Price Stability in Emerging Market Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Asab, N.; Cuestas, J.C.; Montagnoli, A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty under inflation targeting and a conventional fixed exchange rate system and the impact of each regime on inflation and inflation uncertainty over the span from 1980:01 to 2014:06. The results from GARCH in mean models reveal that, under the two monetary regimes, inflation increases inflation uncertainty and inflation uncertainty raises inflation. This positive bi-directional relationship between inflation and inflatio...

  6. A Study on Soccer Prediction using Goals and Shots on Target

    OpenAIRE

    Stenerud, Snorre Gebhardt

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I have developed a model for result prediction in soccer. The model is based on chances created being modeled as a Poisson process while goals scored is seen as a result of first creating chances and then converting them, here modeled as a Bernoulli trial. Compared to existing models, this one takes advantage of a number of data that previously have not been considered. As each team is described by four parameters, teams are able to be distinguished further allowing for b...

  7. ASSERTIVE OUTREACH IN SLOVENIA; IDENTIFICATION OF TARGET GROUP AND GOALS OF TREATMENT IN A NEW PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple ...

  8. Self-assessment and goal-setting is associated with an improvement in interviewing skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Kathleen; Zabar, Sondra; Charap, Joseph; Nicholson, Joseph; Disney, Lindsey; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Describe the relationship between medical students’ self-assessment and goal-setting (SAGS) skills and development of interviewing skills during the first-year doctoring course.Method: 157 first-year medical students completed three two-case standardized patient (SP) interviews. After each of the first two, students viewed videotapes of their interview, completed a SAGS worksheet, and reviewed a selected tape segment in a seminar. SAGS was categorized into good and poor quality and i...

  9. A novel approach to assessing achievement goals in the context of the 2 x 2 framework : Identifying distinct profiles of individuals with different dominant achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2006-01-01

    In two studies, individuals' dominant achievement goals were assessed using a new, simple, and conceptually precise measure based on Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 framework. Next, the four groups were compared in terms of achievement-relevant variables, including need for achievement, perfectio

  10. Use of quantitative safety goals and probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of quantitative safety goals as an expression of acceptable risk level and the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as a means of estimating level of risk are gaining increased acceptance as a means of rationally improving the regulatory decision-making process. In the USA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear industry have made significant advances in attempting to apply these tools in practice. This paper presents a review of US nuclear industry proposals for the establishment and use of quantitative safety goals and PRA. The structure and rationale for a set of quantitative safety goals which address (1) individual risk, (2) population risk, (3) cost/benefit criteria for risk reduction, and (4) core melt frequency are presented. In concert with this, a process is described for applying these quantitative safety goals and utilizing PRA studies in determining whether existing regulations and plant designs are adequate for controlling the introduction of new requirements into the regulations for plant-specific backfitting. Suggestions are provided regarding the use of these techniques by developing countries in establishing their regulatory policies and requirements. (author)

  11. Goals, benefits, and outcomes of genetic counseling: client and genetic counselor assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, B A; Biesecker, B B; Mastromarino, C L

    2000-09-18

    Most studies of outcomes of genetic counseling have focused on client knowledge, reproductive plans and behavior, or satisfaction. Other measures of the "value" of genetic counseling are needed to guide research assessing the impact of genetic counseling on individuals and populations, as well as to improve the process of providing care. To obtain input from providers, we conducted telephone interviews with six experienced genetic counselors, and then we held a focus group with 10 additional genetic counselors from a variety of practice settings. To obtain input from consumers, telephone interviews were also conducted with 19 past clients of these participating counselors. We found that counselor goals focus on meeting clients' needs, usually educating and providing psychosocial support. Clients often had few goals going into a session because they were unaware of what would be discussed or how the session would be structured. They usually did not expect to receive "counseling," and when they did, it was a welcome surprise. Both clients and counselors commented that a positive interpersonal interaction and "connecting" are primary measures of success. All clients appreciated the large amount of time spent with the counselor, and the manner (clear, comprehensive, and unhurried) of providing information. Many clients said that genetic counseling resulted in improved communication with their partners and other family members. Clients view the counselor as an "expert" and value the counselor as an on-going resource for both information and support. These "outcomes"f genetic counseling need to be assessed, and new measures must be developed. PMID:10995504

  12. Risk assessment: A cost effective approach for establishing cleanup goals at petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site-specific health risk assessments (RAs) are regularly used to provide focus and direction for remedial activities. RAs are required as part of the remedial response for sites subject to CERCLA and RCRA regulations. Often RA is not required for petroleum releases from underground storage tanks (USTs), however, RA is becoming an increasingly popular cost-effective approach for setting cleanup goals for such sites. Because remediation of UST sites requires a full understanding of the fate and transport of petroleum contaminants, fate and transport analysis is an integral part of the exposure assessment of the RA to determine the level or need of remediation. Since the promulgation of EPA's UST regulations, which established minimum upgrade and financial assurance requirements for owners and operators of USTS, the number of UST sites requiring corrective action has dramatically increased. However, many states do not have adequate resources to finance the remediation of all UST sites to meet overly stringent uniform standards, thus, industry and environmental regulatory agencies are recognizing the value of basing cleanups on site-specific health risks. RA provides a scientifically defensible justification for supporting no action, limited action, or ''monitoring only'' options at a site. In addition, RA is used to establish risk-based cleanup levels that are protective of human health and the environment. Through RA, the responsible party is provided with cost-saving options, which allows for conservation of funds which may then be directed to additional environmental concerns. A discussion of RA and how it can directly benefit contractors and potentially responsible parties in justifying site-specific cleanup goals is presented

  13. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target goal attainment rate and related factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)target goal attainment rate and related factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS)after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI).Methods From March 2011 to March 2012,a total of832 ACS patients were retrospectively evaluated in the Cardiology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University.The target goal attainment

  14. The hemodynamic "target": a visual tool of goal-directed therapy for septic patients Alvo hemodinâmico: uma ferramenta visual de terapia "goal-directed" para pacientes sépticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Vallée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of the hemodynamic status of patients with sepsis by nursing teams through the attainment of hemodynamic parameters using a pentaxial "target" diagram as a clinical tool. Parameters include cardiac index (CI, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2, mean arterial pressure (MAP, arterial blood lactate, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2. METHODS: Design: Prospective descriptive study. Setting: The intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients: During a 6-month period, 38 intubated septic shock patients were included in the study. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared. Interventions: MAP, CI, SaO2, ScvO2 and lactate were measured at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Measurements were recorded on the target diagram along with the norepinephrine infusion rate and the hemoglobin (Hb level. The number of lactate and ScvO2 measurements achieved during the target period were compared to a 6-month retrospective control period just before starting the protocol. We assessed the nurse knowledge status prior to the introduction of target diagram. We then performed a post-test after implementing the new recording technique. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The nursing team expressed a positive attitude toward the target concept. The mean number of lactate and ScvO2 measurements performed for each patient during the control period was significantly lower than during the target period, and those values were rarely used as goal values before the introduction of the target diagram. At 24 hours, 46% of the survivors had achieved all the goal parameter values of the target diagram, compared to only 10% of nonsurvivors (P = .01. CONCLUSION: The target diagram is a visual multiparametric tool involving all the medical and nursing team that helps achieve goal-directed therapy for septic patients. The number of goal values reached at each time point during the first 48 hours was closely linked to mortality.OBJETIVO: Melhorar a

  15. An International Comparison Study of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement Goals and their Relationship to Assessment Type and Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510

  16. ENTERPRISE MARKETING POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT THROUGH EVALUATION OF THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN ITS GOALS AND MARKET NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Pylypenko

    2013-12-01

    changeability of the environment and the company ability to make transformations. The directions of securing the strategic relevance of an enterprise are determined and the necessity for their presentation as a benchmark for the system of marketing management is proved. Presenting strategic relevance as an ideal set of practices used by an enterprise is considered to be expedient. Introduction of a three-dimensional plane "resources – opportunities – strategic goals" is proposed to identify the strategic gaps and target guidelines for the company development.

  17. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management - aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:26930397

  18. Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

    2007-12-01

    Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment

  19. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage) or trends in status (i.e., rates of change). However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved. PMID:26812524

  20. Self-assessment and goal-setting is associated with an improvement in interviewing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Describe the relationship between medical students’ self-assessment and goal-setting (SAGS skills and development of interviewing skills during the first-year doctoring course. Method: 157 first-year medical students completed three two-case standardized patient (SP interviews. After each of the first two, students viewed videotapes of their interview, completed a SAGS worksheet, and reviewed a selected tape segment in a seminar. SAGS was categorized into good and poor quality and interviewing skills were rated by trained raters. Results: SAGS improved over time (37% good week 1 vs. 61% good week 10. Baseline SAGS and interviewing skills were not associated. Initial SAGS quality was associated with change in interviewing skills – those with poor-quality SAGS demonstrated a decrease and those with good-quality SAGS demonstrated an increase in scores by 17 weeks (ANOVA F=4.16, p=0.024. For students whose SAGS skills were good at both week 1 and 10, interviewing skills declined in weeks 1–10 and then increased significantly at week 17. For those whose SAGS remained ‘poor’ in weeks 1–10, interviewing skills declined in weeks 10–17. Conclusions: In general, the quality of students’ SAGS improved over time. Poor baseline SAGS skills and failure to improve were associated with a decrease in interviewing skills at 17 weeks. For students with better SAGS, interviewing skills increased at week 17. Improvement in SAGS skills was not associated with improved interviewing skills. Understanding structured self-assessment skills helps identify student characteristics that influence progressive mastery of communication skills and therefore may inform curriculum and remediation tailoring.

  1. Quantitative safety goals through more adequate risk management and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper offers an over view of the current regulatory background within the United States, emphasising nuclear regulation, related to the establishment of quantitative safety goals as a way to respond to the key issue of 'How safe is safe enough'. The approach described in the paper based on use of probabilistic risk assessments techniques is centred around definition of quantitative safety regions. Regions are termed: design basis, safety margin, the design capability, and safety research. The design basis region is bounded by the frequency of 10-4 per reactor year and consequences of no identifiable public injury. The frequency of 10-4 per reactor year, is associated with the total projected lifetime of a commercial US nuclear power programme. Events which have a 50% chance of happening are included in the design basis region. In the safety margin region, which extends below the design basis region, protection is provided against events whose probability of not happening during the expected course of the US nuclear power programme is within the region of 50 to 90%. Setting the lower mean frequency to this region of 10-5 per reactor year is equivalent to offering 90% assurance that an accident of given severity will not happen. (author)

  2. Assessing the Discipline: Aligning Curricular Structures and Student Learning with Disciplinary Goals in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…

  3. Assessment of Schrodinger Eigenmaps for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.; Czaja, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    Non-linear dimensionality reduction methods have been widely applied to hyperspectral imagery due to its structure as the information can be represented in a lower dimension without losing information, and because the non-linear methods preserve the local geometry of the data while the dimension is reduced. One of these methods is Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE), which assumes that the data lies on a low dimensional manifold embedded in a high dimensional space. LE builds a nearest neighbor graph, computes its Laplacian and performs the eigendecomposition of the Laplacian. These eigenfunctions constitute a basis for the lower dimensional space in which the geometry of the manifold is preserved. In addition to the reduction problem, LE has been widely used in tasks such as segmentation, clustering, and classification. In this regard, a new Schrodinger Eigenmaps (SE) method was developed and presented as a semi-supervised classification scheme in order to improve the classification performance and take advantage of the labeled data. SE is an algorithm built upon LE, where the former Laplacian operator is replaced by the Schrodinger operator. The Schrodinger operator includes a potential term V, that, taking advantage of the additional information such as labeled data, allows clustering of similar points. In this paper, we explore the idea of using SE in target detection. In this way, we present a framework where the potential term V is defined as a barrier potential: a diagonal matrix encoding the spatial position of the target, and the detection performance is evaluated by using different targets and different hyperspectral scenes.

  4. An assessment of bacterial small RNA target prediction programs

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Adrien; Ott, Alban; Amine, Hamza; Rochat, Tatiana; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most bacterial regulatory RNAs exert their function through base-pairing with target RNAs. Computational prediction of targets is a busy research field that offers biologists a variety of web sites and software. However, it is difficult for a non-expert to evaluate how reliable those programs are. Here, we provide a simple benchmark for bacterial sRNA target prediction based on trusted E. coli sRNA/target pairs. We use this benchmark to assess the most recent RNA target predictors as well as ...

  5. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation. PMID:21558579

  6. Assessing the Quality of Goal Setting in Behavioural Support for Smoking Cessation and its Association with Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Brose, L. S.; Michie, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation behavioural support can be effective but practitioners differ markedly in effectiveness, possibly due to variation in the quality of delivery of key behaviour change techniques, such as goal setting (i.e. setting a quit date). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (i) develop a reliable method for assessing the quality of practitioners' support in setting quit dates and (ii) assess whether quality predicts initiation of abstinence as a first step to quitting. ...

  7. An Analytical Assessment of NASA's N(+)1 Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Noise Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2010-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program has adopted a noise reduction goal for new, subsonic, single-aisle, civil aircraft expected to replace current 737 and A320 airplanes. These so-called "N+1" aircraft--designated in NASA vernacular as such since they will follow the current, in-service, "N" airplanes--are hoped to achieve certification noise goal levels of 32 cumulative EPNdB under current Stage 4 noise regulations. A notional, N+1, single-aisle, twinjet transport with ultrahigh bypass ratio turbofan engines is analyzed in this study using NASA software and methods. Several advanced noise-reduction technologies are empirically applied to the propulsion system and airframe. Certification noise levels are predicted and compared with the NASA goal.

  8. An Analytical Assessment of NASA's N+1 Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Noise Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program has adopted a noise reduction goal for new, subsonic, single-aisle, civil aircraft expected to replace current 737 and A320 airplanes. These so-called 'N+1' aircraft - designated in NASA vernacular as such since they will follow the current, in-service, 'N' airplanes - are hoped to achieve certification noise goal levels of 32 cumulative EPNdB under current Stage 4 noise regulations. A notional, N+1, single-aisle, twinjet transport with ultrahigh bypass ratio turbofan engines is analyzed in this study using NASA software and methods. Several advanced noise-reduction technologies are analytically applied to the propulsion system and airframe. Certification noise levels are predicted and compared with the NASA goal.

  9. Assessing the ICT sector contribution to the millennium development goals: Status quo analysis of sustainability information for the ICT sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhndt, Michael; von Geibler, Justus; Herrndorf, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Information and communiction technologies (ICTs), as a crosscutting evolving technology, can contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This opinion is not only voiced by business, but also expressed in specific MDG targets as well as from a range of stakeholders, e.g. NGOs, intergovernmental organisations and financial institutions. However, ICT implications are not only beneficial, a range of stakeholders raises critical issues. Quantified information on ICT c...

  10. The Desired Concept Maps and Goal Setting for Assessing Professionalism in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Y; Guraya, Shaista S; Mahabbat, Nehal Anam; Fallatah, Khulood Yahya; Al-Ahmadi, Bashaer Ahmad; Alalawi, Hadeel Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Due to the multi-dimensional characteristics of professionalism, no single assessment modality has shown to reliably assess professionalism. This review aims to describe some of the popular assessment tools that are being used to assess professionalism with a view to formulate a framework of assessment of professionalism in medicine. In December 2015, the online research databases of MEDLINE, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Elton Bryson Stephens Company (EBSCO), SCOPUS, OVID and PsychINFO were searched for full-text English language articles published during 2000 to 2015. MeSH terms "professionalism" AND "duty" AND "assessment" OR "professionalism behavioural" AND "professionalism-cognitive" were used. The research articles that assessed professionalism across medical fields along with other areas of competencies were included. A final list of 35 articles were selected for this review. Several assessment tools are available for assessing professionalism that includes, but not limited to, mini clinical evaluation exercise, standardised direct observation of procedural skills, professionalism mini-evaluation exercise, multi-source feedback and 360 degree evaluation, and case based discussions. Because professionalism is a complex construct, it is less likely that a single assessment strategy will adequately measure it. Since every single assessment tool has its own weaknesses, triangulation involving multiple tools can compensate the shortcomings associated with any single approach. Assessment of professionalism necessitates a combination of modalities at individual, interpersonal, societal, and institutional levels and should be accompanied by feedback and motivational reflection that will, in turn, lead to behaviour and identity formation. The assessment of professionalism in medicine should meet the criteria of validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability. Educators are urged to enhance the depth and quality of assessment instruments

  11. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model

    OpenAIRE

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults’ exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts...

  12. Feasibility assessment of household based small arsenic removal technologies for achieving sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md Sahadat; Akhter, Fahima; Emery David Jr, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Access to pure drinking water is always occupying as the centric position for long-term sustainable development for all. Although Bangladesh has improved its overall status in drinking water sector compared to 1990 scenario. In 2015, its total safe water sources reached to 87 % i.e., still 13% far from full goal achievement. Besides, it has been estimated that 22 of total 164 million population are exposed to > 50 to 200 μg/L respectively. Therefore, achiev...

  13. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  14. The Colombian biofuel supply chains: The assessment of current and promising scenarios based on environmental goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colombian biofuels are used in the transportation sector at low-percentage blends of biofuel–fossil fuel (until 8:92, volume basis). Since energy policies encourage the increment of Bioenergy percentage in energy matrix, the biofuels production and use should be increased during the next years. In this work, the environmental assessment of several scenarios involving current and promising biofuel supply chains was made. The aim of this paper was the assessment of several possible alternatives to increase the biofuels production from current agricultural supply chains. Sugarcane, cassava, oil-palm and jatropha were considered as feedstocks for the analysis. The environmental assessment included calculations of the greenhouse gas emissions and the potential environmental impacts, using the life cycle assessment approach. The results indicated that the current biofuels production mitigates environmental impacts in comparison to fossil fuels production and use. Additionally, biofuels production using promising feedstocks could be environmentally competitive if the production processes are improved. - Highlights: • The environmental assessment of current and promising Colombian biofuels was made. • Current Colombian biofuel supply chains show 5–8% of GHG emissions savings. • Jatropha and cassava are potential feedstocks for Colombian biofuels production. • Suitable biofuels in Colombia can be achieved by feedstock integration

  15. Goal setting and goal striving

    OpenAIRE

    Oettingen, Gabriele; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on the determinants and processes of goal emergence and goal implememation. We first address personal and situational variables leading to the formation of behavioral goals and what kind of psychological processes help or hinder goal setting. In the second part of the chapter, we discuss how set goals of different qualities predict goal attainment and which self-regulatory strategies help successful goal striving. Goal effects on cognition are discussed as possible me...

  16. Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Theory Course: An Assessment of Goals and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This project was designed to assess whether a collaborative learning approach to teaching sociological theory would be a successful means of improving student engagement in learning theory and of increasing both the depth of students' understanding of theoretical arguments and concepts and the ability of students to theorize for themselves. A…

  17. "Advanced Voice Function Assessment"-Goals and activities of COST Action 2103

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kob, M.; Dejonckere, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    The COST Action 2103 "Advanced Voice Function Assessment" is a joint initiative of speech processing teams (engineers and physicists) and the European Laryngological Research Group (ELRG) (laryngologists/phoniatricians). The Action officially started in December 2006, and is running till the end of

  18. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienstedt, Karin M. [European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Brock, Theo C.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Wensem, Joke van [Soil Protection Technical Committee, P.O. Box 30947, The Hague (Netherlands); Montforts, Mark [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hart, Andy [Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Aagaard, Alf [European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Alix, Anne [General Directorate on Food, Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Affairs, 251 rue de Vaugirard, 75732 Paris Cedex (France); Boesten, Jos [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bopp, Stephanie K., E-mail: pesticides.ppr@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Brown, Colin [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Capri, Ettore [Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 86, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Forbes, Valery [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Koepp, Herbert [Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Liess, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. System Ecotoxicology, Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Luttik, Robert [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maltby, Lorraine [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, The University Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-01-15

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer How to define specific protection goals (SPGs) for environmental risk assessment? Black

  19. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape. - Research highlights: ► How to define specific protection goals (SPGs) for environmental risk assessment? ► The process uses the ecosystem services (ES

  20. Patient autonomy in multiple sclerosis--possible goals and assessment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, C; Köpke, S; Solari, A; Geiger, F; Kasper, J

    2013-08-15

    Patient autonomy has been increasingly acknowledged as prerequisite for successful medical decision making in Western countries. In medical decisions with a need to involve a health professional, patient autonomy becomes apparent in the extent of patients' participation in the communication as described in the concept of shared decision making. Patient autonomy can be derived from different perspectives or goals and the focus of evaluation approaches may vary accordingly. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a paradigmatic disease to study patient autonomy mainly because MS patients are highly disease competent and due to ambiguous evidence on many aspects of disease-related medical decision making. This review gives an overview on measurement issues in studying decision making in MS, categorized according to prerequisites, process measures and outcomes of patient autonomy. As relevant prerequisites role preferences, risk attribution, risk tolerance, and risk knowledge are discussed. Regarding processes, we distinguish intra-psychic and interpersonal aspects. Intra-psychic processes are elucidated using the theory of planned behavior, which guided development of a 30-item scale to capture decisions about immunotherapy. Moreover, a theory of uncertainty management has been created resulting in the development of a corresponding measurement concept. Interpersonal processes evolving between physician and patient can be thoroughly analyzed from different perspectives by use of the newly developed comprehensive MAPPIN'SDM inventory. Concerning outcomes, besides health related outcomes, we discuss match of preferred roles during the decision encounters (preference match), decisional conflict as well as an application of the multidimensional measure of informed choice to decisions of MS patients. These approaches provide an overview on patient-inherent and interpersonal factors and processes modulating medical decision making and health behavior in MS and beyond. PMID:23711752

  1. Target highlights in CASP9: Experimental target structures for the critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Moult, John; Bartual, Sergio G; Bazan, J Fernando; Berman, Helen; Casteel, Darren E; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Everett, John K; Hausmann, Jens; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Hills, Tanya; Hui, Raymond; Hunt, John F; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kennedy, Michael A; Kim, Choel; Lingel, Andreas; Michalska, Karolina; Montelione, Gaetano T; Otero, José M; Perrakis, Anastassis; Pizarro, Juan C; van Raaij, Mark J; Ramelot, Theresa A; Rousseau, Francois; Tong, Liang; Wernimont, Amy K; Young, Jasmine; Schwede, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    One goal of the CASP community wide experiment on the critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction is to identify the current state of the art in protein structure prediction and modeling. A fundamental principle of CASP is blind prediction on a set of relevant protein targets, that is, the participating computational methods are tested on a common set of experimental target proteins, for which the experimental structures are not known at the time of modeling. Therefore, the CASP experiment would not have been possible without broad support of the experimental protein structural biology community. In this article, several experimental groups discuss the structures of the proteins which they provided as prediction targets for CASP9, highlighting structural and functional peculiarities of these structures: the long tail fiber protein gp37 from bacteriophage T4, the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ dimerization/docking domain, the ectodomain of the JTB (jumping translocation breakpoint) transmembrane receptor, Autotaxin in complex with an inhibitor, the DNA-binding J-binding protein 1 domain essential for biosynthesis and maintenance of DNA base-J (β-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil) in Trypanosoma and Leishmania, an so far uncharacterized 73 residue domain from Ruminococcus gnavus with a fold typical for PDZ-like domains, a domain from the phycobilisome core-membrane linker phycobiliprotein ApcE from Synechocystis, the heat shock protein 90 activators PFC0360w and PFC0270w from Plasmodium falciparum, and 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:22020785

  2. Life cycle assessment part 1: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebitzer, G; Ekvall, T; Frischknecht, R; Hunkeler, D; Norris, G; Rydberg, T; Schmidt, W-P; Suh, S; Weidema, B P; Pennington, D W

    2004-07-01

    Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for the provision of goods and services (both of which are summarized under the term "products"). Environmental impacts include those from emissions into the environment and through the consumption of resources, as well as other interventions (e.g., land use) associated with providing products that occur when extracting resources, producing materials, manufacturing the products, during consumption/use, and at the products' end-of-life (collection/sorting, reuse, recycling, waste disposal). These emissions and consumptions contribute to a wide range of impacts, such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric ozone (smog) creation, eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources, water use, land use, and noise-among others. A clear need, therefore, exists to be proactive and to provide complimentary insights, apart from current regulatory practices, to help reduce such impacts. Practitioners and researchers from many domains come together in life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate indicators of the aforementioned potential environmental impacts that are linked to products-supporting the identification of opportunities for pollution prevention and reductions in resource consumption while taking the entire product life cycle into consideration. This paper, part 1 in a series of two, introduces the LCA framework and procedure, outlines how to define and model a product's life cycle, and provides an overview of available methods and tools for tabulating and compiling associated emissions and resource consumption data in a life cycle inventory (LCI). It also discusses the application of LCA in industry and policy making. The second paper, by Pennington et al. (Environ. Int. 2003, in press), highlights the key features, summarises available approaches, and outlines the key

  3. Application of an Integrated Assessment Model with state-level resolution for examining strategies for addressing air, climate and energy goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals. GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportati...

  4. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  5. IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets (INVEST: Defining the New Goals of an International Drilling Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Inagaki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The INVEST conference, an international meeting to define the scientific goals and required technology for a new ocean drilling program, was held at the University of Bremen on 22–25 September 2009. Based on the large attendance and vigorous engagement of scientists in the discussion of new science/technology ideas, INVEST was extremely successful. Initially 400 participants were expected, but the INVEST steering and organization committees were thrilled to see a much larger number of scientists flock to Bremen to demonstrate their support and enthusiasm for the continuation of an international scientific ocean drilling program. In all, 584 participants, including sixty-four students, from twenty-one nations and >200 institutions and agencies attended the INVEST conference. Contributions to INVEST included 103 submitted white papers that were posted on the INVEST webpage (http://www.marum.de/iodp-invest. html, and breakout discussions in fifty working groups that focused on a range of topics during the course of the conference. In addition, students and early career scientists, as well as national funding agency managers and platform providers, presented a total of eighty-six posters. Interspersed with the working group and plenary sessions were twelve keynote lectures, chosen to highlight overarching themes and new directions in research and technology.

  6. MR Imaging in Postreduction Assessment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Goals and Obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G; Servaes, Sabah; Bogner, Eric A; Jaramillo, Diego; Mintz, Douglas N

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a spectrum disorder of hip development that ranges in severity from abnormal acetabular morphology to complete hip dislocation. While treatment with a Pavlik harness is highly effective in infants younger than 6 months, older infants and children and those with orthotic failure often warrant surgical reduction and placement of a spica cast, which limits subsequent imaging evaluation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been described in the evaluation of the adequacy of hip reduction for more than 2 decades, but the practice is still not widespread and is performed routinely at relatively few centers. MR imaging is a robust tool for outcome assessment after hip reduction and placement of a spica cast, facilitating multiplanar confirmation of concentric reduction independent of an ossific nucleus or orthopedic hardware. Excellent image contrast of soft tissues allows identification of obstacles to concentric reduction, which may be extra-articular or intra-articular. Extra-articular obstacles include tightening of the adductor muscles and tightening of the iliopsoas tendon with constriction of the joint capsule. Intra-articular obstacles include limbus formation, labral inversion, an enlarged pulvinar, and hypertrophy of the ligamentum teres and/or the transverse acetabular ligament. Intravenous contrast material administration may demonstrate altered epiphyseal blood flow and help identify patients at risk for early ischemia. Imaging technique and image interpretation can be optimized to facilitate the performance of postreduction MR imaging studies where they may be of benefit. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27035836

  7. On the proper formulation of safety goals and assessment of safety margins for rare and high-consequence hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of 'uncertainty' is addressed in the special context of assessing and managing risks from rare, high-consequence hazards. It is suggested that, rather than the usual 'formal treatments' on how to combine expert opinions that diverge widely, such 'uncertainty' must be approached in each case as a research question that encompasses frame of assessment, approach methodology, risk management, and safety goals, with the aim of obtaining resolution in a clear, consistent, and complete manner. This, together with some basic considerations on 'defense-in-depth,' and certain practical aspects of communications and synergism needed for resolution (of such uncertainties), leads us to the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). The purpose of this paper is to explain these views, to follow them through to the definition of the methodology and its implementation, and to indicate some of the insights gained through the several practical applications available so far

  8. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union.

  9. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  11. Assessing target design robustness for Shock Ignition using 3D laser raytracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, Angelo; Atzeni, Stefano; Marocchino, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) is a laser direct-drive Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme in which fuel compression and hot spot formation are separated. Shock ignition shows potential for high gain at laser energy below 1 MJ (see review Ref.), and could be tested on present large scale facilities. We produced an analytical model for SI which allows rescaling of target and laser drive parameters starting from a given point design. The goal is to redefine a laser-target configuration increasing the robustness while preserving its performance. We developed a metric for ignition margins specific to SI. We report on simulations of rescaled targets using 2D hydrodynamic fluid model with 3D laser raytracing. The robustness with respect to target fabrication parameters and laser facility fluctuations will be assessed for an original reference design as well as for a rescaled target, testing the accuracy of the ignition margin predictor just developed. Work supported by the Italian MIUR Project PRIN2012AY5LEL.

  12. Threat Assessment of Targets Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Huai-ping; LIU Jing-xu; CHEN Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In the context of cooperative engagement of armored vehicles, the threat factors of offensive targets are analyzed, and a threat assessment (TA) model is built based on a support v.ector machine (SVM) method. The SVM-based model has some advantages over the traditional method-based models: the complex factors of threat are considered in the cooperative engagement; the shortcomings of neural networks, such as local minimum and "over fitting", are overcome to improve the generalization ability; its operation speed is high and meets the needs of real time C2 of cooperative engagement; the assessment results could be more reasonable because of its self-learning capability. The analysis and simulation indicate that the SVM method is an effective method to resolve the TA problems.

  13. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  14. Assessing brain plasticity across the lifespan with transcranial magnetic stimulation: Why, how, and what is the ultimate goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eFreitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining brain and cognitive function across the lifespan must be one of the main biomedical goals of the XXI Century. We need to aim to prevent neuropsychiatric diseases and, thus, to identify and remediate brain and cognitive dysfunction before clinical symptoms manifest and disability develops. The brain undergoes a complex array of changes from developmental years into old age, putatively the underpinnings of changes in cognition and behavior throughout life. A functionally ‘normal’ brain is a changing brain, a brain whose capacity and mechanisms of change are shifting appropriately from one time-point to another in a given individual’s life. Therefore, assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity across the lifespan is critical to gain insight into an individual’s brain health. Indexing brain plasticity in humans is possible with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in combination with neuroimaging, provides a powerful tool for exploring local cortical and brain network plasticity. Here, we review investigations to date, summarize findings, and discuss some of the challenges that need to be solved to enhance the use of TMS measures of brain plasticity across all ages. Ultimately, TMS measures of plasticity can become the foundation for a brain health index to enable objective correlates of an individual’s brain health over time, assessment across diseases and disorders, and reliable evaluation of indicators of efficacy of future preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  15. Testing Map Features Designed to Convey the Uncertainty of Cancer Risk: Insights Gained From Assessing Judgments of Information Adequacy and Communication Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to communicating the uncertainty of environmental health risks include preferences for certain information and low numeracy. Map features designed to communicate the magnitude and uncertainty of estimated cancer risk from air pollution were tested among 826 participants to assess how map features influenced judgments of adequacy and the intended communication goals. An uncertain versus certain visual feature was judged as less adequate but met both communication goals and addressed n...

