WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing system performance

  1. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  2. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  3. Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CPARS is a web-based system used to input data on contractor performance. Reports from the system are used as an aid in awarding contracts to contractors that...

  4. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Cunningham

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving “what would have happened anyway” scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  5. Assessing the performance of natural resource systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Cunningham; Manuel Ruiz-Pérez; Sonja Vermeulen; Peter Frost; Jeffrey A. Sayer; Bruce Campbell; Ravi Prabhu

    2001-01-01

    Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model ...

  6. Total system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's evaluation of site suitability for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, the long-term behavior of the mined geologic disposal system must be determined. This determination requires a knowledge of the characteristics of the present natural system, waste-package and engineered-system designs, a description of the environment around the emplacement zone, and descriptions of possible perturbations that may affect the nature of the engineered and natural systems. In 1991, participants in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project completed a preliminary assessment of the likely performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This preliminary assessment evaluated aqueous and gaseous flow, future climatic conditions, and disturbances to the system by basaltic volcanism and inadvertent human intrusion. A second total system performance evaluation is currently in progress. This second iteration is building on the previous analyses in a number of ways. More recent site characterization information and a much more complex model representing the source term are being incorporated. Multiple waste package designs, emplacement modes, and areal power densities are being analyzed. (author)

  7. A solar desalination system: Exergetic performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A solar operated desalination system is investigated. • Vacuum condition, separate air-cooled condenser and batch-wise operation are applied. • Extensive energy and exergy analysis is performed. • Sources of deficiencies are highlighted. • Improvement potentials rates are explored and enhancement possibilities are identified. - Abstract: This paper presents a detailed thermodynamic assessment of a solar operated desalination system through exergy analysis. This system operates under vacuum condition and is equipped with an air-cooled condenser. The thermodynamic model of this system is developed, implemented in a MATLAB code and solved iteratively to investigate the influence of design and operational parameters. A spectrum of the thermodynamic model includes rates of energy streams, exergy streams, exergy destructions and improvement potentials. The outputs of thermodynamic model, namely improvement potential rates, are employed to explore enhancement of current design of the desalination system. The results of this investigation reveals that, an increase in absorptivity of basin base by 12% improves the productivity, energy and exergy efficiencies of the desalination system by 27%, 25% and 39%, respectively. In respect of improvement potential rates, the higher value is attributed to the basin base. It is shown that the reduction of heat losses from basin walls by 75% increases the productivity and exergy efficiency of the desalination system by 87% and 152%, respectively

  8. Testing of abstractions for total system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total system performance assessment requires the explicit quantification of all the relevant processes and process interactions. However, process level descriptions of all the processes required for the evaluation of the total system performance is computationally impractical, thus requiring the abstraction of these process level models. In this paper the unsaturated flow abstraction methodology developed for the current iteration of the total system performance assessment for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is presented along with a simple test problem

  9. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  10. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  11. A consistent multi-user framework for assessing system performance

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, C M

    2010-01-01

    Agreeing suitability for purpose and procurement decisions depend on assessment of real or simulated performances of sonar systems against user requirements for particular scenarios. There may be multiple pertinent aspects of performance (e.g. detection, track estimation, identification/classification and cost) and multiple users (e.g. within picture compilation, threat assessment, resource allocation and intercept control tasks), each with different requirements. Further, the estimates of performances and the user requirements are likely to be uncertain. In such circumstances, how can we reliably assess and compare the effectiveness of candidate systems? This paper presents a general yet simple mathematical framework that achieves all of this. First, the general requirements of a satisfactory framework are outlined. Then, starting from a definition of a measure of effectiveness (MOE) based on set theory, the formulae for assessing performance in various applications are obtained. These include combined MOEs,...

  12. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  13. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times

  14. Evaluating human performance modeling for system assessment: Promise and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Robert W.; Young, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The development and evaluation of computational human performance models is examined. An intention is to develop models which can be used to interact with system prototypes and simulations to perform system assessment. Currently LR is working on a set of models emulating cognitive, psychomotor, auditory, and visual activity for multiple operator positions of a command and control simulation system. These models, developed in conjunction with BBN Systems and Technologies, function within the simulation environment and allow for both unmanned system assessment and manned (human-in-loop) assessment of system interface and team interactions. These are relatively generic models with built-in flexibility which allows modification of some model parameters. These models have great potential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of system design, test, and evaluation. However, the extent of the practical utility of these models is unclear. Initial verification efforts comparing model performance within the simulation to actual human operators on a similar, independent simulation have been performed and current efforts are directed at comparing human and model performance within the same simulation environment.

  15. Performance Assessment and Active System Monitoring for Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben

    controller set-point corresponds to a temperature deviation,which will eventually harm the stored goods. The energy eciency is measured by the coecient of performance, COP, which basically is the delivered cooling power divided by the consumed electrical power of the system. The reliability criteria is...

  16. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly revised draft DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, requires that DOE low-level waste shall be managed on a systematic basis using the most appropriate combination of waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal practices so that the radioactive components are contained and the overall cost effectiveness is minimized. This order expects each site to prepare and maintain an overall waste management systems performance assessment supporting the combination of waste management practices used in generation reduction segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. A document prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Department of Energy called Guidance for Conduct of Waste Management Systems Performance Assessment is specifically intended to provide the approach necessary to meet the systems performance assessment requirement of DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and other applicable state regulations dealing with LLW (low-level radioactive wastes). Methods and procedures are needed for assessing the performance of a waste management system. This report addresses this need. The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner, and thereby assist the DOE LLW mangers in complying with the DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and the associated guidance document

  17. Assess overall value of performance-related pay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of human resource management is that people should work as efficiently as possible in the organization. The notorious payment by the result system which does not work very well lasted for many years. So, the organization attempts to achieve their goals by using various systems of payment to encourage and reward them. Performance related pay, as one of reward systems, has a range of advantages to motivate individuals to work harder or more productively. Nevertheless, there is also evidence of weakness and failures, which have some of the unacceptable and undesirable side effects. Sometimes the problem of performance related pay cannot produce the hoped benefits. This essay will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of performance-related pay schemes. Then, it will assess the overall value of performance-related pay systems.

  18. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Performance Assessment of Product Service System from System Architecture Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. T. Mo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New business models in complex engineering products have favoured the integration of acquisition and sustainment phases in capability development. The product service system (PSS concept enables manufacturers of complex engineering products to incorporate support services into the product’s manufacturing and sustainment lifecycle. However, the PSS design has imposed significant risks to the manufacturer not only in the manufacture of the product itself, but also in the provision of support services over long period of time at a predetermined price. This paper analysed three case studies using case study research design approach and mapped the service elements of the case studies to the generic complex engineering product service system (CEPSS model. By establishing the concept of capability distribution for a PSS enterprise, the capability of the CEPSS can be overlaid on the performance-based reward scheme so that decision makers evaluate options related to the business opportunities presented to them.

  20. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  1. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  2. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  3. Performance assessment and cost effectiveness of wind energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Hoffert, M.; Corren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Performance and cost characteristics of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are assessed. Both technological and cost-effectiveness considerations are discussed for these systems with emphasis on developing appropriate economic measures for the application of electric power generation. A cost-effectiveness analysis is developed for target costs per unit frontal area for such systems showing the influence of annual mean windspeed, tower height, atmospheric boundary layer stability, capital-cost financing rates, and the cost escalation rate of the fossil fuel displaced. The latter two parameters are particularly sensitive ones in assessing both lifetime cost-effectiveness and payback time. Although allowable costs vary be several orders of magnitude, initial target costs for cost-effectiveness seem to be of the order of $50 to $400/sq m of frontal area.

  4. A unified process for systems identification based on performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, C.; Shipley, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Many modern spacecraft are complex multi-body dynamic systems where the bodies are connected by several active control systems for pointing and isolation. Mission requirements indicate that many structural modes and possibly some nonlinear effects will require characterization. Thus, even characterization at the subsystem level will become more difficult than usual. System level characterization difficulties will be compounded by the fact that only limited ground testing will be possible on the full up system, and flight testing will be restricted by an extremely limited measurements set. The object of the present discussion is the application of matrix majorant theory to the problem of assessing dynamic system performance when knowledge of the system is uncertain. We show how majorants provide an effective tool to relate required performance output to system identification test quality in terms of residual uncertainty in input-output relations, parameter values, nonlinearities, and interactions. The underlying machinery consists of the block-norm matrix which is a nonnegative matrix each of whose elements is the norm of a block of a suitably partitioned matrix. A matrix which bounds the block-norm matrix in the sense of nonnegative matrices, i.e., element by element is known as a majorant.

  5. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  6. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  7. Assessing the thermal performance of an emergency shelter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; McRobie, A. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering; Manfield, P. [Martin Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The aims of these tests are to improve conditions inside temporary shelters and to develop tools to assess shelter quality and comfort. Two different prototype shelters were tested in cold conditions with an internal vapour load. Temperature and humidity measurements were taken inside the shelter while the external temperature was maintained at -20 {sup o}C. Visual assessments were also carried out during and after testing. In the artificial test environment, both shelters experienced an undesirable variation of air temperature with height, averaging 17 {sup o}C between the lower and middle height zones. Models of each shelter were constructed using the Environmental Systems Performance-research (ESP-r) simulation software and were calibrated with the test data. The shelter models were simulated in three different climates using real data from Islamabad, London and Pristina. The feasibility of heating the tent using only the casual gains from occupants and solar radiation was investigated, although it was found that a tent heated in this way would only be appropriate in some locations. Design issues included coping with stratification of air temperature inside the tent, improving light levels without compromising thermal performance and fabricating the materials cheaply and simply. The validity of the results is limited by the lack of measured data for rates of air infiltration. (Author)

  8. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  9. Application of fuzzy expert system on LILW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete LILW repository performance assessment requires the involvement between several experts in many fields of science. Many sources of uncertainties arise due to complexity of interaction of environmental parameters, lack of data and ignorance, this makes predictive analysis and interpretation difficult. This difficulty in understanding the impact of the ambiguities is even higher when it comes to public and decision makers involvement. Traditional methods of data analysis, while having strong mathematical basis, many times are not adequate to deal with ambiguous data. These ambiguities can be an obstacle to make the results easier to understand and defensible. A methodology of decision making, based on fuzzy logic, can help the interaction between experts, decision makers and the public. This method is the basis of an expert system which can help the analysis of very complex and ambiguous processes. (author)

  10. Sensitivity analyses for total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow-on to Sandia's 1991 preliminary total-system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site, this paper presents results of some sensitivity analyses that were done using results from the 1991 study. Two conceptual models of unsaturated-zone flow and transport at Yucca Mountain were included in the study, including both aqueous and gaseous releases. The sensitivities are quite different for the two models. For the composite-porosity model, the results are most sensitive to groundwater percolation flux, gaseous transport time, container lifetime, and fuel-matrix-alteration rate. For the weeps model, the results are most sensitive to parameters used to characterize fracture flow (fracture aperture and fracture connectivity) and infiltration (percolation flux and weep-episode factor)

  11. A framework for assessing the performance of health systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, C. J.; Frenk, J.

    2000-01-01

    Health systems vary widely in performance, and countries with similar levels of income, education and health expenditure differ in their ability to attain key health goals. This paper proposes a framework to advance the understanding of health system performance. A first step is to define the boundaries of the health system, based on the concept of health action. Health action is defined as any set of activities whose primary intent is to improve or maintain health. Within these boundaries, t...

  12. Energy performance assessment of an intelligent energy management system

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Giretti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Although energy management systems are expected to result in decreased energy consumption, it is important not to overlook the energy used until commissioning (including raw materials acquisition, manufacturing and transportation) and during the usage phase (including operation and maintenance). This paper examines the energy performance of an intelligent energy management system for underground metro stations. The results show that the energy management system has high energy performance in ...

  13. Personnel Performance Assessment in Information Systems Outsourcing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a tool which uses semantic technologies for personnel performance and workplace learning assessment in outsourced information technology environments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the tool from a technical perspective and introduces a use case that depicts the main features related to…

  14. Hardware performance assessment recommendations and tools for baropodometric sensor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate plantar pressure measurements are mandatory in both clinical and research contexts. Differences in accuracy, precision, reliability of pressure measurement devices (PMDs prevented so far the onset of standardization processes and of reliable reference datasets. The Italian National Institute of Health (ISS approved and conducted a scientific project aimed to design, validate and implement dedicated testing methods for both in-factory and on-the-field PMD assessment. A general-purpose experimental set-up was built, complete and suitable for the assessment of PMDs based on different sensor technology, electronic conditioning and mechanical solutions. Preliminary assessments have been conducted on 5 commercial PMDs. The study lead to the definition of: i an appropriate set of instruments and procedures for PMD technical assessment; ii a minimum set of significant parameters for the technical characterization of the PMD performance; iii some recommendations to both manufacturers and end users for an appropriate use in clinics and in research context

  15. Hardware performance assessment recommendations and tools for baropodometric sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Accurate plantar pressure measurements are mandatory in both clinical and research contexts. Differences in accuracy, precision, reliability of pressure measurement devices (PMDs) prevented so far the onset of standardization processes and of reliable reference datasets. The Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) approved and conducted a scientific project aimed to design, validate and implement dedicated testing methods for both in-factory and on-the-field PMD assessment. A general-purpose experimental set-up was built, complete and suitable for the assessment of PMDs based on different sensor technology, electronic conditioning and mechanical solutions. Preliminary assessments have been conducted on 5 commercial PMDs. The study lead to the definition of: i) an appropriate set of instruments and procedures for PMD technical assessment; ii) a minimum set of significant parameters for the technical characterization of the PMD performance; iii) some recommendations to both manufacturers and end users for an appropriate use in clinics and in research context. PMID:20567067

  16. A Monitoring System for the Assessment of Reactor Shield Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the objectives of a shield survey, presents the results of intercomparisons and makes recommendations on the selection of a monitoring system. The performance of a reactor shield must be assessed efficiently to enable immediate repairs to be made to defective shields. Correlation of survey results with shield designer's predictions has proved difficult and the factors contributing to the disagreement have been examined. The shield designer uses flux to dose conversion factors which neglect the radiation equilibrium situation at the shield-air interface and the effect of attenuation and scattering external to the shield. The presence of the operator can significantly influence a measurement. The use of the ''maximum exposure dose'' (MED) concept is recommended for gamma photon predictions and this is compared with absorbed dose measurements in phantoms. Shield survey instruments must have a flat response over a wide range of energies. For example, many gamma dosimeters are designed for use at energies up to about 2 MeV whereas around most reactors a proportion of dose is due to 6 MeV gamma photons, with some contribution from higher energies. Tests were carried out to select suitable detectors using actual reactor operating conditions and simulated conditions at specific energies, notably 6 MeV. In practice discrepancies exceeding a factor of 3 were frequently found. A comparison was made between thermoluminescent dosimeters and film badges for the purpose of fixed position integrating dosimeters. The film dosimeter (AERE/RPS) was found to over-estimate by a factor of 2 for 6 MeV gamma radiation and in practical situations over-estimated by 20 to 80%. Thermoluminescent dosimetry is recommended for shield surveys provided that a build-up cap is used to achieve charged particle equilibrium. (author)

  17. Models used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization. Energy storage plays an important role in reducing PV intermittency and battery storage models are used to understand the best configurations and technologies to store PV generated electricity. Other researcher's models used by SNL are discussed including some widely known models that incorporate algorithms developed at SNL. There are other models included in the discussion that are not used by or were not adopted from SNL research but may provide some benefit to researchers working on PV array performance, hybrid system models and energy storage. The paper is organized into three sections to describe the different software models as applied to photovoltaic performance, hybrid systems, and battery storage. For each model, there is a description which includes where to find the model, whether it is currently maintained and any references that may be available. Modeling improvements underway at SNL include quantifying the uncertainty of individual system components, the overall uncertainty in modeled vs. measured results and modeling large PV systems. SNL is also conducting research into the overall reliability of PV systems.