  16. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  17. Solar thermal cost goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Setting of goals for a research, development and demonstration program is critical in measuring its progress and ensuring its success. The development of cost goals for the DOE Solar Thermal Program by the Solar Thermal Cost Goals Committee (STCGC), led by the Solar Energy Research Institute, is described. The objective of the STCGC is to determine a consistent set of time-related cost and performance goals for concentrating collector systems based on market value and intermediae goals based on attainable cost levels. Accomplishments thus far include: definition of cost goals and their function in program planning, delineation of competing energy system costs, development of a breakeven costing methodology for assessing market value, determination of attainable costs for solar thermal systems, setting financial and economic parameters, and calculation of market value as a function of each competing fuel type, application, and region.

  18. A Goal Orientation Analysis of Teachers' Motivations to Participate in the School Self-Assessment Processes of a Quality Assurance System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen; Madrid, Romina; Fernández, María Beatriz; Ahumada, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the goal orientations that could be inferred from how teachers from six municipal schools in Chile described their understandings, emotions, and behaviors during their participation in the assessment phase of the School Management Quality Assurance System. Content analysis of focus group interview transcripts evidenced…

  19. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  20. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  1. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1 eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2 achieving universal primary education; (3 promoting gender equality; (4 reducing child mortality; (5 improving maternal health; (6 combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7 ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8 developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC. The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  2. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  3. Assessing inflation persistence: micro evidence on an inflation targeting economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, Jan; Coricelli, F.; Horváth, R.

    -, č. 353 (2008), s. 1-37. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation dynamics * persistence * inflation targeting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp353.pdf

  4. Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis to Target : multinational recommendations assessment questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraoui, Boulos; Smolen, Josef S.; Aletaha, Daniel; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Burmester, Gerd; Codreanu, Catalin; Da Silva, Jose Pereira; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Durez, Patrick; Emery, Paul; Fonseca, Joao Eurico; Gibofsky, Allan; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Graninger, Winfried; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Jannaut Pena, Maria Jose; Kalden, Joachim; Kvien, Tore K.; Laurindo, Ieda; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Santos Moreno, Pedro; Pavelka, Karel; Poor, Gyula; Cardiel, Mario H.; Stanislawska-Biernat, Ewa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; van der Heijde, Desiree

    2011-01-01

    Aim To measure the level of agreement and application of 10 international recommendations for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to a target of remission/low disease activity. Methods A 10-point Likert scale (1=fully disagree, 10=fully agree) measured the level of agreement with each of 10 recommend

  5. The study of target damage assessment system based on image change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Fan; Feng, Xinxi

    2009-10-01

    Target Damage Assessment (TDA) system is an important component of the intelligent command and control system. The method of building TDA based on Image Change Detection can greatly improve the system efficiency and accuracy, thus get a fast and precise assessment results. This paper firstly analyzes the structure of TDA system. Then studies the key technology in this system. Finally, gives an evaluation criteria based on image change detection of the target damage assessment system.

  6. Examining playfulness in adults: Testing its correlates with personality, positive psychological functioning, goal aspirations, and multi-methodically assessed ingenuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René T. Proyer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime aim of this set of studies was to test the disposition to play (playfulness in adults in its relation with various measures of personality but also ability (self-estimated but also psychometrically measured ingenuity. Study 1 (n = 180 shows that adults playfulness relates primarily to extraversion, lower conscientiousness, and higher endorsements of culture; joy of being laughed at (gelotophilia and agreeableness were also predictive in a regression analysis; Study 2 (n = 264 shows that playfulness relates primarily to a high expectation of intrinsic and a low expectation of extrinsic goals as well as greater intrinsic and lower extrinsic importance of goals (for expressive and fun-variants of playfulness; Study 3 (n = 212 shows that playfulness relates to greater self-perception of one’s degree of ingenuity and psychometric ingenuity correlated primarily with greater spontaneous and creative variants of playfulness (in about the same range for origence and fluidity of the productions. Overall, the findings were in line with the expectations and could stimulate further studies of playfulness in adults.

  7. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 3. Shifting to a Coaching Culture Through a 360-Degree Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Error-free operation is the ultimate objective of any safety culture. Ginna Training and Operations has embarked on an approach directed at further developing coaching skills, attitudes, and values. To accomplish this, a 360-deg assessment process designed to enhance coaching skills, attitudes, and values has been implemented. The process includes measuring participants based on a set of values and an individual self-development plan based on the feedback from the 360-deg assessment. The skills and experience of the people who make up that culture are irreplaceable. As nuclear organizations mature and generations retire, knowledge and skills must be transferred to the incoming generations without a loss in performance. The application of a 360- deg assessment process can shift the culture to include coaching in a strong command and control environment. It is a process of change management strengthened by experience while meeting the challenge to improve human performance by changing workplace attitudes. At Ginna, training programs and new processes were initiated to pursue the ultimate objective: error-free operation. The overall objective of the programs is to create a common knowledge base and the skill required to consistently incorporate ownership of 'coach and collaborate' responsibility into a strong existing 'command and control' culture. This involves the role of coach; the role of communications; and concept integration, which includes communications, coaching, and team dimensional training (TDT). The overall objective of the processes, TDT and shifting to a coaching culture through the application of a 360-deg assessment process, is to provide guidance for applying the skills learned in the programs. As depicted in Fig. 1, the TDT (a process that identifies 'strengths and challenges') can be greatly improved by applying good communications and coaching practices. As the training programs were implemented, the participants were observed and coached in

  8. Detectability counts when assessing populations for biodiversity targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu O Petrovan

    Full Text Available Efficient, practical and accurate estimates of population parameters are a necessary basis for effective conservation action to meet biodiversity targets. The brown hare is representative of many European farmland species: historically widespread and abundant but having undergone rapid declines as a result of agricultural intensification. As a priority species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, it has national targets for population increase that are part of wider national environmental indicators. Previous research has indicated that brown hare declines have been greatest in pastural landscapes and that gains might be made by focussing conservation effort there. We therefore used hares in pastural landscapes to examine how basic changes in survey methodology can affect the precision of population density estimates and related these to national targets for biodiversity conservation in the UK. Line transects for hares carried out at night resulted in higher numbers of detections, had better-fitting detection functions and provided more robust density estimates with lower effort than those during the day, due primarily to the increased probability of detection of hares at night and the nature of hare responses to the observer. Hare spring densities varied widely within a single region, with a pooled mean of 20.6 hares km(-2, significantly higher than the reported national average of hares in pastures of 3.3 hares km(-2. The high number of encounters allowed us to resolve hare densities at site, season and year scales. We demonstrate how survey conduct can impact on data quantity and quality with implications for setting and monitoring biodiversity targets. Our case study of the brown hare provides evidence that for wildlife species with low detectability, large scale volunteer-based monitoring programmes, either species specific or generalist, might be more successfully and efficiently carried out by a small number of trained personnel able to

  9. Assessing inflation persistence: micro evidence on an inflation targeting economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, Jan; Coricelli, F.; Horváth, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2009), s. 102-127. ISSN 0015-1920 Grant ostatní: Česká národní banka(CZ) E5/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation dynamics * persistence * inflation targeting Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2009 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1153_babeck%C3%BD_horv%C3%A1th_coricelli.pdf

  10. Targeting natural antioxidant compounds to the brain: a metabolomic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fornasaro, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with a decreased risk of brain diseases. Some plant-specific compounds occurring in fruits and vegetables, such as flavonoids, have been found to exert neuroprotection, thus decreasing neurological disease risk. The current hypothesis is that neuroprotection is due to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids. The main aims of this PhD thesis were: i) to assess whether some flavonoids are transported from the blood into the brain across ...

  11. Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET): an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2004, the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, released the long-awaited government blueprint for the favoured policy direction for the country's energy sector, Securing Australia's Energy Future. In part this document was a response to a review of the operation of Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET), a regime that started in April 2001. MRET was put under detailed scrutiny from March 2003 onwards by a four-person panel (the Tambling Committee), appointed by the Howard coalition (conservative) government, that received 248 detailed submissions and finally released its findings to the public in January 2004. This paper presents an overview of (i) the range of opinions on MRET presented to the Tambling Inquiry; (ii) the recommendations of that Committee; (iii) the final judgement on MRET enunciated in Securing Australia's Energy Future; and (iv) the response of the States

  12. The AEROPATH project targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: crystallographic studies for assessment of potential targets in early-stage drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A focused strategy has been directed towards the structural characterization of selected proteins from the bacterial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The objective is to exploit the resulting structural data, in combination with ligand-binding studies, and to assess the potential of these proteins for early-stage antimicrobial drug discovery. Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns

  13. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals. I. Review of protection goals in EU directives and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; Galic, Nika; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water Framework Directive as examples to explore the potential of ecological effect models for a refined risk assessment. Our analysis of the directives, regulations, and related guidance documents lead us to distinguish the following 5 areas for the application of ecological models in chemical risk assessment: 1) Extrapolation of organism-level effects to the population level: The protection goals are formulated in general terms, e.g., avoiding "unacceptable effects" or "adverse impact" on the environment or the "viability of exposed species." In contrast, most of the standard ecotoxicological tests provide data only on organism-level endpoints and are thus not directly linked to the protection goals which focus on populations and communities. 2) Extrapolation of effects between different exposure profiles: Especially for plant protection products, exposure profiles can be very variable and impossible to cover in toxicological tests. 3) Extrapolation of recovery processes: As a consequence of the often short-term exposures to plant protection products, the risk assessment is based on the community recovery principle. On the other hand, assessments under the other directives assume a more or less constant exposure and are based on the ecosystem threshold principle. 4) Analysis and prediction of indirect effects: Because effects on 1 or a few taxa might have consequences on other taxa that are not directly affected by the chemical, such indirect effects on communities have to be considered. 5) Prediction of bioaccumulation within food chains: All directives take the possibility of bioaccumulation, and thus secondary poisoning within the food chain, into account. PMID:20821697

  14. Preliminary assessment of interactions between the FMIT deuteron beam and liquid-lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping calculations were performed to assess the limit of response of the FMIT lithium target to the deuteron-beam interactions. Results indicate that most response modes have acceptably minor impacts on the lithium-target behavior. Individual modes of response were studied separately to assess sensitivity of the target to various phenomena and to identify those needing detailed evaluation. A few responses are of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. Potential for several different responses combining additively is identified as the major area requiring further consideration

  15. Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non-target plant-associated insects and soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Amina; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Tahir, Sana; Mirza, Safdar Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes are being cultivated worldwide to express toxic insecticidal proteins. However, the commercial utilisation of Bt crops greatly highlights biosafety issues worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risks caused by genetically modified crops prior to their commercial cultivation is a critical issue to be addressed. In agricultural biotechnology, the goal of safety assessment is not just to identify the safety of a genetically modified (GM) plant, rather to demonstrate its impact on the ecosystem. Various experimental studies have been made worldwide during the last 20 years to investigate the risks and fears associated with non-target organisms (NTOs). The NTOs include beneficial insects, natural pest controllers, rhizobacteria, growth promoting microbes, pollinators, soil dwellers, aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, mammals and humans. To highlight all the possible risks associated with different GM events, information has been gathered from a total of 76 articles, regarding non-target plant and soil inhabiting organisms, and summarised in the form of the current review article. No significant harmful impact has been reported in any case study related to approved GM events, although critical risk assessments are still needed before commercialisation of these crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26857894

  16. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  17. Workshop; Goals and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of the workshop was to improve awareness of the international illicit nuclear trafficking information exchange mechanism, i.e. IAEA illicit nuclear trafficking database programme, its goals and objectives, reporting requirements and participation. Other objectives are: to enhance awareness of global and regional risk trends and patterns, share knowledge and assessment of regional developments, share methodology of the illicit nuclear trafficking information analysis and discuss ways for improving national and international illicit trafficking information management and coordination

  18. Using a modified Learning Potential Assessment Device and Mediated Learning Experiences to Assess Minority Student Progress and Program Goals in an Undergraduate Research Based Geoscience Program Serving American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L. W.

    2002-12-01

    During the initiation of a new program at the University of North Dakota designed to promote American Indians to engage in geoscience research and complete geoscience related degrees, an evaluation procedure utilizing a modified Learning Potential Assessment Device (LPAD) and Mediated Learning Experiences (MLE) to assess minority student progress was implemented. The program, called Indians Into Geosciences (INGEOS), utilized a modified form of the Learning Potential Assessment Device first to assess cultural factors, determination, and other baseline information, and second, utilized a series of Mediated Learning Experiences to enhance minority students' opportunities in a culturally appropriate, culturally diverse, and scientifically challenging manner in an effort to prepare students for competitive research careers in the geosciences. All of the LPADs and MLEs corresponded directly to the three goals or eight objectives of INGEOS. The three goals of the INGEOS program are: 1) increasing the number of American Indians earning degrees at all levels, 2) engaging American Indians in challenging and technically based scientific research, and 3) preparing American Indians for successful geoscience careers through multicultural community involvement. The eight objectives of the INGEOS program, called the Eight Points of Success, are: 1) spiritual health, 2) social health, 3) physical health, 4) mental health, 5) financial management, 6) research involvement, 7) technical exposure, and 8) multicultural community education. The INGEOS program goals were evaluated strictly quantitatively utilizing a variety of data sources such as grade point averages, number of credits earned, research project information, and developed products. The INGEOS Program goals reflected a combined quantitative score of all participants, whereas the objectives reflected qualitative measures and are specific for each INGEOS participant. Initial results indicate that those participants which

  19. Use of veld condition assessment to set objectives and targets for an ISO 14001 environmental management system for Vaalbos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Bancroft

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available ISO 14001 is a procedural approach to environmental management, based on a philosophy of continual improvement. The planning element of ISO 14001, requires that environmental objectives and environmental targets are set to achieve the goals of the environmental policy. The stocking of game in Vaalbos National Park, is an aspect which impacts on the environment. Veld condition assessment, is essential to set objectives and targets for the management of the stocking rates in the park. Regular monitoring and a flexible management style is necessary to accommodate the fluctuation in veld condition caused by varying climatic conditions and other factors. This ties in well with the requirements of ISO 14001, an environmental management system, which requires that short and long term objectives and targets be set for managing an environmental aspects (e.g. veld utilisation and environmental impacts (e.g. loss of biodiversity that these targets are regularly monitored and improved upon.

  20. Human security and the next generation of comprehensive development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, G.; Gasper, Des; Jolly, Richard; Simane, M.

    2012-01-01

    textabstract2015 marks the target year of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that were adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2000 along with the Millennium Declaration. Academic and political consultations are underway to review the current MDGs and to elaborate a developmental agenda beyond 2015. This includes MDG performance assessments, progress reviews and conceptual reflections (e.g. Fukuda-Parr 2012). In many countries progress towards the MDG targets, agreed in 2002, is not „on tr...

  1. Value for Money? Problems of Impact Assessment of Counter-radicalization Policies on End Target Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    assessing the impact of counter-radicalisation measures using Denmark as case study. It shows how the model of radicalisation underlying the Danish counter-radicalisation efforts translate into multilayered policy objectives and diversified policy solutions, and how the initial academic and official...... that assessments of the effectiveness of counter-radicalisation measures and policy responses are either lacking or often methodologically questionable, impairing our understanding of the impacts of counter-radicalisation interventions on targeted communities. The article investigates problems of...... assessments of the impact of Danish counter-radicalisation policies on end target groups following is impaired and weakened by common methodological problems and challenges. The article concludes by suggesting some ways ahead for more systematic and valid assessments of the impact of counter...

  2. Personal work goals and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Fister

    2003-01-01

    An active area of studying antecedents and correlates of happiness, satisfaction and subjective well-being, examines the function of personal goals and goal strivings. The article presents the theoretical concept of personal goals and the application of personal goals assessment and analysis in the domain of work. The study aims to answer the following questions: what is the content of personal work goals, and what is the relationship between the characteristics of personal goals and job sati...

  3. Employment and Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur R. Khan

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of employment-intensive growth in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 ratified by setting specific targets with respect to eight different goals: eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality; reduction of child mortality; improved maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and promoting global partn...

  4. Academic Goals in Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bleier, Joshua I. S.; Kann, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is im...

  5. Ecosystem health: ecological sustainability target of strategic envi—ronment assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENKun-yu

    2003-01-01

    Strategic environment assessment (SEA) and ecosystem health are two new ideas on environmental management.On the basis of reviewing some relevant literature, this paper made discussions on the ecological sustainability target of SEA,the content of ecosystem health as well as the interrelations between SEA and ecosystem health. For a good SEA, its ecologicalsustainability principles should be provided with distinct content and a general assessment system. A framework for ecosystem health assessment was established according to the content of ecosystem health, and combined into SEA as SEA's ecological sustainability target, we can effectively guide decision-makers to make suitable indigenous means and local solutions. , Thebasic principles and procedure of SEA for ecosystem health are also discussed in the paper.

  6. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  7. Assessing Risks to Non-Target Species during Poison Baiting Programs for Feral Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Buckmaster; Dickman, Christopher R.; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the ba...

  8. Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: An application to oceanic development in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals, thus, heightening the significance of policy guid...

  9. Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Development Goals: An Application to Oceanic Development in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals thus heightening the significance of policy guidan...

  10. Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Development Goals: An Application to Oceanic Development in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals, thus, heightening the significance of policy guid...

  11. Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: An application to oceanic development in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin; Schmidt, Jörn; Visbeck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. An essential element will be the global indicator framework for monitoring and assessing progress over and against both the overall goals and the specific targets and to guide policy towards sustainable solutions. In the debate over the current indicator fra...

  12. Enabling automated magnetic resonance imaging-based targeting assessment during dipole field navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Maxime; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Dupont, Pierre E.; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic navigation of drugs in the vascular network promises to increase the efficacy and reduce the secondary toxicity of cancer treatments by targeting tumors directly. Recently, dipole field navigation (DFN) was proposed as the first method achieving both high field and high navigation gradient strengths for whole-body interventions in deep tissues. This is achieved by introducing large ferromagnetic cores around the patient inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. However, doing so distorts the static field inside the scanner, which prevents imaging during the intervention. This limitation constrains DFN to open-loop navigation, thus exposing the risk of a harmful toxicity in case of a navigation failure. Here, we are interested in periodically assessing drug targeting efficiency using MRI even in the presence of a core. We demonstrate, using a clinical scanner, that it is in fact possible to acquire, in specific regions around a core, images of sufficient quality to perform this task. We show that the core can be moved inside the scanner to a position minimizing the distortion effect in the region of interest for imaging. Moving the core can be done automatically using the gradient coils of the scanner, which then also enables the core to be repositioned to perform navigation to additional targets. The feasibility and potential of the approach are validated in an in vitro experiment demonstrating navigation and assessment at two targets.

  13. Radiochemical separation and quality assessment for the 68Zn target based 64Cu radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiochemical separation of the different radionuclides (64Cu, 67Cu, 67Ga, 66Ga, 56Ni, 57Ni, 55Co, 56Co, 57Co, 65Zn, 196Au ) induced in the Ni supported Cu substrate - 68Zn target system, which was bombarded with the 29.0 MeV proton beam, was performed by ion-exchange chromatography using successive isocratic and/or concentration gradient elution techniques. The overlapped gamma-ray spectrum analysis method was developed to assess the 67Ga and 67Cu content in the 64Cu product and even in the post-67Ga production 68Zn target solution without the support of radiochemical separation. This method was used for the assessment of 64+67Cu radioisotope separation from 67Ga , the quality control of 64Cu product and the determination of the 68Zn (p,2p)67Cu reaction yield. The improvement in the targetry and the optimization of proton beam energy for the 68Zn target based 64Cu and 67Ga production were proposed based on the stopping power and range of the incident proton and on the excitation functions, reaction yields and different radionuclides induced in the target system. (author)

  14. THE ASSESSMENT OF TARGETED PROGRAMS EFFECTIVENESS USING ECONOMIC – MATHEMATICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gordiyenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article under consideration deals with theoretical aspects of the application of program-target methods for budget programs formation. The main drawbacks of the current programs are shown. The efficiency of the Program for small businesses is assessed with economical mathematical methods. An effective mechanism for analyzing the effectiveness of the programs is provided. Reasonable ways of improving the system of programs formation are offered.

  15. Multiparametric MRI and targeted prostate biopsy: Improvements in cancer detection, localization, and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Wysock, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of MRI targeted biopsy, thereby enhancing clinical risk assessment, and improving the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. Material and methods We used MEDLINE/PubMed to conduct a comprehensive search of the English medical literature. Articles were reviewed, data was extracted, analyzed, and summarized. In this review, we discuss the mp-MRI prostate exam, its role in targeted prostate biopsy, along with clinical applications and outcomes of MRI targeted biopsies. Results Mp-MRI, consisting of T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and possibly MR spectroscopy, has demonstrated improved specificity in prostate cancer detection as compared to conventional T2-weighted images alone. An MRI suspicion score has been developed and is depicted using an institutional Likert or, more recently, a standardized reporting scale (PI-RADS). Techniques of MRI-targeted biopsy include in-gantry MRI guided biopsy, TRUS-guided visual estimation biopsy, and software co-registered MRI-US guided biopsy (MRI-US fusion). Among men with no previous biopsy, MRI-US fusion biopsy demonstrates up to a 20% increase in detection of clinically significant cancers compared to systematic biopsy while avoiding a significant portion of low risk disease. These data suggest a potential role in reducing over-detection and, ultimately, over-treatment. Among men with previous negative biopsy, 72–87% of cancers detected by MRI targeted biopsy are clinically significant. Among men with known low risk cancer, repeat biopsy by MR-targeting improves risk stratification in selecting men appropriate for active surveillance secondarily reducing the need for repetitive biopsy during surveillance. Conclusions Use of mp-MRI for targeting prostate biopsies has the potential to reduce the

  16. The European renewable energy target for 2030 – An impact assessment of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union set binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the share of renewable energy (RE) in final energy consumption by 2020. The European Council agreed to continue with this strategy through to 2030 by setting a RE target of 27% in addition to a GHG reduction target of 40%. We provide a detailed sectoral impact assessment by analyzing the implications for the electricity sector in terms of economic costs and the regional distribution of investments and shares of electricity generated from renewable energy sources (RES-E). According to the Impact Analysis by the European Commission the 27% RE target corresponds to a RES-E share of 49%. Our model-based sensitivity analysis on underlying technological and institutional assumptions shows that the cost-effective RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. Secondly, we quantify the economic costs of these variants and those which would be incurred with higher shares. The long-term additional costs for higher RES-E shares would be less than 1% of total system costs. The third aspect relates to the regional distribution of EU-wide efforts for upscaling renewables. We point out that delivering high RES-E shares in a cost-effective manner involves considerably different efforts by the Member States. -- Highlights: •A renewable (RES) target of 27% is the cost-effective share for 40% GHG reduction. •For the electricity sector the RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. •Long-term costs for higher RES-E shares are less than 1% of total system costs. •There are large differences in RES deployment and costs between Member States. •A lack of a governance mechanism makes the EU-wide RES target difficult to achieve

  17. A framework for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne M; Larson, Diane L; DalSoglio, Julie A; Harris, James A; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Skrabis, Kristin E

    2016-04-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:264-272. 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). PMID:26339869

  18. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... dynamics, conducting a landscape-level risk assessment is suggested. A new risk assessment scheme is suggested which integrates modelling approaches. The main exposure routes for non-target arthropods are identified and proposals are made on how to integrate them in the risk assessment. The appropriateness...

  19. Comprehensive irradiation of head and neck cancer using conformal multisegmental fields: assessment of target coverage and noninvolved tissue sparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Conformal treatment using static multisegmental intensity modulation was developed for patients requiring comprehensive irradiation for head and neck cancer. The major aim is sparing major salivary gland function while adequately treating the targets. To assess the adequacy of the conformal plans regarding target coverage and dose homogeneity, they were compared with standard irradiation plans. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with stage III/IV head and neck cancer requiring comprehensive, bilateral neck irradiation participated in this study. CT-based treatment plans included five to six nonopposed fields, each having two to four in-field segments. Fields and segments were devised using beam's eye views of the planning target volumes (PTVs), noninvolved organs, and isodose surfaces, to achieve homogeneous dose distribution that encompassed the targets and spared major salivary gland tissue. For comparison, standard three-field radiation plans were devised retrospectively for each patient, with the same CT-derived targets used for the clinical (conformal) plans. Saliva flow rates from each major salivary gland were measured before and periodically after treatment. Results: On average, the minimal dose to the primary PTVs in the conformal plans [95.2% of the prescribed dose, standard deviation (SD) 4%] was higher than in the standard plans (91%, SD 7%; p = 0.02), and target volumes receiving <95% or <90% of the prescribed dose were smaller in the conformal plans (p = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Similar advantages of the conformal plans compared to standard plans were found in ipsilateral jugular nodes PTV coverage. The reason for underdosing in the standard treatment plans was primarily failure of electron beams to fully encompass targets. No significant differences were found in contralateral jugular or posterior neck nodes coverage. The minimal dose to the retropharyngeal nodes was higher in the standard plans. However, all conformal plans

  20. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of...... endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition is...

  1. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access. PMID:25229348

  2. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  3. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  4. Operational assessment of Target Acquisitions Weapons Software (TAWS) prediction performance at Nellis AFB, NV

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Jerome H.

    2006-01-01

    Target Acquisition Weapons Software (TAWS) Version 3.4 is a joint Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) used to predict performance of electro-optic and electro-magnetic (EM/EO) munitions and navigation systems. TAWS is the USAF and USN mission-planning standard for laser-guided, infrared, and TV munitions and navigation systems TDAs. As TAWS continues to deploy through the mission planning community there is a need to establish a systematic approach to assessing TAWS accuracy. This study was an op...

  5. Risk Assessment and Ecological Effects of Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Crops on Non-Target Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Lin Yu; Yun-He Li; Kong-Ming Wu

    2011-01-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated.In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests.

  6. Supporting young mothers into education, employment and training: assessing progress towards the target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mary; Woolhead, Gillian

    2006-03-01

    The government has set a target of increasing the participation of teenage mothers in education, employment and training (EET) to 60% by 2010 to reduce their risk of long-term social exclusion. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project conducted in the South West region of England to establish the tracking practices employed by practitioners working with young parents to ascertain whether and to what extent teenage parents are engaged in EET. The range of support that is currently needed by and provided to teenage parents when returning to or continuing their EET was also investigated. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 participants from a unitary authority, county and city within the region; participants were working in a variety of professional roles with responsibilities for teenage parents. The results show that in the South West there are currently no standard procedures or practices in place for effectively tracking the participation of teenage parents in EET. There was evidence of a good understanding of the needs of young parents amongst practitioners and that a variety of support was being provided to them. However, it needs to be understood, and addressed, that having contact with young parents and providing them with support does not necessarily lead to the standardised information that is needed in order to assess progress towards the target. We conclude that in order to assess in a meaningful way progress towards the target of 60% participation by 2010, a clear protocol for the collection and collation of information--and responsibility for this--needs to be developed and implemented. PMID:16460367

  7. A Goal-Setting and Feedback Intervention to Increase ID-Checking Behavior: An Assessment of Social Validity and Behavioral Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Christopher O., Jr.; Geller, E. Scott

    2012-01-01

    A participative goal-setting and feedback intervention increased cashiers' identification-checking behavior at a large grocery store. The cashiers' identification-checking percentages increased from 0.2% at baseline to 9.7% during the intervention phase and then declined to 2.3% during withdrawal. At the control store, the percentages of…

  8. Movement or Goal: Goal Salience and Verbal Cues Affect Preschoolers' Imitation of Action Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The impact of goal salience and verbal cues given by the model on 3- to 5-year-olds' reproduction of action components (movement or goal) was investigated in an imitation choice task. Preschoolers watched an experimenter moving a puppet up or down a ramp, terminating at one of two target objects. The target objects were either differently colored…

  9. The Use of Goal Setting and Progress Self-Monitoring with Formative Assessment in Community College to Increase Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of formative assessment on community college students' content-specific vocabulary skills, academic achievement and academic self-efficacy. Sixty-one community college students who were enrolled in Developmental Psychology took part in formative assessment only (N = 24), formative assessment in conjunction with goal…

  10. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating...

  11. Shared Goals: Measuring Overall Development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Birdsall; Wren Elhai

    2011-01-01

    Five possible indicators are suggested that illustrate the type of measurable targets that could help the United States and Pakistan meet shared goals for effective and transparent development. [CGD Essay

  12. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10-6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  13. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  14. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of potential impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Bartsch, Detlef; Delos, Marc;

    of GM plants on Non-Target Organisms (NTOs), (2) proposing criteria for NTOs selection, and (3) providing advise on standardized testing methodology. This initiative was undertaken in response to a need and request from a wide range of stakeholders, including the European Commission and Member States....... In first instance, the self-tasking Working Group on Non-Target Organisms (EFSA NTO WG) mainly considered impacts of GM plants on invertebrate species, but also took account of ecosystem functions that could be altered. The EFSA NTO WG considered the necessity for clear and objective protection goals...

  16. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...

  17. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...

  18. Goal Setting and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  19. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews with...

  20. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, T. C. M.;

    2012-01-01

    concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates......, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and...

  1. Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William; Semenik, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that…

  2. On Developing Music Therapy Goals and Objectives©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorita S. Berger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the treatment of deficits through music therapy interventions, clinicians who assess human behaviors from a physiological perspective can target treatment goals and objectives to address more than just the symptoms of diagnoses. Clearer understand of Goal and Objective can help identify and address possible causes of mal-functions. This is possible when clinicians observe patients with a keen clinical eye for associating presenting problems with unobservable physiological reasons for them. This paper discusses the differences between a goal and an objective, and suggests how a clinical eye might focus long-range goals and short-term objectives from a physiologic perspective for any diagnosis. A sample case of autism is presented for the purpose of illuminating the suggested approach and terminologies discussed. Although the case is of a child with an Autism diagnosis, the information presented is transferable to other diagnoses and age groups. Clinical observations and sample goals and objectives discussed are based on the hypothesis that behavior is rooted in physiologic function resulting from information that is, or is not, available, that is either well perceived or ill-interpreted, by the brain, which thus calls for what appears as less functional behaviors. In considering treatment with music, interventions based on observed behaviors and responses will yield goals and objectives for possible causes of identified areas of deficiency, including psycho-emotional issues.

  3. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals: I. review of protection goals of EU directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, U.; Baveco, J.M.; Galic, N.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water

  4. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  5. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Lizuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  6. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  7. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetke, Sophie, E-mail: schetke@uni-bonn.de [Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Dept. of Urban Planning and Real Estate Management, University of Bonn, Nussallee 1, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Haase, Dagmar, E-mail: dagmar.haase@ufz.de [Humboldt University of Berlin, Department of Geography, Rudower Chaussee 16, 10099 Berlin, Germany, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Koetter, Theo, E-mail: koetter@uni-bonn.de [Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Dept. of Urban Planning and Real Estate Management, University of Bonn, Nussallee 1, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black

  8. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Kötter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: ► This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. ► The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. ► Test runs with planners identified prominent environmental indicators

  9. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    OpenAIRE

    Yung Hsiang eKao; Andrew EH eTan; Richard HG eLo; Kiang Hiong eTay; Bien Soo eTan; Pierce KH eChow; David CE eNg; Anthony SW eGoh

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y) imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which...

  10. Non-Target Activity Detection by Post-Radioembolization Yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image Assessment Technique and Case Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Tan, Andrew E. H.; Lo, Richard H. G.; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; Chow, Pierce K. H.; Ng, David C. E.; Goh, Anthony S. W.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution yttrium-90 (90Y) imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT, whic...

  11. Distal Goal and Proximal Goal Transfer of Training Interventions in an Executive Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travor C.; Warren, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed transfer from a customized executive training program involving 89 public sector employees. Participants who set a distal goal had higher self-efficacy than those in both the "do your best" (DYB) and the proximal plus distal goal conditions. Participants who set proximal plus distal goals had higher maintenance than those who…

  12. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  13. Alignment of Learning Goals, Assessments and Curricula in an Earth Sciences Program to Prepare the Geoscience Workforce for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, recently completed a comprehensive revision of its undergraduate curriculum to meet challenges and opportunities in training the next generation geoscience workforce. The department has 280 undergraduate majors in degree options that include: geology, geography (physical and human), snow science, paleontology and GIS/planning. We used a 'backward design' approach by first considering the profile of a student leaving our program: what should they know and be able to do, in anticipation of professional development for traditional (exploration, environmental, regulatory agencies) and non-traditional (planning, policy, law, business, teaching) jobs or for further training in graduate school. We adopted an Earth system approach to be better aligned with contemporary approaches to Earth science and to demonstrate the connections between sub-disciplines across the curriculum. Learning sequences were designed according to Bloom's Taxonomy to develop higher level thinking skills (starting from observations and progressing to descriptions, interpretations, applications, integration of multiple lines of evidence, synthetic and analytical thinking and evaluation). Central themes are reinforced in multiple classes: history and evolution of the Earth system, composition and architecture of Earth, surface of Earth and the 'critical zone' and human dimensions. The cornerstones of the curriculum are strong background in cognate sciences, geologic 'habits of mind', an emphasis on geologic processes and field instruction. Ancillary learning goals include development of quantitative, communication, and interpersonal skills; use of Earth data and modeling; systems thinking; research and research-like experiences; and applications to societal issues. The first year course of study includes a slate of courses to explore the Earth system, primarily to engage and recruit students to the major. Second year studies are foundational for

  14. Assessing the energy landscape of CAPRI targets by FunHunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Nir; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2007-12-01

    RosettaDock has repeatedly created high-resolution structures of protein complexes in the CAPRI experiment, thanks to the explicit modeling of conformational changes of the monomers at the side chain level. These models can be selected based on their energy. During the search for the lowest-energy model, RosettaDock samples a deep funnel around the native orientation, but additional funnels may appear in the energy landscape, especially in cases where backbone conformational changes occur upon binding. We have previously developed FunHunt, a Support Vector Machine-based classifier that distinguishes the energy funnels around the native orientation from other funnels in the energy landscape. Here we assess the ability of FunHunt to help in model selection in the CAPRI experiment. For all of 12 recent CAPRI targets, FunHunt clearly identifies a near-native funnel in comparison to the funnel around the lowest energy model identified by the RosettaDock global search protocol. FunHunt is also able to choose a near-native orientation among models submitted by predictor groups, demonstrating its general applicability for model selection. This suggests that FunHunt will be a valuable tool in coming CAPRI rounds for the selection of models, and for the definition of regions that need further refinement with restricted backbone flexibility. PMID:17803233

  15. H-TArget model: Early technology assessment for ext generation sequencing in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, Valesca P.; Joore, Manuela A.; Ramaekers, Bram; Heuvel, van den Michel M.; Heijden, van der Michiel Simon; Harten, van W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) promises to find mutations (targets) in individual cancer patients, to subsequently prescribe targeted therapy. Currently, NGS is in development, the effects on choice of therapy and prognosis are still unclear, and the costs for targeted therapies are hi

  16. A statistical simulation model for fiels testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, P.W.; Voet, van der, E.; Baldacchino, F.; Arpaia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in...

  17. Assessing the comparative risk of plant protection products to honey bees, non-target arthropods and non-Apis bees

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Mark J.; Alix, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the European Union the placing of pesticides on the market requires as a prerequisite that a risk assessment demonstrates low risks to human health and the environment, among which includes pollinators. Currently risks are evaluated for honey bees and for non-target arthropods (NTA) of cultivated ecosystems. The actual protection of pollinators other than the honey bees, as for example for non-Apis bees, in relation to these risk assessments has recently been questioned and req...

  18. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  19. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  20. Measurement Tools and Target Symptoms/Skills Used to Assess Treatment Response for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Erin Elizabeth; Diehl, Joshua John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement tools and target symptoms/skills used to assess treatment response during Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) intervention trials from 2001 through 2010. Data from 195 prospective trials were analyzed. There were 289 unique measurement tools, of which 61.6% were used only once, and 20.8 % were investigator-designed.…

  1. Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in the risk assessment process to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically-engineered plants on non-target arthropods. While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins f...

  2. Treatment goals of pulmonary hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V

    2013-12-24

    With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m, normalization of right ventricular size and function on echocardiograph, a decreasing or normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and hemodynamics with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 mg\\/kg\\/min(2). However, to more effectively prognosticate in the current era of complex treatments, it is becoming clear that the "bar" needs to be set higher, with more robust and clearer delineations aimed at parameters that correlate with long-term outcome; namely, exercise capacity and right heart function. Specifically, tests that accurately and noninvasively determine right ventricular function, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and BNP\\/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, are emerging as promising indicators to serve as baseline predictors and treatment targets. Furthermore, studies focusing on outcomes have shown that no single test can reliably serve as a long-term prognostic marker and that composite treatment goals are more predictive of long-term outcome. It has been proposed that treatment goals be revised to include the following: modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance ≥ 380 to 440 m, cardiopulmonary exercise test-measured peak oxygen consumption >15 ml\\/min\\/kg and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide <45 l\\/min\\/l\\/min, BNP level toward "normal," echocardiograph and\\/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating normal\\/near-normal right ventricular size and function, and hemodynamics showing normalization of right ventricular function with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 to 3.0 l\\/min\\/m(2).

  3. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ojcius

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  4. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    David Ojcius; Jan Wallander

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  5. Responding to the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions. The United Nations Millennium Summit, September 2000, established a time bound (2015) and measurable goals and targets for combating poverty, hunger...... cooperate with the UN-agencies and especially the World Bank to develop a FIG strategy and advise the FIG council on necessary actions....

  6. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  7. A Goal of Zero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the picture of HIV/AIDS in China becomes more complex, more efforts are needed The theme of World AIDS Day this year is "Getting to Zero," which means zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths.Realizing these goals, however, is an extremely difficult challenge. Three decades after the first case of HIV was reported in the world in 1981, poor awareness and inadequate medical responses have allowed the virus to continue to spread worldwide.

  8. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently much of the world's supply of 99mTc for medical purposes is produced from 99Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product 99Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or zircaloy. Included is a cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminium alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent 99Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to 1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and 2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved. (Author)

  9. Flexible Tenacity in Goal Pursuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Jaudas, Alexander; Sheeran, Paschal

    2007-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior possesses various observable features (Gollwitzer and Moskowitz, 1996). First and foremost, it is characterized by persistent striving until the goal is reached. Second, goal-directedness expresses itself in energization when situations or means that can be used to reach the goal are encountered. And third,goal-directed organisms show appropriateness: If one route to goal attainment is blocked, another course of action to the same goal is taken. Alternatively, if the go...

  10. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Laura C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D.; Duda, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 ...

  11. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Catherine Healy; Nikos eNtoumanis; Brandon eStewart; Duda, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 ...

  12. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched Uranium) targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergrift, G.F.; Kwok, J.D.; Marshall, S.L.; Vissers, D.R.; Matos, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Currently much of the world's supply of /sup 99m/Tc for medical purposes is produced from /sup 99/Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). The need for /sup 99m/Tc is continuing to grow, especially in developing countries, where needs and national priorities call for internal production of /sup 99/Mo. This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched Uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal are reported. These improvements continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or hastaloy. A cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets is reported. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in other current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent /sup 99/Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to (1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and (2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that both concerns can be handled and that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved.

  13. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched Uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently much of the world's supply of /sup 99m/Tc for medical purposes is produced from 99Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). The need for /sup 99m/Tc is continuing to grow, especially in developing countries, where needs and national priorities call for internal production of 99Mo. This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched Uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product 99Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal are reported. These improvements continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or hastaloy. A cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets is reported. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in other current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent 99Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to (1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and (2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that both concerns can be handled and that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved

  14. Professionalism: secondary goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Please recall my lengthy disclaimer from Part 1 of this series. In part two, we reviewed the Oath of Maimonides. We considered our profession as a sacred vocation. We defined professionalism: A good doctor can be trusted to always place his/her individual patient’s best interest first, with ability, good judgment, and a caring attitude. We determined that we should be willing to make sacrifices in our commitment to our primary goal (as critical care physicians – getting our patients and their families through their illness with as little disability and suffering as possible. Now, my second disclaimer – I am going to express my opinions from atop my Ivory Tower – as I am not in private practice, and protected a bit from the harsh reality of the business world. I am going to express my possibly somewhat naive perspective on secondary goals related to our profession. These are not necessarily bad, but ...

  15. How Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Increases Subjective Well-Being in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuki Fukuda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The target date in 2015 for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs was reached, and a new period of global goals for the post-2015 is dawning. To assess whether and how regional progress towards achieving the MDGs has contributed to better quality of life in developing nations, we formulated a correlation between various aspects of human development, indicated by MDG indicators, and subjective well-being (SWB, a response to the question of how much people feel happy or satisfied. We demonstrated that national levels of SWB can be explained by the degree of development; poverty reduction is the strongest determinant, and achieving the MDGs is associated with higher SWB levels. Scenario assessment of SWB allowed which domain of development should be improved preferentially in each region to be determined, hence the SWB approach is expected to offer an innovative proxy of human development for the assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs.

  16. A simulation model of tactical nuclear target analysis and damage assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Joseph Carl

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis present a Nuclear Targeting and Effects program that is intended for the inclusion in the Simulation of Tactical Alternative Responses (STAR) combat model. It is presented as a stand alone program, written in SIMSCRIPT, which can be easily modified as a subroutine for any high resolution combat model requiring tactical nuclear effects simulation. When presented with a group of targets which are deemed suitable for attack ...

  17. Impacts of the EU Biofuel Target on Agricultural Markets and Land Use - A Comparative Modelling Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Fonseca, Maria; BURRELL Alison; Gay, Stephan Hubertus; Henseler, Martin; Kavallari, Aikaterini; PÉREZ DOMÍNGUEZ Ignacio; Tonini, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) requires that 20% of the EU's energy needs should come from renewable sources by 2020, and includes a target for the transport sector of 10% from biofuels. This report analyses and discusses the global impacts of this biofuel target on agricultural production, markets and land use, as simulated by three agricultural sector models, AGLINK-COSIMO, ESIM and CAPRI. The impacts identified include higher EU production of ethanol and biodiesel, and of the ...

  18. Discriminating between camouflaged targets by their time of detection by a human-based observer assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, G. K.; Søderblom, M.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of a camouflaged object in natural sceneries requires the target to be distinguishable from its local background. The development of any new camouflage pattern therefore has to rely on a well-founded test methodology - which has to be correlated with the final purpose of the pattern - as well as an evaluation procedure, containing the optimal criteria for i) discriminating between the targets and then eventually ii) for a final rank of the targets. In this study we present results from a recent camouflage assessment trial where human observers were used in a search by photo methodology to assess generic test camouflage patterns. We conducted a study to investigate possible improvements in camouflage patterns for battle dress uniforms. The aim was to do a comparative study of potential, and generic patterns intended for use in arid areas (sparsely vegetated, semi desert). We developed a test methodology that was intended to be simple, reliable and realistic with respect to the operational benefit of camouflage. Therefore we chose to conduct a human based observer trial founded on imagery of realistic targets in natural backgrounds. Inspired by a recent and similar trial in the UK, we developed new and purpose-based software to be able to conduct the observer trial. Our preferred assessment methodology - the observer trial - was based on target recordings in 12 different, but operational relevant scenes, collected in a dry and sparsely vegetated area (Rhodes). The scenes were chosen with the intention to span as broadly as possible. The targets were human-shaped mannequins and were situated identically in each of the scenes to allow for a relative comparison of camouflage effectiveness in each scene. Test of significance, among the targets' performance, was carried out by non-parametric tests as the corresponding time of detection distributions in overall were found to be difficult to parameterize. From the trial, containing 12 different scenes from

  19. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hsiang eKao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall and kidney, supported by angiography and 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  20. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  1. Kinetic modeling of tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate bypass in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its application to assessment of drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Indira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting persistent tubercule bacilli has become an important challenge in the development of anti-tuberculous drugs. As the glyoxylate bypass is essential for persistent bacilli, interference with it holds the potential for designing new antibacterial drugs. We have developed kinetic models of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate bypass in Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and studied the effects of inhibition of various enzymes in the M. tuberculosis model. Results We used E. coli to validate the pathway-modeling protocol and showed that changes in metabolic flux can be estimated from gene expression data. The M. tuberculosis model reproduced the observation that deletion of one of the two isocitrate lyase genes has little effect on bacterial growth in macrophages, but deletion of both genes leads to the elimination of the bacilli from the lungs. It also substantiated the inhibition of isocitrate lyases by 3-nitropropionate. On the basis of our simulation studies, we propose that: (i fractional inactivation of both isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 is required for a flux through the glyoxylate bypass in persistent mycobacteria; and (ii increasing the amount of active isocitrate dehydrogenases can stop the flux through the glyoxylate bypass, so the kinase that inactivates isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and/or the proposed inactivator of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 is a potential target for drugs against persistent mycobacteria. In addition, competitive inhibition of isocitrate lyases along with a reduction in the inactivation of isocitrate dehydrogenases appears to be a feasible strategy for targeting persistent mycobacteria. Conclusion We used kinetic modeling of biochemical pathways to assess various potential anti-tuberculous drug targets that interfere with the glyoxylate bypass flux, and indicated the type of inhibition needed to eliminate the pathogen. The advantage of such an

  2. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  3. Assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase as a potential antibacterial drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Eadsforth

    Full Text Available The bifunctional enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase - cyclohydrolase (FolD is identified as a potential drug target in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the troublesome Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In order to provide a comprehensive and realistic assessment of the potential of this target for drug discovery we generated a highly efficient recombinant protein production system and purification protocol, characterized the enzyme, carried out screening of two commercial compound libraries by differential scanning fluorimetry, developed a high-throughput enzyme assay and prosecuted a screening campaign against almost 80,000 compounds. The crystal structure of P. aeruginosa FolD was determined at 2.2 Å resolution and provided a template for an assessment of druggability and for modelling of ligand complexes as well as for comparisons with the human enzyme. New FolD inhibitors were identified and characterized but the weak levels of enzyme inhibition suggest that these compounds are not optimal starting points for future development. Furthermore, the close similarity of the bacterial and human enzyme structures suggest that selective inhibition might be difficult to attain. In conclusion, although the preliminary biological data indicates that FolD represents a valuable target for the development of new antibacterial drugs, indeed spurred us to investigate it, our screening results and structural data suggest that this would be a difficult enzyme to target with respect to developing the appropriate lead molecules required to underpin a serious drug discovery effort.

  4. The use of targeted therapies in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: patient assessment, treatment administration, and management of adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Meredith; Pavlakis, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Together with the use of novel oral targeted therapies, a multidisciplinary approach can be used to effectively treat patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs). Here we review the integration of the oncology nurse to the newly developed oral treatment setting for patients with pNETs. From the outset, the nurse must be involved in various processes, including performance of baseline assessments (e.g. blood pathology, cardiac and lung function testing, patient history) an...

  5. Seismic analysis - what goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic analysis of nuclear components is characterized today by extensive engineering computer calculations in order to satisfy both the component standard codes such as ASME III as well as federal regulations and guides. The current nuclear siesmic design procedure has envolved in a fragmented fashion and continues to change its elements as improved technology leads to changing standards and guides. The dominant trend is a monotonic increase in the overall conservation with time causing a similar trend in costs of nuclear power plants. Ironically the improvements in the state of art are feeding a process which is eroding the very incentives that attracted us to nuclear power in the first place. This paper examines the cause of this process and suggests that what is needed is a realistic goal which appropriately addresses the overall uncertainty of the seismic design process. (Auth.)

  6. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  7. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D; Duda, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50) completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 min. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving. PMID:26191029

  8. Achieving the Goals of Sports Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Horal, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical part focuses on setting and achieving of goals in organizations in general and identifies specific performance objectives in sports organizations. In the practical part examines the process of setting targets and performance in sport organizations to Jindřichohradecko.

  9. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  10. Assessing the therapeutic efficacy of VEGFR-1-targeted polymer drug conjugates in mouse tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay, Yosi; Golan, Moran; Tyomkin, Dalia; David, Ayelet

    2016-05-10

    Polymer-drug conjugates that can actively target the tumor vasculature have emerged as an attractive technology for improving the therapeutic efficacy of cytotoxic drugs. We have recently provided, for the first time, in vivo evidence showing the significant advantage of the E-selectin-targeted N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-doxorubicin conjugate, P-(Esbp)-DOX, in inhibiting primary tumor growth and preventing the formation and development of cancer metastases. Here, we describe the design of a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1-targeted HPMA copolymer-DOX conjugate (P-(F56)-DOX) that can actively and simultaneously target different cell types in the tumor microenvironment, such as endothelial cells (ECs), bone marrow-derived cells and many human cancer cells of diverse tumor origin. The VEGFR-1-targeted copolymer was tested for its binding, internalization and in vitro cytotoxicity in ECs (bEnd.3 and cEND cells) and cancer cells (B16-F10, 3LL and HT29). The in vivo anti-cancer activity of P-(F56)-DOX was then tested in two tumor-bearing mice (TBM) models (i.e., primary Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) tumors and B16-F10 melanoma pulmonary metastases), relative to that of the E-selectin-targeted system (P-(Esbp)-DOX) that solely targets ECs. Our results indicate that the binding and internalization profiles of the VEGFR-1-targeted copolymer were superior towards ECs as compared to cancer cells and correlated well to the level of VEGFR-1 expression in cells. Accordingly, the VEGFR-1-targeted copolymer (P-(F56)-DOX) was more toxic towards bEnd.3 cells than to cancer cells, and exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity than did the non-targeted control copolymer. P-(F56)-DOX inhibited 3LL tumor growth and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with B16-F10 pulmonary metastases. When compared to a system that actively targets only tumor vascular ECs, P-(F56)-DOX and P-(Esbp)-DOX exhibited comparable efficacy in slowing the

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  12. Assessing pest control using changes in instantaneous rate of population increase: treated targets and stable fly populations case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2010-06-01

    The instantaneous rate of population increase was used to assess the ability of attractive targets coated with permethrin to control stable fly populations on 3 dairy farms in south central Ontario, Canada. Two attractive targets were deployed over 10 wk in 2001 at each of 6 dairy farms. Three farms were outfitted with 2 untreated targets and 3 were outfitted with 2 targets treated with permethrin [Ectiban-impregnated Coroplast (Ectiban: Schering-Plough Canada Inc., Pointe-Claire, Québec, Canada; Coroplast: Great Pacific Enterprises Inc., Granby, Québec, Canada)]. Population growth rate was measured in terms of degree-days above a 10 degrees C developmental threshold (r(DD10)). The r(DD10) at the 3 treated dairy farms were significantly lower than r(DD10) at the 3 neighboring untreated dairy farms (mean r(DD10): treated=0.0088, untreated=0.013), but not in the previous year when targets were not installed (mean r(DD10): treated=0.012, untreated=0.015). This supports a long-term approach to management that lowers population growth rates in those regions where stable fly numbers increase exponentially from spring until winter, by shortening the period of economic impact of this pest. PMID:20494159

  13. Economic assessment of FEC-based targeted selective drenching in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, Guillaume; Cortet, Jacques; Koch, Christine; Reigner, Fabrice; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-11-30

    In the face of an increased prevalence of drug-resistant cyathostomin populations, a targeted selective treatment (TST) strategy based on Faecal Egg Counts (FECs) has been proposed as an alternative management strategy. However, associated costs may be a barrier to the uptake of this strategy. Our study aims to provide an economic assessment of FEC-based TST. FECs were determined in a Welsh pony herd thrice a year from 2010 to 2014. This database was used to explore the impact of FEC price, sampling strategy (individual or pooled) and labour-associated costs. Drug price was set at the cheapest level, hence providing a conservative framework to determine the maximum viable FEC price in the context of a cost-driven horse industry. The maximum viable FEC price for a cost-efficient individual based strategy was determined by an in silico bootstrap approach consisting of randomly sampling 1000 virtual pony herds of various sizes (1 to 100 ponies) from the available database and estimating the associated costs (FEC price ranging from € 1 to € 10, anthelmintic costs and labour-associated costs). The costs and benefits of the pooling strategy that consists of basing the decision to treat on group FEC values were also investigated. This is thought to reduce FEC-based costs but may result in highly infected individuals being left undrenched, i.e. in false-negatives, as a result of FEC overdispersion. For various pool-sizes (1-20 ponies) and various cut-off thresholds (50-200 eggs/g), we sampled 1000 pony herds in silico to estimate the associated costs and determine the number of positive ponies within a negative pool. Following these simulations, pool-based FECs of various sizes were performed on 40 ponies to compare predictions with real data. Within 4 years, anthelmintic costs were cut by 80%, albeit with free FECs. In silico estimations suggested that an individual FEC-based TST would not be cost-efficient in this context for an FEC price above € 5. With a pooled

  14. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis. PMID:26688112

  15. 态势估计的目标编群问题研究%Study of Target Classification in Situation Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟生; 王宝树

    2003-01-01

    Problems about target classification in situation assessment are analyzed. This paper presents a syntheticmethod for fulfilling target classification by using the nearest-neighbor method and field knowledge. The graphicalstructure formed by target classification is shown by the adjacency list. Based on the structure, breadth-first searchalgorithm is used for the implementation of dynamic maintenance. The output of target classification is helpful to de-termine the interaction among situation elements, thus interprets actions related to problem field.

  16. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn. PMID:26980555

  17. Evaluation of a non-targeted "Omic"' approach in the safety assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kok, E. J.; Knuthsen, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    -time PCR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analysis by cDNA microarray was used as a non-targeted approach for the identification of potential unintended effects caused by the transformation. The results revealed that, although the transgenic lines possessed different types of integration events...

  18. Personal work goals and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Fister

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An active area of studying antecedents and correlates of happiness, satisfaction and subjective well-being, examines the function of personal goals and goal strivings. The article presents the theoretical concept of personal goals and the application of personal goals assessment and analysis in the domain of work. The study aims to answer the following questions: what is the content of personal work goals, and what is the relationship between the characteristics of personal goals and job satisfaction. The content of personal goals mainly represents desires, intentions to improve job performance, to get knowledge, and intellectual development. Job satisfaction is connected with importance, value of personal goals, feelings of efficacy, and with the positive responses of the work environment to personal strivings of employees. This shows that employees have found meaning and purpose connected to work, something that gives them sense of efficacy, self-worthiness and the possibility to get affirmation from others. The study points out some specific influences of current socio-cultural situation.

  19. Objective assessment of cosmetic outcome after targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshtgar, Mohammed R S; Williams, Norman R; Bulsara, Max;

    2013-01-01

    fibrosis and thus impair cosmesis further, so we objectively evaluated the aesthetic outcome of patients within the TARGIT randomised controlled trial. We have used an objective assessment tool for evaluation of cosmetic outcome. Frontal digital photographs were taken at baseline (before TARGIT or EBRT...... objective assessment in a randomised setting, the aesthetic outcome of patients demonstrates that those treated with TARGIT have a superior cosmetic result to those patients who received conventional external beam radiotherapy....

  20. Assessment choices to target higher order learning outcomes: the power of academic empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot McNeill

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of higher order learning outcomes such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity has remained a challenge for universities. While newer technologies such as social networking tools have the potential to support these intended outcomes, academics’ assessment practice is slow to change. University mission statements and unit outlines may purport the value of higher order skills; however, questions remain about how well academics are equipped to design their curriculum and particularly their assessment strategies accordingly. This paper reports on an investigation of academic practice in assessing higher order learning in their units. Despite their intentions towards higher order learning outcomes for their students, the results suggest academics may make decisions when planning their assessment tasks that inadvertently lead students on the path towards lower order outcomes. Among the themes to emerge from the study is the importance of academics’ confidence and their attitudes towards the role of assessment in learning and how these perspectives, along with the types of learning outcomes they intend for their students, can influence their task design.

  1. Potential of the microbial assay for risk assessment (MARA) for assessing ecotoxicological effects of herbicides to non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Patricia Bi Asanga; Mbida, Mpoame; Demefack, Jean Marc; Yamssi, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    Many microbiotests that have been proposed for use in the risk assessment of environmental pollutants have the drawback of lacking relevant published data on various aspects of their test application possibilities and therefore do not receive the regulatory recognition which they may deserve. The MARA bioassay lacks published data for many relevant environmental pollutants, particularly pesticides and this may limit its use in regulatory framework. The present study has assessed the sensitivity of the MARA bioassay relative to other established bioassays (Daphnia magna and Oreochromis niloticus) to two widely used herbicide formulations: Roundup (having glyphosate as active ingredient) and Herbextra (with the active ingredient being 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-2,4-D). Roundup was found to be more toxic than Herbextra in all three bioassays. The D. magna EC50 s obtained for Roundup and Herbextra were respectively 5.55 and 356.61 mg/l while the LC50 s for O. niloticus were 11.30 and 222,28 mg/l respectively. In the case of the MARA bioassay microbial toxic concentrations (MTCs) for individual species ranged from 6.85 to 468 mg/l with an overall mean MTC of 101.82 mg/l for glyphosate and from 74.67 to 13,333 mg/l for 2,4-D giving an overall mean MTC of 2855.88 mg/l. Although the overall MTCs from the MARA bioassay were much higher than the LC50 s and EC50 s from the fish and daphnia bioassays respectively, the most sensitive MARA organism for each of the herbicides had MTCs that were comparable to or lower than the corresponding endpoints from the other bioassays implying that the MARA assay is a potentially useful bioassay for risk assessment of pesticides. PMID:26362569

  2. The headless horseman: a theoretical and strategic assessment of leadership targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper was presented at: 2010 International Studies Association Convention, annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans, February 17, 2010. Under what conditions is leadership targeting against terrorist groups likely to be effective? This paper develops a theory of leadership (based on work in sociology, organizational design, political science (collective action problem), and terrorism studies) which argues that leaders potentially per...

  3. Poverty reduction for sustainable development:  Analyzing Millennium Development Goal (Goal 1) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vyas-Doorgapersad

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the lives of impoverished and disadvantaged people, the United Nations (UN) geared up a Millennium Declaration known as Millennium Development Goals. The first MDG has two targets, namely to halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day; and to halve, between 1990 an 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. This article examines the role of South African Government in achieving the Goal 1. Through a descript...

  4. Neutronic Assessment of Transmutation Target Compositions in Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel E. Bays; Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Michael A. Pope; Benoit Forget; Mehdi Asgari

    2008-02-01

    The sodium fast reactor is under consideration for consuming the transuranic waste in the spent nuclear fuel generated by light water reactors. This work is concerned with specialized target assemblies for an oxide-fueled sodium fast reactor that are designed exclusively for burning the americium and higher mass actinide component of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The associated gamma and neutron radioactivity, as well as thermal heat, associated with decay of these actinides may significantly complicate fuel handling and fabrication of recycled fast reactor fuel. The objective of using targets is to isolate in a smaller number of assemblies these concentrations of higher actinides, thus reducing the volume of fuel having more rigorous handling requirements or a more complicated fabrication process. This is in contrast to homogeneous recycle where all recycled actinides are distributed among all fuel assemblies. Several heterogeneous core geometries were evaluated to determine the fewest target assemblies required to burn these actinides without violating a set of established fuel performance criteria. The DIF3D/REBUS code from Argonne National Laboratory was used to perform the core physics and accompanying fuel cycle calculations in support of this work. Using the REBUS code, each core design was evaluated at the equilibrium cycle condition.

  5. Neutronic Assessment of Transmutation Target Compositions in Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium fast reactor is under consideration for consuming the transuranic waste in the spent nuclear fuel generated by light water reactors. This work is concerned with specialized target assemblies for an oxide-fueled sodium fast reactor that are designed exclusively for burning the americium and higher mass actinide component of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The associated gamma and neutron radioactivity, as well as thermal heat, associated with decay of these actinides may significantly complicate fuel handling and fabrication of recycled fast reactor fuel. The objective of using targets is to isolate in a smaller number of assemblies these concentrations of higher actinides, thus reducing the volume of fuel having more rigorous handling requirements or a more complicated fabrication process. This is in contrast to homogeneous recycle where all recycled actinides are distributed among all fuel assemblies. Several heterogeneous core geometries were evaluated to determine the fewest target assemblies required to burn these actinides without violating a set of established fuel performance criteria. The DIF3D/REBUS code from Argonne National Laboratory was used to perform the core physics and accompanying fuel cycle calculations in support of this work. Using the REBUS code, each core design was evaluated at the equilibrium cycle condition

  6. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Schuster

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM which included energy-dispersive (X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549, a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  7. Assessment of Cardiovascular Parameters during Meditation with Mental Targeting in Varsity Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin A; Pfister, Robert; Alton, John; Gerdt, David; Baruch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Athletes who develop an immunosuppressed state because of intensive training get upper respiratory infections (URIs) and may respond to meditation. Reflective exercise (RE), a westernized form of Qigong, combines meditation, breathing, and targeted mental attention to an internal pulsatile sensation, previously shown to protect varsity swimmers from URIs during the height of training. We report here the evaluation of cardiovascular parameters measured during meditation combined with targeted imagery (interoception) in a cohort of varsity swimmers taught RE. Methods. Thirteen subjects were enrolled on a prospective protocol that used the CareTaker, a noninvasive cardiovascular monitor before, during, and after RE training. Questionnaires regarding targeted mental imagery focusing on a pulsatile sensation were collected. The cardiovascular parameters include heart rate, blood pressure, and heart rate variability (HRV). Results. Increased variance in the subjects' BP and HRV was observed over the training period of 8 weeks. In nine subjects there was an increased low frequency (LF) HRV that was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the subject's awareness of the pulsatile sensation that makes up a basic part of the RE practice. Summary. These data support further evaluation of HRV measurements in subjects while meditating with mental imagery. This direction could contribute to better understanding of neurocardiac mechanisms that relate meditation to enhanced immunity. PMID:26981142

  8. Chandrayaan-1: Science goals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Bhandari

    2005-12-01

    land on the Moon during the mission. Salient features of the mission are described here.The ensemble of instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 should enable us to accomplish the science goals de fined for this mission.