  18. A framework for assessing the performance of health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C J; Frenk, J

    2000-01-01

    Health systems vary widely in performance, and countries with similar levels of income, education and health expenditure differ in their ability to attain key health goals. This paper proposes a framework to advance the understanding of health system performance. A first step is to define the boundaries of the health system, based on the concept of health action. Health action is defined as any set of activities whose primary intent is to improve or maintain health. Within these boundaries, the concept of performance is centred around three fundamental goals: improving health, enhancing responsiveness to the expectations of the population, and assuring fairness of financial contribution. Improving health means both increasing the average health status and reducing health inequalities. Responsiveness includes two major components: (a) respect for persons (including dignity, confidentiality and autonomy of individuals and families to decide about their own health); and (b) client orientation (including prompt attention, access to social support networks during care, quality of basic amenities and choice of provider). Fairness of financial contribution means that every household pays a fair share of the total health bill for a country (which may mean that very poor households pay nothing at all). This implies that everyone is protected from financial risks due to health care. The measurement of performance relates goal attainment to the resources available. Variation in performance is a function of the way in which the health system organizes four key functions: stewardship (a broader concept than regulation); financing (including revenue collection, fund pooling and purchasing); service provision (for personal and non-personal health services); and resource generation (including personnel, facilities and knowledge). By investigating these four functions and how they combine, it is possible not only to understand the proximate determinants of health system performance

  19. Probabilistic assessment of dynamic system performance. Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadj, M.

    1993-12-31

    Accurate prediction of dynamic system failure behavior can be important for the reliability and risk analyses of nuclear power plants, as well as for their backfitting to satisfy given constraints on overall system reliability, or optimization of system performance. Global analysis of dynamic systems through investigating the variations in the structure of the attractors of the system and the domains of attraction of these attractors as a function of the system parameters is also important for nuclear technology in order to understand the fault-tolerance as well as the safety margins of the system under consideration and to insure a safe operation of nuclear reactors. Such a global analysis would be particularly relevant to future reactors with inherent or passive safety features that are expected to rely on natural phenomena rather than active components to achieve and maintain safe shutdown. Conventionally, failure and global analysis of dynamic systems necessitate the utilization of different methodologies which have computational limitations on the system size that can be handled. Using a Chapman-Kolmogorov interpretation of system dynamics, a theoretical basis is developed that unifies these methodologies as special cases and which can be used for a comprehensive safety and reliability analysis of dynamic systems.

  20. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non

  1. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the studies undertaken in the framework of the project PAGIS of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. It concerns the analysis of the safety performances on the deep disposal of vitrified high level waste in four geological options: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. The report describes the selection of sites and scenarios with the corresponding data base. It outlines the methodology adopted for determining the safety level which can be achieved with an underground disposal system for HLW. Two complementary approaches have been implemented: 1) a set of deterministic calculations for evaluating the dose rates as a function of time and for analysing local sensitivity on single parameters or components of the disposal system, 2) stochastic calculations for both uncertainty and global sensitivity analyses. For each option, the report presents the most significant results, obtained from the calculations at specific sites-from both the approaches. Apart the dose rates and their expectation values, the predominant radionuclides and pathways to man are identified as well as the most sensitive parameters and phenomena. The final chapter concludes stating the feasibility of safe disposal of HLW in underground repositories. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  2. Assessing Performance of Botswana’s Public Hospital System: The Use of the World Health Organization Health System Performance Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onalenna Seitio-Kgokgwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Very few studies have assessed performance of Botswana public hospitals. We draw from a large research study assessing performance of the Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH to evaluate the performance of public hospital system using the World Health Organization Health Systems Performance Assessment Framework (WHO HSPAF. We aimed to evaluate performance of Botswana public hospital system; relate findings of the assessment to the potential for improvements in hospital performance; and determine the usefulness of the WHO HSPAF in assessing performance of hospital systems in a developing country. Methods This article is based on data collected from document analysis, 54 key informants comprising senior managers and staff of the MoH (N= 40 and senior officers from stakeholder organizations (N= 14, and surveys of 42 hospital managers and 389 health workers. Data from documents and transcripts were analyzed using content and thematic analysis while data analysis for surveys was descriptive determining proportions and percentages. Results The organizational structure of the Botswana’s public hospital system, authority and decision-making are highly centralized. Overall physical access to health services is high. However, challenges in the distribution of facilities and inpatient beds create inequities and inefficiencies. Capacity of the hospitals to deliver services is limited by inadequate resources. There are significant challenges with the quality of care. Conclusion While Botswana invested considerably in building hospitals around the country resulting in high physical access to services, the organization and governance of the hospital system, and inadequate resources limit service delivery. The ongoing efforts to decentralize management of hospitals to district level entities should be expedited. The WHO HSPAF enabled us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public hospital system. Though relatively new, this approach proved

  3. On the choice of performance assessment criteria and their impact on the overall system performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Green, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illuminate the impact of the choice of a system’s performance criteria on the quality of the corresponding monitoring system’s assessment results. Special attention is given to the performance issues that are caused by or can be solved by control actions. The compressor...

  4. Comment Response on the Final Report: Peer Review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Management and Operating Contractor established a Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (hereinafter ''the Panel'') at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office. The objectives of the peer review were to provide: (1) A formal, independent evaluation and critique of Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain: Total System Performance Assessment, Volume 3 (DOE 1998a; hereinafter ''Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment'') that was conducted in support of the Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1998b). (2) Suggestions for improvements as the U.S. Department of Energy prepares to develop the documentation for a Total System Performance Assessment to support a potential License Application. The Panel conducted a phased review over a two-year period to observe the development and, ultimately, to review the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). During the development of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Panel submitted three Interim Reports (Whipple et al., 1997a, 1997b, and 1998) to the Management and Operating Contractor with recommendations and comments on the process models, model abstractions, and draft documentation for the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). The Panel's Final Report Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (Whipple et al. 1999; hereinafter ''Final Report'') on the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a) is based primarily on the completed Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998), and the cited references. The Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) includes the major points from the three Interim Reports (Whipple et al. 1997a, 1997b, and 1998

  5. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  6. The importance of linkages in post-closure system performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews the findings of an NEA consultant meeting held on 29-30 April 1985 which met to consider the programme for a workshop on system performance assessments. It describes the rationale behind the choice of linkages between different elements of performance assessment as the focus of the workshop, and the topics chosen for review

  7. Performance Assessment of the Exploration Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter. D. Layne; Tabb, David; Perry, Jay

    2008-01-01

    A new water recovery system architecture designed to fulfill the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Exploration Policy has been tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This water recovery system architecture evolved from the current state-of-the-art system developed for the International Space Station (ISS). Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing system optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold. First, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase. Second, vapor compression distillation (VCD) technology processes the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removing VOCs from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treating the various waste streams by VCD reduces the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follows, as well as the aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation process further downstream. This paper documents the results of testing this new architecture.

  8. Performance assessment for the water level control system in steam generator of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We consider the two PI controller steam generator water level control systems. ► We develop performance assessment methods for plants with stable and unstable zeros. ► The examples show the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Abstract: The steam generator water level control system is the most important components of a nuclear power plant. The operating steam generator water level control system is increasingly recognized as a capital asset that should be routinely maintained and monitored. However, the control loop performance assessment is still an open problem; thus, the performance assessment technology will be brought into the steam generator water level control system in nuclear power plants. Performance assessment methods for the plant with stable and unstable zeros of two PI controller systems are developed at all specific power levels. The numerical examples will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik-Shukor, AR; Klazinga, NS; Arah, OA

    2007-01-01

    Background. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods. We explored the performance assessment framework and system o...

  10. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries. PMID:23153286

  11. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993.

  12. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993

  13. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali; Klazinga, Niek; Arah, Onyebuchi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods. We explored the performance assessment framework ...

  14. A System-of-Systems Framework for Performance Assessment in Complex Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jin; Mostafavi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Performance inefficiency is a critical challenge facing the construction industry. Despite the efforts made in the existing body of literature, an integrated theory of performance assessment facilitating a bottom-up understanding of the dynamic behaviors, uncertainties, and interdependencies between the constituents in construction projects is still missing. The traditional paradigm for performance assessment z is mainly based on a reductionism perspective, in which construction projects are ...

  15. The grout/glass performance assessment code system (GPACS) with verification and benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPACS is a computer code system for calculating water flow (unsaturated or saturated), solute transport, and human doses due to the slow release of contaminants from a waste form (in particular grout or glass) through an engineered system and through a vadose zone to an aquifer, well and river. This dual-purpose document is intended to serve as a user's guide and verification/benchmark document for the Grout/Glass Performance Assessment Code system (GPACS). GPACS can be used for low-level-waste (LLW) Glass Performance Assessment and many other applications including other low-level-waste performance assessments and risk assessments. Based on all the cses presented, GPACS is adequate (verified) for calculating water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated-zone sediments and for calculating human doses via the groundwater pathway

  16. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed

  17. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif SedighNejad; Tariq Iqbal; John Quaicoe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI), measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated communit...

  18. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews.

  19. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews

  20. Performance assessment of a closed-loop system for diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Millana, A; Fico, G; Fernández-Llatas, C; Traver, V

    2015-12-01

    Telemedicine systems can play an important role in the management of diabetes, a chronic condition that is increasing worldwide. Evaluations on the consistency of information across these systems and on their performance in a real situation are still missing. This paper presents a remote monitoring system for diabetes management based on physiological sensors, mobile technologies and patient/doctor applications over a service-oriented architecture that has been evaluated in an international trial (83,905 operation records). The proposed system integrates three types of running environments and data engines in a single service-oriented architecture. This feature is used to assess key performance indicators comparing them with other type of architectures. Data sustainability across the applications has been evaluated showing better outcomes for full integrated sensors. At the same time, runtime performance of clients has been assessed spotting no differences regarding the operative environment. PMID:25667016

  1. Performance Assessment using ACM in DVB-S2/Advanced DVB-RCS Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boussemart, Vincent; Brandt, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the benefits of using adaptive coding and modulation in DVB-S2/advanced DVB-RCS satellite systems. The results are based on a satellite system simulator which was developed during an ESA study. Such a simulator aims at making performance assessments before implementing a system, at developing and evaluating new algorithms like schedulers, encapsulators or resource managers. The simulator is capable of reproducing DVB-S2 and advanced DVB-RCS standards and techniques so that...

  2. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k{sub d}) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone.

  3. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (kd) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone

  4. Guideline for assessing the performance of electric power systems in natural hazard and human threat events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W.U.; Nishenko, S.P.; Honegger, D.G.; Kempner, L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Electric power utilities are familiar with and skilled in preparing for and responding to almost-routine natural hazard events such as strong wind and ice storms and seasonal floods, as well as intentional human acts such as vandalism. Recent extreme weather (hurricanes Katrina and Rita), extremely destructive international earthquakes (in Sumatra and Pakistan), and nation-wide concerns regarding future terrorist attacks have increased the pressure on utilities to take appropriate steps to avoid being overwhelmed by such infrequent and exceedingly severe events. Determining what constitutes the appropriate steps to take requires various levels of understanding of the specific hazards and the risks faced by the utility. The American Lifelines Alliance (www. americanlifelinesalliance.org) has prepared a Guideline that provides clear, concise, and nationally-applicable guidance on determining the scope and level of effort necessary to assess power system performance in the wide range of natural hazard or human threat events. Included in this Guideline are specific procedures to follow and information to consider in performing standardized assessments. With the results of such assessments, utility owners can effectively establish and carry out risk management programs that will lead to achieving appropriate levels of performance in future events. The Guideline incorporates an inquiry-driven process with a two-phase performance assessment that can be applied to power systems of any size. The screening phase enables systems or components that are clearly not at risk to be screened out early. The subsequent analysis phase uses results from the screening phase to prioritize and allocate resources for more detailed assessments of hazard, vulnerability, and system performance. This process helps assure that the scope of the assessment meets the specific performance objectives of the inquiry. A case history is presented to illustrate the type of experience with an inquiry

  5. Application of system dynamics for assessment of sustainable performance of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN L.Y.; WU Y.Z.; CHAN E.H.W.; HAO J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable performance is expected to become a major factor when examining the feasibility of a construction project in terms of its life cycle performance. The study on which this paper is based developed a simulation model, using system dynamics methodology, to assess the sustainable performance of projects. Three major factors are used to examine project sustainable performance (PSP): the sustainability of economic development (E), the sustainability of social development (S), and the sustainability of environmental development (En). Sustainable development ability (SDA) was used as a prototype to evaluate the case. This paper explains and demonstrates the procedures used to develop the model and finally offers an approach for assessing the feasibility of a construction project in terms of its sustainable performance.

  6. Practical application of the KMS: 1) total system performance assessment - 16349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive total system performance assessment (PA) is a key component of the safety case. Within this PA there are a number of tasks that reuse specific models and datasets, together with associated knowledge base for the disposal system considered. These are tasks where recent developments in the Knowledge Management System by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA KMS) can lead to optimisation of procedures. This paper will outline the reformulation of PA as a Knowledge Management (KM) task, discuss application of KM technologies to PA tasks, and illustrate how these can be handled electronically in a 'Performance assessment All-In-one Report System (PAIRS)' utilising hyper-links and embedded tools to minimise duplication of material, ease Quality Assurance (QA) and facilitate the regular updating required in the Japanese programme. (authors)

  7. Study on Thermal Performance Assessment of Solar Hot Water Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Hot Water Systems (SHWS are gaining popularity in Malaysia due to increasing cost of electricity and also awareness of environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels. The introduction of solar hot water systems in Malaysia is an indication that it has potential market. However, there is a need for a proper methodology for rating the energy performance of these systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the thermal performance of several SHWS subject to four different locations in Malaysia using combined direct measurement and computer modelling using the TRNSYS simulation program. The results showed distinct differences in performance of the systems as a result of locations and manufacturers. The findings could be used further in developing an acceptable rating system for SHWS in Malaysia.

  8. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Gardner, William Payton [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  9. Performance Impacts through Intelligent Transport Systems : An Assessment of how to Measure and Evaluate

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Patrick; Kadner, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses how to measure and evaluate performance impacts of IntelligentTransport Systems (ITS) in the transport chain.The importance of transportation in global trade has increased significantly in the lastdecades. Cost pressure, rising customer demand for sophisticated logistics services, sustainabilityand security as well as safety issues have boosted the need for more efficient,effective and differentiated transport operations. Intelligent Transport Systems werefound to have the...