  9. Goal Contents and Goal Contexts: Experiments with Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Hu, Xiao Yong; Guo, Yong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Using samples of Chinese middle school students, the 2 experimental studies presented here examined the effects of goal content and goal context on test performance, free-choice engagement, and test anxiety within the framework of self-determination theory. Students' learning goals were induced as intrinsic or extrinsic with the learning…

  10. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe;

    The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use the...... previous curriculum in the intended way in relation to goals (Danmarks Evaluerings Institut, 2012). The surveys also indicate that teachers in general do not articulate learning goals (Skovgaard et al, 2014). Our research investigates how the requirements for goal-orientation influence teachers' practice...... will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  11. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals. PMID:12733420

  12. Biosafety research for non-target organism risk assessment of RNAi-based GE plants

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrew F.; DEVOS Yann; Lemgo, Godwin N. Y.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plan...

  13. Evaluation of a non-targeted "omic" approach in the safety assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzdorff, S.B.; Kok, E.J.; Knuthsen, P.; Pedersen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified plants must be approved before release in the European Union, and the approval is generally based upon a comparison of various characteristics between the transgenic plant and a conventional counterpart. As a case study, focusing on safety assessment of genetically modified plan

  14. Statistical aspects of environmental risk assessment of GM plants for effects on non-target organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous European guidance for environmental risk assessment of genetically-modified plants emphasized the concepts of statistical power but provided no explicit requirements for the provision of statistical power analyses. Similarly, whilst the need for good experimental designs was stressed, no m...

  15. Workflow assessment of 3T MRI-guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy using a robotic needle guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tuncali, Kemal; Tokuda, Junichi; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Fennessy, Fiona; Tempany, Clare; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Magill, John; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy has become a valuable instrument for detection of prostate cancer in patients with continuing suspicion for aggressive cancer after transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) guided biopsy. The MRI-guided procedures are performed using mechanical targeting devices or templates, which suffer from limitations of spatial sampling resolution and/or manual in-bore adjustments. To overcome these limitations, we developed and clinically deployed an MRI-compatible piezoceramic-motor actuated needle guidance device, Smart Template, which allows automated needle guidance with high targeting resolution for use in a wide closed-bore 3-Tesla MRI scanner. One of the main limitations of the MRI-guided procedure is the lengthy procedure time compared to conventional TRUS-guided procedures. In order to optimize the procedure, we assessed workflow of 30 MRI-guided biopsy procedures using the Smart Template with focus on procedure time. An average of 3.4 (range: 2~6) targets were preprocedurally selected per procedure and 2.2 ± 0.8 biopsies were performed for each target with an average insertion attempt of 1.9 ± 0.7 per biopsy. The average technical preparation time was 14 ± 7 min and the in-MRI patient preparation time was 42 ± 7 min. After 21 ± 7 min of initial imaging, 64 ± 12 min of biopsy was performed yielding an average of 10 ± 2 min per tissue sample. The total procedure time occupying the MRI suite was 138 ± 16 min. No noticeable tendency in the length of any time segment was observed over the 30 clinical cases.

  16. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  17. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  18. A framework for assessing the uncertainty in wave energy delivery to targeted subsurface formations

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, Pranav M.

    2016-02-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Stress wave stimulation of geological formations has potential applications in petroleum engineering, hydro-geology, and environmental engineering. The stimulation can be applied using wave sources whose spatio-temporal characteristics are designed to focus the emitted wave energy into the target region. Typically, the design process involves numerical simulations of the underlying wave physics, and assumes a perfect knowledge of the material properties and the overall geometry of the geostructure. In practice, however, precise knowledge of the properties of the geological formations is elusive, and quantification of the reliability of a deterministic approach is crucial for evaluating the technical and economical feasibility of the design. In this article, we discuss a methodology that could be used to quantify the uncertainty in the wave energy delivery. We formulate the wave propagation problem for a two-dimensional, layered, isotropic, elastic solid truncated using hybrid perfectly-matched-layers (PMLs), and containing a target elastic or poroelastic inclusion. We define a wave motion metric to quantify the amount of the delivered wave energy. We, then, treat the material properties of the layers as random variables, and perform a first-order uncertainty analysis of the formation to compute the probabilities of failure to achieve threshold values of the motion metric. We illustrate the uncertainty quantification procedure using synthetic data.

  19. A framework for assessing the uncertainty in wave energy delivery to targeted subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Pranav M.; Kallivokas, Loukas F.; Manuel, Lance

    2016-02-01

    Stress wave stimulation of geological formations has potential applications in petroleum engineering, hydro-geology, and environmental engineering. The stimulation can be applied using wave sources whose spatio-temporal characteristics are designed to focus the emitted wave energy into the target region. Typically, the design process involves numerical simulations of the underlying wave physics, and assumes a perfect knowledge of the material properties and the overall geometry of the geostructure. In practice, however, precise knowledge of the properties of the geological formations is elusive, and quantification of the reliability of a deterministic approach is crucial for evaluating the technical and economical feasibility of the design. In this article, we discuss a methodology that could be used to quantify the uncertainty in the wave energy delivery. We formulate the wave propagation problem for a two-dimensional, layered, isotropic, elastic solid truncated using hybrid perfectly-matched-layers (PMLs), and containing a target elastic or poroelastic inclusion. We define a wave motion metric to quantify the amount of the delivered wave energy. We, then, treat the material properties of the layers as random variables, and perform a first-order uncertainty analysis of the formation to compute the probabilities of failure to achieve threshold values of the motion metric. We illustrate the uncertainty quantification procedure using synthetic data.

  20. Ligand anchored poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers for brain targeting: Comparative in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemant K; Gajbhiye, Virendra; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-11-15

    The present investigation was aimed at developing various ligands-anchored dendrimers and comparing their brain targeting potential at one platform. Sialic acid (S), glucosamine (G) and concanavalin A (C) anchored poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendritic nanoconjugates were developed and evaluated for delivery of anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX) to the brain. MTT assay on U373MG human astrocytoma cells indicated IC50 values of 0.40, 0.65, 0.95, 2.00 and 3.50μM for PTX loaded SPPI, GPPI, CPPI, PPI formulations, and free PTX, respectively. The invivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies in rats showed significantly higher accumulation of PTX in brain as compared to free PTX. The order of targeting potential of various ligands under investigation was found as sialic acid>glucosamine>concanavalin A. Thus, it can be concluded that sialic acid, glucosamine and Con A can be used as potential ligands to append PPI dendrimers for enhanced delivery of anticancer drugs to the brain for higher therapeutic outcome. PMID:27501037

  1. A simplified method of correlating DOE's seismic performance goals to nuclear safety policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE's) nuclear safety policy, SEN-35-91, that is essentially the same as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) safety policy, establishes the following safety goal: the prompt fatality risk to an individual in the vicinity of a nuclear facility resulting from accidents should not exceed 0.1% of prompt fatality risks from other accidents to which members of the public are generally exposed. DOE's seismic performance goals are established in DOE order 5,480.28, in which structures, systems, and components (SSCs) have been categorized, for the purpose of seismic design and evaluation, into five performance categories based on SSC failure consequences. Each performance category has been identified with a numerical target performance goal expressed in terms of annual probability (or frequency) of SSC failure due to seismic events. The target performance goals have been selected based on approximate failure rates of SSCs designed by: (1) general purpose industry design codes such as Uniform Building Code, and (2) procedures and criteria established for nuclear power plants. Design and analysis procedures established in various DOE documents guide the designer to approximately attain these target performance goals. This performance goal-based design method, thus, provides the user with an approximate failure frequency of the SSC, making it easier to correlate the design with the risk associated with the SSC failure. Using national accidental fatality data, and various studies related to fatality resulting from radiation exposures, this paper proposes a simple method to correlate DOE's seismic performance goals and target radiation dose limits associated with the failure of SSCs in various performance categories

  2. A Systematic Assessment of Mature MBP in Membrane Protein Production: Overexpression, Membrane targeting and Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jian; Qin, Huajun; Gao, Fei Philip; Cross, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining enough membrane protein in native or native-like status is still a challenge in membrane protein structure biology. Maltose binding protein (MBP) has been widely used as a fusion partner in improving membrane protein production. In the present work, a systematic assessment on the application of mature MBP (mMBP) for membrane protein overexpression and purification was performed on 42 membrane proteins, most of which showed no or poor expression level in membrane fraction fused with ...

  3. Goal Setting for Learning English Language of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated goal setting for learning English language of Bangkok University students. A set of questionnaires for the assessment of goal settings and problems of learning English was administered to 370 second-year students. The study revealed that the goal setting was at a moderate level. There were statistically significant…

  4. Assessing potential targets of calcium action in light-modulated gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Light, through the mediation of the pigment phytochrome, modulates the gravitropic response of the shoots and roots of many plants. The transduction of both light and gravity stimuli appears to involve Ca(2+)-regulated steps, one or more of which may represent points of intersection between the two transduction chains. To be confident that Ca2+ plays a critical role in stimulus-response coupling for gravitropism, it will be important to identify specific targets of Ca2+ action whose function can be clearly linked to the regulation of growth. Calcium typically exerts its influence on cell metabolism through binding to and activating key regulatory proteins. The three best characterized of these proteins in plants are the calmodulins, calcium-dependent protein kinases, and annexins. In this review we summarize what is known about the structure and function of these proteins and speculate on how their activation by Ca2+ could influence the differential growth response of gravitropism.

  5. School Health Services and Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mininim Oseji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: School health services are geared at preventing, protecting and improving the health status of the school population to enable them benefit fully from the school system. The year 2015 is the target date for the attainment of the eight Millennium Development Goals adopted by world leaders at the Millennium Summit in September 2000. Coverage of immunisation against measles and prevalence of underweight children under five years are both indicators for tracking attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 1 and 4 – eradicate extreme hunger and poverty and reduce child mortality.Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the immunization and nutrition status as well as general well-being of primary school children through pre-enrolment medical examination.Methods/Study Design: A rural community in southern Nigeria was chosen for this pilot study, which was cross-sectional in design and conducted in 2010. The study instrument was a pre-enrolment medical examination form adopted from that provided by the State Ministry of Health. All newly enrolled school children in all three primary schools in the community were examined by medical doctors who completed the section on physical examination of the form. Nurses and volunteer assistants took the heights and weights of the children. Personal details and medical history of the examined children were thereafter obtained from the parents/guardians who were requested to give the dates their children received routine immunization, with photocopies of the immunization record where available. The heights and weights of the children were used to assess nutritional status by comparing with growth standards from the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Data were analysed using Epi Info version 3.5.1.Results/Findings: A total of 95 children were examined males being 54.7% while females were 45.3%. Medical history was provided for 46 children, 54.3% of which had evidence

  6. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  7. Bcl-2 Targeted Structural Based Computer Aided Drug Design (CAAD For Therapeutic Assessment of Ricin in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghraj Singh Baghel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is referred as uncontrolled growth of abnormal cell mass. Out of the several types of cancer, prostate cancer (PC has become a major public health problem in men worldwide. Bcl-2 and p27 proteins are important regulatory molecules of cell cycle. Failure of cell cycle regulation leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and causes cancer. For designing an effective structural based targeted drug, the assessment of protein-protein and protein-ligand interaction is indispensable. Therefore for treatment of PC, we selected a ribosome inactivating protein, Ricin, for assessment of its therapeutic nature. In the present work through CLUSTAL-W phylogenetic analysis, we found that Bcl-2 protein was found more conserved than p27. Further Bcl-2 was selected as target molecule for docking study with Ricin protein and other chemically synthetic inhibitor molecules i.e. 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO and Sarcosine, as lead molecule. Through HEX5.1 docking software docking was performed between targeted receptor and lead molecules. Energy maximum (Emax= -93.12 and energy minimum (Emin= -163.07 was observed for docking complex of optimised and energy minimised structure of Bcl-2 receptor with Ricin, which in turn shows that it is highly stable interaction. On the other hand, for synthetic inhibitors, we found energy maximum (DFMO; Emax= -77.17, Emin= -117.83 and Sarcosine; Emax= -72.23, Emin= -103.00 and energy minimum, which are significant more as compared to Ricin docking complex. Due to ricin docking complex having less energies shows stable interaction with Bcl-2. We also observed that Ricin is less toxic (lesser log P value as compared to other molecules by toxicity analysis by ADME/TOX server. These evidences show this Ricin could be better drug for PC. Further results are needed to validate by in vitro and in vivo study to make proper elucidation of drug for better PC treatment.

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF OPTIMUM RESOURCE ALLOCATION BY FUZZY GOAL PROGRAMMING : THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş, Mustafa; Nurullah UMARUSMAN

    2003-01-01

    The Goal Programming, which is using to solve the multiple objective decision problems, has wide and great potential among other methods targeting maximization or minimization of goals. The main aim of the goal programming is to minimize the biases from each objective, instead of optimization of goals. Goal Programming algorithms, as originally developed by Charnels, attempts to achieve as many of these goals possible by minimizing deviation variables from the goal levels, depending on th...

  9. Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x0, for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station

  10. Vasopressin as a target for antidepressant development: an assessment of the available evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scott, Lucinda V

    2012-02-03

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key biological abnormalities described in major depressive disorder, occurring in 30-50% of depressed subjects. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are the main regulators of this stress system, with the two neuropeptides acting synergistically in bringing about adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary and cortisol from the adrenal gland. Based on the demonstration of elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of CRH in depressives, and other evidence, it has been postulated that excess CRH and the resultant increased HPA forward drive form the basis of neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression. However, there is an accumulating body of evidence to support a significant role for AVP in the regulation of pituitary-adrenal activity in health and also in depressive disorder. This review, based on a Medline search from 1980 to 2001, focuses on the functional neuroanatomy, receptor pharmacology, VP synergism with CRH, and the data from clinical and pre-clinical studies that support an important role for AVP in the pathophysiology of major depression. We suggest that future antidepressants may target the vasopressinergic system.

  11. Egypt and the Millennium Development Goals : Egypt and the Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    El-Saharty, Sameh; Richardson, Gail; Chase, Susan

    2005-01-01

    There are challenges that hinder progress toward the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs), targets in Egypt. These challenges include the pervasive differentials and gaps in the delivery, availability, and quality of publicly financed services and programs, the gender gaps; the fragmented legal system; and the lack of opportunity for civil society to participate in the development process. T...

  12. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  13. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense based studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report.

  14. Joint attention, shared goals, and social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  15. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  16. Computed isotopic inventory and dose assessment for SRS fuel and target assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past studies have identified and evaluated important radionuclide contributors to dose from reprocessed spent fuel sent to waste for Mark 16B and 22 fuel assemblies and for Mark 31 A and 31B target assemblies. Fission-product distributions after a 5- and 15-year decay time were calculated for a ''representative'' set of irradiation conditions (i.e., reactor power, irradiation time, and exposure) for each type of assembly. The numerical calculations were performed using the SHIELD/GLASS system of codes. The sludge and supernate source terms for dose were studied separately with the significant radionuclide contributors for each identified and evaluated. Dose analysis considered both inhalation and ingestion pathways: The inhalation pathway was analyzed for both evaporative and volatile releases. Analysis of evaporative releases utilized release fractions for the individual radionuclides as defined in the ICRP-30 by DOE guidance. A release fraction of unity was assumed for each radionuclide under volatile-type releases, which would encompass internally initiated events (e.g., fires, explosions), process-initiated events, and externally initiated events. Radionuclides which contributed at least 1% to the overall dose were designated as significant contributors. The present analysis extends and complements the past analyses through considering a broader spectrum of fuel types and a wider range of irradiation conditions. The results provide for a more thorough understanding of the influences of fuel composition and irradiation parameters on fission product distributions (at 2 years or more). Additionally, the present work allows for a more comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide contributions to dose and an estimation of the variability in the radionuclide composition of the dose source term that results from the spent fuel sent to waste encompassing a broad spectrum of fuel compositions and irradiation conditions

  17. Approach to the lifetime assessment of the bayonet back plate for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IFMIF facility is aimed at the production of high flux (1018 n/m2/s) of 14 MeV neutrons to test the candidate Fusion materials under significant neutron damage, up to 50 dpa/year. The conceptual configuration of the IFMIF target, based on the bayonet back plate (BP), has been developed in the past years by several authors. The appropriate engineering design of the back plate, to be developed in the EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) phase, would require a very high level of knowledge on the materials behaviour under irradiation, that will be acquired only after some years of IFMIF experimental activities. For this reason the back plate, which is primarily invested by the highest IFMIF neutron flux, has to be considered a sacrificial component. In spite of its systematic replacement, the engineering design has to be optimised and the lifetime analysis has to be made carefully, in order to credibly estimate the expected replacement frequency. Since the replacement time interval must be conservatively shorter than the back plate lifetime and, at each replacement, the facility has to be stopped for, at least, one week and subjected to risky and uncomfortable operations, it is necessary to perform a trustworthy analysis of the lifetime. To this purpose the various interconnections between the main damaging causes are discussed in order to evidence the most plausible reasons of back plate malfunctioning. Due to the lack of knowledge in some fields and the early stage of design, the analysis is only semi-quantitative. The analysis, which accounts for erosion/corrosion, hydraulic stability, neutron damage and thermo-mechanical stress as the main damaging causes, evidences also the research areas which deserve foremost attention during the EVEDA phase. The considered malfunctions are: lithium boiling, burning/piercing of the back plate, non-sufficient neutron flux, brittle rupture of the back plate, creep rupture, loss of tightness of the

  18. Targeted metabolomic approach for assessing human synthetic cannabinoid exposure and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Amy L; Seely, Kathryn A; Chimalakonda, Krishna C; Tran, Johnny P; Trass, Matthew; Miranda, Art; Fantegrossi, William E; Kennedy, Paul D; Dobrowolski, Paul; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; McCain, Keith R; James, Laura P; Endres, Gregory W; Moran, Jeffery H

    2013-10-01

    Designer synthetic cannabinoids like JWH-018 and AM2201 have unique clinical toxicity. Cytochrome-P450-mediated metabolism of each leads to the generation of pharmacologically active (ω)- and (ω-1)-monohydroxyl metabolites that retain high affinity for cannabinoid type-1 receptors, exhibit Δ(9)-THC-like effects in rodents, and are conjugated with glucuronic acid prior to excretion in human urine. Previous studies have not measured the contribution of the specific (ω-1)-monohydroxyl enantiomers in human metabolism and toxicity. This study uses a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy approach (LC-MS/MS) to quantify each specific enantiomer and other nonchiral, human metabolites of JWH-018 and AM2201 in human urine. The accuracy (average % RE = 18.6) and reproducibility (average CV = 15.8%) of the method resulted in low-level quantification (average LLQ = 0.99 ng/mL) of each metabolite. Comparisons with a previously validated nonchiral method showed strong correlation between the two approaches (average r(2) = 0.89). Pilot data from human urine samples demonstrate enantiospecific excretion patterns. The (S)-isomer of the JWH-018-(ω-1)-monohydroxyl metabolite was predominantly excreted (>87%) in human urine as the glucuronic acid conjugate, whereas the relative abundance of the corresponding AM2201-(ω-1)-metabolite was low (<5%) and did not demonstrate enantiospecificity (approximate 50:50 ratio of each enantiomer). The new chiral method provides a comprehensive, targeted metabolomic approach for studying the human metabolism of JWH-018 and AM2201. Preliminary evaluations of specific enantiomeric contributions support the use of this approach in future studies designed to understand the pharmacokinetic properties of JWH-018 and/or AM2201. PMID:23987522

  19. Assessment of meat authenticity using bioinformatics, targeted peptide biomarkers and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Orduna, Alberto; Husby, Erik; Yang, Charles T; Ghosh, Dipankar; Beaudry, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a significant increase of food fraud has been observed, ranging from false label claims to the use of additives and fillers to increase profitability. Recently in 2013 horse and pig DNAs were detected in beef products sold from several retailers. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become the workhorse in protein research, and the detection of marker proteins could serve for both animal species and tissue authentication. Meat species authenticity is performed in this paper using a well-defined proteogenomic annotation, carefully chosen surrogate tryptic peptides and analysis using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. Selected mammalian meat samples were homogenised and proteins were extracted and digested with trypsin. The samples were analysed using a high-resolution MS. Chromatography was achieved using a 30-min linear gradient along with a BioBasic C8 100 × 1 mm column at a flow rate of 75 µl min(-1). The MS was operated in full-scan high resolution and accurate mass. MS/MS spectra were collected for selected proteotypic peptides. Muscular proteins were methodically analysed in silico in order to generate tryptic peptide mass lists and theoretical MS/MS spectra. Following a comprehensive bottom-up proteomic analysis, we detected and identified a proteotypic myoglobin tryptic peptide (120-134) for each species with observed m/z below 1.3 ppm compared with theoretical values. Moreover, proteotypic peptides from myosin-1, myosin-2 and β-haemoglobin were also identified. This targeted method allowed comprehensive meat speciation down to 1% (w/w) of undesired product. PMID:26241836

  20. Assessment of thrombus imaging potency of thrombin-targeting recombinant hirudin in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of recombinant hirudin HV2 (rHHV2) as a thrombus imaging agent. 125I-rHHV2 and 125I-Th were prepared with Chloramine method, the labeling rate were 86.64% and 62.20%, with the radioactive purity of 89.70% and 91.22%, with the specific activity of 22.4 TBq/mmol and 94.43 TBq/mmol respectively. The competitive radioassay showed that the Th-fibrin complex formation did not affect the ability of rHHV2 binding with Th. In the complex, the molecular binding ratio of rHHV2 to Th and fibrinogen was 14:14:1. 99mTc-rHHV2 was prepared by 2-iminothiolane modified method, the labeled rate was 94%, with the radioactive purity of 93.90%, with the specific activity of 2.30 TBq/mmol. It was used to image fresh thrombi on arteries and veins of dog or rabbit (30 μg/kg). In SPECT images, all thrombin were clearly visible, arterial thrombosis imaging can be seen clearly within 45 min after injection and fade away slowly, venous thrombosis imaging also can be seen within 30 min after injection and quantitative imaging ratios between the thrombus and opposite vessel increased following the time. Biodistribution studies in mouse demonstrated that rHHV2 was excreted from kidneys. These data indicate that Th in Th-fibrin complex could be a potent target for diagnosis of thrombus and 99mTc-rHHV2 could be a new thrombotic imaging agent. (authors)

  1. Systemic consultation and goal setting

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    1993-01-01

    Over two decades of empirical research conducted within a positivist framework has shown that goal setting is a particularly useful method for influencing task performance in occupational and industrial contexts. The conditions under which goal setting is maximally effective are now clearly established. These include situations where there is a high level of acceptance and commitment, where goals are specific and challenging, where the task is relatively simple rather than ...

  2. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad; Farhad Rahmaninia; Mehr Ali Hemmatinezhad; Nooshin Benar; Misagh Hoseini Keshtan

    2011-01-01

    The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE) classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67). A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a) demographics and (b) Purposes for Engaging in Ph...

  3. Effects of respiration on target and critical structure positions during treatment assessed with movie-loop electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the extent of organ and target motion due to patient respiration during chest radiotherapy using electronic portal imaging, to examine these effects on treatment volumes and to show that simulation and treatment port films do not reflect this range of motion. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients consisting of 17 tangential breast and 7 AP-PA lung field arrangements were imaged during daily radiation treatment. Eight to 10 sequential movie-loop images were acquired during each field of each fraction with a liquid ion chamber electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Motion relative to the reference image was assessed orthogonally to the central axis of the beam. In tangential breast images, cranial, caudad and lateral lung-chest wall landmarks were used; for AP-PA lung, visible tumor, mediastinum and bronchus. Inter and intra-fractional landmark displacements were determined through off-line analysis. Intra-fractional displacements, determined from multiple images within one fraction, indicate motion of the landmark during treatment. Inter-fractional data represents motion between treatment fractions as seen in routine portal film imaging. The effects on treatment volumes were assessed for the largest displacements using the EPID data together with CT reconstruction. Results: The mean, maximum and standard deviation (σ) for observed respiration induced displacements in the cranio-caudad (CC) and lateral directions relative to the beam are summarized both within (intra) and between (inter) fractions: These data indicate that while the mean displacements are small, the standard deviations are significant and the maximum motion observed during a fraction due to respiration may exceed 3 cm in certain cases. In addition, the intra-fractional displacements significantly exceed the inter-fractional displacements, which suggests that anatomical motion is not fully quantified in routine portal imaging. In lung treatments where the largest

  4. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school

    OpenAIRE

    Makara Fuller, Kara A.; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Students’ social goals—reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers—are consequential for students’ interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students’ social goals a...

  5. Targeted assessment of lower motor neuron burden is associated with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew S; Ballard, Emma; O'Rourke, Peter; Kiernan, Matthew C; Mccombe, Pamela A; Henderson, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Estimating survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is challenging due to heterogeneity in clinical features of disease and a lack of suitable markers that predict survival. Our aim was to determine whether scoring of upper or lower motor neuron weakness is associated with survival. With this objective, 161 ALS subjects were recruited from two tertiary referral centres. Scoring of upper (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) signs was performed, in addition to a brief questionnaire. Subjects were then followed until the censorship date. Univariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with survival to either non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or death, which were then further characterized using Cox regression. Results showed that factors associated with reduced survival included older age, bulbar and respiratory involvement and shorter diagnostic delay (all p < 0.05). Whole body LMN score was strongly associated with time to NIV or death (p ≤0.001) whereas UMN scores were poorly associated with survival. In conclusion, our results suggest that, early in disease assessment and in the context of other factors (age, bulbar, respiratory status), the burden of LMN weakness provides an accurate estimate of outcome. Such a scoring system could predict prognosis, and thereby aid in selection of patients for clinical trials. PMID:26700804

  6. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  7. Quantitative assessment of target dependence of pion fluctuation in hadronic interactions – estimation through erraticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipak Ghosh; Argha Deb; Mitali Mondal; Arindam Mondal; Sitram Pal

    2012-12-01

    Event-to-event fluctuation pattern of pions produced by proton and pion beams is studied in terms of the newly defined erraticity measures $ (p, q)$, $_{q}^{'}$ and $_{q}^{'}$ proposed by Cao and Hwa. The analysis reveals the erratic behaviour of the produced pions signifying the chaotic multiparticle production in high-energy hadron–nucleus interactions (- –AgBr interactions at 350 GeV/c and –AgBr interactions at 400 GeV/c). However, the chaoticity does not depend on whether the projectile is proton or pion. The results are compared with the results of the VENUS-generated data for the above interactions which suggests that VENUS event generator is unable to reproduce the event-to-event fluctuations of spatial patterns of final states. A comparative study of –AgBr interactions and - collisions at 400 GeV/c from NA27, with the help of a quantitative parameter for the assessment of pion fluctuation, indicates conclusively that particle production process is more chaotic for hadron–nucleus interactions than for hadron–hadron interactions.

  8. Big emitting nations and the 2°C target:beyond integrated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bows-Larkin, Alice; Sharmina, Maria; Kuriakose, Jaise; Anderson, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This year, the United Nations Conference of the Parties in Paris is tasked with delivering a land-mark agreement on avoiding the 2°C warming associated with 'dangerous interference with the climate system'. If this happens, it will re-invigorate analyses of how global and national energy systems can deliver the rates of mitigation accompanying the 2°C threshold. Commonly such studies rely on detailed integrated assessment models combining economic and physical relationships to describe climate and energy systems. These allow the user to develop 'feasible' scenarios in terms of technology, infrastructure and efficiency change. This paper reflects upon the reliance of decision makers on the outcomes of these models, and their suitability for producing plausible outcomes. One criticism is how they can explore future societies under the pressures of climate change mitigation and adaptation given that their economic parameterisations are underpinned by historical relationships fit for a world unperturbed by climate change. A second relates to their theoretical basis being appropriate for articulating the outcome of marginal change, when the very futures they are set up to explore involve non-marginal adjustments - very radical cuts in CO2, or severe climate change impacts. Quantifying societal responses within such models is a particular challenge. Finally, these models downplay risks through disregarding low-probability, high-impact events and their consequences, including wars and migration. It is argued here that as currently formulated these tools are unsuitable for modelling the revolutionary transformations necessary to stay within 2°C carbon budgets, or similarly, futures with higher levels of warming and subsequent impacts. To address this deficiency, this paper takes a complementary approach to contextually explore the 'possibility space' appropriate for avoiding 2°C. In contrast to exercises that build future scenarios using 'immutable' relationships

  9. Tuberculosis elimination in the post Millennium Development Goals era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal for tuberculosis (TB) is to stop the increase in incidence and halve the mortality of TB between 1990 and 2015. This goal has now been reached on a global scale, although not in the most affected region of Africa. The new target is TB elimination, defined as one case...