  10. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  11. High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented

  12. Sufficient validation: the value of robustness in performance assessment and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative performance assessment relies on a chain of models describing the evolution of the entire repository system. Assessment models, along with their associated databases, have varying requirements for validation depending on the complexity of the system modelled, the temporal and spatial extrapolation required and the sensitivity of overall system performance to the specific processes being modelled. A model can be considered robust if we have confidence that the results are either correct or that they overpredict detriment. Validation is the process of confirming that a model is sufficiently close to the truth; an adequately validated model is therefore obviously robust. To derive a robust model of a real system, all potentially detrimental processes need to be explicitly considered but demonstrably favourable processes only need to be considered to the extent that they are required to provide sufficient performance. This simplification in modelling reality can decrease validation requirements. A robust model with no excessive demands on validation results from a combination of a simple, well understood system with large reserves of performance and a conservative approach to choice of methods and data. On a case by case basis, the feasibility of achieving reasonable validation needs to be examined. If acceptable validation is not achieved, either the conceptual model framework must be changed or the system itself must be improved. 5 figs

  13. Transparency of the Total System Performance Assessment through the Development of the FEAS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparency on the total system performance assessment (TSPA) is the key issue to enhance the public acceptance for a permanent high level radioactive repository. Throughout the lessons accumulated in international projects, it turns out to be important to translate technical languages to more understandable ones. One of the key consolidated statements of the RISCOM project was 'the public should know you have a model, which is clear to everybody about value judgments, facts, uncertainties and questions'. In fact, the final assessment is the integration of identifying and clarifying facts, expert judgment, uncertainties, value judgment, level of significance, and open questions, which cannot be easily understood. Traditionally, the study on features, events, and processes (FEPs) and associated scenarios has been regarded as the starting point to open the communicative discussion on TSPA such as what to evaluate, how to evaluate and how to translate outcomes into more friendly language that many stakeholders can easily understand and react with. However, in most cases, it is difficult for stakeholders outside the performance assessment field to assess the details on the story of the safety assessment; scenario and technical background of it. Fortunately, the advent of the internet era opens up the possibility of two way communication from the beginning of the performance assessment so that every stake bolder can exchange their keen opinions on the safety issues. To achieve it, KAERI develops the systematic approach from the FEPs to Assessment method flow chart, through the formation of integrated FEPs corresponding to the elements in the RES matrix. All information is integrated into the web based program named FEAS (FEp to Assessment through Scenario development) under development in KAERI. In parallel, two independent systems are also under development, the web based quality assurance system and the performance assessment input database. Throughout the next phase

  14. Human performance information management system: Inventory, evaluation and assessment of NRC data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work effort is to develop enhanced methods for managing and accessing information on licensee personnel performance at nuclear power plants. Inadequate personnel performance is implicated in about half of the significant events at NPP's each year. Ail understanding of the factors which shape human performance can more effectively focus NRC's attention on the root cause of these incidents and guide regulatory actions. One key to understanding the root cause of human performance incidents is to develop better methods for managing existing data currently captured by the NRC. The tasks required for this effort are: 1. Evaluate existing data sources and coding schemes addressing human performance at NPP's. 2. Define the data needs of NRC end users. 3. Design and fully document a data management system on human performance during incidents/events at NPP's. 4. Download and integrate retrospective human performance data from available NRC documents and data sources. 5. Validate the usability for the human performance data management system through user feed back testing. The final product is to define and develop a prototype system to support the systematic integration and retrieval of human performance information so that NRC personnel can more easily and effectively identify, prioritize and resolve human performance issues related to root cause incidents at nuclear power plants. The first task of this multi-task initiative was the identification, quantification, and evaluation of tile existing sources of human performance information generated by NRC. The categories of information analyzed included: operating event assessments, team inspections (Augmented Inspections and Incident Investigations), regional inspections, independent assessments of special problems, NRC Morning Reports, and licensee event reports (LER's)

  15. Performance measurement in the Dutch prison system. Methodological guidance for public sector performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study provided an overview of the tasks that Dutch prisons have to perform. At many points laws and regulations clarify the tasks for which prisons are deemed responsible, although there is a lack of clarity at some points. Once a clear overview of the tasks can be provided, performance can get

  16. Subjective performance assessment of x-ray image intensified television fluoroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the theory behind the performance of image intensifier systems and describes a set of test objects with which the performance may be assessed. It has also detailed a typical protocol for the use of the test object and has presented results for units surveyed so far. A set of test objects for subjective assessment of image intensifier systems has been constructed. These test objects have been used on a large number of intensifier systems throughout New Zealand. The results have shown that there is a wide range of standards of performance between the best and worst units. From these results criteria for acceptable performance for intensifier input dose rate, low contrast detectability, contrast-detail performance and limiting resolution have been derived. The test objects should prove particularly useful for quality assurance monitoring of image intensifier systems, and should greatly assist in the decision of when replacement of an intensifier is due. The use of these test objects is therefore recommended for such quality assurance programmes in New Zealand radiology departments. (author). 16 refs., 9 tabs., 19 figs

  17. Preliminary assessment of adjuster system performance in CANDU-6 RUFIC core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four operational transients in CANDU-6 RUFIC core have been simulated to assess the adjuster system performance. These transients included startup after a short shutdown, startup after a poison-out shutdown, shim mode operation, and a stepback to 60% full power. Also, an alternative adjuster-banking scheme has been assessed in this report. The alternative adjuster-banking scheme involves rods in Bank 1 and Bank 7 being re-distributed within the two banks. In the alternative adjuster-banking scheme, Bank 1 becomes the heaviest one. The results of the preliminary assessment indicated that the adjuster system as currently designed and installed in the NU core will adequately meet the functional requirements in the RUFIC core. Comparing to the adjuster system performance in the NU core, the total worth of the adjuster in the RUFIC core is reduced, leading to less xenon override capability and shimming capability. However, the overall performance is expected to still be satisfactory. The overall results from the transient studied indicated that the alternative banking scheme does show some better performance characteristics and merits further detailed studies

  18. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  19. The Influence of Employees' Involvement in Performance Assessment System on Employees' Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Hashemi Fesharaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of employees' involvement in performance assessment system on employees' creativity of sales and engineering departments of Ebtekar manufacturer. This empirical survey analyzed data by descriptive analytical methods. The sample size based on random sampling formula was determined as 97 employees. The questionnaire was used to gather data and structural equation modeling was used to data analysis. The results of this study show that all effects were adopted with the theoretical framework. Therefore, the variable of employees' involvement in performance assessment system positively influences the employees' abilities and skills to create creativity. This variable positively affects on employees' attitudes toward creativity and employees' perceptions of social pressures and norms. Also, the variables of employee's attitudes, social pressures and norms, and employees' abilities and skills positively influence the creativity.

  20. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II

    1992-09-01

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community.

  1. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community

  2. Probabilistic structural seismic performance assessment methodology and application to an actual bridge-foundation -ground system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuyi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a probabilistic structural seismic performance assessment methodology. To facilitate, guide, and validate this development, the targeted methodology is applied to an actual bridge- foundation-ground system. First, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) predicts the possible earthquake ground motion intensities (IM) and their probabilities at the structure site based on the seismic environment. The result of PSHA is a seismic hazard curve that rep...

  3. Methodology for assessing system performance loss within a proactive maintenance framework

    OpenAIRE

    Cocheteux, Pierre; Voisin, Alexandre; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    International audience Maintenance plays now a critical role in manufacturing for achieving important cost savings and competitive advantage while preserving product conditions. It suggests moving from conventional maintenance practices to predictive strategy. Indeed the maintenance action has to be done at the right time based on the system performance and component Remaining Useful Life (RUL) assessed by a prognostic process. In that way, this paper proposes a methodology in order to eva...

  4. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  5. Simulation of a Geiger-Mode Imaging LADAR System for Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongjoon; Lee, Impyeong; Kwon, Yong Joon

    2013-01-01

    As LADAR systems applications gradually become more diverse, new types of systems are being developed. When developing new systems, simulation studies are an essential prerequisite. A simulator enables performance predictions and optimal system parameters at the design level, as well as providing sample data for developing and validating application algorithms. The purpose of the study is to propose a method for simulating a Geiger-mode imaging LADAR system. We develop simulation software to assess system performance and generate sample data for the applications. The simulation is based on three aspects of modeling—the geometry, radiometry and detection. The geometric model computes the ranges to the reflection points of the laser pulses. The radiometric model generates the return signals, including the noises. The detection model determines the flight times of the laser pulses based on the nature of the Geiger-mode detector. We generated sample data using the simulator with the system parameters and analyzed the detection performance by comparing the simulated points to the reference points. The proportion of the outliers in the simulated points reached 25.53%, indicating the need for efficient outlier elimination algorithms. In addition, the false alarm rate and dropout rate of the designed system were computed as 1.76% and 1.06%, respectively. PMID:23823970

  6. Simulation of a Geiger-Mode Imaging LADAR System for Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Joon Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As LADAR systems applications gradually become more diverse, new types of systems are being developed. When developing new systems, simulation studies are an essential prerequisite. A simulator enables performance predictions and optimal system parameters at the design level, as well as providing sample data for developing and validating application algorithms. The purpose of the study is to propose a method for simulating a Geiger-mode imaging LADAR system. We develop simulation software to assess system performance and generate sample data for the applications. The simulation is based on three aspects of modeling—the geometry, radiometry and detection. The geometric model computes the ranges to the reflection points of the laser pulses. The radiometric model generates the return signals, including the noises. The detection model determines the flight times of the laser pulses based on the nature of the Geiger-mode detector. We generated sample data using the simulator with the system parameters and analyzed the detection performance by comparing the simulated points to the reference points. The proportion of the outliers in the simulated points reached 25.53%, indicating the need for efficient outlier elimination algorithms. In addition, the false alarm rate and dropout rate of the designed system were computed as 1.76% and 1.06%, respectively.

  7. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  9. Effect of room modelling and sensor position on performance assessment of variable air volume control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), Champs sur Marne (France); Dexter, A.L. [Oxford Univ., Dept. of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) systems are commonly used for air conditioning in buildings. The testing of different control strategies and controllers for this application has been a main concern in several simulation studies. In these simulations much attention has been paid to the accuracy of the models of the VAV system while very simple models are often used at the room level. These room models assume that the air in the room is perfectly mixed, even when the prevailing conditions are not at all homogeneous. Another important issue when testing controllers is the method used to assess the control performance. Since it makes no sense to use very detailed room models, if the method of performance assessment is insensitive to the way in which the room is modelled, both issues must be treated simultaneously. The paper considers the problem of assessing the performance of VAV systems that use ceiling diffusers. The study includes the development of a convection model for a room. Its complexity is reduced to a minimum to allow detailed dynamic simulation of a whole building, complete with its VAV system and other building services (e.g., sun-blinds, lighting, etc.). Since airflow in a room depends strongly on the type of diffuser that is used, the study is carried out for both round and slot diffusers. Results are presented that show that the room model and the position of the sensor affect the performance in different ways depending on the diffuser type and the operating mode. It is concluded that there are only small differences in terms of thermal comfort but significant differences in terms of overall energy consumption. (Author)

  10. Assessment of In-Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning System Performed in a Virtual Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a high-performed high-availability in-cloud enterprise resources planning (in-cloud ERP which has deployed in the virtual machine cluster. The proposed approach can resolve the crucial problems of ERP failure due to unexpected downtime and failover between physical hosts in enterprises, causing operation termination and hence data loss. Besides, the proposed one together with the access control authentication and network security is capable of preventing intrusion hacked and/or malicious attack via internet. Regarding system assessment, cost-performance (C-P ratio, a remarkable cost effectiveness evaluation, has been applied to several remarkable ERP systems. As a result, C-P ratio evaluated from the experiments shows that the proposed approach outperforms two well-known benchmark ERP systems, namely, in-house ECC 6.0 and in-cloud ByDesign.

  11. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  12. Effect of online formative assessment on summative performance in integrated musculoskeletal system module

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Nilesh Kumar; Barua, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of web-based formative assessment practices on performance of undergraduate medical students in summative assessments is not widely studied. This study was conducted among third-year undergraduate medical students of a designated university in Malaysia to compare the effect, on performance in summative assessment, of repeated computer-based formative assessment with automated feedback with that of single paper-based formative assessment with face-to face feedback. Method...

  13. RAPID/RAM/UM - An integrated computer environment for performing system reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear utility companies have now performed plant-specific system reliability assessments (SRAs) for a variety of applications, such as determination of alternative system design modifications, assessment of testing and maintenance strategies, examination of procedural changes, responding to regulatory inquiries, etc. Manually updating the SRA logic models and component reliability data to keep them up-to-date is a tedious, time-consuming, man-power-intensive, and sometimes impractical task. The amount of information as well as the lack of adequate computer software for automated updating makes it difficult to keep the SRAs current. RAPID's RAM and UM software, which are part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI's) RAPID software development effort under the risk assessment program of the Nuclear Power Division, are designed to overcome many of these difficulties and to provide a productive environment for performing various system reliability engineering activities. This paper summarizes the development and demonstration of the RAPID/RAM-UM software at Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP's) Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station

  14. Borehole thermal energy storage system for heating applications: Thermodynamic performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of BTES for heating season is carried out. • Exergy efficiency of BTES is determined to be 41.35% for overall system. • COPHP is determined to be 2.6 for overall system. • Increasing evaporator temperature to 6 °C decreases the exergy destruction rate. • Increasing condenser temperature to 70 °C increases the exergy destruction rate. - Abstract: A comprehensive thermodynamic assessment of a borehole thermal energy storage system (BTES), which helps in meeting the heating and cooling demands of campus buildings of University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), is presented for the heating case. The BTES located on UOIT campus in Oshawa, Canada is recognized as the world’s second largest BTES system. Energy and exergy analyses of the heating system are performed through the balance equations, and exergy destruction rates are determined for each system component and the overall BTES. In addition, a comparative system performance assessment is carried out. Based on the conducted research for the studied system, COPHP is calculated to be 2.65 for heating applications. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the boilers are determined to be 83.2% and 35.83%, respectively. The results of the exergy analysis show that the boilers are the major contributor to exergy destruction, followed by condenser and evaporator. The effects of condenser and evaporator temperatures of the heat pump systems on energy and exergy efficiencies are also investigated. The overall exergy efficiency of the whole system is calculated to be 41.35%

  15. Plant Performance Assessment System (PPAS) for crew performance evaluation. Lessons learned from an alarm system study conducted in HAMMLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental evaluation study of an alarm system was conducted in HAMMLAB. Sixteen scenarios of disturbances in the plant were simulated with the participation of six crews of professional operators from the Loviisa nuclear power station in Finland. This HWR describes a procedure developed to systematically evaluate and score crew performance from plant measures during the simulated scenarios. It comprises two parts: the first part is a description and discussion of the procedure and it's application to the alarm study. The second part provides a summary of information related to each of the sixteen scenarios. Tables of results are also presented together with figures showing the crew scores, which are based on plant performance versus the scenarios. (author)

  16. Performance and Risk Assessment of Soil-Structure Interaction Systems Based on Finite Element Reliability Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of performance-based earthquake engineering, reliability method has been of significant importance in performance and risk assessment of structures or soil-structure interaction (SSI systems. The finite element (FE reliability method combines FE analysis with state-of-the-art methods in reliability analysis and has been employed increasingly to estimate the probability of occurrence of failure events corresponding to various hazard levels (e.g., earthquakes with various intensity. In this paper, crucial components for FE reliability analysis are reviewed and summarized. Furthermore, recent advances in both time invariant and time variant reliability analysis methods for realistic nonlinear SSI systems are presented and applied to a two-dimensional two story building on layered soil. Various time invariant reliability analysis methods are applied, including the first-order reliability method (FORM, importance sampling method, and orthogonal plane sampling (OPS method. For time variant reliability analysis, an upper bound of the failure probability is obtained from numerical integration of the mean outcrossing rate (MOCR. The MOCR is computed by using FORM analysis and OPS analysis. Results by different FE reliability methods are compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost. This paper provides valuable insights for reliability based probabilistic performance and risk assessment of SSI systems.

  17. A comparative application of the Repository Integration Program (RIP) to Total System Performance Assessment, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 and FY 1992, Sandia National Laboratory and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory were assigned the responsibility to generate initial Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs) of the Yucca Mountain site. The analyses performed by these organizations (called TSPA-1991) are reported in Barnard et al(1992) and Eslinger et al. (1993). During this same time period, Golder Associates Inc. was assigned the task of generating a model capable of analyzing the total system performance of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The developed model, called Repository Integration Program (RIP), is documented in Kossik and Hachey (1993), Miller et al. (1993), and Golder Associates Inc. (1993). In FY 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of TSPA-2. Prior to initiating the next TSPA iteration, it was decided that it would be valuable to evaluate the applicability of RIP for use in this iteration. Therefore, analyses were conducted to compare the results generated by RIP to those reported in TSPA-1991. In particular, the aim was to generate a RIP input data set as equivalent as possible to that documented in Barnard et al. (1992) and to analyze the total system performance (as well as the performance of the individual subsystem components of the waste package/Engineered Barrier System (EBS), unsaturated gaseous flow and transport, unsaturated aqueous flow and transport, saturated flow and transport, and disruptive processes/events). The performance measure for comparison with the results of TSPA-1991 is the cumulative release of radionuclides to the accessible environment over a 10,000-year period following closure normalized to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits specified in 40 CFR 191

  18. Performance assessment of a micro-cogeneration system under realistic operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performances of a micro-cogeneration system have been experimentally evaluated. • Cogenerator performances have been compared with those of a traditional system. • Measured data have been analyzed from both energy and exergy points of view. - Abstract: The European Parliament stated that high-efficiency cogeneration is a Community priority given the potential benefits of cogeneration with regard to saving primary energy and reducing emissions. According to this position, the performance of many micro-cogeneration systems have been assessed from an energy and environmental point of view. However, in the most part of cases, the assessments have been performed by using technical data from manufacturers and/or experimental results measured during steady-state operation, without considering the inefficiencies related to the transient periods; in addition, few works have been devoted to analyze the system operation from an exergy-based point of view. In this paper the electric load-following operation of an internal combustion engine based micro-cogeneration unit with 6.0 kW as nominal electric output has been experimentally investigated in electric load-following operation during a 24 h dynamic test with the application of a realistic daily load profile representing the Italian domestic non-HVAC electric demand for a multi-family house of five dwellings. The measured data have been compared with those that would be associated with servicing the building with electricity from the central electric grid and heat from a natural gas fired boiler from an energy, exergy and environmental points of view

  19. Assessment Methodology of the Temelin NPP Control System Performance and Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and quality of the NPP Temelin control system is demonstrated by means of tests during the power ascension testing stage. A methodology has been developed in I and C Energo for the test assessment in which there are defined criteria determining the grade of meeting the design requirements. The assessment of the control process quality is based on the evaluation of the behaviour of the main controlled quantities in the course of transients of the test. The design responses of the transient processes have been acquired by means of the unit model DYTE. Eight criteria conditions are assessed which are posed on the controlled quantities. It is by meeting these criteria that it can be demonstrated that control system quality corresponds to the requirements defined in the design specifications. The criteria structure makes possible an automated processing of the measured data. The criteria serve to the check of the performance of the Temelin NPP unit control system (major unit controllers, logical control, limitation system) against the design. They determine the borders of the area in which the numeric values of the assessed parameters should vary if the work is made in compliance with the design. The criteria values make it possible to determine the achieved quality of the NPP Temelin unit major controllers after the completed test. The construction of the criteria makes use of the automated measured data processing and makes it possible to formulate the assessment result in the form - 'met, not met'. Additional outputs are the determination of : a) the magnitude (range) of the non-compliance of the real unit behaviour against the requirements of the design (or against the specifications requirements for the control system supplier), b) the reasons of non-compliance found at testing in the frame of the power ascension stage of the commissioning, c) the impact of the found non-compliance on the further continuation of the power ascension stage of the

  20. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  1. Probabilistic safety assessment of LWR containment systems performance. Report of principal working group n.5 on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews current approaches to PSA of LWR containment systems performance. It is based on a variety of recent PSA reports which deal with Level-2 PSA. The report is a summary of recent state-of-the-art containment analysis and is intended to assist analysts in their selection of the most appropriate methods of extending Level-1 plant safety evaluations into Level-2 assessments of the containment performance. The document is primarily concerned with the performance of the containment as an engineered system rather than with the source terms consequent upon its failure. It is addressed mainly to the performance of large dry PWR containments, with a secondary emphasis on other containment types. After explaining the purposes of these analyses, a survey of LWR containment analysis options is presented: direct approaches using containment event tree construction, indirect approaches based on previous PSAs, alternative and novel approaches. The selection process is then described, followed by conclusions on their suitability for various cases: accident management, research prioritization, identifying design weaknesses, specific issue resolution, modelling physical reality, etc.

  2. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B.P.; Mahoney, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites.

  3. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites

  4. Safety and performance assessment of geologic disposal systems for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a methodology for the safety and performance assesment of final disposal of nuclear wastes into crystalline bedrock. The applicability of radiation protection objectives is discussed, as well as the goals of the assessment in the various repository system development phases. Due consideration is given to the description of the pertinent analysis methods and to the comprehensive model system. The methodology has been applied to assess the acceptability of the basic disposal concepts and to study the possibilities for the optimization of protection. Furthermore, performance of different components in the multiple barrier disposal systems is estimated. The waste types dealt with are low- and intermediate-level waste as well as high-level spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear power plant. In addition, an option of high-level vitrified waste from reprocessing of spent fuel is taken into account. On the basis of the various analyses carried out it can be concluded that the disposal of different nuclear wastes in the Finnish bedrock in properly designed repositories meets the radiation protection objectives with good confidence. In addition, the studies indicate that the safety margins are considerable. This is due to the fact that the overall performance of the multiple barrier disposal systems analysed is not sensitive to possible unfavourable changes in barrier properties. From the optimization of protection point of view it can be concluded that there is no need to develop more effective repository designs than those analysed in this thesis. In fact, the results indicate that the most sophisticated designs have already gone beyond an optimal level of safety

  5. Fuzzy-logic-based network for complex systems risk assessment: application to ship performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Seraphin C

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a new interpretation of intuitionistic fuzzy sets in the advanced framework of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is extended to monitor safety-critical systems' performance. Not only is the proposed approach more effective, but it also takes into account the fuzzy rules that deal with imperfect knowledge/information and, therefore, is different from the classical Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, which assumes that the rule (the knowledge) is perfect. We provide an analytical solution to the practical and important problem of the conceptual probabilistic approach for formal ship safety assessment using the fuzzy set theory that involves uncertainties associated with the reliability input data. Thus, the overall safety of the ship engine is investigated as an object of risk analysis using the fuzzy mapping structure, which considers uncertainty and partial truth in the input-output mapping. The proposed method integrates direct evidence of the frame of discernment and is demonstrated through references to examples where fuzzy set models are informative. These simple applications illustrate how to assess the conflict of sensor information fusion for a sufficient cooling power system of vessels under extreme operation conditions. It was found that propulsion engine safety systems are not only a function of many environmental and operation profiles but are also dynamic and complex. PMID:22269514

  6. Performance assessment of a single-pixel compressive sensing imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bosq, Todd W.; Preece, Bradley L.

    2016-05-01

    Conventional electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) systems capture an image by measuring the light incident at each of the millions of pixels in a focal plane array. Compressive sensing (CS) involves capturing a smaller number of unconventional measurements from the scene, and then using a companion process known as sparse reconstruction to recover the image as if a fully populated array that satisfies the Nyquist criteria was used. Therefore, CS operates under the assumption that signal acquisition and data compression can be accomplished simultaneously. CS has the potential to acquire an image with equivalent information content to a large format array while using smaller, cheaper, and lower bandwidth components. However, the benefits of CS do not come without compromise. The CS architecture chosen must effectively balance between physical considerations (SWaP-C), reconstruction accuracy, and reconstruction speed to meet operational requirements. To properly assess the value of such systems, it is necessary to fully characterize the image quality, including artifacts and sensitivity to noise. Imagery of the two-handheld object target set at range was collected using a passive SWIR single-pixel CS camera for various ranges, mirror resolution, and number of processed measurements. Human perception experiments were performed to determine the identification performance within the trade space. The performance of the nonlinear CS camera was modeled with the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) by mapping the nonlinear degradations to an equivalent linear shift invariant model. Finally, the limitations of CS modeling techniques will be discussed.

  7. Assessing Impact of Dual Sensor Enhanced Flight Vision Systems on Departure Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Vision (SV) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) may serve as game-changing technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System and the envisioned Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve the safety and operational tempos of current-day Visual Flight Rules operations irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. One significant obstacle lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A motion-base simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and pilot workload of conducting departures and approaches on runways without centerline lighting in visibility as low as 300 feet runway visual range (RVR) by use of onboard vision system technologies on a Head-Up Display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews evaluated two methods of combining dual sensor (millimeter wave radar and forward looking infrared) EFVS imagery on pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring HUDs. In addition, the impact of adding SV to the dual sensor EFVS imagery on crew flight performance and workload was assessed. Using EFVS concepts during 300 RVR terminal operations on runways without centerline lighting appears feasible as all EFVS concepts had equivalent (or better) departure performance and landing rollout performance, without any workload penalty, than those flown with a conventional HUD to runways having centerline lighting. Adding SV imagery to EFVS concepts provided situation awareness improvements but no discernible improvements in flight path maintenance.

  8. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ''dry-out'', and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  10. Assessment of sensor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Waldmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an international commitment to develop a comprehensive, coordinated and sustained ocean observation system. However, a foundation for any observing, monitoring or research effort is effective and reliable in situ sensor technologies that accurately measure key environmental parameters. Ultimately, the data used for modelling efforts, management decisions and rapid responses to ocean hazards are only as good as the instruments that collect them. There is also a compelling need to develop and incorporate new or novel technologies to improve all aspects of existing observing systems and meet various emerging challenges.

    Assessment of Sensor Performance was a cross-cutting issues session at the international OceanSensors08 workshop in Warnemünde, Germany, which also has penetrated some of the papers published as a result of the workshop (Denuault, 2009; Kröger et al., 2009; Zielinski et al., 2009. The discussions were focused on how best to classify and validate the instruments required for effective and reliable ocean observations and research. The following is a summary of the discussions and conclusions drawn from this workshop, which specifically addresses the characterisation of sensor systems, technology readiness levels, verification of sensor performance and quality management of sensor systems.

  11. Assessment of sensor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Waldmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an international commitment to develop a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained ocean observation system. However, a foundation for any observing, monitoring, or research effort is effective and reliable in situ sensor technologies that accurately measure key environmental parameters. Ultimately, the data used for modeling efforts, management decisions, and rapid responses to ocean hazards are only as good as the instruments that collect them. There is also a compelling need to develop and incorporate new or novel technologies to improve all aspects of existing observing systems and meet various emerging challenges.

    Assessment of Sensor Performance was a cross-cutting issues session at the international OceanSensor08 workshop in Warnemünde, Germany. The discussions were focused on how best to classify and validate the instruments required for effective and reliable ocean observations and research. The following is a summary of the discussions and conclusions drawn from this workshop, which specifically addresses the characterization of sensor systems, technology readiness levels, verification of sensor performance, and quality management of sensor systems.

  12. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  13. TURVA-2012: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. Posiva's safety concept is based on long-term isolation and containment, which is achieved through a robust engineered barrier system (EBS) design and favourable geological conditions at the repository site. The reference design considered in the TURVA-2012 safety case is the KBS-3V design, with the EBS consisting of a copper-iron canister, a buffer of swelling clay material, a backfill in the deposition tunnels of low-permeability material and closure of the central tunnels and other underground openings. The host rock acts as a natural barrier. Each barrier contributes to safety through one or more safety function. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the EBS and the target properties for the host rock. The performance assessment (Posiva, 2013), which is a key component of TURVA-2012, analyses the ability of the repository system to provide containment and isolation of the spent nuclear fuel during the long-term evolution of the system and the site. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the engineered barriers and target properties for the host rock, for example properties related to the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of the canister as well as groundwater flow and composition. The analyses take into account the uncertainties in the initial state, the subsequent thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical evolution of the repository system and uncertainties in the evolution. The conclusions of the performance assessment are based mostly on the output of key modelling activities. Whenever modelling is not possible the conclusions

  14. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network. PMID:26022395

  15. Achieving transparency in the total system performance assessment of a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has presented an approach to quantitative assessment of the degree of postclosure defense-in-depth provided by the reference system of the VA (Viability Assessment). This approach identifies principal barriers, assesses barriers for common uncertainty and failure mode, conducts barrier neutralization analyses, and evaluates overall defense-in-depth. The neutralization approach of step 3 is particularly useful in untangling the contributions of various barriers to the results calculated by performance assessments. In fact, it provides the only way of assessing the contribution of barriers that are fully redundant with one another. The approach has been applied to the VA reference system. It shows how the natural transport barriers contribute to performance of the system. Since their individual contributions are redundant, uncertainties in those individual contributions are reduced in importance. The analyses also suggest uncertainties common to both of these barriers are important to the safety assessment. Thus, the approach appears to be capable of determining the contribution of the principal barriers to system performance. The ability to use performance assessment to show not only how the repository system is expected to perform, but also how it achieves that performance, should contribute substantially towards providing needed transparency to the safety case for a geologic repository. It is also a valuable tool during the development of the repository design and associated safety case, by identifying areas in which performance would be enhanced by increased redundancy

  16. INITIAL SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, 0.4 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 ± 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 ± 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 ± 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. γ-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  18. Performance Assessment National Review Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment involves predicting the potential radiological impact of a nuclear waste disposal system, taking into account all of the natural and engineered components of the system. It includes the analysis and evaluation of predicted system and component performance to determine compliance with regulatory performance criteria. In the context of the nuclear waste management program, performance assessment has five major purposes: to assist in the evaluation and selection of repository sites; to guide the research, development, and testing programs; to assist in the evaluation of repository designs; to assist in the evaluation of the design and performance of engineered barriers; and to show regulatory compliance and support repository licensing. Current performance assessment methodologies are still in the developmental stage. Only the simplest of bounding calculations have produced quantitative predictions of radionuclide releases. The methodologies require considerable extension and validation before they can provide answers suitable for project decisions and licensing. 135 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Performance assessment of Saskatchewan's water resource system under uncertain inter-provincial water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard

    2014-05-01

    The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic

  20. Performance assessment of topologically diverse power systems subjected to hurricane events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large tropical cyclones cause severe damage to major cities along the United States Gulf Coast annually. A diverse collection of engineering and statistical models are currently used to estimate the geographical distribution of power outage probabilities stemming from these hurricanes to aid in storm preparedness and recovery efforts. Graph theoretic studies of power networks have separately attempted to link abstract network topology to transmission and distribution system reliability. However, few works have employed both techniques to unravel the intimate connection between network damage arising from storms, topology, and system reliability. This investigation presents a new methodology combining hurricane damage predictions and topological assessment to characterize the impact of hurricanes upon power system reliability. Component fragility models are applied to predict failure probability for individual transmission and distribution power network elements simultaneously. The damage model is calibrated using power network component failure data for Harris County, TX, USA caused by Hurricane Ike in September of 2008, resulting in a mean outage prediction error of 15.59% and low standard deviation. Simulated hurricane events are then applied to measure the hurricane reliability of three topologically distinct transmission networks. The rate of system performance decline is shown to depend on their topological structure. Reliability is found to correlate directly with topological features, such as network meshedness, centrality, and clustering, and the compact irregular ring mesh topology is identified as particularly favorable, which can influence regional lifeline policy for retrofit and hardening activities to withstand hurricane events.

  1. Framework for feasibility assessment and performance analysis of riverbank filtration systems for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2012-03-01

    Bank filtration (BF) is an attractive, robust and reliable water treatment technology. It has been used in Europe and USA for a long time; however experience with this technology so far is site specific. There are no guidelines or tools for transfer of this technology to other locations, specifically to developing countries. A four-step methodology was developed at UNESCO-IHE to analyse feasibility and to predict the performance of BF for water treatment. This included (i) hydraulic simulation using MODFLOW; (ii) determination of share of bank filtrate using NASRI BF simulator; (iii) prediction of water quality from a BF system using the water quality guidelines developed and (iv) comparison of the costs of BF systems and existing conventional surface water treatment systems for water treatment. The methodology was then applied to assess feasibility of BF in five cities in Africa. It was found that in most of the cities studied BF is a feasible and attractive option from hydraulic, water quality as well as operational cost considerations. Considerable operational and maintenance costs saving can be achieved and water quality can be further improved by switching from conventional chemical-based surface water treatment to BF or at least by replacing some of the treatment units with BF systems. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  2. COCO: Performance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nikolaus; Auger, Anne; Brockhoff, Dimo; Tušar, Dejan; Tušar, Tea

    2016-01-01

    We present an any-time performance assessment for benchmarking numerical optimization algorithms in a black-box scenario, applied within the COCO benchmarking platform. The performance assessment is based on runtimes measured in number of objective function evaluations to reach one or several quality indicator target values. We argue that runtime is the only available measure with a generic, meaningful, and quantitative interpretation. We discuss the choice of the target values, runlength-bas...