  10. Beyond SMART? A New Framework for Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Trevor; Tosey, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy…

  11. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  12. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  13. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for Adolescents Questionnaire)…

  14. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.TimurSevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  15. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  16. Image quality assessment using the dead leaves target: experience with the latest approach and further investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    The so-called texture loss is a critical parameter in the objective image quality assessment of todays cameras. Especially cameras build in mobile phones show significant loss of low contrast, fine details which are hard to describe using standard resolution measurement procedures. The combination of very small form factor and high pixel count leads to a high demand of noise reduction in the signal-processing pipeline of these cameras. Different work groups within ISO and IEEE are investigating methods to describe the texture loss with an objective method. The so-called dead leaves pattern has been used for quite a while in this context. Image Engineering presented a new intrinsic approach at the Electronic Imaging Conference 2014, which promises to solve the open issue of the original approach, which could be influenced by noise and artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience with the new approach for a large set of different imaging devices. We show, that some sharpening algorithm found in todays cameras can significantly influence the Spatial Frequency Response based on the Dead Leaves structure (SFRDeadLeaves) results and therefore make an objective evaluation of the perceived image quality even harder. For an objective comparison of cameras, the resulting SFR needs to be reduced to a small set of numbers, ideally a single number. The observed sharpening algorithms lead to much better numerical results, while the image quality already degrades due to strong sharpening. So the measured, high SFRDeadLeaves result is not wrong, as it reflects the artificially enhanced SFR, but the numerical result cannot be used as the only number to describe the image quality. We propose to combine the SFRDeadLeaves measurement with other SFR measurement procedures as described in ISO12233:2014. Based on the three different SFR functions using the dead leaves pattern, sinusoidal Siemens Stars and slanted edges, it is possible to obtain a much better description if the

  17. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  18. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe;

    2015-01-01

    The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use the...... previous curriculum in the intended way in relation to goals (Danmarks Evaluerings Institut, 2012). The surveys also indicate that teachers in general do not articulate learning goals (Skovgaard et al, 2014). Our research investigates how the requirements for goal-orientation influence teachers' practice...... interviews with 20-30 affiliated teachers before and after the intervention. Each interview is conducted after an observation of a lesson performed by the teacher. For analyzing the interviews, we are inspired by grounded theory (Charmaz 2006). At the congress, preliminary results based on the interviews...

  19. Assessment of Targeted and Non-Targeted Responses in Cells Deficient in ATM Function following Exposure to Low and High Dose X-Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Kiuru, Anne; Kämäräinen, Meerit; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Pylkäs, Katri; Chapman, Kim; Koivistoinen, Armi; Parviainen, Teuvo; Winqvist, Robert; Kadhim, Munira; Launonen, Virpi; Lindholm, Carita

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation) lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of ...

  20. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  1. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R.; Shaffer, Karl J.; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J.; Robb, Ellen L.; Prime, Tracy A.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M.; Porteous, Carolyn M.; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by “click” chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. PMID:26712463

  2. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R; Shaffer, Karl J; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J; Robb, Ellen L; Prime, Tracy A; Chouchani, Edward T; Cochemé, Helena M; Fearnley, Ian M; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M; Porteous, Carolyn M; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by "click" chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. PMID:26712463

  3. Ground-based LiDAR integration with avalanche control operations: target planning and assessment of control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deems, J. S.; LeWinter, A.; Gadomski, P. J.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The varying distribution of snow depth in avalanche starting zones exerts a strong influence on avalanche potential and character. Extreme depth changes over short distances are common, especially in wind-affected, above-treeline environments. Snow depth also affects the ease of avalanche triggering. Experience shows that avalanche reduction efforts are often more successful when targeting shallow trigger point areas near deeper slabs with explosives or ski cutting. We are exploring the use of high resolution snow depth and depth change maps from differential LiDAR scans to quantify loading patterns for use in both pre-control planning and in post-control assessment. We present results from our ongoing work at the Arapahoe Basin and Aspen Highlands ski areas in Colorado, USA, and from a new collaboration with the Colorado Department of Transportation. At Arapahoe Basin we have tested rapid snow depth product generation for use in planning placement of explosives for artificial avalanche triggering. At Aspen Highlands we have explored measurement of minimum disturbance depth from bootpacking. In a new application, we are assessing avalanche hazard reduction with new Gazex exploder arrays on Loveland and Berthoud Passes.

  4. Safety assessment of molecular targeted therapies in association with radiotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a real-life report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Vallard, Alexis; Rivoirard, Romain; Méry, Benoîte; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Espenel, Sophie; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Ben Mrad, Majed; Diao, Peng; Rancoule, Chloé; Suchaud, Jean-Philippe; Fournel, Pierre; Guillot, Aline; Chargari, Cyrus; Escudier, Bernard; Négrier, Sylvie; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Molecular targeted therapies (TT) are the cornerstone of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment. There is a paucity of data on the safety of the radiotherapy (RT)-TT association in a sequential or a concomitant setting. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively assess the safety of the RT-TT association. From 2006 to 2014, data from 84 consecutive patients treated with RT and TT for metastatic RCC were retrospectively collected. RT-TT sequential and concomitant associations were, respectively, defined by a time interval of more than five TT half-lives and less than or equal to five TT half-lives between the last TT administration and RT initiation. Toxicities in the fields of RT were assessed systematically. As many patients received several TT and RT courses, 136 RT-TT associations were analyzed, with 66 sequential and 70 concomitant schemes. RT was mainly delivered on bone (75%) and brain metastases (14.7%). TT were tyrosine kinase inhibitors (73.5%), mTOR inhibitors (19.8%), and monoclonal antibodies (6.7%). With a median follow-up of 9.5 months, whatever the sequence, no grade≥4 toxicity was reported. Two grade 3 toxicities were reported with sequential (3%) and concomitant (2.9%) RT-TT, respectively. Sequential or concomitant RT-TT associations in metastatic RCC do not seem to cause major toxicity. PMID:27045782

  5. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  6. Goal setting and worker motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian J. Goerg

    2015-01-01

    Employers want motivated and productive employees. Are there ways to increase employee motivation without relying solely on monetary incentives, such as pay-for-performance schemes? One tool that has shown promise in recent decades for improving worker performance is setting goals, whether they are assigned by management or self-chosen. Goals are powerful motivators for workers, with the potential for boosting productivity in an organization. However, if not chosen carefully or if used in uns...

  7. Assessment of radiopacity of restorative composite resins with various target distances and exposure times and a modified aluminum step wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSI/ADA has established standards for adequate radiopacity. This study was aimed to assess the changes in radiopacity of composite resins according to various tube-target distances and exposure times. Five 1-mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil composite resins were prepared and exposed with six tube-target distance/exposure time setups (i.e., 40 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.16 seconds, 30 cm, 0.12 seconds; 15 cm, 0.2 seconds; 15 cm, 0.12 seconds) performing at 70 kVp and 7 mA along with a 12-step aluminum stepwedge (1 mm incremental steps) using a PSP digital sensor. Thereafter, the radiopacities measured with Digora for Windows software 2.5 were converted to absorbencies (i.e., A=-log (1-G/255)), where A is the absorbency and G is the measured gray scale). Furthermore, the linear regression model of aluminum thickness and absorbency was developed and used to convert the radiopacity of dental materials to the equivalent aluminum thickness. In addition, all calculations were compared with those obtained from a modified 3-step stepwedge (i.e., using data for the 2nd, 5th, and 8th steps). The radiopacities of the composite resins differed significantly with various setups (p<0.001) and between the materials (p<0.001). The best predicted model was obtained for the 30 cm 0.2 seconds setup (R2=0.999). Data from the reduced modified stepwedge was remarkable and comparable with the 12-step stepwedge. Within the limits of the present study, our findings support that various setups might influence the radiopacity of dental materials on digital radiographs.

  8. Assessment of radiopacity of restorative composite resins with various target distances and exposure times and a modified aluminum step wedge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejeh Mir, Arash Poorsattar [Dentistry Student Research Committee (DSRC), Dental Materials Research Center, Dentistry School, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar [Private Practice of Orthodontics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    ANSI/ADA has established standards for adequate radiopacity. This study was aimed to assess the changes in radiopacity of composite resins according to various tube-target distances and exposure times. Five 1-mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil composite resins were prepared and exposed with six tube-target distance/exposure time setups (i.e., 40 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.16 seconds, 30 cm, 0.12 seconds; 15 cm, 0.2 seconds; 15 cm, 0.12 seconds) performing at 70 kVp and 7 mA along with a 12-step aluminum stepwedge (1 mm incremental steps) using a PSP digital sensor. Thereafter, the radiopacities measured with Digora for Windows software 2.5 were converted to absorbencies (i.e., A=-log (1-G/255)), where A is the absorbency and G is the measured gray scale). Furthermore, the linear regression model of aluminum thickness and absorbency was developed and used to convert the radiopacity of dental materials to the equivalent aluminum thickness. In addition, all calculations were compared with those obtained from a modified 3-step stepwedge (i.e., using data for the 2nd, 5th, and 8th steps). The radiopacities of the composite resins differed significantly with various setups (p<0.001) and between the materials (p<0.001). The best predicted model was obtained for the 30 cm 0.2 seconds setup (R2=0.999). Data from the reduced modified stepwedge was remarkable and comparable with the 12-step stepwedge. Within the limits of the present study, our findings support that various setups might influence the radiopacity of dental materials on digital radiographs.

  9. Assessment of mycorrhizal colonisation and soil nutrients in unmanaged fire-impacted soils from two target restoration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J. M.; Oliveira, R. S.; Franco, A. R.; Ritz, K.; Nunan, N.; Castro, P. M. L.

    2010-07-01

    The mycorrhizal colonisation of plants grown in unmanaged soils from two restoration sites with a fire history in Northern Portugal was evaluated from the perspective of supporting restoration programmes. To promote restoration of original tree stands, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. were used as target species on two sites, denoted Site 1 and 2 respectively. The aim of the study was to assess whether mycorrhizal propagules that survived fire episodes could serve as in situ inoculum sources, and to analyse the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters. In a laboratory bioassay, P. pinaster and Q. ilex seedlings were grown on soils from the target sites and root colonisation by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was determined. The ECM root colonisation levels found indicated that soil from Site 2 contained sufficient ECM propagules to serve as a primary source of inoculum for P. pinaster. The low levels of ECM and AM colonisation obtained on the roots of plants grown in soil from Site 1 indicated that the existing mycorrhizal propagules might be insufficient for effective root colonisation of Q. ilex. Different ECM morphotypes were found in plants grown in soil from the two sites. At Site 2 mycorrhizal parameters were found to be spatially structured, with significant differences in ECM colonisation and soil P concentrations between regions of either side of an existing watercourse. The spatial distribution of mycorrhizal propagules was related to edaphic parameters (total C and extractable P), and correlations between soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters were found. (Author) 31 refs.

  10. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  11. Halving hunger: Meeting the first millennium development goal

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shenggen

    2010-01-01

    "In 2000, the world’s leaders set a target of halving the percentage of hungry people between 1990 and 2015. This rather modest target constitutes part of the first Millennium Development Goal, which also calls for halving the proportion of people living in poverty and achieving full employment. However, the effort to meet the hunger target has swerved off track, and the world is getting farther and farther away from realizing this objective. The goal of halving hunger by 2015 can still be ac...

  12. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  13. Assessment of experimental d-PIGE γ-ray production cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O and comparison with absolute thick target yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csedreki, L.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Measured differential cross sections for deuteron induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 12C(d,pγ)13C, (Eγ = 3089 keV), 14N(d,pγ)15N (Eγ = 8310 keV) and 16O(d,pγ)17O (Eγ = 871 keV) available in the literature were assessed. In order to cross check the assessed γ-ray production cross section data, thick target γ-yields calculated from the differential cross sections were compared with available measured thick target yields. Recommended differential cross section data for each reaction were deduced for particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) applications.

  14. Tracking progress towards health related millennium development goals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals (MDGs adopted during the millennium summit in 2000 gave an opportunity to improve the health and overall development. The MDG framework had 8 goals, 21 targets, and 60 indicators. Of these, three are directly related to health and have other interrelated goals and targets that influence health. The year 1990 is baseline, and the targets are to be reached by 2015. India′s progress towards health related MDGs is lagging in some areas, and more attention is needed to states and districts where the indicators are poor. The proportion of underweight children <3 years is around 40%. The under-five and infant mortality rate is 49 and 40/1000 live births in 2013, respectively. The country lags behind the maternal mortality ratio target of 109/100,000 live births. Regarding HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis, trend reversal had been achieved while providing basic sanitation facilities remains a big challenge.

  15. Identifying patients in target customer segments using a two-stage clustering-classification approach: a hospital-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Shyang; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Lai, Chien-Jung; Hsu, Cheng-Yi; Syu, Han-Jhou

    2012-02-01

    Identifying patients in a Target Customer Segment (TCS) is important to determine the demand for, and to appropriately allocate resources for, health care services. The purpose of this study is to propose a two-stage clustering-classification model through (1) initially integrating the RFM attribute and K-means algorithm for clustering the TCS patients and (2) then integrating the global discretization method and the rough set theory for classifying hospitalized departments and optimizing health care services. To assess the performance of the proposed model, a dataset was used from a representative hospital (termed Hospital-A) that was extracted from a database from an empirical study in Taiwan comprised of 183,947 samples that were characterized by 44 attributes during 2008. The proposed model was compared with three techniques, Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, and Multilayer Perceptron, and the empirical results showed significant promise of its accuracy. The generated knowledge-based rules provide useful information to maximize resource utilization and support the development of a strategy for decision-making in hospitals. From the findings, 75 patients in the TCS, three hospital departments, and specific diagnostic items were discovered in the data for Hospital-A. A potential determinant for gender differences was found, and the age attribute was not significant to the hospital departments. PMID:22177941

  16. Goal-based ultimatum game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates the human decision-making in ultimatum game in the context of neuroscience theories that give more insight into decision-making process by humans. Based on this approach, a new model of human decision-making has been developed by using Goal Programming approach. The satisficing and egalitarian philosophies on which weighted and Chebyshev Goal Programming (GP) rely; seem to offer an adequate and natural way for modeling human decision processes in at least the single-shot games of coordination. The simulation of ultimatum games gives the distribution of proposers' offer which shows some similarity with the distribution from the experiments with real subjects. The sensitivity analyses of this model are also presented. The solutions returned by the proposed GP approach aim to strike the right balance on several dimensions of conflicting goal that are set by players themselves.

  17. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10-6 or 10-7/yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4/yr (health detriment), 2x10-6/yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10-7/yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent cancer and

  18. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  19. The Development of a Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (Goem)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Caroline; Markland, David

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an exercise-related goal orientation measure in an attempt to further researchers' and practitioners' current understanding of individuals' motivation to exercise for health and recreational purposes. The Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (GOEM) was developed to assess individuals' proneness to endorse…

  20. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…

  1. The Contributions and Prospects of Goal Orientation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Avi; Maehr, Martin L.

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, goal orientation theory has become an important perspective in the field of achievement motivation, and particularly in academic motivation. However, as research in the theory has proliferated, the use of multiple methods to assess goal orientations seems to have contributed to theoretical vagueness, especially with regard…

  2. And They Are Still Targeting: Assessing the Effectiveness of Targeted Sanctions against Zimbabwe Und sie sanktionieren weiter: Zur Wirksamkeit zielgerichteter Sanktionen gegen Simbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted sanctions have been extensively used by states throughout history to achieve political objectives. This article examines the European Union’s and United States’ targeted sanctions against the Zimbabwean regime, which have been in place for several years. The central thesis of the article is that the sanctions are not effective and thus have failed to achieve the political objectives of both the European Union and the United States. Numerous violations of the travel ban and the financial restrictions have undermined the general effectiveness of the sanctions. A detailed analysis of each individual measure empirically supports the argument that the ineffectiveness of the sanctions has negatively influenced the achievement of the political objectives. In addition, by taking a closer look at Risa Brooks’ theory and discussing it in regards to the Zimbabwean sanctions, attention is drawn to the question of how to target authoritarian regimes. Seit Jahrzehnten sind zielgerichtete Sanktionen ein wichtiges Instrument der internationalen Politik. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die von der Europäischen Union und den Vereinigten Staaten verhängten Sanktionen gegen das simbabwische Regime, die seit einigen Jahren wirksam sind. Zentrales Argument des Autors ist, dass diese Sanktionen bislang nicht effektiv waren und die damit verbundenen politischen Ziele daher nicht erreicht werden konnten. Zahlreiche Verstöße gegen das Reiseverbot und die Finanzrestriktionen haben die Wirksamkeit der Sanktionen untergraben. Eine empirische Analyse der einzelnen Sanktionsmaßnahmen unterstützt das Argument, dass die Ineffektivität der Sanktionen die Durchsetzung der politischen Ziele verhindert hat. Mit Blick auf die Theorie von Risa A. Brooks wird zudem der Frage nachgegangen, wie zielgerichtete Sanktionen gegen autoritäre Regime funktionieren können.

  3. A guide for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne M.; Larson, Diane L.; DalSoglio, Julie A.; Harris, James A.; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Skarbis, Krisin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  4. Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskin, Pamela S.; Nielsen, Anders L; Douladel Willie; Tara C. Durant

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childho...

  5. Trajectories for Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Gable, Susanna; Lofgren, Hans; Osorio Rodarte, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Individual countries face the challenge of implementing strategies that help realize the ambitions of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agenda, adopted by the UN General Assembly in September, 2015. This book presents the Country Development Diagnostics Post-2015 framework and a brief applications of the framework to ten countries.

  6. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  7. Differentiation in Data Analysis & Probability, PreK-Grade 2: A Content Companion for Ongoing Assessment, Grouping Students, Targeting Instruction, and Adjusting Levels of Cognitive Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This book applies the author's easy but effective differentiation strategies to the data analysis and probability content standard. Taking the foundational elements of differentiation in this book, it helps you: (1) assess students' math abilities quickly and efficiently; (2) group children by need; (3) target instruction to meet every student's…

  8. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  9. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 2 - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second phase of the project, the outcome of which is described in this project report has mainly dealt with four issues: 1) Consistency in the usage of safety goals 2) Criteria for assessment of results from PSA level 2 3) Overview of international safety goals and experiences from their use 4) Safety goals related to other man-made risks in society. Consistency in judgement over time has been perceived to be one of the main problems in the usage of safety goals. Safety goals defined in the 80ies were met in the beginning with PSA:s performed to the standards of that time, i.e., by PSA:s that were quite limited in scope and level of detail compared to today's state of the art. This issue was investigated by performing a comparative review was performed of three generations of the same PSA, focusing on the impact from changes over time in component failure data, IE frequency, and modelling of the plant, including plant changes and changes in success criteria. It proved to be very time-consuming and in some cases next to impossible to correctly identify the basic causes for changes in PSA results. A multitude of different sub-causes turned out to combined and difficult to differentiate. Thus, rigorous book-keeping is needed in order to keep track of how and why PSA results change. This is especially important in order to differentiate 'real' differences due to plant changes and updated component and IE data from differences that are due to general PSA development (scope, level of detail, modelling issues). (au)

  10. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 2 - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.-E.; Bjoerkman, K. Rossi, J. (VTT (Finland)); Knochenhauer, M.; Xuhong He; Persson, A.; Gustavsson, H. (Relcon Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    The second phase of the project, the outcome of which is described in this project report has mainly dealt with four issues: 1) Consistency in the usage of safety goals 2) Criteria for assessment of results from PSA level 2 3) Overview of international safety goals and experiences from their use 4) Safety goals related to other man-made risks in society. Consistency in judgement over time has been perceived to be one of the main problems in the usage of safety goals. Safety goals defined in the 80ies were met in the beginning with PSA:s performed to the standards of that time, i.e., by PSA:s that were quite limited in scope and level of detail compared to today's state of the art. This issue was investigated by performing a comparative review was performed of three generations of the same PSA, focusing on the impact from changes over time in component failure data, IE frequency, and modelling of the plant, including plant changes and changes in success criteria. It proved to be very time-consuming and in some cases next to impossible to correctly identify the basic causes for changes in PSA results. A multitude of different sub-causes turned out to combined and difficult to differentiate. Thus, rigorous book-keeping is needed in order to keep track of how and why PSA results change. This is especially important in order to differentiate 'real' differences due to plant changes and updated component and IE data from differences that are due to general PSA development (scope, level of detail, modelling issues). (au)

  11. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67. A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a demographics and (b Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity (PEPAS, on a 5-point Likert scale [23]. A panel of experts (n=10 reviewed the translated from of survey and provided feedback and comments on content validity of the instrument, and 50 student participated in pilot study. The analysis of the result indicated that the Individual development (the physiological efficiency and Psychic equilibrium was rated the highest goal of participating in physical activity followed by the social interaction (the group interaction and cultural involvement and the environmental coping (the spatial orientation and object manipulation. One-way Tukeys' post hoc comparison revealed significant difference between groups of subject differentiated on the basis gender age, Junior/senior high school, physical activity out of school, school team member ships, and physical activity on summer & holidays as Independent factors. The multivariate effect of these factors on some of the student's purpose was significant. The unvaried analyses showed that these factors had a significant effect on some of goals. These findings indicate the importance of ranking of students' purposes for engaging in PE classes. It is also necessary that these goals to be considered by the parents & teachers point of view.

  12. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Defining societal safety goals on environment protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large tsunami induced by the Great East Japan earthquakes on March 11, 2011 resulted in severe accidents at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and the subsequent release of large amount of radioactive material. To preclude the recurrence of such a severe accident with the severe consequence to the environment (INES 7) of nuclear site, defining societal safety goals is proposed. The recommended societal safety goals place a target limit on the amount of radioactive material released at nuclear power plant accident due to large external events such as large earthquakes and tsunami. The societal safety goals should be defined so that food contamination in excess of shipping restriction criteria experienced at the Fukushima accident would not recur, restrain loss of use of land be as small as reasonable. In addition, any event at the plant should be lower than INES 7. To meet the societal safety goals, external PSA technology has to be developed. By defining more robust safety goals and advancing external event risk assessment technology and revolutionary enhancement of nuclear power plant safety accordingly are absolutely essential to the recovery of public confidence and use of nuclear energy in Japan. (author)

  14. Reading for Different Goals: The Interplay of EFL College Students' Multiple Goals, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tung-hsien

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of achievement goals on English as a foreign language (EFL) college students' reading strategy use and reading comprehension from the perspective of multiple goals. Fifty-seven participants verbalised their thoughts while reading an English expository essay. They also completed assessments on their reading goal…

  15. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDaumiller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without PhD, 97 with PhD, thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible.

  16. The Value of Purchase History Data in Target Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Peter E. Rossi; Robert E. McCulloch; Allenby, Greg M.

    1996-01-01

    An important aspect of marketing practice is the targeting of consumer segments for differential promotional activity. The premise of this activity is that there exist distinct segments of homogeneous consumers who can be identified by readily available demographic information. The increased availability of individual consumer panel data open the possibility of direct targeting of individual households. The goal of this paper is to assess the information content of various information sets av...

  17. Eyes on the prize: Life goals in the context of visual disability in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popivker, Luba; Wang, Shu-wen; Boerner, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate implications of vision loss in midlife, identify life goals that are important to middle-aged adults and assess how vision loss interferes with goal pursuit Design Cross-sectional exploratory study Setting Vision rehabilitation agency Subjects 216 middle-aged adults with visual impairment Methods Telephone interviews composed of structured and open-ended assessments of life goals (i.e., priorities, plans, or hopes people have in their lives) and goal interference due to vision loss Results Across the three assessed domains, functional goals were reported most often (N=214), followed by social goals (N=72) and psychological goals (N=28). Among functional goals, career, daily tasks, and mobility goals were identified by the highest percentage of participants. Family goals were identified most frequently for social goals, and life quality was identified most often for psychological goals. Vision-related goals occurred throughout the three domains, representing the majority of functional goals, a third of social goals, and almost half of psychological goals. Participants reported highest interference in functional and social goals and least in psychological goals. While participants reported moderate interference for most goals, markedly high interference was reported for daily tasks, mobility, independence, and leisure goals. Goal identification was related to timing of onset of vision loss primarily for functional goals. Conclusions Findings illuminate multifaceted goals held by middle-aged adults with vision impairment and how visual disability can interfere with goal pursuits. These findings suggest that identifying clients’ life goals and the vision-related interference they experience in goal pursuits may be a helpful step in vision rehabilitation services. PMID:20554639

  18. Feature-space assessment of electrical impedance tomography coregistered with computed tomography in detecting multiple contrast targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal [Department of Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Fraser Valley Centre, 13750 96th Avenue, Surrey, British Columbia V3V 1Z2 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fusion of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with computed tomography (CT) can be useful as a clinical tool for providing additional physiological information about tissues, but requires suitable fusion algorithms and validation procedures. This work explores the feasibility of fusing EIT and CT images using an algorithm for coregistration. The imaging performance is validated through feature space assessment on phantom contrast targets. Methods: EIT data were acquired by scanning a phantom using a circuit, configured for injecting current through 16 electrodes, placed around the phantom. A conductivity image of the phantom was obtained from the data using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). A CT image of the phantom was also acquired. The EIT and CT images were fused using a region of interest (ROI) coregistration fusion algorithm. Phantom imaging experiments were carried out on objects of different contrasts, sizes, and positions. The conductive medium of the phantoms was made of a tissue-mimicking bolus material that is routinely used in clinical radiation therapy settings. To validate the imaging performance in detecting different contrasts, the ROI of the phantom was filled with distilled water and normal saline. Spatially separated cylindrical objects of different sizes were used for validating the imaging performance in multiple target detection. Analyses of the CT, EIT and the EIT/CT phantom images were carried out based on the variations of contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity, using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A reference image of the phantom was simulated using EIDORS, and the performances of the CT and EIT imaging systems were evaluated and compared against the performance of the EIT/CT system using various feature metrics, detectability, and structural similarity index measures. Results: In detecting distilled and normal saline water in bolus medium, EIT as a stand

  19. Feature-space assessment of electrical impedance tomography coregistered with computed tomography in detecting multiple contrast targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Fusion of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with computed tomography (CT) can be useful as a clinical tool for providing additional physiological information about tissues, but requires suitable fusion algorithms and validation procedures. This work explores the feasibility of fusing EIT and CT images using an algorithm for coregistration. The imaging performance is validated through feature space assessment on phantom contrast targets. Methods: EIT data were acquired by scanning a phantom using a circuit, configured for injecting current through 16 electrodes, placed around the phantom. A conductivity image of the phantom was obtained from the data using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). A CT image of the phantom was also acquired. The EIT and CT images were fused using a region of interest (ROI) coregistration fusion algorithm. Phantom imaging experiments were carried out on objects of different contrasts, sizes, and positions. The conductive medium of the phantoms was made of a tissue-mimicking bolus material that is routinely used in clinical radiation therapy settings. To validate the imaging performance in detecting different contrasts, the ROI of the phantom was filled with distilled water and normal saline. Spatially separated cylindrical objects of different sizes were used for validating the imaging performance in multiple target detection. Analyses of the CT, EIT and the EIT/CT phantom images were carried out based on the variations of contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity, using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A reference image of the phantom was simulated using EIDORS, and the performances of the CT and EIT imaging systems were evaluated and compared against the performance of the EIT/CT system using various feature metrics, detectability, and structural similarity index measures. Results: In detecting distilled and normal saline water in bolus medium, EIT as a stand

  20. Sustainable Development Goals for Monitoring Action to Improve Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2016-01-01

    Women and children compose the largest segment of the more than 1 billion people worldwide who are unable to access needed health care services. To address this and other global health issues, the United Nations brought together world leaders to address growing health inequities, first by establishing the Millennium Development Goals in 2000 and more recently establishing Sustainable Development Goals, which are an intergovernmental set of 17 goals consisting of 169 targets with 304 indicators to measure compliance; they were designed to be applicable to all countries. Goal number 3, "Good Health and Well-Being: Ensure Heathy Lives and Promote Well-Being for All at All Ages," includes targets to improve the health of women and newborns. PMID:27520607

  1. Assessment of targeted and non-targeted responses in cells deficient in ATM function following exposure to low and high dose X-rays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kiuru

    Full Text Available Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of radiation hypersensitivity was observed at doses of 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy for the ATM mutation carrier LCL. The A-T patient cells also did not show low-dose response. There was significant increase in unstable CA yields for both ATM mutation carrier and A-T LCLs at 1 and 2 Gy, the A-T cells displaying more distinct dose dependency. Both chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were induced at an increased rate in the irradiated A-T cells, whereas for ATM carrier cells, only unstable chromosomal aberrations were increased above the level observed in the wild type cell line. No bystander effect could be demonstrated in any of the cell lines or doses applied. Characteristics typical for the A-T cell line were detected, i.e., high baseline frequency of CA that increased with dose. In addition, dose-dependent loss of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, CA analysis did not demonstrate low-dose (≤100 mGy radiosensitivity in ATM mutation carrier cells or A-T patient cells. However, both cell lines showed increased radiosensitivity at high dose exposure.

  2. Goal-orientation, goal-setting, and goal-driven behavior in minimalist user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of attentio

  3. Divergent Goals and Commitments in Global Malaria Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Snow, RW; Guerra, CA; Mutheu, JJ; Hay, SI

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world and one of the greatest global public health problems. The Plasmodium falciparum parasite causes approximately 500 million cases each year and over one million deaths. More than 40% of the world's population is at risk of malaria. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), established by the United Nations in 2000, include a target in Goal 6: “to have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence...

  4. User Interface Goals, AI Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Henry; Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab

    2009-01-01

    This is an opinion piece about the relationship between the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The ultimate goal of both fields is to make user interfaces more effective and easier to use for people. But historically, they have disagreed about whether "intelligence" or "direct manipulation" is the better route to achieving this. There is an unjustified perception in HCI that AI is unreliable. There is an unjustified perception in AI that interfaces a...

  5. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  6. Goal Setting for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease Dementia and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn J. Watermeyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside the physical symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, health services must also address the cognitive impairments that accompany these conditions. There is growing interest in the use of nonpharmacological approaches to managing the consequences of cognitive disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-orientated behavioural intervention which aims to enhance functional independence through the use of strategies specific to the individual’s needs and abilities. Fundamental to this therapy is a person’s capacity to set goals for rehabilitation. To date, no studies have assessed goal setting in early-stage Parkinson’s disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 29 participants from an ongoing trial of cognitive rehabilitation for people with these conditions. Here, we examined the goal statements provided by these participants using qualitative content analysis, exploring the types and nature of the goals set. Participants’ goals reflected their motivations to learn new skills or improve performance in areas such as technology-use, self-management and orientation, medication management, and social and leisure activities. These results suggest that goal setting is achievable for these participants, provide insight into the everyday cognitive difficulties that they experience, and highlight possible domains as targets for intervention. The trial is registered with ISRCTN16584442 (DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN16584442 13/04/2015.