  3. Assessing Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Susan; Rottier, Jerry

    Interdisciplinary middle school level teams capitalize on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Administrators and team members can maximize the advantages of teamwork using team assessments to increase the benefits for students, teachers, and the school environment. Assessing team performance can lead to high performing…

  4. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel

  5. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Spectra Research, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel.

  6. Performance assessment of a small-scale adsorption chiller integrated to an already existing solar heating system

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe; Maas, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the solar air-conditioning systems analysis, it is crucial to assess system performance by experimentations in real-time conditions. In this way, it is possible to calculate the energy savings to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production induced by the operation of such a system in buildings operation. It is proposed to measure the thermal behaviour and the energy performance of a smallscale solar air-conditioning system used to cool a laboratory buildi...

  7. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 2: The SEASAT system description and performance. [performance prediction and systems analysis for seasat satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of preliminary trade-off studies of operational SEASAT systems. The trade-off studies were used as the basis for the estimation of costs and net benefits of the operational SEASAT system. Also presented are the preliminary results of simulation studies that were designed to lead to a measure of the impact of SEASAT data through the use of numerical weather forecast models.

  8. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  9. Structural integrity and damage assessment of high performance arresting cable systems using an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan; Prohaska, John; Bentley, Doug; Glasgow, Andy; Campbell, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Redondo Optics in collaboration with the Cortland Cable Company, TMT Laboratories, and Applied Fiber under a US Navy SBIR project is developing an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOSTM) system for the real-time, structural health monitoring, damage assessment, and lifetime prediction of next generation synthetic material arresting gear cables. The EDIFOSTM system represents a new, highly robust and reliable, technology that can be use for the structural damage assessment of critical cable infrastructures. The Navy is currently investigating the use of new, all-synthetic- material arresting cables. The arresting cable is one of the most stressed components in the entire arresting gear landing system. Synthetic rope materials offer higher performance in terms of the strength-to-weight characteristics, which improves the arresting gear engine's performance resulting in reduced wind-over-deck requirements, higher aircraft bring-back-weight capability, simplified operation, maintenance, supportability, and reduced life cycle costs. While employing synthetic cables offers many advantages for the Navy's future needs, the unknown failure modes of these cables remains a high technical risk. For these reasons, Redondo Optics is investigating the use of embedded fiber optic sensors within the synthetic arresting cables to provide real-time structural assessment of the cable state, and to inform the operator when a particular cable has suffered impact damage, is near failure, or is approaching the limit of its service lifetime. To date, ROI and its collaborators have developed a technique for embedding multiple sensor fibers within the strands of high performance synthetic material cables and use the embedded fiber sensors to monitor the structural integrity of the cable structures during tensile and compressive loads exceeding over 175,000-lbsf without any damage to the cable structure or the embedded fiber sensors.

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10-3m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  11. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models

  12. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The ''weeps model'' now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive

  13. Validating the Use of pPerformance Risk Indices for System-Level Risk and Maturity Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Sherrica S.

    With pressure on the U.S. Defense Acquisition System (DAS) to reduce cost overruns and schedule delays, system engineers' performance is only as good as their tools. Recent literature details a need for 1) objective, analytical risk quantification methodologies over traditional subjective qualitative methods -- such as, expert judgment, and 2) mathematically rigorous system-level maturity assessments. The Mahafza, Componation, and Tippett (2005) Technology Performance Risk Index (TPRI) ties the assessment of technical performance to the quantification of risk of unmet performance; however, it is structured for component- level data as input. This study's aim is to establish a modified TPRI with systems-level data as model input, and then validate the modified index with actual system-level data from the Department of Defense's (DoD) Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs). This work's contribution is the establishment and validation of the System-level Performance Risk Index (SPRI). With the introduction of the SPRI, system-level metrics are better aligned, allowing for better assessment, tradeoff and balance of time, performance and cost constraints. This will allow system engineers and program managers to ultimately make better-informed system-level technical decisions throughout the development phase.

  14. Performance assessment method of urban waste management systems from Neamț County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a performance assessment method (PAM) at urban scale, based on five specific waste indicators such as: population access to waste collection services (%), separate collection (%), reuse & recycle (%), landfilling (%) and amounts of waste uncollected (Qwu-%). Values of each indicator are correlated to an assessment table for three different years (2004, 2007, 2010) highlighting the disparities between urban localities from Neamt County. The paper a...

  15. INITIAL SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity

  16. A systems modeling approach for performance assessment of the Mochovce national radioactive waste repository, Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Mochovce repository is a shallow land burial facility for disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Slovak Republic. Waste generators include nuclear power plants, laboratories, hospitals, research institutes, and other radiological facilities. A performance assessment (PA) is required to determine the degree of potential risk posed to workers and the future public by these wastes, and to inform decisions about how that potential risk might be reduced. Since 1993, PAs of Mochovce have evolved as knowledge has improved, as computerbased analytical platforms have become more sophisticated, and as the repository has been upgraded to improve its operational capabilities and its long-term performance. The experience gained in this evolutionary modeling informs the current chain of deterministic one- and two-dimensional process models that constitute the bulk of the PA modeling. In order to evaluate the significance of different modeling techniques and of the uncertainty inherent in the parameters that are entered into such models, a probabilistic modeling framework has been developed using the GoldSim systems analysis computer program. In the new GoldSim model presented here, the essential behaviors of the process models are captured in simpler equivalent functions that are implemented in the GoldSim model. The uncertainty inherent in the imperfect state of knowledge about the repository's engineering, failure modes, the natural environment surrounding the repository, and the locations and behaviors of potential future human receptors is reflected in the definition of modeling parameters as stochastic variables. The new, integrated 'Mochovce repository GoldSim Model' is part of the evaluation of the facility. The model facilitates comparison of the repository's performance to regulatory dose limit objectives. In this new probabilistic implementation it can be used for other purposes as well. For example, analysis of the

  17. The Total System Performance Assessment/Site Recommendation. International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe van Luik (US DOE-YM, USA) presented the preliminary results of the Yucca Mountain international peer review of the Total System performance Assessments (TSPA) and a few preliminary indications of the issues. The peer review by 10 experts was organised by a joint secretariat formed by the NEA and the IAEA. Two meetings and three exchanges of questions and answers by E-mail between the meetings provided preliminary results that were orally presented at the end of August. The final report is due to the DOE by the end of January 2002. Abe Van Luik presented some unofficial examples of preliminary observations. As an example, he mentioned the reviewers' observation that uncertainties need an overall strategy for their evaluation and reduction. It was also mentioned that the documentation is not yet sufficiently transparent. An important issue for the review team was the ability to compare the safety evaluations of different nations' potential repositories. Finally, the reviewers made it clear that although the applicable regulation for this phase had been competently addressed, the documentation was not a safety case. Several shortcomings kept it from being a safety case, noteworthy being the lack of a statement on confidence, and a description of the basis of that confidence

  18. Assessment of the Effectiveness of an Online Learning System in Improving Student Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, E. Holly; Black, Aprille Noe

    2014-01-01

    Colleges and universities, particularly public institutions, are facing higher enrollments and declining resources from state and federal governments. In this resource-constrained environment, faculty are seeking more efficient and effective teaching strategies to improve student learning and test performance. The authors assessed an online…

  19. Investigating the Generalizability of Scores from Different Rating Systems in Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsook C.

    The generalizability of scores from different scales in performance assessment was studied. First, a concept map of teachers' and raters' perceptions about various scores and scales was constructed using multidimensional scaling analysis. Then, a generalizability study using a random, partially nested design was conducted to analyze the…

  20. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel-First Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain is a technically challenging task. As is noted in Section II, the analysis involves the modeling of complex hydrologic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical interactions over times spanning tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Many of the technical questions that are necessarily addressed in this analysis, for example, the distribution of the time for corrosion to breach the waste canisters, are at the forefront of the capabilities of present day science. With these complexities in mind, the TSPA Peer Review Panel has evaluated work that has been done and that is in progress. This first interim report reflects the Panel's initial review, subject to the following significant limitations: The Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) supporting the Viability Assessment (VA) has not yet been written and, thus, the Panel is reviewing a work in progress. The Panel has available to it previous TSPA reports and various technical reports prepared in support of TSPA. The Panel also has been given briefings on the work being done for the TSPA-VA and has sent Panel members to abstraction meetings conducted by the TSPA-VA team to assign priorities to key technical issues and provide simplified versions of analyses suitable for an integrated analysis of the site as a whole. Members of the Panel have also attended other project workshops. The design of the repository is evolving. A number of aspects of the design have changed since the Panel's first meeting or are under review. Examples include the use of Alloy 625 instead of Alloy 825 as the inner corrosion resistant material of the waste canisters, the potential use of a gravel or sand backfill in the drifts, and consideration of alternative configurations for spent fuel containing highly enriched uranium. The Panel is still in an orientation phase. This is a large and technically diverse project with a long history. In the few months since the Panel's first meeting

  1. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  2. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model to

  3. LCA for assessing the environmental performance of a company with the environmental management system ISO 14000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental management system is an ordered pattern to treat and manage environmental issues and to improve the environmental performance of companies. It is proposed an example of application of LCA to a manufacturing company with ISO 14000.

  4. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P. E.; McDonald, A. T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J. T.

    1985-05-01

    The focus of this report is on closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems under research at Purdue University. The working operations of an OTEC power plant are briefly discussed. Methods of improving the performance of OTEC power systems are presented. Brief discussions on the methods of heat exchanger analysis and design are provided, as are the thermophysical properties of the working fluids and seawater. An interactive code capable of analyzing OTEC power system performance is included for use with an IBM personal computer.

  5. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  6. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: open-quotes wetclose quotes with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and open-quotes dryclose quotes with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a open-quotes hot repositoryclose quotes) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone

  7. Quantitative assessment of biophotonic imaging system performance with phantoms fabricated by rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Coburn, James; Woolsey, Nicholas; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    In biophotonic imaging, turbid phantoms that are low-cost, biologically-relevant, and durable are desired for standardized performance assessment. Such phantoms often contain inclusions of varying depths and sizes in order to quantify key image quality characteristics such as penetration depth, sensitivity and contrast detectability. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3D) printers provides a potentially revolutionary way to fabricate these structures. Towards this goal, we have characterized the optical properties and morphology of phantoms fabricated by two 3D printing approaches: thermosoftening and photopolymerization. Material optical properties were measured by spectrophotometry while the morphology of phantoms incorporating 0.2-1.0 mm diameter channels was studied by μCT, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical microscopy. A near-infrared absorbing dye and nanorods at several concentrations were injected into channels to evaluate detectability with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) system (650-1100 nm). Phantoms exhibited biologically-relevant scattering and low absorption across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Although limitations in resolution were noted, channels with diameters of 0.4 mm or more could be reliably fabricated. The most significant problem noted was the porosity of phantoms generated with the thermosoftening-based printer. The aforementioned three imaging methods provided a valuable mix of insights into phantom morphology and may also be useful for detailed structural inspection of medical devices fabricated by rapid prototyping, such as customized implants. Overall, our findings indicate that 3D printing has significant potential as a method for fabricating well-characterized, standard phantoms for medical imaging modalities such as HRI.

  8. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Performance assessment of EMR systems based on post-relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Li, Jing-Song; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Tian, Yu; Suzuki, Muneou; Araki, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Post-relational databases provide high performance and are currently widely used in American hospitals. As few hospital information systems (HIS) in either China or Japan are based on post-relational databases, here we introduce a new-generation electronic medical records (EMR) system called Hygeia, which was developed with the post-relational database Caché and the latest platform Ensemble. Utilizing the benefits of a post-relational database, Hygeia is equipped with an "integration" feature that allows all the system users to access data-with a fast response time-anywhere and at anytime. Performance tests of databases in EMR systems were implemented in both China and Japan. First, a comparison test was conducted between a post-relational database, Caché, and a relational database, Oracle, embedded in the EMR systems of a medium-sized first-class hospital in China. Second, a user terminal test was done on the EMR system Izanami, which is based on the identical database Caché and operates efficiently at the Miyazaki University Hospital in Japan. The results proved that the post-relational database Caché works faster than the relational database Oracle and showed perfect performance in the real-time EMR system. PMID:21503741

  10. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  11. Thermodynamic performance assessment of CCHP system driven by different composition gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Gas components of anaerobic digestion gas and thermal cracking gas were analyzed. • Thermodynamic model of CCHP driven by different compositions gas was proposed. • Performance of CCHP was studied under the design and off-design conditions. • Different composition gas had evident effect on the performance of CCHP. - Abstract: In order to facilitate sustainable solutions in megacities, waste-to-energy study of municipal solid waste handling is conducted including anaerobic digestion and thermal cracking, together with power generation technologies and the utilization of residual waste heat. In this paper, performance of CCHP (Combined Cooling Heating and Power) system, which is driven by different composition gases that the main components are CH4, H2, CO, SH2, C2H4, etc. is evaluated. The related parameters of the system, such as PER (primary energy ratio) of CCHP, exergy efficiency of CCHP ηex, the efficiency of gas engine η, and COP (Coefficient of Performance) of absorption refrigeration, were analyzed in different compression ratio of gas engine and under off-design conditions. The results indicated that the different composition gases had evident effect on the performance of CCHP. For the waste handling and waste-to-energy in metropolis, the gas input to CCHP system form anaerobic digestion and thermal cracking (pyrolysis) should be determined by considering all kinds of factors, such as cost of gas, efficiency of gas engine, cooling and heat load

  12. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support thi

  13. PERFORM: a system for monitoring, assessment and management of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsipouras, Markos G; Rigas, Georgios; Tsalikakis, Dimitrios G; Karvounis, Evaggelos C; Chondrogiorgi, Maria; Psomadellis, Fotis; Cancela, Jorge; Pastorino, Matteo; Waldmeyer, María Teresa Arredondo; Konitsiotis, Spiros; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the PERFORM system for the continuous remote monitoring and management of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The PERFORM system is an intelligent closed-loop system that seamlessly integrates a wide range of wearable sensors constantly monitoring several motor signals of the PD patients. Data acquired are pre-processed by advanced knowledge processing methods, integrated by fusion algorithms to allow health professionals to remotely monitor the overall status of the patients, adjust medication schedules and personalize treatment. The information collected by the sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) is processed by several classifiers. As a result, it is possible to evaluate and quantify the PD motor symptoms related to end of dose deterioration (tremor, bradykinesia, freezing of gait (FoG)) as well as those related to over-dose concentration (Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID)). Based on this information, together with information derived from tests performed with a virtual reality glove and information about the medication and food intake, a patient specific profile can be built. In addition, the patient specific profile with his evaluation during the last week and last month, is compared to understand whether his status is stable, improving or worsening. Based on that, the system analyses whether a medication change is needed--always under medical supervision--and in this case, information about the medication change proposal is sent to the patient. The performance of the system has been evaluated in real life conditions, the accuracy and acceptability of the system by the PD patients and healthcare professionals has been tested, and a comparison with the standard routine clinical evaluation done by the PD patients' physician has been carried out. The PERFORM system is used by the PD patients and in a simple and safe non-invasive way for long-term record of their motor status, thus offering to the clinician a precise, long-term and

  14. PERFORM: A System for Monitoring, Assessment and Management of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros T. Tzallas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the PERFORM system for the continuous remote monitoring and management of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. The PERFORM system is an intelligent closed-loop system that seamlessly integrates a wide range of wearable sensors constantly monitoring several motor signals of the PD patients. Data acquired are pre-processed by advanced knowledge processing methods, integrated by fusion algorithms to allow health professionals to remotely monitor the overall status of the patients, adjust medication schedules and personalize treatment. The information collected by the sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes is processed by several classifiers. As a result, it is possible to evaluate and quantify the PD motor symptoms related to end of dose deterioration (tremor, bradykinesia, freezing of gait (FoG as well as those related to over-dose concentration (Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Based on this information, together with information derived from tests performed with a virtual reality glove and information about the medication and food intake, a patient specific profile can be built. In addition, the patient specific profile with his evaluation during the last week and last month, is compared to understand whether his status is stable, improving or worsening. Based on that, the system analyses whether a medication change is needed—always under medical supervision—and in this case, information about the medication change proposal is sent to the patient. The performance of the system has been evaluated in real life conditions, the accuracy and acceptability of the system by the PD patients and healthcare professionals has been tested, and a comparison with the standard routine clinical evaluation done by the PD patients’ physician has been carried out. The PERFORM system is used by the PD patients and in a simple and safe non-invasive way for long-term record of their motor status, thus offering to the clinician a

  15. Assessing performance of Morningstar’s star rating system for equity investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bolster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both institutional and individual investors have a vast array of advisory and ratings services to assist with security selection.  One of the most prominent sources of stock ratings is Morningstar. This is the first large-scale study evaluating the performance of portfolios formed using Morningstar’s Star rating system for stocks. We evaluate the performance of portfolios formed using this rating system. Our results provide evidence that the Morningstar stock rating system allows an investor to build a portfolio with superior absolute and risk-adjusted returns over a long period of time. We show that a modest transaction cost will reduce, but not eliminate, these benefits.  Overall, our results indicate that Morningstar ratings effectively discriminate between over- and undervalued stocks over the long term.

  16. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. PMID:27521934

  17. A microprocessor-based system for two-dimensional assessment and display of collimator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note describes the development and application of a microcomputer controlled system (6502-based, C64 Commodore Business Machines) that can acquire automatically focussed and parallel-hole gamma camera collimator resolution measurements from a scanning device and format the data to create a two-dimensional display of the resolution characteristics of any collimator. The system can perform precise measurements in any section of the resolution field and along any selected axis to verify exact conformity to collimator design objectives. (U.K.)

  18. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems. Their importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and of the far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes, have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included. The results of the study show that studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems have provided significant information regarding many issues of importance to repository performance. In several cases the evidence from natural analogues has demonstrated that processes assumed to take place in repositories actually occur in natural systems or under conditions similar to those predicted to prevail in a future repository. One example of such a process is coprecipitation of fission products and ferric oxyhydroxides as an analogue to corrosion products from a steel canister. In addition, the study of concentration gradients of uranium and other trace substances in the rock surrounding groundwater conduits confirm that matrix diffusion occurs in nature and that the diffusivities in the rock matrix measured in the laboratory are consistent with the observations in nature

  19. Energy performance assessment on central air-conditioning system of commercial building:A case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璇; 练斯甄; 闫军威; 康英姿

    2015-01-01

    Energy performance assessment on central air-conditioning system is essential to optimize operating, reduce operating costs, improve indoor environmental quality, and determine whether the retrofitting of the equipment is necessary. But it is difficult to evaluate it reasonably and comprehensively due to its complexity.A “holistic” approach was discussed to evaluate the energy performance of central air-conditioning system for an extra-large commercial building in a subtropical city. All procedures were described in detail, including field investigation method, field measurement instruments, data processing and data analyzing. The main factors affecting energy consumption of air-conditioning system were analyzed and the annual cooling-energy use intensity of this building was calculated and also compared with other shopping malls and other types of buildings in Guangzhou. And COP (coefficient of performance) of chiller, water transfer factor of chilled water system and cooling water system were taken into consideration. At last, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality issues were addressed. The results show that the chilled water pumps are over-sized and the indoor environmental quality should be improved. The purpose of this work is to provide reference for energy performance assessment method for air-conditioning system.

  20. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Yasin [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  1. Assessing the performance of Taiwan’s environmental protection system with a non-radial network DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies involving environmental performance purely focus on analyzing environmental or waste treatment efficiencies. This study combines various aspects of environmental protection and establishes a non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the performance of an environmental protection system. The empirical methodology assumes that the system consists of three stages: administrative, executive processes, and protection effectiveness. The executive process includes waste treatment and pollution auditing divisions. In addition to assessing efficiencies, the empirical evaluation further explores the internal and external influences on performances and contributes implications and suggestions for environmental policy makers. The proposed model is utilized to gauge the performance of an environmental protection system for 20 municipalities in Taiwan. The results indicate the following: (1) for improving environmental quality, the government needs to put forth greater efforts in environmental audits; (2) improving productivity per unit so as to increase achievements in the executive process is more important for raising performance on environmental work, in addition to increasing workers and equipment for environmental protection; (3) a high degree of industrialization negatively influences administrative efficiency and educated residents have a greater comprehension for administrative operations, which can help in efficient budget utilization. - Highlights: • A non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the Performance of Environmental Protection System. • The performance of waste treatment performs better than the efficiency of auditing. • Governmental expenditure is more efficiently utilized in the administrative process. • The effectiveness of achieved protection is a critical indicator for revealing environmental quality in a region

  2. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  3. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  4. On Orbit Receiver Performance Assessment of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on ICESAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; McGarry, Jan; Jester, Peggy L.; Yi, Donghui; Palm, Stephen P.; Lancaster, Redgie S.

    2006-01-01

    The GLAS instrument on the NASA's ICESat mission has provided over a billion measurements of the Earth surface elevation and atmosphere backscattering at both 532 and 1064-nm wavelengths. The receiver performance has stayed nearly unchanged since ICESat launch in January 2003. The altimeter receiver has achieved a less than 3-cm ranging accuracy when excluding the effects of the laser beam pointing angle determination uncertainties. The receiver can also detect surface echoes through clouds of one-way transmission as low as 5%. The 532-nm atmosphere backscattering receiver can measure aerosol and clouds with cross section as low as 1e-7/m.sr with a 1 second integration time and molecular backscattering from upper atmosphere with a 60 second integration time. The 1064-nm atmosphere backscattering receiver can measure aerosol and clouds with a cross section as low as 4e-6/m.sr. This paper gives a detailed assessment of the GLAS receiver performance based on the in-orbit calibration tests.

  5. Waste package performance assessment: Deterministic system model, program scope and specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated assessments of the performance of nuclear waste package designs must be made in order to qualify waste package designs with respect to containment time and release-rate requirements. PANDORA is a computer-based model of the waste package and of the processes affecting it over the long terms, specific to conditions at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site. The processes PANDORA models include: changes in inventories due to radioactive decay, gamma radiation dose rate in and near the package, heat transfer, mechanical behavior, groundwater contact, corrosion, waste form alteration, and radionuclide release. The model tracks the development and coupling of these processes over time. The process models are simplified ones that focus on major effects and on coupling. This report documents our conceptual model development and provides a specification for the computer program. The current model is the first in a series. Succeeding models will use guidance from results of preceding models in the PANDORA series and will incorporate results of recently completed experiments and calculations on processes affecting performance. 22 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Performance assessment of multi-state systems with critical failure modes: Application to the flotation metallic arsenic circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers a number of alternative measures of multi-state systems with two failure modes. Almost all of them are based on a probabilistic model and the extent to which the multi-state system performance analysis may typically lead. The conventional multi-state theory is used to assess the fundamental problems of the performance of complex systems. In real life, it may be difficult to obtain sufficient data to estimate the precise values of the performance levels of modern engineering systems. This paper suggests reliability measures for multi-state systems with two failure modes, and presents a procedure for evaluating these measures. Generalized assumptions of multiple factors that may affect the reliability of such systems are introduced by developing multi-state operators that obey the commutative and the associative laws. The concepts of relevancy, coherency, and equivalence are used to characterize the properties of such systems. Mathematical problems raised by applications of multi-state system model in system failure engineering are addressed. Engineering case study of the flotation circuit of mineral processing plant is modeled as a homogeneous coherent multi-state system composed of homogeneous coherent multi-state subsystems, and its reliability is calculated.

  7. A Performance Assessment of a Tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System using Realistic, Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of aspects of an Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) under varying demand levels using realistic traffic patterns. This study only addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (latitude, longitude, altitude, heading and speed) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. The main focus of this paper is to determine the extent to which sole reliance on the proposed tactical ASAS can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times current traffic. The effect of mixing ASAS equipped aircraft with non-equipped aircraft that do not have the capability to self-separate is also investigated.

  8. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  9. Assessment of performance of a new digital image intensifier fluoroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the physical properties of a recently installed digital fluoroscopy unit, Axiom Iconos R200 unit (Siemens (Germany)), including image quality and patient dose. Image quality parameters and patient doses were measured at various fields of view (FOV) and frame rates. The entrance surface dose rate (ESDR) was measured using standard 30 x 30 cm2 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with different thicknesses. The ESDR was measured using a 20 cm PMMA and largest FOV ranged from 1.1 to 8.2 mGy min-1 for different frame rates available. The low-contrast sensitivity varied from 1.8 to 6.6%, as the limiting spatial resolution changes from 1.25 to 2.24 ln mm-1 for the different magnifications, frame rates and phantom thicknesses. This study shows the weak points of the standard quality control protocols. The additional image quality and dose assessments revealed the existing potential for optimisation of the system. (authors)

  10. Power performance assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the increasingly commercialised wind power marketplace, the lack of precise assessment methods for the output of an investment is becoming a barrier for wider penetration of wind power. Thus, addressing this problem, the overall objectives of the project are to reduce the financial risk in investment in wind power projects by significantly improving the power performance assessment methods. Ultimately, if this objective is successfully met, the project may also result in improved tuning of the individual wind turbines and in optimisation methods for wind farm operation. The immediate, measurable objectives of the project are: To prepare a review of existing contractual aspects of power performance verification procedures of wind farms; to provide information on production sensitivity to specific terrain characteristics and wind turbine parameters by analyses of a larger number of wind farm power performance data available to the proposers; to improve the understanding of the physical parameters connected to power performance in complex environment by comparing real-life wind farm power performance data with 3D computational flow models and 3D-turbulence wind turbine models; to develop the statistical framework including uncertainty analysis for power performance assessment in complex environments; and to propose one or more procedures for power performance evaluation of wind power plants in complex environments to be applied in contractual agreements between purchasers and manufacturers on production warranties. Although the focus in this project is on power performance assessment the possible results will also be of benefit to energy yield forecasting, since the two tasks are strongly related. (au) JOULE III. 66 refs.; In Co-operation Renewable Energy System Ltd. (GB); Centre for Renewable Energy (GR); Aeronautic Research Centre (SE); National Engineering Lab. (GB); Public Power Cooperation (GR)

  11. Hydraulic and thermal performance assessment of cooling water systems at E.I. Hatch Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July, 1989, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Generic Letter 89-13, open-quotes Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipmentclose quotes. The Generic Letter was issued because of observed operating problems with corrosion, erosion, biological fouling, silting, and protective coating failure in safety-related heat exchangers and associated cooling water piping at several nuclear power plants. The NRC required that utilities with operating nuclear plants establish a plan for comprehensive evaluation of their open cycle Service Water Systems, including: ongoing surveillance and control; testing of safety-related heat exchangers to verify heat transfer capability; inspection and maintenance of piping and water-cooled heat exchangers; confirmation that the service water system is capable of performing its intended function in accordance with the plant design basis; confirmation that maintenance and operating practices, emergency procedures, and training are adequate to ensure that safety-related equipment will perform as intended. As an integral part of the Georgia Power Company response to the Generic Letter, a personal computer-based hydraulic flow model was developed for the Plant Service Water Systems (PSW) on both units of the E. I. Hatch Nuclear Plant (HNP). The Bechtel-developed BALANCE program and PLANTSIM option were selected for this effort. Bechtel's hydraulic network computer program was developed and used successfully for flow balancing at the Limerick Generating Station during initial plant startup. The BALANCE hydraulic network model provides an accurate analytical representation of the Hatch Plant Service Water System on each unit. A summary of program capabilities and modeling assumptions, as well as observations which have been made by comparison of program predictions with test results, is presented here

  12. Assessement of Growth Performances of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon rearing in Herneacova village, Timis County, on a population of juvenile sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus aged between 346-431 days. Specimens were housed in five round tanks (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h=100 cm and fed with commercial extruded pellets (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE. Fish from each tank were individually weighed and measured once every two weeks. Bioproductive indices such body weight gain (BW, specific growth rate (SGR, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated at the end of an 85 days experimental period. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPPS IBM 22 and Minitab 16 software. Data were reported as Mean±Sx at a significant level of p<0.05. Testing differences between means was realized by ANOVA completed with post-hoc Tukey test. The results obtained indicate that the growth performance of juvenile Acipenser ruthenus seems to be similar and even better than that of other sturgeons species reared in recirculating aquaculture system.

  13. A Performance Assessment of an Airborne Separation Assistance System Using Realistic Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of a tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) in en route airspace, under varying demand levels, with realistic traffic flows. The ASAS concept studied here allows flight crews of equipped aircraft to perform separation from other air traffic autonomously. This study addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (i.e. position and velocity) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. In addition, use of a conflict prevention system helps ASAS-equipped aircraft avoid maneuvers that may cause new conflicts. ASAS-capable aircraft are equipped with satellite-based navigation and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for transmission and receipt of aircraft state data. In addition to tactical conflict detection and resolution (CD&R), a complete, integrated ASAS is likely to incorporate a strategic CD&R component with a longer look-ahead time, using trajectory intent information. A system-wide traffic flow management (TFM) component, located at the FAA command center helps aircraft to avoid regions of excessive traffic density and complexity. A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), as used today is the system of last resort. This integrated approach avoids sole reliance on the use of the tactical CD&R studied here, but the tactical component remains a critical element of the complete ASAS. The focus of this paper is to determine to what extent the proposed tactical component of ASAS alone can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times that of current traffic. The study also investigates the effect of mixing ASAS-equipped aircraft with unequipped aircraft (i.e. current day) that do not have the capability to self-separate. Position and velocity data for unequipped aircraft needs to be available to ASASequipped. Most likely, for this future concept, state data would be available from instrument flight rules (IFR

  14. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  15. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  16. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  17. Bridge Performance Assessment Based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Wavelet Filter for the GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the performance assessment of the Huangpu Bridge in Guangzhou, China based on long-term monitoring in real-time by the kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS technique. Wavelet transformde-noising is applied to filter the GPS measurements, while the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS time series output-only model is used to predict the deformations of GPS-bridge monitoring points. In addition, GPS and accelerometer monitoring systems are used to evaluate the bridge oscillation performance. The conclusions drawn from investigating the numerical results show that: (1the wavelet de-noising of the GPS measurements of the different recording points on the bridge is a suitable tool to efficiently eliminate the signal noise and extract the different deformation components such as: semi-static and dynamic displacements; (2 the ANFIS method with two multi-input single output model is revealed to powerfully predict GPS movement measurements and assess the bridge deformations; and (3 The installed structural health monitoring system and the applied ANFIS movement prediction performance model are solely sufficient to assure bridge safety based on the analyses of the different filtered movement components.