  7. Goal Setting for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Mild to Moderate Parkinson's Disease Dementia and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Julie; Lloyd-Williams, Huw; Gutting, Petra; Hoare, Zoe; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Clare, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Alongside the physical symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, health services must also address the cognitive impairments that accompany these conditions. There is growing interest in the use of nonpharmacological approaches to managing the consequences of cognitive disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-orientated behavioural intervention which aims to enhance functional independence through the use of strategies specific to the individual's needs and abilities. Fundamental to this therapy is a person's capacity to set goals for rehabilitation. To date, no studies have assessed goal setting in early-stage Parkinson's disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 29 participants from an ongoing trial of cognitive rehabilitation for people with these conditions. Here, we examined the goal statements provided by these participants using qualitative content analysis, exploring the types and nature of the goals set. Participants' goals reflected their motivations to learn new skills or improve performance in areas such as technology-use, self-management and orientation, medication management, and social and leisure activities. These results suggest that goal setting is achievable for these participants, provide insight into the everyday cognitive difficulties that they experience, and highlight possible domains as targets for intervention. The trial is registered with ISRCTN16584442 (DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN16584442 13/04/2015). PMID:27446628

  8. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  9. A preliminary assessment of asteroid shapes produced by impact disruption and re-creation: Application to the AIDA target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Olivier; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the origin of the 65803 Didymos, the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission, and gain insights on the origin and evolution of the asteroid's162173 Ryugu and 101955 Bennu, we investigate systematically the shapes of all re-accumulated fragments produced by the catastrophic disruption of a parent body that is 1 km in diameter or larger. These new fragments eventually become new asteroids of the size that current sample-return missions plan to explore. We choose a range of impact conditions by varying the parent bodies' strength, size and porosity, and the velocity and size of the projectile. Impact conditions range from near the catastrophic threshold, usually designated by Q*, where half of the target's mass escapes, to far greater values above this threshold. Our numerical investigations of the catastrophic disruption, which are undertaken using an SPH hydrocode, include a model of fragmentation for porous materials. The gravitationally dominated phase of reaccumulation of our asteroids is computed using the N-body code pkdgrav. At sufficiently slow impact speeds in the N-body model, particles are permitted to stick, forming irregular, competent pieces that can gather into non-idealized rubble piles as a result of re-accumulation. Shape and spin information of re-accumulated bodies are thus preserved. Due to numerical expense, this first study uses what we call a hard-sphere model, rather than a soft-sphere spring and dashpot model. This latter model is more commonly used in granular flow simulations for which detailed treatment of the multicontact physics is needed, which is not the case here, and comes at the expense of much smaller timesteps. With the hard-sphere model, there are three supported collision outcomes for bonded aggregates: sticking on contact (to grow the aggregate); bouncing (computed for these generally non-central impacts); and fragmentation (wherein the particles involved become detached from

  10. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  11. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  12. Defining safety goals. 1. Safety Goals Considered in the Design of LWR Containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) show that the containment performance under severe accident conditions is a key element in determining the overall risk of light water reactors (LWRs). Consequently, the Japanese nuclear industry has tried to establish a guideline for addressing severe accidents in the design of containment, which is the topic of this paper. Some IAEATECDOCs (Refs. 1 and 2) also propose update of the safety objectives presented in INSAG-3 (Ref. 3) and explicit consideration of severe accidents in the stage of design of future LWRs for opportunities for improvements. The safety goal for future LWRs is to secure a high level of confidence that large release to the environment that may result in unacceptable societal consequences be reasonably avoided. In materializing the goal, the review included the U.S. NRC's safety goal), HSE's BSL/BSO (Ref. 5), Versteeg's method, and Queniart's proposal (no relocation) and the notion that the future reactor is expected to eliminate an emergency plan. Societal expectations were referenced in defining unacceptable societal consequences, which were evacuation, relocation, and an acute health effect. Containment safety objectives (CSOs) are intended to translate the goal for containment design purposes (Fig. 1). Two CSOs were defined because (a) 'negligible risk' is expected to be lower than the 'lower limit of risk of concern' and (b) to ensure that no cliff-edge exists in the vicinity of the 'lower limit of risk of concern'. Minimization of societal cost is also partly considered by eliminating evacuation and long-term relocation. By assuming that a cliff edge exists immediately below CSO-II, calculations show that the U.S. NRC's quantitative health objective is satisfied with margin. Some key elements in this approach are as follows: 1. CSOs are accompanied by other goals (CDF/CCFP). 2. A high level of confidence is supported by the two-prong approach (show compliance by PSA and show the

  13. A RE-LOOK AT THE US NRC SAFETY GOALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mubayi v.

    2013-09-22

    Since they were adopted in 1986, the US NRC’s Safety Goals have played a valuable role as a de facto risk acceptance criterion against which the predicted performance of a commercial nuclear power reactor can be evaluated and assessed. The current safety goals are cast in terms of risk metrics called quantitative health objectives (QHOs), limiting numerical values of the risks of the early and latent health effects of accidental releases of radioactivity to the offsite population. However, while demonstrating compliance with current safety goals has been an important step in assessing the acceptance of the risk posed by LWRs, new or somewhat different goals may be needed that go beyond the current early fatality and latent cancer fatality QHOs in assessing reactor risk. Natural phenomena such as hurricanes seem to be suitable candidates for establishing a background rate to derive a risk goal as their order of magnitude cost of damages is similar to those estimated in severe accident Level 3 PRAs done for nuclear power plants. This paper obtains a risk goal that could have a wider applicability, compared to the current QHOs, as a technology-neutral goal applicable to future reactors and multi-unit sites.

  14. The Role of Attention in Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Kristina A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in goal setting theory, using techniques adapted from selective attention research. Specifically, it explored activation and suppression of goal related information in the presence of two conflicting assigned goals. Pre vs. post goal completion and goal commitment were examined as moderators of these attentional effects. In addition, exploratory analyses looked at the impact of individual differences on attention (goal preference & action-state orient...

  15. A Goal Seeking Investment Model

    OpenAIRE

    K. O. Cogger; O. M. Joy; W. Ruland; P. L. YU

    1983-01-01

    A probabilistic investment model is formulated as a Wiener process with a barrier. A planning horizon, targeted rate of return, discount rate, and the mean and variance rate of return are the important parameters in the model. Sensitivity analyses are studied. Several significant statements can be made: (1) contrary to traditional mean-variance portfolio models, rate of return variance may not always be an undesirable characteristic, since higher variance can increase the chances of achieving...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of potential impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms:EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Bartsch, Detlef; Delos, Marc; Gathmann, Achim; Hails, Rosie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Kiss, Jozsef; Manachini, Barbara; Perry, Joe; Sweet, Jeremy; Zwahlen, Claudia; Mesdagh, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms to establish a self-tasking Working Group with the aim of (1) producing a scientific review of the current guidance of the GMO Panel for Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA), focusing on the potential impacts of GM plants on Non-Target Organisms (NTOs), (2) proposing criteria for NTOs selection, and (3) providing advise on standardized testing methodology. This initiative was undertaken in response to a...

  17. Goals? What goals? Europeans to hear more about the world's millennium development goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union (EU) is quickly becoming the front-runner of development aid to regions in Africa and other developing countries. However, over three-quarters of EU citizens are unaware of development efforts being made on the part of the Union to Third World countries, according to a public opinion poll released by Eurobarometer. In light of the low awareness of the EU's development agenda and the United Nations's Millennium Development Goals, the EU Humanitarian Aid and Development Commission has employed a campaign to raise the level of awareness among the EU's 460 million citizens

  18. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  19. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  20. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  1. Risk segmentation: goal or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, R; Dowd, B

    2000-07-01

    This paper traces the evolution of economists' views about risk segmentation in health insurance markets. Originally seen as a desirable goal, risk segmentation has come to be viewed as leading to abnormal profits, wasted resources, and inefficient limitations on coverage and services. We suggest that risk segmentation may be efficient if one takes an ex post view (i.e., after consumers' risks are known). From this perspective, managed care may be a much better method for achieving risk segmentation than limitations on coverage. The most serious objection to risk segmentation is the ex ante concern that it undermines long-term insurance contracts that would protect consumers against changes in lifetime risk. PMID:11010237

  2. Goal directed behavior and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Goal directed behavior is explained by two approaches: the first, which can be named as cybertetic (behavior is wieved as homeostatic and reflexive), and second, as cognitive approach, a learned response, (skills developed by whaching the behavior of another individual). The aim of the paper is to present a noninvasive method described as an interaction of human beings with environment, recording the electrical activity of the brain from the human scalp. Obtained results are in agreement of psychological theories that place at determined levels of age the acquisition of the capacities of abstract thinking and with the functional neuroanatomic studies according to which biological maturation is necessary for learning processes to develop. An acquired level of learning is in close relationship with the maturation level of the cerebral structures. PMID:27442417

  3. On the Sustainable Development Goals and the Role of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    AHMED, HABIB; Mohieldin,Mahmoud; Verbeek, Jos; Aboulmagd, Farida

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals, the global development agenda for 2015 through 2030, will require unprecedented mobilization of resources to support their implementation. Their predecessor, the Millennium Development Goals, focused on a limited number of concrete, global human development targets that can be monitored by statistically robust indicators. The Millennium Development Goals ...

  4. EC-LEDS Mexico: Advancing Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    EC-LEDS works with the government of Mexico to help meet its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. The program targets specific, highly technical areas where Mexico has indicated the program can add value and make an impact.

  5. Assessment of the effect of parallel temperature gradients in the JET SOL on Te measured by divertor target Langmuir probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher than expected electron temperatures (Te) are often measured by divertor Langmuir probes (LP) in high recycling and detached regimes in JET and other tokamaks. As a possible mechanism to explain this discrepancy, we investigate the effect of penetration of fast, almost collisionless electrons connecting the hot upstream scrape-off layer (SOL) region to the divertor targets in JET. We simulate the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) near the divertor targets using a simple 1D kinetic model using parallel SOL profiles from EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations. The resulting EVDF is used to construct synthetic LP current–voltage (IV) characteristics and evaluation of Te is performed in the same way as for experimental data. Results indicate that the process does not explain the anomalously high Te values estimated from the target probe measurements if the EDGE2D-EIRENE simulated parallel profiles are a good representation of reality

  6. Goal setting in family firms:goal diversity, social interactions, and collective commitment to family-centered goals

    OpenAIRE

    KOTLAR, JOSIP; De Massis, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Goal setting in family firms is very complex due to the interplay between family and business systems. However, this topic is largely overlooked in family business research. In this qualitative study of goals and goal formulation processes among 76 organizational members across 19 family firms, we identify goal diversity as a direct consequence of the overlap between the family, ownership, and business systems. We found that goal diversity is expressed more strongly in the proximity of genera...

  7. Contextual influences and goal perspectives among female youth sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L

    1998-03-01

    This study investigated two research questions: (1) do goal involvement and state anxiety vary between athletic games and athletic practices? and (2) do goal orientations change over the course of a competitive season as a function of the perceived team motivational climate? Middle school athletes (n = 127) were assessed on goal orientations, goal involvement, state anxiety, and motivational climate. Results indicated that athletes were more task involved and less anxious in practice than in game situations, and task goal orientation changed over the season relative to perceptions of mastery and performance climates. These results may indicate that sport offers an environment different from the academic setting and that mainstream psychology theories need to be adapted for the sport context. PMID:9532622

  8. Permanent target for optical payload performance and data quality assessment: spectral characterization and a case study for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Gao, Caixia; Tang, Lingli; Wang, Ning; Liu, Yaokai; Zhao, Yongguang; Dou, Shuai; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    To regularly evaluate the optical payload performance (geometric, radiometric, and spatial resolution) and the data quality for high-resolution airborne and satellite imaging systems, two new permanent targets (the knife-edge target and the fan-shaped target) made of gravel and with the advantages of year-round availability, lower maintenance operations, and a long lifetime were established in the Academy of Opto-Electronics Baotou site in China. The spectral properties of these targets are investigated in this study. Note that the anisotropy factor at 550 nm for the white gravel is approximately 6%, 12.5% 16.5%, 17.5%, 11.5%, and 5% at the principal plane for the observer zenith angle of 60 deg, 50 deg, 40 deg, 30 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg (backscatter), respectively. The corresponding value for the gray gravel is 20.8%, 24.8%, 29.4%, 23.8%, 13%, and 3.7%, respectively, and 62.8%, 65.7%, 59.2%, 40.3%, 22.3%, and 9.0%, respectively, for the black gravel. The anisotropy of the black gravel is larger than that of the gray and white gravel areas. The nonuniformity of the target reflectivity is within 2.5%. Furthermore, a calibration for the optical payloads onboard the GF-1 satellite is performed with the knife-edge target, and the uncertainty analysis demonstrates that the uncertainty for this calibration is <2.12% when the relative error for the surface reflectance measurement, the aerosol optical depth, and the total column water vapor are approximately 1%, 10%, and 10%, respectively.

  9. Assessing the use of network theory as a method for developing a targeted approach to Active Debris Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Newland, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on the application of network theory to data representing space debris in Low Earth Orbit. The research was designed with a view to developing a targeted approach to Active Debris Removal (ADR). The need for remediation, via ADR, of the space debris environment is regarded as the only means by which we can control the growth of the future debris population to maintain use of Earth orbit. A targeted approach to ADR is required to remove the objects that pose the greatest ri...

  10. Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: An application to oceanic development in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals, thus, heightening the significance of policy guidance in achieving sustainable development. With our detailed analysis of SDG 14 (Ocean) for European Union (EU) coastal states, we demonstrate how the (complementary) inclusion of composite indicators that aggregate the individual indicators by applying a generalized mean can provide important additional information and facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in general and in the SDG context in particular. Embedded in the context of social choice theory, the generalized mean varies the specification of substitution elasticity and thus allows: (a) for a straightforward distinction between a concept of weak and strong sustainability and (b) for straightforward sensitivity analysis. We show that while in general the EU coastal states have a fairly balanced record at the SDG 14 level, certain countries like Slovenia and Portugal with a fairly balanced and a fairly unbalanced showing, respectively, rank very differently in terms of the two concepts of strong sustainability.

  11. Use of a Tier 3 Evidence-Based Intervention with Progress Monitoring, Formative Assessment, and Student Goal-Setting: An Evaluation of the Immediate and Long-Term Effects on Student Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Angela B.

    2011-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for students at risk for reading failure is essential to establish the foundational skills necessary for students to become skilled readers. The focus on evidence-based practices and data-driven decision making leads educators to consider additional instructional approaches, such as formative assessment (FA)…

  12. Increases in Manic Symptoms After Life Events Involving Goal Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri L; Sandrow, David; Meyer, Björn; Winters, Ray; Miller, Ivan; Solomon, David; Keitner, Gabor

    2000-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as an outcome of dysregulation in the behavioral activation system (BAS), a brain system that regulates goal-directed activity. On the basis of the BAS model, the authors hypothesized that life events involving goal attainment would promote manic symptoms in bipolar individuals. The authors followed 43 bipolar I individuals monthly with standardized symptom severity assessments (the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen M...

  13. CHALLENGES FOR METEOROLOGY IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2015-2030)

    OpenAIRE

    MIKA J.

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) accepted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development including 17 Sustainable Development Goals including 169 more detailed targets. These goals spread over all natural, societal and economical aspects of sustainability all over the world. The aim of our study is to specify those goals and detailed targets in which meteorology can and must play an important role. As concerns the c...

  14. The Key Role of Universal Health Coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Mills, A.; Palu, T

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be committed to by Heads of State at the upcoming 2015 United Nations General Assembly, have set much higher and more ambitious health-related goals and targets than did the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main challenge among MDG off-track countries is the failure to provide and sustain financial access to quality services by communities, especially the poor. Universal health coverage (UHC), one of the SDG health targets indispensable to ...

  15. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  16. Differential Valuations of Elementary Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J.

    Based upon a comprehensive approach to educational goal selection, a national sampling of elementary school principals, teachers, and parents was compared over various demographic variables in terms of their goal priorities. The data consisted of the rating of 106 goals by each person sampled in the study. In addition to the goal ratings, each…

  17. From weight management goals to action planning: identification of a logical sequence from goals to actions and underlying determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Empelen, P. van; Oenema, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gain prevention (WGP) among adults who are overweight is an important target in the prevention of obesity. However, little is known about the process from WGP as a goal to successful weight-management. The present study aimed to: (i) gain more insight into this process; (ii) ident

  18. Meeting Weight Management Goals: The Role of Partner Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, René M; Crook, Brittani; Glowacki, Elizabeth; Prenger, Erica; Winslow, Addie Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Social support research suggests romantic partners could play a vital role in the success of individuals' weight management (WM) efforts, but contradictory findings from previous research have impeded our understanding of how romantic partners influence weight management goal attainment. Employing a confirmation perspective, overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] greater than 25) who were actively trying to manage their weight (N = 53) were asked to respond to daily questionnaires for a period of 2 weeks regarding their interactions with their romantic partner. Diet, exercise, and general weight management goal accomplishment were assessed. HLM was employed to assess the independent and interactive effects of partner acceptance and challenge on each of these goals. Findings suggest that perceiving high levels of both acceptance and challenge from partners was associated with more general WM and diet goal accomplishment. However, greater attainment of exercise goals was associated with only challenge. Fluctuations in partner acceptance and challenge were also examined to determine whether consistency in confirmation behaviors was associated with WM goals. Hierarchical regressions revealed that fluctuations in acceptance, but not challenge, were linked with goal attainment. Specifically, fluctuations in acceptance were helpful for those whose partners were perceived to exhibit lower levels of acceptance, but fluctuations were detrimental for those whose partners exhibited greater acceptance. Implications for communication among couples in which one partner is attempting to lose weight are discussed. PMID:27092591

  19. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  20. New England and Eastern Canada 2004 report card on climate change action : first assessment of the region's progress towards meeting the goals of the New England governors and eastern Canadian premiers Climate Change Action Plan of 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J. [Clean Water Fund, MA (United States); Coon, D. [Conservation Council of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    This Report Card evaluates the progress of New England states and eastern Canadian provinces towards meeting regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. In 2001, the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers developed 9 action items to guide their actions and policies in meeting the long-term goal of reducing GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2010, reducing regional GHG emissions by at least 10 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010, and reducing regional GHG emissions by 75 to 85 per cent in the long-term. This Report Card evaluates various jurisdictions on 8 of 9 specific action items identified in the Climate Change Action Plan. A letter grade was assigned for each item, as well as an overall grade for each state and province. The report identifies the progress made since 2001 by each state and province. It also reveals that there is large variation between the states and provinces in terms of their activities to reduce GHG emissions. The areas that need improvement include: a need for current and uniform emissions data across the region; states and provinces need to draft and release comprehensive climate plans; states and provinces need to sufficiently address the largest pollution sources such as the transportation and power sectors; and, states and provinces need to promote public awareness about climate change. The 9 specific action steps in the Climate Change Action Plan include: (1) the establishment of a regional standardized GHG emissions inventory, (2) the establishment of a plan for reducing GHG emissions and conserving energy, (3) the promotion of public awareness, (4) State and Provincial Governments to lead by example, (5) the reduction of GHG from the electricity sector, (6) the reduction of the total energy demand through conservation, (7) the reduction or adaptation of negative social, economic and environmental impacts of climate change, (8) a decrease in the transportation sector's growth in GHG emissions, and (9) the creation of a

  1. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  2. Resolution of the linear fractional goal programming problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the resolution of the goal programming problem with linear fraccional criteria. The main difficulty of these problems is the non-linear constraints of the mathematical programming models that have to be solved. When there exist solutions satisfying all target values, the problem is easy to solve by solving a linear problem. So, in this paper we deal with those instances where there is no guarantee such solutions exist, and therefore we look for those points in the opportunity set closest to the target values. This study has been done taking into account all the different approaches available for solving a goal programming problem, creating solution-search algorithms based on these approaches, and performing a sensitivity analysis of the target values.

  3. Goal-based dictator game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  4. Goal Bracketing and Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Hsiaw

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the role of goal bracketing to attenuate time inconsistency. When setting non-binding goals in multi-stage project, an agent must also decide how and when to evaluate himself against such goals. In particular, he can bracket broadly by setting an aggregate goal for the entire project, or narrowly by setting incremental goals for individual stages. In the presence of loss aversion and uncertainty over outcomes, this decision involves a trade-off between motivation and compar...

  5. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby...

  6. On the sustainable development goals and the role of Islamic finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Habib; Mohieldin, Mahmoud; Verbeek, Jos; Aboulmagd,Farida Wael

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals, the global development agenda for 2015 through 2030, will require unprecedented mobilization of resources to support their implementation. Their predecessor, the Millennium Development Goals, focused on a limited number of concrete, global human development targets that can be monitored by statistically robust indicators. The Millennium Development Goals set the stage for global support of ambitious development goals behind which the world must rally. The Su...

  7. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  8. Model‐Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erion, DM; Maurer, TS

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium‐coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  9. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  10. Model‐Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Li; Erion, DM; Maurer, TS

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium‐coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical in...

  11. Colon specific CODES based Piroxicam tablet for colon targeting: statistical optimization, in vivo roentgenography and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed to statistically optimize CODES™ based Piroxicam (PXM) tablet for colon targeting. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for preparation of core tablet that was subsequently coated to get CODES™ based tablet. The experimental design of core tablets comprised of two independent variables: amount of lactulose and PEG 6000, each at three different levels and the dependent variable was %CDR at 12 h. The core tablets were evaluated for pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial test and coated with optimized levels of Eudragit E100 followed by HPMC K15 and finally with Eudragit S100. The in vitro drug release study of F1-F9 was carried out by change over media method (0.1 N HCl buffer, pH 1.2, phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 with enzyme β-galactosidase 120 IU) to select optimized formulation F9 that was subjected to in vivo roentgenography. Roentgenography study corroborated the in vitro performance, thus providing the proof of concept. The experimental design was validated by extra check point formulation and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy revealed absence of any interaction between drug and formulation excipients. The shelf life of F9 was deduced as 12 months. Conclusively, colon targeted CODES™ technology based PXM tablets were successfully optimized and its potential of colon targeting was validated by roentgenography. PMID:24266719

  12. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits of...... self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful to...

  13. Targeting the environmental assessment of veterinary drugs with the multi-species-soil system (MS centred dot 3) agricultural soil microcosms: the ivermectin case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental risk assessment of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin is receiving significant attention. This paper assesses the capacity of the MS centred dot 3 soil microcosm as a tool for targeting the environmental impact assessment of veterinary drugs, using ivermectin as model. Two screening MS centred dot 3 were performed using different European soils; one with a soil collected in an agricultural station near to Madrid, Spain and a second with a soil collected in a farm area close to York, UK. Soils were fortified with ivermectin at the following ranges: 0.01-10 mg kg-1 and 0.1-100 mg kg-1 in the Madrid and York studies, respectively. The effects on earthworms, plants and soil microorganisms were assessed in the Madrid soil. Toxicity tests on aquatic organisms (algae, cladocerans and in vitro fish cell line RTLW1) were also conducted with the leachates. No effects were observed in earthworms and plants at any tested concentration; reduction in the respiration rate (-1 can be estimated. Comparisons based on toxicity data and equilibrium partitioning confirmed that the main risk is expected to be related to the high sensitivity of cladocerans. The results confirm that MS centred dot 3 systems are cost-effective tools for assessing the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals when applied to agricultural land, as previously demonstrated for antimicrobials. (Author) 39 refs.

  14. Life Goals in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Robb, Sheri L.; Rand, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Purposes of this systematic review of life goal research in cancer patients were to: 1) identify life goal characteristics and processes being examined, 2) describe instruments used to assess life goal constructs, 3) identify theoretical models being used to guide research, and 4) summarize what is known about the impact of the cancer experience on life goal characteristics, processes, and psychological outcomes. Methods We conducted this systematic review using MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) published between 1993 and 2014, 2) English language, 3) cancer patient population, and 4) original research articles that assessed life goal characteristics and/or goal processes. One-hundred ninety-seven articles were screened and 27 included in the final review. Results Seven life goal characteristics and seven life goal processes were identified, and less than half of studies investigated associations between goal characteristics and processes. Conceptual definitions were not provided for about half of the identified life goal constructs. Studies used both validated and author-developed instruments to assess goal constructs. Twenty-four different theoretical models were identified, with self-regulation theory most frequently cited. Overall, the literature suggests that cancer impacts patients’ life goal characteristics and processes, and life goal disturbance is related to poorer psychological outcomes. Conclusions The impact of the cancer experience on life goals is an important and emerging area of research that would benefit from conceptual and theoretical clarity and measurement consistency. PMID:25990641

  15. The Impacts of Biofuels Targets on Land-Use Change and Food Supply: A Global Cge Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda; John C. Beghin; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mevel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the long-term impacts of large-scale expansion of biofuels on land-use change, food supply and prices, and the overall economy in various countries or regions using a multi-country, multi-sector global computable general equilibrium model augmented with an explicit land-use module and detailed biofuel sectors. We find that an expansion of biofuel production to meet the existing or even higher targets in various countries would slightly reduce GDP at the global level but with mixed ...

  16. Gene network inference and biochemical assessment delineates GPCR pathways and CREB targets in small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Drozdov

    Full Text Available Small intestinal (SI neuroendocrine tumors (NET are increasing in incidence, however little is known about their biology. High throughput techniques such as inference of gene regulatory networks from microarray experiments can objectively define signaling machinery in this disease. Genome-wide co-expression analysis was used to infer gene relevance network in SI-NETs. The network was confirmed to be non-random, scale-free, and highly modular. Functional analysis of gene co-expression modules revealed processes including 'Nervous system development', 'Immune response', and 'Cell-cycle'. Importantly, gene network topology and differential expression analysis identified over-expression of the GPCR signaling regulators, the cAMP synthetase, ADCY2, and the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A. Seven CREB response element (CRE transcripts associated with proliferation and secretion: BEX1, BICD1, CHGB, CPE, GABRB3, SCG2 and SCG3 as well as ADCY2 and PRKAR1A were measured in an independent SI dataset (n = 10 NETs; n = 8 normal preparations. All were up-regulated (p<0.035 with the exception of SCG3 which was not differently expressed. Forskolin (a direct cAMP activator, 10(-5 M significantly stimulated transcription of pCREB and 3/7 CREB targets, isoproterenol (a selective ß-adrenergic receptor agonist and cAMP activator, 10(-5 M stimulated pCREB and 4/7 targets while BIM-53061 (a dopamine D(2 and Serotonin [5-HT(2] receptor agonist, 10(-6 M stimulated 100% of targets as well as pCREB; CRE transcription correlated with the levels of cAMP accumulation and PKA activity; BIM-53061 stimulated the highest levels of cAMP and PKA (2.8-fold and 2.5-fold vs. 1.8-2-fold for isoproterenol and forskolin. Gene network inference and graph topology analysis in SI NETs suggests that SI NETs express neural GPCRs that activate different CRE targets associated with proliferation and secretion. In vitro studies, in a model NET cell system, confirmed that transcriptional

  17. A statistical simulation model for fiels testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, P.W.; Voet, van der H.; Baldacchino, F.; Arpaia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conve

  18. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Assessing the Antiangiogenic Effect of Silencing HIF-1α with Targeted Multifunctional ECO/siRNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamas, Anthony S; Jin, Erlei; Gujrati, Maneesh; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a biomarker of hypoxia, in hypoxic tumors mediates a variety of downstream genes promoting tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell survival as well as invasion, and compromising therapeutic outcome. In this study, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with a biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent was used to noninvasively assess the antiangiogenic effect of RGD-targeted multifunctional lipid ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles in a mouse HT29 colon cancer model. The RGD-targeted ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles resulted in over 50% reduction in tumor size after intravenous injection at a dose of 2.0 mg of siRNA/kg every 3 days for 3 weeks compared to a saline control. DCE-MRI revealed significant decline in vascularity and over a 70% reduction in the tumor blood flow, permeability-surface area product, and plasma volume fraction vascular parameters in the tumor treated with the targeted ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles. The treatment with targeted ECO/siRNA nanoparticles resulted in significant silencing of HIF-1α expression at the protein level, which also significantly suppressed the expression of VEGF, Glut-1, HKII, PDK-1, LDHA, and CAIX, which are all important players in tumor angiogenesis, glycolytic metabolism, and pH regulation. By possessing the ability to elicit a multifaceted effect on tumor biology, silencing HIF-1α with RGD-targeted ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles has great promise as a single therapy or in combination with traditional chemotherapy or radiation strategies to improve cancer treatment. PMID:27264671

  19. The actual goals of geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  20. A moving target--incorporating knowledge of the spatial ecology of fish into the assessment and management of freshwater fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J; Martins, Eduardo G; Struthers, Daniel P; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Power, Michael; Doka, Susan E; Dettmers, John M; Crook, David A; Lucas, Martyn C; Holbrook, Christopher M; Krueger, Charles C

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater fish move vertically and horizontally through the aquatic landscape for a variety of reasons, such as to find and exploit patchy resources or to locate essential habitats (e.g., for spawning). Inherent challenges exist with the assessment of fish populations because they are moving targets. We submit that quantifying and describing the spatial ecology of fish and their habitat is an important component of freshwater fishery assessment and management. With a growing number of tools available for studying the spatial ecology of fishes (e.g., telemetry, population genetics, hydroacoustics, otolith microchemistry, stable isotope analysis), new knowledge can now be generated and incorporated into biological assessment and fishery management. For example, knowing when, where, and how to deploy assessment gears is essential to inform, refine, or calibrate assessment protocols. Such information is also useful for quantifying or avoiding bycatch of imperiled species. Knowledge of habitat connectivity and usage can identify critically important migration corridors and habitats and can be used to improve our understanding of variables that influence spatial structuring of fish populations. Similarly, demographic processes are partly driven by the behavior of fish and mediated by environmental drivers. Information on these processes is critical to the development and application of realistic population dynamics models. Collectively, biological assessment, when informed by knowledge of spatial ecology, can provide managers with the ability to understand how and when fish and their habitats may be exposed to different threats. Naturally, this knowledge helps to better evaluate or develop strategies to protect the long-term viability of fishery production. Failure to understand the spatial ecology of fishes and to incorporate spatiotemporal data can bias population assessments and forecasts and potentially lead to ineffective or counterproductive management actions

  1. Goals: objects and measures of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most useful outputs of systems and market analysis is a concise statement of technology goals. The concept of goal-setting as previously developed in other programs of research and development is introduced. In this context goals are merely the visible output of a systematic translation of market requirements into research and development actions. Cost goals are one type of information linkage between market and research, although a complete statement of technology goals must include both tangible and intangible physical requirements as well. The process of devising goals and measuring progress against these goals is briefly illustrated in an example from the Solar Industrial Process Heat Program. The process of establishing a program framework and program goals has not been completed for solar process heat; it is hoped that this paper will encourage steps in this direction.

  2. Cholesterol treatment with statins: Who is left out and who makes it to goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters Paul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether patient socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education are independently associated with failure to receive indicated statin therapy and/or to achieve low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C therapy goals are not known. We examined socio-demographic factors associated with a eligibility for statin therapy among those not on statins, and b achievement of statin therapy goals. Methods Adults (21-79 years participating in the United States (US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2006 were studied. Statin eligibility and achievement of target LDL-C was assessed using the US Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III on Treatment of High Cholesterol guidelines. Results Among 6,043 participants not taking statins, 10.4% were eligible. Adjusted predictors of statin eligibility among statin non-users were being older, male, poorer, and less educated. Hispanics were less likely to be eligible but not using statins, an effect that became non-significant with adjustment for language usually spoken at home. Among 537 persons taking statins, 81% were at LDL-C goal. Adjusted predictors of goal failure among statin users were being male and poorer. These risks were not attenuated by adjustment for healthcare access or utilization. Conclusion Among person's not taking statins, the socio-economically disadvantaged are more likely to be eligible and among those on statins, the socio-economically disadvantaged are less likely to achieve statin treatment goals. Further study is needed to identify specific amenable patient and/or physician factors that contribute to these disparities.