  18. An adaptable mesocosm platform for performing integrated assessments of nanomaterial risk in complex environmental systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffan, Mélanie; Tella, Marie; Santaella, Catherine; Brousset, Lenka; Paillès, Christine; Barakat, Mohamed; Espinasse, Benjamin; Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Masion, Armand; Rose, Jérôme; Wiesner, Mark R.; Achouak, Wafa; Thiéry, Alain; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Physical-chemists, (micro)biologists, and ecologists need to conduct meaningful experiments to study the environmental risk of engineered nanomaterials with access to relevant mechanistic data across several spatial and temporal scales. Indoor aquatic mesocosms (60L) that can be tailored to virtually mimic any ecosystem appear as a particularly well-suited device. Here, this concept is illustrated by a pilot study aimed at assessing the distribution of a CeO2-based nanomaterial within our system at low concentration (1.5 mg/L). Physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters took two weeks to equilibrate. These parameters were found to be reproducible across the 9-mesocosm setup over a 45-day period of time. Recovery mass balances of 115 +/- 18% and 60 +/- 30% of the Ce were obtained for the pulse dosing and the chronic dosing, respectively. This demonstrated the relevance of our experimental approach that allows for adequately monitoring the fate and impact of a given nanomaterial.

  19. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about$20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over$30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations

  20. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    1999-10-01

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about $20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over $30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations.

  1. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10-11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10-7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10-8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10-6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10-5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  2. Assessment of the performance of water harvesting systems in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Water harvesting is widely practiced and has the potential to improve water availability for domestic and agricultural use in semi-arid regions. New funds are becoming available to stimulate the implementation of water harvesting projects, for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals and to help communities to adapt to climate change. For this, it is important to understand which factors determine the success of water harvesting techniques under different conditions. For this, we review the literature, including information on the crop yield impacts of water harvesting projects in semi-arid Africa and Asia. Results show that large water harvesting structures (> 500 m3) are less expensive than small structures, when taking into account investment costs, storage capacity and lifetimes. We also find that water harvesting improves crop yields significantly, and that the relative impact of water harvesting on crop yields is largest in low rainfall years. We also see that the governance, technical knowledge and initial investment are more demanding for the larger structures than for smaller structures, which may affect their spontaneous adoption and long term sustainability when managed by local communities. To support the selection of appropriate techniques, we present a decision framework based on case specific characteristics. This framework can also be used when reporting and evaluating the performance of water harvesting techniques, which is up to now quite limited in peer reviewed literature. Based on Bouma, J., Hegde, S.E., Lasage, R., (2016). Assessing the returns to water harvesting: A meta-analysis. Agricultural Water Management 163, 100-109. Lasage, R., Verburg P.H., (2015). Evaluation of small scale water harvesting techniques for semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments 118, 48-57.

  3. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final

  4. ASSESSMENT OF SOIL COMPACTION UNDER CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND ITS EFFECT ON CROP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ali Al-Gaadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study on two 12.5 ha plots cultivated with wheat and alfalfa was conducted to determine Soil Compaction (SC, its spatial variability and its effect on crop performance under center pivot irrigation systems. Considering compaction at two tested soil depths, results revealed that the soil of the alfalfa plot exhibited significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05 for 0 to 10 cm and 0 to 30 cm soil depth, respectively higher compaction values (an average of 1730.328 and 2329.604 kPa, respectively compared to those exhibited by the soil of the wheat plot (averaging at 1339.685 and 2088.903 kPa, respectively. Significant spatial variation of SC was observed within each of the tested plots. SC around pivot wheel tracks was also investigated at a soil depth of 0 to 30 cm for 5.5 m wide strips on both sides of the tracks. Results revealed that the Coefficient of Variation (CV of the SC around the tracks was 9.33 and 16.53% for alfalfa and wheat plots, respectively, suggesting that the SC was not laterally influenced by the wheel tracks. The effect of SC on crop performance, expressed as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, was investigated on the two plots. Results showed that the NDVI was, in general, inversely proportional to the SC. For both crops, the NDVI was more affected by SC at the top soil layer (0-10 cm depth. Moreover, the alfalfa crop was shown to be significantly influenced by the SC (an average R2 value of 0.3165 and P value of 0.0287, unlike the wheat crop (an average R2 value of 0.0725 and P value of 0.4646.

  5. Performance assessment of a wind energy conversion system using a hierarchical controller structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Implements a supervisory control in a higher level. • Compares two different control strategies in a lower level. • Fuzzy PI controller provided the best closed loop performance. • Fractional-order PI controller presented better energy consumption. - Abstract: This paper deals with a hierarchical structure composed by an event-based supervisor in a higher level and two distinct proportional integral (PI) controllers in a lower level. The controllers are applied to a variable speed wind energy conversion system with doubly-fed induction generator, namely, the fuzzy PI control and the fractional-order PI control. The event-based supervisor analyses the operation state of the wind energy conversion system among four possible operational states: park, start-up, generating or brake and sends the operation state to the controllers in the lower level. In start-up state, the controllers only act on electric torque while pitch angle is equal to zero. In generating state, the controllers must act on the pitch angle of the blades in order to maintain the electric power around the nominal value, thus ensuring that the safety conditions required for integration in the electric grid are met. Comparisons between fuzzy PI and fractional-order PI pitch controllers applied to a wind turbine benchmark model are given and simulation results by Matlab/Simulink are shown. From the results regarding the closed loop point of view, fuzzy PI controller allows a smoother response at the expense of larger number of variations of the pitch angle, implying frequent switches between operational states. On the other hand fractional-order PI controller allows an oscillatory response with less control effort, reducing switches between operational states

  6. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Maldives

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    From October 19 to 27, 2009, a World Bank team in collaboration with the Commonwealth Secretariat undertook a debt management performance assessment of the Government of the Republic of Maldives (GRM). The objective was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of debt management functions using the Debt Management Performance Assessment tool (DeMPA), version of November 2008. As part of the...

  7. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Togo

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    During November 12 through November 24, 2007 a World Bank team traveled to Lome, Togo, to undertake an assessment of the government's debt management operations using the Debt Management Performance Measurement Assessment Tool (DeMPA). The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing debt management performance through a set of 15 indicators covering the full range of debt management functions. Th...

  8. Methodology used for total system performance assessment of the potential nuclear waste repository at yucca mountain (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates the performance of the repository when various natural or engineered barriers are assumed to be degraded. The objective of these analyses is to evaluate the performance of the potential repository system under conditions ranging from expected to highly unlikely, though physically possible conditions. (author)

  9. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal into the sub-seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an assessment of the radiological impact of sub-seabed disposal of vitrified high level waste, carried out as part of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. Where possible the data used in this study have been taken from those provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency Seabed Working Group. The waste was assumed to be placed into the sub-seabed sediments by means of the free fall penetrator technique. An alternative method, emplacement in a deep borehole, was also studied. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Great Meteor East, in the N.E. Atlantic, and two alternative sites: Southern Nares Abyssal Plain in the N.W. Atlantic and Cape Verde Rise in N.E. Atlantic. Models were used to describe the release of radionuclides from the waste, their migration through the sediments, their dispersion in the world oceans and the pathways to man. For the normal evolution scenario, best estimate peak individual dose rates for the penetrator option was evaluated at 2 x 10-10 Sv y-1 arising 0.1 million years after emplacement. The collective dose commitment was 10,000 man Sv. The corresponding figures for the borehole option were 2 x 10-14 Sv y-1 and 1 man Sv. The risks from seven altered evolution scenarios were also calculated and the risk was predicted to be always less than 10-9 y-1. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were also performed and showed that the peak dose was most sensitive to variations in Kd values, pore water velocity, pore water diffusivity and burial depth. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in rock salt formations has been carried out. The first volume of the study is split into four tasks. Task 1 recalls the main steps that have led to the selection of the reference and the variant site. Task 2 condenses all information available on the rock formations which are planned to host the repository, the overlying geosphere and the geohistoric development of the sites. Task 3 states the technical details of repository planning, while in Task 4 conceivable release scenarios are discussed. Volume II (Tasks 5 to 10) is concerned with the modelling procedures. In Task 5 data for the waste inventory are collected and the selection of relevant nuclides for transport calculations is discussed. Task 6 gives the near-field modelling, i.e. the models for corrosion of the waste canisters, the degradation of the waste matrix and the models used for the HLW boreholes. Task 7 deals with the modelling of the repository. Its division into sections is discussed and models for physical and chemical effects taken into account in each section are presented. In Task 8 the modelling of the overburden is given. In Task 9 additional models for the subrosion scenario and a human intrusion scenario are given. Task 10 is concerned with the biosphere modelling. In Volume III results of deterministic and probabilistic calculations are presented. Task 11 gives the results for deterministic calculations with best estimate values for the parameters involved in the models. Task 12 presents the result of the uncertainty analysis, and Task 13 those of local and global sensitivity analyses followed by concluding remarks. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the

  11. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON THE STRUCTURE OF A SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE GLOBAL PERFORMANCE OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development and, therefore, globalization require new standards of performance that exceeds the economic field, both for domestic companies as well as international ones. So, these standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities undertaken by harmonizing the economic, social and environmental objectives. For sustainable development of an entity, value creation can not be seen in strictly financial terms, therefore any strategies that are defined by entities concerns not only the quantitative aspects (economic-financial but also qualitative aspects (social and environmental. This study attempts to address the issue of building a set of indicators to assess overall performance and it stops at each of the three dimensions of performance, namely economic performance, social performance and environmental performance. In this scientific approach we try to stop on one of the priorities of economic research that is finding indicators that better reflect the three dimensions of performance. What indicators would best represent the overall performance?, What indicators would best represent the financial performance?, What indicators would best represent social performance?, What would be the best indicators of environmental performance? During this scientific approach will try to answer each of these questions through the empirical research conducted. To do this research we focused on statistical population consisting of the following categories of analysts: analysts from academic environment (Cluj-Napoca, Bucharest, Timisoara, Iasi, Craiova, Sibiu, Pitesti, Galati and financial analysts from the specific departments of the Financial Investment Services Company (Broker SA, BT Securities, Target Capital, Tradeville, Estinvest, Intercapital, KBC Securities, etc.. This distinction was made because we believe that in determining the optimal structure of such a model we need the views of

  12. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Nigeria in 2012. Areas with very high scores include th...

  13. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths...

  14. Comparative Assessment of Thermal Performance of Existing Roof System and Retrofitted Green Roof System in Istanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Nil TÜRKERİ; M. Cem ALTUN; Caner GÖÇER

    2011-01-01

    Urban heat islands, temperature increase due to climate change and energy consumption due to high summer cooling load are significant issues in Turkey. International studies indicate that the green roof system serves as an energy efficient building technology. However, the thermal performance of green roofs when exposed to local climate conditions is still unknown in Turkey. A research project is being conducted at Istanbul Technical University, in which part of a low-slope existing roof syst...

  15. A “Grammar” for assessing the performance of power-supply systems: Comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article illustrates an innovative approach for the characterization and comparison of the performance of power-supply systems. The concept of ‘grammar’ forces to declare the pre-analytical decisions about: (i) semantic and formal categories used for the accounting – primary energy sources (PES), energy carriers (EC), and production factors; (ii) the set of functional and structural elements of the power-supply system included in the analysis. After having tamed the systemic ambiguity associated with energy accounting, it becomes possible to generate a double assessment referring to: (i) external constraints – the consumption of PES and the generation of waste and pollution; and (ii) internal constraints – the requirements of production factors such as human labor, power capacity, internal consumption of EC for making EC. The case study provided compares the production of EC (electricity) with “nuclear energy” and “fossil energy”. When considering internal constraints, nuclear energy requires about twice as much power capacity (5.9–9.5 kW/GWh vs. 2.6–2.9 kW/GWh) and 5–8 times more labor (570–640 h/GWh vs. 80–115 h/GWh). Things do not improve for nuclear energy when looking at external constraints – e.g. the relative scarcity of PES. This may explain the difficulties faced by nuclear energy to gain interest from investors. -- Highlights: ► A new approach to assess the performance of power-supply systems is provided. ► A biophysical analysis of the production process is based on the concept of grammar. ► A grammar is capable of handling the inherent ambiguity associated with energy. ► The performance of nuclear energy and fossil energy is compared using this grammar. ► Nuclear energy demonstrates a lower performance than fossil energy in making electricity.

  16. WASTES-II, a logistics simulation tool for assessing system performance of the commercial nuclear waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of the movement of spent nuclear fuel within the commercial waste management system is a necessary precursor to evaluating the performance of any proposed configuration of a commercial waste management system (CWMS). The waste system transport and economic simulation (WASTES) model simulates the movement and storage of spent fuel from the time it is discharged into individual reactor pools to the time it is placed in a mined geologic repository. The original development of the WASTES model was jointly sponsored by the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program Office at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Enhancements to the WASTES model that resulted in the development of the WASTES-II model were sponsored by both the MRS program at PNL (for use in analyzing the effects of various policy decisions, waste system logistics considerations, and facility operating schedules) and the PNL Nuclear Waste Fund Analysis program [to provide transportation economics for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Total System Life-Cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis program]. The model was designed to provide detailed analyses that were beyond the capabilities of other available models. WASTES uses discrete event simulation techniques to model the generation of commercial spent nuclear fuel, the buildup of spent-fuel inventories within the system, and the movement of spent fuel throughout the system

  17. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part I: Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from an energy point of view. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system allows to save energy under heat-led operation. • Electric vehicle charging enhances the energy saving under electric load-led logic. - Abstract: This work examines the energy performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter season by means of a whole building simulation software; a 6.0 kWel natural gas-fuelled internal combustion engine-based cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the thermal transmittances of both walls and windows equated to the threshold values suggested by the Italian Law. The main purpose of the paper is to compare the proposed system with a conventional system composed of a natural gas-fired boiler (for thermal energy production) and a power plant mix connected to the Italian central grid (for electric energy production) in order to assess the potential energy saving under various operating scenarios. The simulations were performed by considering the multi-family house located into four different Italian cities (Palermo, Napoli, Roma and Milano) representative of different climatic regions of Italy in order to estimate the influence of climatic conditions; a parametric analysis was also performed with the aim to evaluate the sensitivity of the energy flows when varying the volume of the combined storage tank; taking into consideration that the economic viability of the cogeneration unit strongly depends also on the value of the co-produced electricity, the system performance was also evaluated by considering two different electric demand profiles (with and without the electric consumption associated to the overnight charging of an electric vehicle); the operation of the micro

  18. Assessment and improvement of the Italian healthcare system: first evidence from a pilot national performance evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara; Vainieri, Milena; Zett, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The Italian National Health System (NHS), established in 1978, follows a model similar to the Beveridge model developed by the British NHS (Beveridge 1942; Musgrove 2000). Like the British NHS, healthcare coverage for the Italian population is provided and financed by the government through taxes. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, in Italy the strong policy of decentralization, which has been taking place since the early 1990s, has gradually shifted powers from the state to the 21 Italian regions. Consequently, the state now retains limited supervisory control and continues to have overall responsibility for the NHS in order to ensure uniform and essential levels of health services across the country. In this context, it has become essential, both for the ministry and for regions, to adopt a common performance evaluation system (PES). This article reports the definition, implementation, and first evidences of a pilot PES at a national level. It shows how this PES can be viewed as a strategic tool supporting the Ministry of Health (MoH) in ensuring uniform levels of care for the population and assisting regional managers to evaluate performance in benchmarking. Finally, lessons for other health systems, based on the Italian experience, are provided. PMID:22724376

  19. Introduction to radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological performance assessment is conducted to provide reasonable assurance that performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal will be met. Beginning in the early stages of development, a radiological performance assessment continues through the operational phase, and is instrumental in the postclosure of the facility. Fundamental differences exist in the regulation of commercial and defense LLW, but the radiological performance assessment process is essentially the same for both. The purpose of this document is to describe that process in a concise and straightforward manner. This document focuses on radiological performance assessment as it pertains to commercial LLW disposal, but is applicable to US Department of Energy sites as well. Included are discussions on performance objectives, site characterization, and how a performance assessment is conducted. A case study is used to illustrate how the process works as a whole. A bibliography is provided to assist in locating additional information

  20. OLEM Performance Assessment Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a variety of data sets that measure the performance of Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) programs in support of the Office of the...