  3. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  4. Goal-Setting and Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Hsiaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of non-binding goals to attenuate time inconsistency. Present-biased agents have linear reference-dependent preferences and endogenously set a goal that is the reference point. They face an infinite horizon, optimal stopping problem in continuous time, where there exists an option value of waiting due to uncertainty. When there is sufficient commitment to expectation-based goals, goal-setting attenuates the time-inconsistent agent’s tendency to stop too early, an...

  5. Goals, Interpretations, and Policies in Information

    OpenAIRE

    Regev, Gil; Wegmann, Alain

    2001-01-01

    Current goal-oriented requirements engineering methods focus on the definition of optimal requirements that an information system needs to support in order to help its stakeholders to achieve their goals. But, the lack of systemic reasoning and disregard for questions of interpretation lead to insufficient attention given to activities and implicit policies affecting the definition of these goals. This results in the optimization of the requirements for potentially inadequate goals. Our f...

  6. A theory of goal-oriented communication

    OpenAIRE

    Goldreich, Oded; Juba, Brendan Andrew; Sudan, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    We put forward a general theory of goal-oriented communication, where communication is not an end in itself, but rather a means to achieving some goals of the communicating parties. Focusing on goals provides a framework for addressing the problem of potential "misunderstanding" during communication, where the misunderstanding arises from lack of initial agreement on what protocol and/or language is being used in communication. Despite the enormous diversity among the goals of communication, ...

  7. Dispositional Mindfulness, Meditation, and Conditional Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Catherine; Jandric, Danka; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Conditional goal setting (CGS, the tendency to regard high order goals such as happiness, as conditional upon the achievement of lower order goals) is observed in individuals with depression and recent research has suggested a link between levels of dispositional mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. Since interventions which aim to increase mindfulness through training in meditation are used with patients suffering from depression it is of interest to examine whethe...

  8. Information Technology & Goals of Standards-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Archbald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines goals of standards-based reform in education and ways in which developments in information technology have facilitated those goals. Since standards-based reform is a rather general concept, I begin by developing a more specific formulation which I refer to as the “standards-based instruction and assessment” model. Developments in information technology over the last fifteen years have contributed in important ways to the goals of standards-based reform at the policy level, but difficult organizational and technical challenges still have to be overcome to realize more fully the goal of standards-based instruction and assessment in instructional management and practice within schools and classrooms.

  9. A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Alliance, Group Cohesion, Empathy, and Goal Consensus/Collaboration in Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Cancer: Uncommon Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of four empirically supported therapeutic relationship factors (therapeutic alliance, empathy, goal consensus/collaboration, and group cohesion) on the outcome of psychotherapeutic interventions conducted with individuals living with cancer were systematically reviewed. PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched from their inception through November 13, 2008. Studies of psychotherapeutic interventions targeted to individuals living with cancer, which also empirically assessed the ...

  10. Goal implementation perspectives of the Framework U N Convention on Climate Change in Russian Federation - Federal Objective Program on prevention of dangerous climate change and their negative consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal goals and tasks of Federal Target-oriented Program (FTP), system of program measures, its resources ensuring, mechanism for the FTP realization, supervision of execution and data on assessment of its effectiveness are expounded. Results of Russian Federation Inter-department commission activity on climate change issues are cited. Some aspects of negotiation process on Framework U N Convention o climate change are considered. (author)

  11. Enhancing youth outcomes following parental divorce: A longitudinal study of the effects of the New Beginnings Program on educational and occupational goals

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal, Amanda B.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program for divorced families led to improvements in youth’s educational goals and job aspirations six years following participation and tested whether several parenting and youth variables mediated the program effects. Participants were 240 youth aged 9–12 years at the initial assessment, and data were part of a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting skills preventive intervention targeting children’s post-divorce adjustment. The results ...

  12. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal for...

  13. Applications of Goal Programming to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This paper discusses goal programming, a computer-based operations research technique that is basically a modification and extension of linear programming. The authors first discuss the similarities and differences between goal programming and linear programming, then describe the limitations of goal programming and its possible applications for…

  14. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  15. The Structure and Application of High Level Safety Goals. A Review by the MDEP Sub-committee on Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the aims of MDEP is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are for a specific technology. Therefore MDEP set up a sub-committee to investigate a different approach. This approach was to start with the top level goals and to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier goals that can be seen to be clearly related to the higher level ones. This approach has the potential to greatly assist in the process of harmonisation of regulatory requirements. The paper reviews the high level goals used in MDEP countries and the relevant work of international groups. From these it draws broad conclusions that the form of the framework should be an Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals, incorporating an extended Defense-in-Depth approach. The basis concept is that the higher level safety goals can then developed, in a coherent and consistent manner, into lower level safety goals and targets that can be applied within the design and operation of reactors, with a clear connection between the different levels. This structured approach is technology-neutral and is sufficiently flexible that it can be

  16. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in...... developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  17. GIS-mapping of environmental assessment of the territories in the region of intense activity for the oil and gas complex for achievement the goals of the Sustainable Development (on the example of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The uniform system of complex scientific-reference ecological-geographical should act as a base for the maintenance of the Sustainable Development (SD) concept in the territories of the Russian Federation subjects or certain regions. In this case, the assessment of the ecological situation in the regions can be solved by the conjugation of the two interrelated system - the mapping and the geoinformational. The report discusses the methodological aspects of the Atlas-mapping for the purposes of SD in the regions of Russia. The Republic of Tatarstan viewed as a model territory where a large-scale oil-gas complex "Tatneft" PLC works. The company functions for more than 60 years. Oil fields occupy an area of more than 38 000 km2; placed in its territory about 40 000 oil wells, more than 55 000 km of pipelines; more than 3 billion tons of oil was extracted. Methods for to the structure and requirements for the Atlas's content were outlined. The approaches to mapping of "an ecological dominant" of SD conceptually substantiated following the pattern of a large region of Russia. Several trends of thematically mapping were suggested to be distinguished in the Atlas's structure: • The background history of oil-fields mine working; • The nature preservation technologies while oil extracting; • The assessment of natural conditions of a humans vital activity; • Unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and phenomena; • The anthropogenic effect and environmental surroundings change; • The social-economical processes and phenomena. • The medical-ecological and geochemical processes and phenomena; Within these groups the other numerous groups can distinguished. The maps of unfavorable and dangerous processes and phenomena subdivided in accordance with the types of processes - of endogenous and exogenous origin. Among the maps of the anthropogenic effects on the natural surroundings one can differentiate the maps of the influence on different nature's spheres

  18. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Neuroimaging of Goal-Directed Behavior in Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bosak, Kelly; Martin, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background Motivational interventions to improve health behaviors based on conventional cognitive and behavioral theories have been extensively studied; however, advances in neuroimaging technology make it possible to assess the neurophysiological basis of health behaviors, such as physical activity. The goals of this approach are to support new interventions to achieve optimal outcomes. Objectives This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess differences in brain res...

  20. Outcomes of implementation of enhanced goal directed therapy in high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Advanced monitoring targeting haemodynamic and oxygenation variables can improve outcomes of surgery in high-risk patients. We aimed to assess the impact of goal directed therapy (GDT targeting cardiac index (CI and oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER on outcomes of high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: In a prospective randomised trial, forty patients (American Society of Anaesthesiologists II and III undergoing major abdominal surgeries were randomised into two groups. In-Group A mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg, central venous pressure ≥ 8-10 mmHg, urine output ≥ 0.5 mL/kg/h and central venous oxygen saturation ≥ 70% were targeted intra-operatively and 12 h postoperatively. In-Group-B (enhanced GDT, in addition to the monitoring in-Group-A, CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m 2 and O 2 ER ≤ 27% were targeted. The end-points were lactate levels and base deficit during and after surgery. The secondary end points were length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay and postoperative complications. Wilcoxon Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for statistical assessment. Results: Lactate levels postoperatively at 4 and 8 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. The mean base deficit at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h intra-operatively and postoperatively after 4, 8 and 12 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in ICU stay (2.10 ± 1.52 vs. 2.90 ± 2.51 days or hospital stay (10.85 + 4.39 vs. 13.35 + 6.77 days between Group A and B. Conclusions: Implementation of enhanced GDT targeting CI and OER was associated with improved tissue oxygenation.

  1. CO2-free hydrogen as a substitute to fossil fuels: What are the targets? Prospective assessment of the hydrogen market attractiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon mobility, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a market is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors: oil refining, low carbon mobility through the industrial deployment of advanced bio-fuels, natural gas consumption, and methanol production. According to the targeted market, objective costs are rather different; and so is the reachable mitigated CO2 amount. This paper assesses the dynamics of these markets' attractiveness, in order to provide target costs for CO2-free hydrogen production. The potential of the markets of hydrogen as a fuel and hydrogen for the biomass-to-liquid production is highlighted, as they could represent significant volumes by 2050, as well as interesting perspectives for CO2 emission reduction. However the targets are very sensitive to the CO2 price, thus highlighting the requirement for economic instruments in order to facilitate the penetration of such technologies. Hydrogen is then highlighted as a key player of the energy system in the years to come, as the connection of the energy and mobility sectors. (authors)

  2. Goals of measurement systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency are based on technical performance goals and criteria that have been developed, but not officially adopted by the Agency. The goals derive in part from the external consequences that safeguards are intended to prevent and in some cases on internal considerations of feasibility. To the extent that these goals may not be attainable, as may be the case with large-throughput bulk reprocessing plants, the Agency is placed in a difficult position. In this paper safeguards goals and criteria and their underlying rationales are critically examined. Suggestions for a more rational and workable structure of performance goals are offered

  3. EURISOL-DS multi-MW target unit: Neutronics performance and shielding assessment, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Goncalves, I F; Tecchio, L; Kharoua, C; Vaz, P; Ene, D; David, J C; Rocca, R; Negoita, F

    2010-01-01

    One of the objectives of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) Design Study consisted of providing a safe and reliable facility layout and design for the following operational parameters and characteristics: (a) a 4 MW proton beam of 1 GeV energy impinging on a mercury target (the converter); (b) high neutron fluxes (similar to 3 x 10(16) neutrons/s) generated by spallation reactions of the protons impinging in the converter and (c) fission rate on fissile U-235 targets in excess of 10(15) fissions/s. In this work, the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX (Pelowitz, 2005) and FLUKA (Vlachoudis, 2009; Ferrari et al., 2008) were used to characterize the neutronics performance and to perform the shielding assessment (Herrera-Martinez and Kadi, 2006; Cornell, 2003) of the EURISOLTarget Unit and to provide estimations of dose rate and activation of different components, in view of the radiation safety assessment of the facility. Dosimetry and activation calculations were perfor...

  4. Comprehensive assessment of sequence variation within the copy number variable defensin cluster on 8p23 by target enriched in-depth 454 sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinmin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly copy number variable (CNV regions such as the human defensin gene locus, comprehensive assessment of sequence variations is challenging. PCR approaches are practically restricted to tiny fractions, and next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches of whole individual genomes e.g. by the 1000 Genomes Project is confined by an affordable sequence depth. Combining target enrichment with NGS may represent a feasible approach. Results As a proof of principle, we enriched a ~850 kb section comprising the CNV defensin gene cluster DEFB, the invariable DEFA part and 11 control regions from two genomes by sequence capture and sequenced it by 454 technology. 6,651 differences to the human reference genome were found. Comparison to HapMap genotypes revealed sensitivities and specificities in the range of 94% to 99% for the identification of variations. Using error probabilities for rigorous filtering revealed 2,886 unique single nucleotide variations (SNVs including 358 putative novel ones. DEFB CN determinations by haplotype ratios were in agreement with alternative methods. Conclusion Although currently labor extensive and having high costs, target enriched NGS provides a powerful tool for the comprehensive assessment of SNVs in highly polymorphic CNV regions of individual genomes. Furthermore, it reveals considerable amounts of putative novel variations and simultaneously allows CN estimation.

  5. Market Analysis Identifies Community and School Education Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindle, Jane C.

    1989-01-01

    Principals must realize the positive effects that marketing can have on improving schools and building support for them. Market analysis forces clarification of the competing needs and interests present in the community. The four marketing phases are needs assessment, analysis, goal setting, and public relations and advertising. (MLH)

  6. Universe of Goals. Pediatric Nurse Practitioner/Associate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunton, Roma Lee; Soptick, John M.

    Goals for the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Associate Programs (PNP/A) are provided for the following areas: health care delivery systems; role responsibility; legal base for PNP/A role; growth and development; family-cultural factors; common childhood problems/illnesses/accidents; communication; assessment; recording; evaluation/interpretation;…

  7. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W.; Baess, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine depend...

  8. LDL cholesterol goals and cardiovascular risk during statin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Anders G; Lindahl, Christina; Holme, Ingar;

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the proportion of patients treated with either simvastatin 20 or 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of 2.5 or 2.0 mmol/l in the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) study. We explored how...

  9. Hopes and Goals Survey for Use in STEM Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. Anna; Strobel, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation studies of the Hopes and Goals Survey, an assessment designed to measure the level of hope of elementary students from diverse backgrounds, and its relation to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) studies and career. Data collected from students attending urban elementary schools were…

  10. Goal Model Integration for Tailoring Product Line Development Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many companies rely on the promised benefits of product lines, targeting systems between fully custom made software and mass products. Such customized mass products account for a large number of applications automatically derived from a product line. This results in the special importance of product lines for companies with a large part of their product portfolio based on their product line. The success of product line development efforts is highly dependent on tailoring the development process. This paper presents an integrative model of influence factors to tailor product line development processes according to different project needs, organizational goals, individual goals of the developers or constraints of the environment. This model integrates goal models, SPEM models and requirements to tailor development processes.

  11. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed evaluation of

  12. Learning and Performance Goal Orientations' Influence on the Goal Setting Process: Is there an Interaction Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Breland IV, Benjamin Tyson

    2001-01-01

    The present study set out to examine the role of learning and performance goal orientation on goal setting and self-efficacy. More specially, the present study attempted to verify the results of the effects of learning goal orientation and to clarify the role of performance goal orientation. In addition, the role of self-efficacy and the possibility of an interaction between learning goal orientation and performance goal orientation were also examined. While the present study did not...

  13. SETI target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, D. W.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. The authors propose strategies for target selection with two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar-type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites.

  14. Intracellular targeting specificity of novel phthalocyanines assessed in a host-parasite model for developing potential photodynamic medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Dutta

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy, unlikely to elicit drug-resistance, deserves attention as a strategy to counter this outstanding problem common to the chemotherapy of all diseases. Previously, we have broadened the applicability of this modality to photodynamic vaccination by exploiting the unusual properties of the trypanosomatid protozoa, Leishmania, i.e., their innate ability of homing to the phagolysosomes of the antigen-presenting cells and their selective photolysis therein, using transgenic mutants endogenously inducible for porphyrin accumulation. Here, we extended the utility of this host-parasite model for in vitro photodynamic therapy and vaccination by exploring exogenously supplied photosensitizers. Seventeen novel phthalocyanines (Pcs were screened in vitro for their photolytic activity against cultured Leishmania. Pcs rendered cationic and soluble (csPcs for cellular uptake were phototoxic to both parasite and host cells, i.e., macrophages and dendritic cells. The csPcs that targeted to mitochondria were more photolytic than those restricted to the endocytic compartments. Treatment of infected cells with endocytic csPcs resulted in their accumulation in Leishmania-containing phagolysosomes, indicative of reaching their target for photodynamic therapy, although their parasite versus host specificity is limited to a narrow range of csPc concentrations. In contrast, Leishmania pre-loaded with csPc were selectively photolyzed intracellularly, leaving host cells viable. Pre-illumination of such csPc-loaded Leishmania did not hinder their infectivity, but ensured their intracellular lysis. Ovalbumin (OVA so delivered by photo-inactivated OVA transfectants to mouse macrophages and dendritic cells were co-presented with MHC Class I molecules by these antigen presenting cells to activate OVA epitope-specific CD8+T cells. The in vitro evidence presented here demonstrates for the first time not only the potential of endocytic csPcs for effective

  15. Self-regulation of unattainable goals in suicide attempters: the relationship between goal disengagement, goal reengagement and suicidal ideation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Rory C

    2009-02-01

    There is growing interest in models of adaptive self-regulation. Recent research suggests that goal disengagement and goal reengagement (i.e., goal adjustment) are implicated in the self-regulation of emotion. This study extends the self-regulation research to investigate the utility of goal adjustment in understanding suicidal risk. To this end, two hundred adults hospitalised following a suicidal episode completed a range of clinical and psychological measures in hospital and were followed up approximately 2.5 months after discharge (Time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal reengagement predicted suicidal ideation at Time 2. In addition, the lack of goal reengagement was especially pernicious when reported concomitantly with high disengagement. These predictive effects were independent of baseline mood, attempt status and suicidal intent. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  17. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  18. Toward Semi-automated Assessment of Target Volume Delineation in Radiotherapy Trials: The SCOPE 1 Pretrial Test Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Gwynne2@wales.nhs.uk [Department of Clinical Oncology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Spezi, Emiliano; Wills, Lucy [Department of Medical Physics, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Nixon, Lisette; Hurt, Chris [Wales Cancer Trials Unit, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Joseph, George [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Evans, Mererid [Department of Clinical Oncology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Gareth [Wales Cancer Trials Unit, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Crosby, Tom [Department of Clinical Oncology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Staffurth, John [Division of Cancer, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate different conformity indices (CIs) for use in the analysis of outlining consistency within the pretrial quality assurance (Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance [RTTQA]) program of a multicenter chemoradiation trial of esophageal cancer and to make recommendations for their use in future trials. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Research Institute SCOPE 1 trial is an ongoing Cancer Research UK-funded phase II/III randomized controlled trial of chemoradiation with capecitabine and cisplatin with or without cetuximab for esophageal cancer. The pretrial RTTQA program included a detailed radiotherapy protocol, an educational package, and a single mid-esophageal tumor test case that were sent to each investigator to outline. Investigator gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were received from 50 investigators in 34 UK centers, and CERR (Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research) was used to perform an assessment of each investigator GTV against a predefined gold-standard GTV using different CIs. A new metric, the local conformity index (l-CI), that can localize areas of maximal discordance was developed. Results: The median Jaccard conformity index (JCI) was 0.69 (interquartile range, 0.62-0.70), with 14 of 50 investigators (28%) achieving a JCI of 0.7 or greater. The median geographical miss index was 0.09 (interquartile range, 0.06-0.16), and the mean discordance index was 0.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.30). The l-CI was highest in the middle section of the volume, where the tumor was bulky and more easily definable, and identified 4 slices where fewer than 20% of investigators achieved an l-CI of 0.7 or greater. Conclusions: The available CIs analyze different aspects of a gold standard-observer variation, with JCI being the most useful as a single metric. Additional information is provided by the l-CI and can focus the efforts of the RTTQA team in these areas, possibly leading to semi-automated outlining assessment.

  19. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-17

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Leadership Using National Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Sharra

    2016-09-01

    Determining the appropriate use of national or multicampus leadership assessments requires careful consideration of program goals and resources. This chapter explores quantitative dimensions of assessing leadership. PMID:27502098

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF OPTIMUM RESOURCE ALLOCATION BY FUZZY GOAL PROGRAMMING : THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÜNEŞ

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The Goal Programming, which is using to solve the multiple objective decision problems, has wide and great potential among other methods targeting maximization or minimization of goals. The main aim of the goal programming is to minimize the biases from each objective, instead of optimization of goals. Goal Programming algorithms, as originally developed by Charnels, attempts to achieve as many of these goals possible by minimizing deviation variables from the goal levels, depending on their relative weights. This minimization process has been forming in two categories, which involves preemptive and weighted techniques. In this study, Fuzzy Goal Programming has used to determine optimum allocation of education equipment such as computer and laptop to the faculty members and officers at different level of positions.

  2. Compactly representing utility functions using weighted goals and the max aggregator

    OpenAIRE

    Uckelman, J.; Endriss, U.

    2010-01-01

    Weighted propositional formulas can be used to model preferences over combinatorial domains: each formula represents a goal we would like to see satisfied, the weight of a formula represents the importance of the goal in question, and to assess the desirability of a given alternative we aggregate the weights of the goals satisfied by that alternative. One of several options is to aggregate by using the maximum of the weights of the satisfied goals. This approach gives rise to a family of pref...

  3. Assessment of targeting accuracy of a low-energy stereotactic radiosurgery treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J; Newhauser, Wayne D [Radiation Physics Department, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chell, Erik; Hansen, Steven; Gertner, Michael, E-mail: ptaddei@mdanderson.or [Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., 8000 Jarvis Avenue, Newark, CA 94560 (United States)

    2010-12-07

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the United States, is a neovascular disease that may be controlled with radiation therapy. Early patient outcomes of external beam radiotherapy, however, have been mixed. Recently, a novel multimodality treatment was developed, comprising external beam radiotherapy and concomitant treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. The radiotherapy arm is performed by stereotactic radiosurgery, delivering a 16 Gy dose in the macula (clinical target volume, CTV) using three external low-energy x-ray fields while adequately sparing normal tissues. The purpose of our study was to test the sensitivity of the delivery of the prescribed dose in the CTV using this technique and of the adequate sparing of normal tissues to all plausible variations in the position and gaze angle of the eye. Using Monte Carlo simulations of a 16 Gy treatment, we varied the gaze angle by {+-}5{sup 0} in the polar and azimuthal directions, the linear displacement of the eye {+-}1 mm in all orthogonal directions, and observed the union of the three fields on the posterior wall of spheres concentric with the eye that had diameters between 20 and 28 mm. In all cases, the dose in the CTV fluctuated <6%, the maximum dose in the sclera was <20 Gy, the dose in the optic disc, optic nerve, lens and cornea were <0.7 Gy and the three-field junction was adequately preserved. The results of this study provide strong evidence that for plausible variations in the position of the eye during treatment, either by the setup error or intrafraction motion, the prescribed dose will be delivered to the CTV and the dose in structures at risk will be kept far below tolerance doses.

  4. A Robust Profitability Assessment Tool for Targeting Agricultural Investments in Developing Countries: Modeling Spatial Heterogeneity and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Zeng, Z.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Woodard, J.

    2014-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the population earns their living from agriculture, government expenditures in many countries are being re-directed to the sector to increase productivity and decrease poverty. However, many of these investments are seeing low returns because they are poorly targeted. A geographic tool that accounts for spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability in the factors of production would allow governments and donors to optimize their investments by directing them to farmers for whom they are most profitable. One application for which this is particularly relevant is fertilizer recommendations. It is well-known that soil fertility in much of sub-Saharan Africa is declining due to insufficient nutrient inputs to replenish those lost through harvest. Since fertilizer application rates in sub-Saharan Africa are several times smaller than in other developing countries, it is often assumed that African farmers are under-applying fertilizer. However, this assumption ignores the risk farmers face in choosing whether or how much fertilizer to apply. Simply calculating the benefit/cost ratio of applying a given level of fertilizer in a particular year over a large, aggregated region (as is often done) overlooks the variability in yield response seen at different sites within the region, and at the same site from year to year. Using Ethiopia as an example, we are developing a 1 km resolution fertilizer distribution tool that provides pre-season fertilizer recommendations throughout the agricultural regions of the country, conditional on seasonal climate forecasts. By accounting for spatial heterogeneity in soil, climate, market and travel conditions, as well as uncertainty in climate and output prices at the time a farmer must purchase fertilizer, this stochastic optimization tool gives better recommendations to governments, fertilizer companies, and aid organizations looking to optimize the welfare benefits achieved by their

  5. Development and validation of a CE-MS method for the targeted assessment of amino acids in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Karina T; Mekahli, Djalila; Tavares, Marina F M; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2016-04-01

    A CE-ESI-MS method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative analysis of amino acids (AA) in urine. Experimental parameters related to the CE-MS interface, BGE, and mass spectrometer (MS) settings were optimized providing a good separation of 27 AA, including the isomers L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-alloisoleucine, in less than 30 min. The sheath liquid was composed by 0.50% formic acid in 60% (v,v) methanol-water delivered at a flow rate of 5 μL/min. The BGE consisted of 0.80 mol/L formic acid at pH 1.96 and 15% methanol. A pH stacking procedure was implemented to enhance sensitivity (a 12.5% NH4 OH solution was injected at 0.5 psi/9 s prior to samples injected at 0.6 psi/20 s). The proposed method was validated according to FDA and ICH protocols exhibiting acceptable parameters. Analytical curves presented coefficients of determination from 0.996 to 0.9997 (with large F statistics and low p-values). LODs and quantification ranged from 0.63 to 29 μmol/L and from 1.9 to 86 μmol/L, respectively. Practical repeatability was obtained for all AA with coefficients of variation better than 0.55% CV (migration time) and 1.7% CV (peak area ratios; methionine sulfone as internal standard). Recoveries of AA in spiked urine ranged from 92.0 to 123% with few exceptions. Moreover, a successful quantification of AA in pooled control and test urine samples, which compose a vesicoureteral reflux cohort, was achieved showing the potential applicability of the proposed method for targeted metabolomics studies using CE-ESI-MS with an Ion Trap as mass analyzer. PMID:26826549

  6. Assessment of targeting accuracy of a low-energy stereotactic radiosurgery treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the United States, is a neovascular disease that may be controlled with radiation therapy. Early patient outcomes of external beam radiotherapy, however, have been mixed. Recently, a novel multimodality treatment was developed, comprising external beam radiotherapy and concomitant treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. The radiotherapy arm is performed by stereotactic radiosurgery, delivering a 16 Gy dose in the macula (clinical target volume, CTV) using three external low-energy x-ray fields while adequately sparing normal tissues. The purpose of our study was to test the sensitivity of the delivery of the prescribed dose in the CTV using this technique and of the adequate sparing of normal tissues to all plausible variations in the position and gaze angle of the eye. Using Monte Carlo simulations of a 16 Gy treatment, we varied the gaze angle by ±50 in the polar and azimuthal directions, the linear displacement of the eye ±1 mm in all orthogonal directions, and observed the union of the three fields on the posterior wall of spheres concentric with the eye that had diameters between 20 and 28 mm. In all cases, the dose in the CTV fluctuated <6%, the maximum dose in the sclera was <20 Gy, the dose in the optic disc, optic nerve, lens and cornea were <0.7 Gy and the three-field junction was adequately preserved. The results of this study provide strong evidence that for plausible variations in the position of the eye during treatment, either by the setup error or intrafraction motion, the prescribed dose will be delivered to the CTV and the dose in structures at risk will be kept far below tolerance doses.

  7. Assessment of targeting accuracy of a low-energy stereotactic radiosurgery treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Chell, Erik; Hansen, Steven; Gertner, Michael; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2010-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the United States, is a neovascular disease that may be controlled with radiation therapy. Early patient outcomes of external beam radiotherapy, however, have been mixed. Recently, a novel multimodality treatment was developed, comprising external beam radiotherapy and concomitant treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. The radiotherapy arm is performed by stereotactic radiosurgery, delivering a 16 Gy dose in the macula (clinical target volume, CTV) using three external low-energy x-ray fields while adequately sparing normal tissues. The purpose of our study was to test the sensitivity of the delivery of the prescribed dose in the CTV using this technique and of the adequate sparing of normal tissues to all plausible variations in the position and gaze angle of the eye. Using Monte Carlo simulations of a 16 Gy treatment, we varied the gaze angle by ±5° in the polar and azimuthal directions, the linear displacement of the eye ±1 mm in all orthogonal directions, and observed the union of the three fields on the posterior wall of spheres concentric with the eye that had diameters between 20 and 28 mm. In all cases, the dose in the CTV fluctuated <6%, the maximum dose in the sclera was <20 Gy, the dose in the optic disc, optic nerve, lens and cornea were <0.7 Gy and the three-field junction was adequately preserved. The results of this study provide strong evidence that for plausible variations in the position of the eye during treatment, either by the setup error or intrafraction motion, the prescribed dose will be delivered to the CTV and the dose in structures at risk will be kept far below tolerance doses.

  8. Development of dietary-based toxic reference values to assess the risk of chlorophacinone to non-target raptorial birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Shultz, S. L.; Horak, Katherine E.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diets. Using benchmark dose statistical methods, toxic reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50% of the kestrels was estimated to be about 80 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for prothrombin time and 40 µg CPN/kg body weight-day for Russell's viper venom time. Based upon carcass CPN residues reported in rodents from field baiting studies, empirical measures of food consumption in kestrels, and dietary-based toxic reference values derived from the 7-day exposure scenario, some free-ranging raptors consuming CPN exposed prey might exhibit coagulopathy and hemorrhage. These sublethal responses associated with exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of CPN could compromise survival of exposed birds.

  9. Safety goals for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk presents technology goals developed for Generation IV nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier. These goals are defined in the broad areas of sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Sustainability goals focus on fuel utilization, waste management, and proliferation resistance. Safety and reliability goals focus on safe and reliable operation, investment protection, and essentially eliminating the need for emergency response. Economics goals focus on competitive life cycle and energy production costs and financial risk. Future reactors fall in three categories - those which are: Certified or derivatives; Designed to a reasonable extent and based on available technology; In conceptual form only with potential to most fully satisfy the GENIV goals

  10. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...

  11. Crew goal setting for security control

    OpenAIRE

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Hofer, Franziska; Jonas, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of simple goal setting in airport security control. As outcome, crew performance in terms of productivity (Experiment 1, field setting) was studied. Furthermore, the moderating role of negative and positive priming due to a previous task on the impact of goals (Experiment 2, laboratory setting) was analyzed. This research builds a bridge from goal setting theory to practice and prepares the grounds for its application in se...

  12. An integrated framework for sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    David Griggs; Mark Stafford Smith; Johan Rockström; Öhman, Marcus C; Owen Gaffney; Gisbert Glaser; Norichika Kanie; Ian Noble; Will Steffen; Priya Shyamsundar

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) Rio+20 summit committed nations to develop a set of universal sustainable development goals (SDGs) to build on the millennium development goals (MDGs) set to expire in 2015. Research now indicates that humanity's impact on Earth's life support system is so great that further global environmental change risks undermining long-term prosperity and poverty eradication goals. Socioeconomic development and global sustainability are often posed as being in conflict because of...

  13. Relaxed Steering towards Oriented Region Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Boulic, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends the funnelling behavior to offer a low-cost flexible guidance of mobile entities towards a circular region goal with the guarantee of enforcing an orientation within a predefined tolerance interval. The key requirements are the same as the tunnelling control, i.e. a low and constant cost update of the control even when the goal parameters change (distance and relative orientation of the goal, position tolerance radius, orientation tolerance interval, desired speed). The smo...

  14. Development and goals of competition law

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Blachucki

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the historical development of competition law discussing reasons for adopting particular national antimonopoly legislation. The following analysis of goals of competition law leads to the conclusion that there is no agreement what goals competition law should have. Furthermore some of identified goals of competition law are conflicting. Nonetheless the majority of national competition laws and the academics accept that competition law should aim at achieving the basic eco...

  15. Deducing Security Goals From Shape Analysis Sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsdell, John D

    2012-01-01

    Guttman presented a model-theoretic approach to establishing security goals in the context of Strand Space theory. In his approach, a run of the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer (CPSA) produces models that determine if a goal is satisfied. This paper presents a method for extracting a sentence that completely characterizes a run of CPSA. Logical deduction can then be used to determine if a goal is satisfied. This method has been implemented and is available to all.

  16. Faculty Teaching Goals at Senior Research Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lisa Dawn

    1997-01-01

    FACULTY TEACHING GOALS AT SENIOR RESEARCH UNIVERSITIES Lisa Dawn Johnson (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study was to identify faculty teaching goals at senior research universities and to determine variables which could be used to predict these goals. The eight disciplines used in this study were: accounting, chemistry, computer science, economics, English, math, mechanical engineering, and psychology. The independent variables were: gender, academic rank, course level, tenure, ...

  17. Application of the performance-goal based approach for establishing the SSE site specific response spectrum for new nuclear power plants in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Criteria for import of performance goals defined in ASCE 43-05 are established. ► Derivation of performance goals from radiological safety criteria is demonstrated. ► Evaluation of mean exceedance frequencies from performance goals is illustrated. ► Simple formulae for the definition of a capable fault are presented. -- Abstract: Nuclear installation license holders in South Africa have become increasingly interested in the performance-goal based approach defined in the American Society of Civil Engineering Standard ASCE/SEI 43-05 for establishing the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) site specific design response spectrum (SSRS) for new nuclear power plants. This approach has been adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and has now been followed at more than 20 sites in that country. Quantitative performance goals are required when establishing seismic design basis parameters using the performance-goal based approach. However, the quantitative performance goals recommended in ASCE/SEI 43-05 were established based on country-specific operating experience and seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) applications conducted for existing plants designed and operated to meet specific safety criteria, set by a specific regulatory body. Whilst ASCE/SEI 43-05 provides enough flexibility for the selection of other user-specified quantitative performance goals, there is no guidance on how quantitative performance goals should be established in the absence of extensive operational experience accompanied by data derived from rigorous SPRA applications. This paper presents two practical approaches that can be used to provide a technical basis and to demonstrate the derivation of quantitative values of target performance goals when no data related to past and present operational experience exist to justify technical specifications

  18. Negotiation of goal direction for cooperative transport

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Alexandre; Nouyan, Shervin; Birattari, Mauro; Groß, Roderich; Dorigo, Marco

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the cooperative transport of a heavy object by a group of robots towards a goal. We investigate the case in which robots have partial and noisy knowledge of the goal direction and can not perceive the goal itself. The robots have to coordinate their motion to apply enough force on the object to move it. Furthermore, the robots should share knowledge in order to collectively improve their estimate of the goal direction and transport the object as fast and as accurately ...

  19. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ''extended hot'' are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group's findings and recommendations are presented

  20. Maryland Reaches for the Goals: A Report on Maryland's Progress toward National Education Goals 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document reports on Maryland's progress as of 1995 toward the eight National Education Goals. The document lists the National Education Goals; describes state progress made toward each goal; describes programs that address each goal; and presents statistics on enrollment, public school funding, teacher salaries, attendance, special programs,…

  1. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and…

  2. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  3. Risk assessment of drug interaction potential and concomitant dosing pattern on targeted toxicities in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Dombrowsky, Erin; Bajaj, Gaurav; Skolnik, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    This investigation evaluated the impact of potential drug interactions on the incidence of reported toxicities seen with common dosing patterns in children with cancer, with the intent of being able to screen and reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the future. Toxicity reported in pediatric cancer patients treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2004 to 2010 were abstracted from a cancer tumor registry and merged with drug order profiles from the medical record system. Analysis datasets were created in SAS and permutation algorithms were used to identify pairwise drug combinations associated with specific toxicity occurrence. Relative risk of toxicity based on dosing pattern was assessed via comparison to control patients. A total of 326 of 1,713 patients (19%) had reportable toxicities. Neutrophil count decreases and alanine aminotransferase increases represented the highest occurring, corresponding to 28.8% and 31.9% prevalence among patients reporting toxicity, respectively. Of coadministered drug pairs, acetaminophen-diphenhydramine occurred most frequently; however, methotrexate-vincristine was the highest occurring pair linked to a single toxicity (hepatotoxicity). Toxicity was highly associated with the diagnoses of leukemia (52.1%) or neuroblastoma (28.5%). Comparison of the dosing interval (≤30 versus >30 min) suggested that risk of toxicity can be associated with the timing of coadministration, with ≤30 min increasing the risk of hepatotoxicity with fentanyl-midazolam and methotrexate-midazolam combinations. Knowledge of drug interactions in children with cancer may help reduce the incidence of ADRs by providing pharmacotherapy options that may reduce the likelihood of toxicity. PMID:23595361

  4. Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-06-01

    Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

  5. Assessment of nodal target definition and dosimetry using three different techniques: implications for re-defining the optimal pelvic field in endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. To determine the optimal pelvic nodal clinical target volume for post-operative treatment of endometrial cancer. 2. To compare the DVH of different treatment planning techniques applied to this new CTV and the surrounding tissues. Based on the literature, we selected a methodology to delineate nodal target volume to define a NEW-CTV and NEW-PTV. Conventional 2D fields, 3D fields based on anatomic guidelines per RTOG 0418, 3D fields based on our guidelines, and IMRT based on our guidelines were assessed for coverage of NEW-CTV, NEW-PTV, and surrounding structures. CT scans of 10 patients with gynecologic malignancies after TAH/BSO were used. DVHs were compared. For NEW-PTV, mean V45Gy were 50% and 69% for 2D and RTOG 0418-3DCRT vs. 98% and 97% for NEW-3DCRT and NEW-IMRT (p < 0.0009). Mean V45Gy small bowel were 24% and 20% for 2D and RTOG 0418-3DCRT, increased to 32% with NEW-3DCRT, and decreased to 14% with IMRT (p = 0.005, 0.138, 0.002). Mean V45Gy rectum were 26%, 35%, and 52% for 2D, RTOG 0418-3DCRT, and NEW-3DCRT, and decreased to 26% with NEW-IMRT (p < 0.05). Mean V45Gy bladder were 83%, 51%, and 73% for 2D, RTOG 0418-3DCRT, and NEW-3DCRT, and decreased to 30% with NEW-IMRT (p < 0.002). Conventional 2D and RTOG 0418-based 3DCRT plans cover only a fraction of our comprehensive PTV. A 3DCRT plan covers this PTV with high doses to normal tissues, whereas IMRT covers the PTV while delivering lower normal tissue doses. Re-consideration of what specifically the pelvic target encompasses is warranted

  6. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys. PMID:23713207

  7. Magnitude of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium Development Goals Era

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Wibawa; Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto

    2016-01-01

    The world will enter the postmillennium development goals 2015 era. The achievements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) as a global development target need to be evaluated. A sustainable new reasonable target is important for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) elimination in Indonesia. This review describes the NTD situation in Indonesia and highlights problems beneath the NTD transmission. Multidisciplinary approach is a promising strategy to help the marginalized people.

  8. Magnitude of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium Development Goals Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Tri; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul

    2016-01-01

    The world will enter the postmillennium development goals 2015 era. The achievements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) as a global development target need to be evaluated. A sustainable new reasonable target is important for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) elimination in Indonesia. This review describes the NTD situation in Indonesia and highlights problems beneath the NTD transmission. Multidisciplinary approach is a promising strategy to help the marginalized people. PMID:27190525

  9. The need to define treatment goals for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Kate; Hoi, Alberta; Nikpour, Mandana; Morand, Eric F

    2014-09-01

    In the current therapeutic climate, mortality rates from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain unacceptably high. Although new therapies are on the horizon, pending their emergence and availability, optimization of the currently available therapies is potentially achievable. A 'treat-to-target' approach is now considered routine for many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, for which it has substantially improved patient outcomes. The heterogeneity of SLE, as well as lack of universal agreement over methods to measure disease activity and treatment responses, has impeded the development of such an approach for this disease. In this article, the potential benefits of a treatment-target definition are explored, obstacles to the development of a treatment target in SLE are identified, and possible strategies to achieve this goal are discussed. PMID:25048762

  10. Scenario-targeted toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in a soil posing unacceptable environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Etxebarria, J; Boatti, L; Marigómez, I

    2015-09-01

    Lanestosa is a chronically polluted site (derelict mine) where the soil (Lanestosa (LA) soil) exceeds screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe) for Zn, Pb and Cd. A scenario-targeted toxicity assessment was carried out on the basis of a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with selected test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates and with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. Besides, the toxicity profile was compared with that of the mine runoff (RO) soil and of a fresh artificially polluted soil (LAAPS) resembling LA soil pollutant profile. Extractability studies in LA soil revealed that Pb, Zn and Cd were highly available for exchange and/or release into the environment. Indeed, Pb and Zn were accumulated in earthworms and LA soil resulted to be toxic. Soil respiration, V. fischeri, vegetative and developmental cycles of D. discoideum and survival and juvenile production of E. fetida were severely affected. These results confirmed that LA soil had unacceptable environmental risk and demanded intervention. In contrast, although Pb and Zn concentrations in RO soil revealed also unacceptable risk, both metal extractability and toxicity were much lower than in LA soil. Thus, within the polluted site, the need for intervention varied between areas that posed dissimilar risk. Besides, since LAAPS, with a high exchangeable metal fraction, was the most toxic, ageing under in situ natural conditions seemingly contributed to attenuate LA soil risk. As a whole, combining multi-endpoint bioassays with scenario-targeted analysis (including leaching and ageing) provides reliable risk assessment in soils posing unacceptable environmental risk according to SVs, which is useful to optimise the required intervention measures. PMID:25940475

  11. Windows to the Future: Can the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Provide Opportunities for Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Windows of opportunity are wide open for the nursing profession to actively participate and engage in the policy implementation, evaluation, and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nurses bring valuable perspectives as members of diverse governance structures and offer a range of solutions that can help governments pursue and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and targets by 2030. PMID:27265954

  12. CHALLENGES FOR METEOROLOGY IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2015-2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MIKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN accepted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development including 17 Sustainable Development Goals including 169 more detailed targets. These goals spread over all natural, societal and economical aspects of sustainability all over the world. The aim of our study is to specify those goals and detailed targets in which meteorology can and must play an important role. As concerns the complete Goals, this is only “Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts”. At the level of detailed targets they are many ones in fulfilment of which meteorology should play a role. Having classified the meteorological contributions to the targets, there are four classes defined: air pollution (AP, climate information (CI, climate change (CC and weather prediction. Altogether 26 targets of 16 Goals are found to be relevant to the meteorological activities. The possible contributions are all explained in the five groups in which the Goals are classified.

  13. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  14. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  15. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  16. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results

  17. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  18. Vietnam; Joint Staff Assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the Joint Staff Assessment on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam. It analyzes the progress in achieving the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS) goals and identifies the challenges. It assesses the macroeconomic performance, structural and social change, progress in reducing poverty, the Vietnam Development Goals, targets of the CPRGS, and the monitoring and evaluation systems. The staff recognizes the country’s efforts toward the imple...

  19. Assessment of DNA damage at various targets of head and neck cancer patients after gamma irradiation as measured by comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is the most important non-surgical modality for the curative treatment of cancer. Ionizing radiation being an important diagnostic and treatment modality is also a potent tumour-causing agent. Hence, the risk of secondary radiation treatment related cancers is a growing clinical problem, may be mainly due to the over dose employed for radiotherapy. A challenging role in radiotherapy is to maximize radiation doses to cancer cells while minimizing damage to the surrounding healthy cells. Our goal in the present study is to assess the DNA damage induced by the therapeutic dose of gamma radiation administered to the tumors at different locations of head and neck cancer patients for radiotherapy. Peripheral blood samples were collected from different head and neck cancer patients before and immediately after receiving radiotherapy at different fraction of doses (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Gy). The level of DNA damage before and after irradiation in the leukocytes of these patients was measured by comet assay. Analysis of this data employing Pearson correlation test revealed that there is a significant variation in the genetic damage in various locations of HNSCC patients. (author)

  20. The roles and contributions of Biodiversity Observation Networks (BONs) in better tracking progress to 2020 biodiversity targets: a European case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzel, F.T.; Saarenmaa, H.; Regan, E; Martin, C. S.; Mergen, P.; Smirnova, L.; Tuama, E.O.; García Camacho, F.A.; Hoffmann, A; Vohland, K.; Häuser, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the United Nations’ Strategic Plan for Biodiversity set ambitious goals for protecting biodiversity from further decline. Increased efforts are urgently needed to achieve these targets by 2020. The availability of comprehensive, sound and up-to-date biodiversity data is a key requirement to implement policies, strategies and actions to address biodiversity loss, monitor progress towards biodiversity targets, as well as to assess the current status and future ...

  1. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail. PMID:24559524

  2. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions. PMID:26139447

  3. Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew

    2010-06-01

    The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

  4. 188Re-ZHER2:V2, a promising targeting against HER2-expressing tumors: in vitro and in vivo assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Rhenium-188 (T1/2 =17 h) is a promising radionuclide for therapy applications. This generator-produced high energy beta-emitter is suitable for eradication of bulky non-operable tumors. Low abundance 155 KeV photons permit SPECT imaging of biodistribution of Rhenium-188 labeled targeting agents during therapy for personalized dosimetry. Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins with good tumor targeting properties and favorable kinetics. Optimization of the targeting properties of Technetium-99m and Rhenium-188 labeled anti-HER2 affibody molecules demonstrated that the variant with C-terminal glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-cysteine (-GGGC) chelating sequence (designated ZHER2:V2) has the best biodistribution profile in vivo and the lowest renal uptake of radioactivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate 188Re-ZHER2:V2 as a potential candidate for affibody-based radionuclide targeted therapy against HER2-expressing tumors. Methods: ZHER2:V2 was labeled with Rhenium-188 using gluconate-containing kit at pH 4.2. Binding specificity to HER2-expressing cells in vitro was evaluated. Targeting of HER2-over-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma xenografts in NMRI nu/nu female mice was studied for a preliminary dosimetry assessment. Results: The labeling method provided labeling yields over 95%. The release of free 188Re was negligible after incubation in serum. Binding of 188Re-ZHER2:V2 to living SKOV-3 cells was HER2-mediated (KD = 13 pM). The biodistribution study showed a rapid blood clearance (1.2±0.1 %IA/g at 1 h p.i.). Bone uptake was 1.2±0.1 %IA/g at 1 h p.i. and remained below 0.15 %IA/g after 4 h p.i. The tumor uptake was 11±3, 10±1, 4±2 and 1.6±0.5 %IA/g at 1, 4, 24 and 48 h p.i., respectively. Pre-saturation of HER2 in xenografts by a pre-injection of a large excess of non-labeled affibody molecules reduced tumor uptake to 2±0.1 %IA/g at 4 h p.i., suggesting receptor specificity of the targeting

  5. Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Gaskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  6. Self-Regulation through Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Goals are an important source of motivation. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address these questions in a model based on two stylized facts from psychology and behavioral economics: i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation thr...

  7. Optimally Investing to Reach a Bequest Goal

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan Bayraktar; Virginia R. Young

    2015-01-01

    We determine the optimal strategy for investing in a Black-Scholes market in order to maximize the probability that wealth at death meets a bequest goal $b$, a type of goal-seeking problem, as pioneered by Dubins and Savage (1965, 1976). The individual consumes at a constant rate $c$, so the level of wealth required for risklessly meeting consumption equals $c/r$, in which $r$ is the rate of return of the riskless asset. Our problem is related to, but different from, the goal-reaching problem...

  8. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  9. Risk and Business Goal Based Security Requirement and Countermeasure Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, Ayse; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Companies are under pressure to be in control of their assets but at the same time they must operate as efficiently as possible. This means that they aim to implement “good-enough security” but need to be able to justify their security investment plans. Currently companies achieve this by means of checklist-based security assessments, but these methods are a way to achieve consensus without being able to provide justifications of countermeasures in terms of business goals. But such justificat...

  10. Does Goal-directed Fluid Therapy Affect Postoperative Orthostatic Intolerance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Jans, Oivind; Müller, Rasmus Gamborg; Korshin, André Martin; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Bie, Peter; Secher, Niels H; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Early mobilization is important for postoperative recovery but is limited by orthostatic intolerance (OI) with a prevalence of 50% 6 h after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative OI is assumed to include hypovolemia besides dysregulation of vasomotor tone. Stroke volume-guided fluid...... therapy, so-called goal-directed therapy (GDT), corrects functional hypovolemia, and the authors hypothesized that GDT reduces the prevalence of OI after major surgery and assessed this in a prospective, double-blinded trial....

  11. Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: Past and future progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Michelle F; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-10-01

    We review global and regional progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 with respect to their indicators, drawing on the latest data available from the relevant United Nations inter-agency groups responsible for maternal and child mortality estimation, as well as recent reports from individual UN agencies and external monitoring groups reporting on MDG progress. We also draw on recent, comprehensive evidence syntheses to present an overview of a selection of existing effective interventions that, if collectively implemented at scale, would reduce maternal and child deaths well beyond the MDG target levels. We conclude with a summary of why and how a focus on maternal and child health in the post-2015 era should be maintained, as the global development agenda transitions from the MDGs to the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:26277228

  12. Health transformation plan: Goals achievement in Nemazee hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of

  13. The physics goals of the TESLA project

    OpenAIRE

    Moenig, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    As next generation e+e- linear collider the superconducting accelerator project TESLA has been proposed. In this note the physics potential goals of this project, which is highly complementary to LHC, are described.

  14. How to Succeed In MBO Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiorne, George S.

    1978-01-01

    From a 1977 survey of twelve administrators who successfully use a management-by-objectives (MBO) method, the author lists twenty-seven steps for company management to take in setting their organizational goals. (MF)

  15. Integration through Magnet Schools: Goals and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Considers magnet school programs in eight cities and concludes that the integrative function of these schools is questionable. Proposes that the goal of improving educational opportunity through magnet schools effects only a small number of students. (Author/MK)

  16. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  17. Progress Toward N+1 Noise Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2008-01-01

    A review of the progress made towards achieving the Subsonic Fixed Wing project's noise goal for the next generation single aisle aircraft is presented. The review includes the technology path selected for achieving the goal as well as highlights from several in-house and partnership test programs that have contributed to this effort. In addition, a detailed, self-consistent, analysis of the aircraft system noise for a conceptual next generation single aisle aircraft is also presented. The results indicate that with the current suite of noise reduction technologies incorporated into the conceptual aircraft a cumulative noise reduction margin of 26 EPNdB could be expected. This falls 6 dB short of the N+1 goal, which is 32 EPNdB below Stage 4 noise standard. Potential additional noise reduction technologies to help achieve the goal are briefly discussed.

  18. Simplifying Negative Goals Using Typed Existence Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Lunjin

    2010-01-01

    A method for extracting positive information from negative goals is proposed. It makes use of typed existence properties between arguments of a predicate to rewrite negative goals in a logic program. A typed existence property is a generalization of functional dependencies in that an input value maps to a fixed number of output values. Types are used to specify the domains of the input and output values. An implementation of the simplification method is presented and its complexity is analyzed. A key algorithm of the implementation checks if an atom in a negative goal can be extracted using a given typed existence property. A digraph links an atom to the quantified variables occurring in the atom and is used to quickly retrieve atoms in the negative goal that may become extractable after some other atom is extracted.

  19. Challenging the state-of-the-art in protein structure prediction: Highlights of experimental target structures for the 10th Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction Experiment CASP10

    OpenAIRE

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Moult, John; Bales, Patrick; Bazan, J. Fernando; Biasini, Marco; Burgin, Alex; Chen, Chen; Cochran, Frank V; Craig, Timothy K.; Das, Rhiju; Fass, Deborah; Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Herzberg, Osnat; Lorimer, Donald; Luecke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    For the last two decades, CASP has assessed the state of the art in techniques for protein structure prediction and identified areas which required further development. CASP would not have been possible without the prediction targets provided by the experimental structural biology community. In the latest experiment, CASP10, over 100 structures were suggested as prediction targets, some of which appeared to be extraordinarily difficult for modeling. In this paper, authors of some of the most ...

  20. Adaptive self-regulation in cycle time trials: goal pursuit, goal disengagement and the affective experience

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Louise Rhoden; Julia West; Andrew Renfree; Mark Corbett; Alan St Clair Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation research analyses behaviour and emotion through goal progress (Carver and Scheier 2013). Goal disengagement is advocated as an adaptive self-regulatory strategy for unattainable goals to reduce distress (Wrosch et al. 2003a; 2003b). In an attempt to further understand ongoing goal pursuit and emotions on endurance athletes, this paper applies adaptive self-regulation theory to interpret and explain the experiences of three cyclists in case studies which display variations in s...

  1. Football: A Naive Approximation to the Effect of Increasing Goal Size on the Number of Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, J

    2006-01-01

    The effect of increasing goal mouth size on the number of goals scored in a football match is discussed in a very preliminary and simple way, considering elastic collisions of the ball with the posts. The result is obtained on the basis of data taken from the Spanish Professional League, that show a high number of shots-to-post. Surprisingly, there is a direct correlation of the increase in goal mouth area with the increase of goals.

  2. Back to the future: what would the post-2015 global development goals look like if we replicated methods used to construct the Millennium Development Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Claire E. Brolan; Lee, Scott; Kim, David; Hill, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were ‘top-down’ goals formulated by policy elites drawing from targets within United Nations (UN) summits and conferences in the 1990s. Contemporary processes shaping the new post-2015 development agenda are more collaborative and participatory, markedly different to the pre-MDG era. This study examines what would the outcome be if a methodology similar to that used for the MDGs were applied to the formulation of the post-2015 development goa...

  3. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Perfectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Özgüngör, Sevgi; Pamukkale Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore whether the perfectionist personality trait and teacher behaviors that support autonomy predict students’ academic goal orientation. For this purpose, a Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, a Goal Orientation Scale and Teacher as a Social Context Scales were administered to 453 students attending the 6th, 7th and 8th grades in Ankara schools. The results indicated that the organizational dimension of perfectionism and autonomy support are related to ...

  4. Structuring Training Goals for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A multiaxial model that structures educational goals for psychodynamic psychotherapy has been developed. It specifies core aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clusters them in categories that further define and link related areas, and presents a sequence that enables educators and students to focus on training goals in a consistent progression. This model has been used by the Director of Education as a basis for developing the curriculum, by students as a way of focusing learning and givi...

  5. Goal-Oriented Collision-Free Schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    The education of to-be physicians at Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, includes practical services. The students are divided into groups that each has its own goals. The goals specify (1) what services that group's students should perform, and (2) for each service, a minimum number of times each student should attend that service. It is only possible to perform any service at certain occasions: each occasion offers slots, to be filled by students. The occasions make up a calendar. The challenge ...

  6. Application of the Geo-Anomaly Unit Concept in Quantitative Delineation and Assessment of Gold Ore Targets in Western Shandong Uplift Terrain, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets

  7. Differentiating Life Goals and Therapeutic Goals: Expanding Our Understanding of the Working Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Reviews have shown that goal consensus and collaboration between client and therapist are significant for treatment outcome. This study introduces a differentiation between goals and tasks in the client's everyday life and goals and tasks in psychotherapy sessions while focusing on the links between the two. Five typical types of problematic goal…

  8. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  9. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  10. Academic Goals, Goal Process Cognition, and Exam Performance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Fairholme, Chris; Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Newton, Craig

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N = 365) and in Study 2 (N = 325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology…

  11. Teaching Students to Attain Annual Transition Goals Using the Take Action Goal Attainment Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodie D.; Martin, James E.; Osmani, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used the Take Action goal attainment lesson package and assistive technology to teach nine high school students with mild to moderate disabilities to attain annual transition goals. The Take Action lessons increased students' goal attainment knowledge, and this knowledge generalized to improved Plan Organizers, and slightly…

  12. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  13. Socially Anxious Individuals with Low Working Memory Capacity Could Not Inhibit the Goal-Irrelevant Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMoriya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attentional capture to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attentional capture to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli, low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.

  14. Assessing activation of hepatic stellate cells by 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy targeting integrin αvβ3: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, which is accompanied by increased expression of integrin αvβ3, is an important factor in liver fibrogenesis. Molecular imaging targeting the integrin αvβ3 could provide a non-invasive method for evaluating the expression and the function of the integrin αvβ3 on the activated HSCs (aHSCs) in the injured liver, and then provide important prognostic information. 99mTc-3PRGD2 is such a radiotracer specific for integrin αvβ3. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences in liver uptake and retention of the 99mTc-3PRGD2 between normal liver and injured liver to evaluate the feasibility of 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy for this purpose. Methods: We used planar scintigraphy to assess changes in integrin αvβ3 binding of intravenously-administered 99mTc-3PRGD2 in the livers of rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis compared with the controls. We co-injected cold c(RGDyK) with 99mTc-3PRGD2 to assess the specific binding of the radiotracer. We performed Sirius red staining to assess liver fibrosis, immunofluorescent colocalization to identify the location of integrin αvβ3 expressed in the fibrotic liver, and we measured protein and messenger RNA expression of integrin αvβ3 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the control and fibrotic livers. Results: The fibrotic livers showed enhanced 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake and retention. The radiotracer was demonstrated to bind specifically with the integrin αvβ3 mainly expressed on the aHSCs. The liver-to-heart ratio at 30 min post-injection was higher in the fibrotic livers than in the control livers (TAA, 1.98 ± 0.08 vs. control, 1.50 ± 0.12, p < 0.01). The liver t1/2 was longer than in the controls (TAA, 27.07 ± 10.69 min vs. control, 12.67 ± 4.10 min, p < 0.01). The difference of heart t1/2 between the two groups was not statistically significant (TAA, 3.13 ± 0.63 min vs. control, 3.41 ± 0.77 min, p = 0.94). Conclusions: 99mTc-3PRGD2 molecular

  15. Legislative Gaps in Implementation of Health related Millennium Development Goals: a case study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Rabia; Toru, Shehryar Khan; Ahmed, Vaqar

    2016-06-01

    Numerous health legislations concerning child mortality, maternal health and life-threatening diseases such as polio and tuberculosis are crafted in the health sector of Pakistan. A critical assessment of health legislations points to their in-effective or sub-optimal implementation. By engaging with the concept of public law, there is a strong relationship of public health and health legislations. While the basic purpose of health legislations is to craft and enforce essential health legislations for improving public health, an examination of health legislations across Pakistan indicate an extensive health engagement which is facing certain challenges indicating traditional health practices, enforcement constraints arising due to political compulsions and complexities, and systematic problems in the health sector, reflecting issue of governance. Through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews held with policy-makers, senior health officials private health entities and parliamentarian tasks forces on millennium development goals, this study engages with health-sector legislations. In so doing, it focuses on the problematic health sector and interventions. It is observed that unless an overarching legislative framework and a shift from programmatic approach to a human rights approach is adopted, the targets of millennium development goals 4, 5 and 6 would remain off-track in Pakistan. PMID:27339577

  16. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  17. The regulatory goal of assuring nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are operated, as well as decommissioned, in an acceptably safe manner. However, in meeting this objective the regulator must keep in mind that it is the operator that has responsibility for safely operating a nuclear facility; the role of the regulator is to oversee the operator activities as related to assuming that responsibility. There are currently many sources of information available to the regulator pertaining to safety at any given nuclear facility, such as inspection reports, operating experience reports, research results, periodic safety reviews, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) results, insights from IAEA reviews and other similar information. A major challenge for the regulator is to systematically collect and analyse this information in order to arrive at an integrated assessment of the level of safety of the particular facility and then to make a judgement about its acceptability. In order to assist member countries in addressing this challenging question, the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has sponsored this report. The primary focus of the report is on how the regulatory body can systematically collect and make an integrated analysis of all the relevant safety information available to it and arrive at a sound judgement on the acceptability of the level of safety of the facilities that it regulates. It therefore follows that the target audience for this report is primarily nuclear regulators, although the information and ideas may also be of interest to nuclear operators, other nuclear industry organisations and segments of civil society. (author)

  18. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. PMID:26479070

  19. Structure based inhibitor design targeting glycogen phosphorylase B. Virtual screening, synthesis, biochemical and biological assessment of novel N-acyl-β-d-glucopyranosylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Zographos, Spyros E; Molfeta, Christina; Archontis, Georgios; Agius, Loranne; Hayes, Joseph M; Leonidas, Demetres D; Komiotis, Dimitri

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated target for the development of new type 2 diabetes treatments. Exploiting the Zinc docking database, we report the in silico screening of 1888 N-acyl-β-d-glucopyranosylamines putative GP inhibitors differing only in their R groups. CombiGlide and GOLD docking programs with different scoring functions were employed with the best performing methods combined in a 'consensus scoring' approach to ranking of ligand binding affinities for the active site. Six selected candidates from the screening were then synthesized and their inhibitory potency was assessed both in vitro and ex vivo. Their inhibition constants' values, in vitro, ranged from 5 to 377μM while two of them were effective at causing inactivation of GP in rat hepatocytes at low μM concentrations. The crystal structures of GP in complex with the inhibitors were defined and provided the structural basis for their inhibitory potency and data for further structure based design of more potent inhibitors. PMID:25092521

  20. [(3) H]-L685,458 binding sites are abundant in multiple peripheral organs in rats: implications for safety assessment of putative γ-secretase targeting drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Ling; Mou, Lin; Cai, Yan; Huang, He; Luo, Xue-Gang; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2014-12-01

    γ-Secretase is a multimeric enzyme complex that carries out proteolytic processing to a variety of cellular proteins. It is currently explored as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Mechanism-based toxicity needs to be thoroughly evaluated for γ-secretase inhibitory and/or modulatory drugs. This study comparatively assessed putative γ-secretase catalytic sites in rat peripheral tissues relative to brain and explored an effort of its pharmacological inhibition on hair regeneration. Using [(3) H]-labelled L685,458, a potent γ-secretase inhibitor, as probe, we found more abundant presence of γ-secretase binding sites in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, hair follicle, pituitary gland, ovary and testis, as compared to the brain. Local application of L658,458 delayed vibrissal regrowth following whisker removal. These results suggest that γ-secretase may execute important biological functions in many peripheral systems, as in the brain. The development of γ-secretase inhibitors/modulators for AD and cancer therapy should include close monitoring of toxicological panels for hepatic, gastrointestinal, endocrinal and reproductive functions. PMID:24861611