  1. Performance evaluation of a Transport System supporting the MobiHealth BANip: Methodology and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wac, Katarzyna; Bults, Richard

    2004-01-01

    MSc final presentation for a Master of Science degree in Telematics, performed at the Architecture and Services of Network Applications chair, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Twente, The Netherlands

  2. Diagnostic model for assessing traceability system performance in fish processing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgonja, J.T.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a diagnostic tool that can be used by fish processing companies to evaluate their own traceability systems in a systematic manner. The paper begins with discussions on the rationale of traceability systems in food manufacturing companies, followed by a detailed analysis of the

  3. Energy and CO2 emissions performance assessment of residential micro-cogeneration systems with dynamic whole-building simulation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-cogeneration, also termed micro combined heat and power (MCHP) or residential cogeneration, is an emerging technology with the potential to provide energy efficiency and environmental benefits by reducing primary energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The distributed generation nature of the technology also has the potential to reduce losses due to electrical transmission and distribution inefficiencies and to alleviate utility peak demand problems. Detailed MCHP models for whole-building simulation tools, developed in Annex 42 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme, have been used to conduct a performance assessment study for a number of micro-cogeneration systems and residential buildings. Annual non-renewable primary energy (NRPE) demand and CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions were determined by simulation for different cogeneration technologies, namely natural gas-fuelled solid oxide (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, Stirling and internal combustion engines. These were compared to the reference system with a gas boiler and electricity supply from the grid. A ground-coupled heat pump system was also analysed for comparison. The cogeneration units were integrated in single and multi-family houses of different energy standard levels. Two different electricity generation mixes were considered: European mix and combined cycle power plant (CCPP). For the MCHP devices, detailed dynamic component models as well as simplified performance map models were used, developed and calibrated with either results from laboratory experiments or with manufacturer data. The simulations were performed using the whole-building simulation programme TRNSYS, using domestic hot water and electric demand profiles specified in IEA Annex 42. Combinations of three demand levels were analyzed. In NRPE demand, for the European electricity mix, most MCHP systems offered reductions (up to

  4. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  5. Hydrologic research for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes in either the spent fuel or processed waste (such as glass) stored in an underground geologic repository would eventually find their way into the ground water. When such releases would occur, rates of these releases in either the aqueous or the gas phase, rates of transport to the biosphere of the isotopes as dissolved species or colloidal particles in the liquid phase and as volatized particles in the gas phase are germane to assessing the safety of the disposal system. The sciences dealing with flow and transport of fluids in geologic materials are central to the successful development and licensing of the geologic repository. Geologic repositories are supposed to provide permanent disposal of the nuclear waste. No long-term (>100 years) active human management and control of the repository is expected after permanent closure. The problem is that the future performance of the repository has to be established with some reasonable confidence, preferably at the time that construction begins, but certainly before decision for permanent closure is made. In the case of the geologic repository this problem is particularly difficult because the time frames are tens of thousands of years; the geologic materials vary in space and are difficult to characterize; space scales are tens of kilometers; predictive models for estimating future performance are very difficult to verify and validate; and there is little recourse for corrective action after closure. This paper describes what is expected to be calculated during assessment of the performance as defined in the regulations. 5 refs

  6. The Development and Implementation of a Web-Based Formative Peer Assessment System for Enhancing Students' Metacognitive Awareness and Performance in Ill-Structured Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Ryu, Jeeheon

    2013-01-01

    An assessment was conducted of a web-based formative peer assessment system (WFPAS) emphasizing learners' metacognitive awareness for their performance in ill-structured tasks. Results indicate that the WFPAS group achieved significantly higher scores for metacognitive awareness and performance in ill-structured tasks than the traditional…

  7. Methodology Used for Total System Performance Assessment of the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model [1]. Process models included in the TSPA model are unsaturated zone flow and transport, thermal hydrology, in-drift geochemistry, waste package degradation, waste form degradation, engineered barrier system transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere transport. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. The environmental impact is measured primarily by the annual dose received by an average member of a critical population group residing 20 km down-gradient of the potential repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates

  8. An Outcome-Based Assessment and Improvement System for Measuring Student Performance and Course Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. A.; Ahmed, Naseer; Al Ameen, Abdurahem Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of students' expected performance and course effectiveness play a vital role in determining the course contribution toward meeting the program's learning objectives or outcomes. The success of any course not only requires a well-designed syllabus with clearly defined course learning outcomes and the use of appropriate outcome-based…

  9. Measuring innovation capability - Assessing collaborative performance in product-service system innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Johanna; Larsson, Andreas; Isaksson, Ola; Larsson, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study, carried out at a Swedish aero engine manufacturer. The study was initiated to explore key indicators related to innovation capability in a Product-Service System (PSS) context. Developing PSS changes the dynamics of collaboration, since the offering of such systems usually involves a network of partners sharing the responsibility for a delivered function over a full lifecycle. In particular, this paper focuses on describing aspects related to externa...

  10. Enterprise Architecture for Information System Analysis : Modeling and assessing data accuracy, availability, performance and application usage

    OpenAIRE

    Per, Närman

    2012-01-01

    Decisions concerning IT systems are often made without adequate decision-support. This has led to unnecessary IT costs and failures to realize business benefits. The present thesis presents a framework for analysis of four information systems properties relevant to IT decision-making. The work is founded on enterprise architecture, a model-based IT and business management discipline. Based on the existing ArchiMate framework, a new enterprise architecture framework has been developed and impl...

  11. Assessment of passive safety system performance under main steam line break accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integral test of MSLB was conducted in a small-scale test facility, i.e. PUMA which is scaled to generation III + BWR applications. • GDCS as an ECCS provided adequate supply of water to keep RPV coolant level well above TAF. • PCCS kept containment below design pressure during long-term cooling phase. - Abstract: A generation III + Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) which relies on natural circulation has evolved from earlier BWR designs by incorporating passive safety features which require no emergency injection pump and no operator action or Alternating Current (AC) power supply. The generation III + BWR’s passive safety systems include the Automatic Depressurization System (ADS), the Suppression Pool (SP), the Standby Liquid Control System (SLCS), the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS), the Isolation Condenser System (ICS), and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The ADS is actuated to rapidly depressurize the reactor leading to the GDCS injection. The large amount of water in the SP condenses steam from the reactor. The SLCS provides makeup water to the reactor. The GDCS injects water into the reactor by gravity head and provides cooling to the core. The ICS and the PCCS are used to remove the decay heat from the reactor. The objective of this paper is to analyze the response of passive safety systems under the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) test has been conducted in the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) which is scaled to represent the generation III + BWR. The main results of PUMA MSLB test were that the reactor coolant level was well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) and the reactor containment pressure has remained below the design pressure. In particular, the minimum water level (1.706 m) was 5% higher than the TAF (1.623 m) and the containment maximum pressure (271 kPa) was 35% lower than the safety limit (414 kPa), respectively

  12. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) is a methodology for assessing government debt management (DeM) performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of DeM functions. The assessment reveals that Mozambique has points of strength in most areas evaluated by the DeMPA, but that it meets the minimum requirements only in the fields of the legal framew...

  13. Students' laboratory work performance assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Achumba, Ifeyinwa; Azzi, Djamel; Williams, Roy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory activities are very important in engineering education. Performance assessment of students’ laboratory work is time consuming and an ongoing challenge for teachers. Laboratory work performance assessment is traditionally done by the teacher grading students’ written report of the laboratory activity, despite the fact that the report is often 'doctored'. Assessment of laboratory work based solely on students’ reports has been criticized as failing to address espoused aims. The asses...

  14. Performance assessment of bio-inspired systems: flow sensing MEMS hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite vigorous growth in biomimetic design, the performance of man-made devices relative to their natural templates is still seldom quantified, a procedure which would however significantly increase the rigour of the biomimetic approach. We applied the ubiquitous engineering concept of a figure of merit (FoM) to MEMS flow sensors inspired by cricket filiform hairs. A well known mechanical model of a hair is refined and tailored to this task. Five criteria of varying importance in the biological and engineering fields are computed: responsivity, power transfer, power efficiency, response time and detection threshold. We selected the metrics response time and detection threshold for building the FoM to capture the performance in a single number. Crickets outperform actual MEMS on all criteria for a large range of flow frequencies. Our approach enables us to propose several improvements for MEMS hair-sensor design. (paper)

  15. Use of Wingz spreadsheet as an inaterface to total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a commercial spreadsheet used as an interface to a set of simple models to simulate possible nominal flow and failure scenarios at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Individual models coded in FORTRAN are linked to the spreadsheet. Complementary cumulative probability distribution functions resulting from the models are plotted through scripts associated with the spreadsheet. All codes are maintained under a source code control system for quality assurance. The spreadsheet and the simple models can be run on workstations, PCs, and Macintoshes. The software system is designed so that the FORTRAN codes can be run on several machines if a network environment is available

  16. Use of Wingz spreadsheet as an interface to total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial spreadsheet has been used as an interface to a set of simple models to simulate possible nominal flow and failure scenarios at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Individual models coded in FORTRAN are linked to the spreadsheet. Complementary cumulative probability distribution functions resulting from the models are plotted through scripts associated with the spreadsheet. All codes are maintained under a source code control system for quality assurance. The spreadsheet and the simple models can be run on workstations, PCs, and Macintoshes. The software system is designed so that the FORTRAN codes can be run on several machines if a network environment is available

  17. Analysis and performance assessment of a multigenerational system powered by Organic Rankine Cycle for a net zero energy house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building and assesses such a system for an application to a net zero energy house in Lebanon. Solar energy is the prime source for the integrated system to achieve multigeneration to supply electricity, fresh and hot water, seasonal heating and cooling. The study starts by optimizing the power system with and without grid connection. Then, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy, and a parametric study to assess the sensitivity and improvements of the overall system are conducted. Furthermore, exergoeconomic analysis and a follow-up optimization study for optimizing the total system cost to the overall system efficiency using genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal design or a set of optimal designs (Pareto Front), are carried out. The present results show that the optimum solar energy system for a total connected load to the house of 90 kWh/day using a combination of ORC, batteries, convertor has a total net present cost of US $52,505.00 (based on the prices in 2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 1. Moreover, the optimization for the same connected load with ORC, batteries and converter configuration with grid connection results in a total net present cost of $50,868.00 (2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 0.992 with 169 kg/yr of CO2 emissions. In addition, exergoeconomic analysis of the overall system yields a cost of $117,700.00 (2013), and the multi-objective optimization provides the overall exergetic efficiency by 14% at a total system cost increase of $10,500.00 (2013). - Highlights: • To develop a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building. • To perform a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy approaches. • To apply an exergoeconomic model for exergy-based cost accounting. • To undertake

  18. An Integrated System for Vadose Zone Monitoring, Model Calibration, Performance Assessment, and Prediction (MCAP) in Hanford's T Tank Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, J. M.; Myers, D. A.; Sydnor, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste is projected to have entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Most of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. To minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume, an interim infiltration barrier will be constructed on the ground surface. This barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further towards groundwater. An integrated system will be used for vadose zone moisture monitoring, model calibration, performance assessment, and prediction (MCAP). The system is to be broadly- designed so that the data can be used for multiple purposes. In addition to monitoring soil water movement both under the proposed barrier and adjacent to it, the collected data can also be used to characterize vadose zone hydraulic properties and to calibrate a numerical model. The calibrated model can then be used to assess the performance of the infiltration barrier and to predict water flow and contaminant transport under conditions with and/or without a barrier. A MCAP system is being applied to the Hanford's T Tank Farm. Soil water content is to be monitored using both neutron and capacitance probes; soil water pressure and soil temperature will be monitored with heat dissipation sensors; and water flux will be measured using water fluxmeters. These instruments will be installed in direct push probe holes advanced by a hydraulic hammer unit. Excluding neutron probe measurements, all data collection and data transmittal will be sent to an automated central server. This design allows measurements to be taken continually and reduces the need for personnel to enter the farm thereby increasing worker safety. It is expected that

  19. Debt Management Performance Assessment Tool

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The World Bank is developing a program to assist developing countries improve debt management in collaboration with other partners. The objective of the program is to help strengthen capacity and institutions in developing countries to manage government debt in an effective and sustainable manner in the medium to long term. A cornerstone of the program is the Debt Management Performance Assessment Tool (DeMPA), a methodology for assessing performance through a comprehensive set of performance...

  20. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, C.; Leigh, R. J.; Lobb, D.; Williams, T.; Remedios, J. J.; Cutter, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  1. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Whyte

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer for atmospheric research has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and coma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for an exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS applications particularly from space (LEO, GEO orbits and from HAPs or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at better than 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  2. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Whyte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  3. Performance Assessment of SOFC Systems Integrated with Bio-Ethanol Production and Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrical efficiencies of the integrated systems of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and bio-ethanol production with purification processes at different heat integration levels were investigated. The simulation studies were based on the condition with zero net energy. It was found that the most suitable operating voltage is between 0.7 and 0.85 V and the operating temperature is in the range from 973 to 1173 K. For the effect of percent ethanol recovery, the optimum percent ethanol recovery is at 95%. The most efficient case is the system with full heat integration between SOFC and bio-ethanol production and purification processes with biogas reformed for producing extra hydrogen feed for SOFC which has the overall electrical efficiency = 36.17%. However more equipment such as reformer and heat exchangers are required and this leads to increased investment cost.

  4. Assessement of Growth Performances of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mărioara Nicula; Zoltan-Tibor Szelei; Nicolae Pacala; Marian Bura; Eliza Simiz; Silvia Erina; Marian Hotea; Adela Marcu

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon rearing in Herneacova village, Timis County, on a population of juvenile sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) aged between 346-431 days. Specimens were housed in five round tanks (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h=100 cm) and fed with commercial extruded pellets (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE). Fish from each tank were individually weighed and measured once every two weeks. Bioproductive indices such body weight gain (BW), specifi...

  5. Satellite system performance assessment for in-flight entertainment and air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Radzik, José; Pirovano, Alain; Tao, Na; Bousquet, Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience Concurrent satellite systems have been proposed for IFE (In-Flight Entertainment) communications, thus demonstrating the capability of satellites to provide multimedia access to users in aircraft cabin. At the same time, an increasing interest in the use of satellite communications for ATC (Air Traffic Control) has been motivated by the increasing load of traditional radio links mainly in the VHF band, and uses the extended capacities the satellite may provide. Howev...

  6. Towards Adaptive Educational Assessments: Predicting Student Performance using Temporal Stability and Data Analytics in Learning Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Gautam [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; McNair, Wade [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven assessments and adaptive feedback are becoming a cornerstone research in educational data analytics and involve developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from the educational context. For example, predicting college student performance is crucial for both the students and educational institutions. It can support timely intervention to prevent students from failing a course, increasing efficacy of advising functions, and improving course completion rate. In this paper, we present our efforts in using data analytics that enable educationists to design novel data-driven assessment and feedback mechanisms. In order to achieve this objective, we investigate temporal stability of students grades and perform predictive analytics on academic data collected from 2009 through 2013 in one of the most commonly used learning management systems, called Moodle. First, we have identified the data features useful for assessments and predicting student outcomes such as students scores in homework assignments, quizzes, exams, in addition to their activities in discussion forums and their total Grade Point Average(GPA) at the same term they enrolled in the course. Second, time series models in both frequency and time domains are applied to characterize the progression as well as overall projections of the grades. In particular, the model analyzed the stability as well as fluctuation of grades among students during the collegiate years (from freshman to senior) and disciplines. Third, Logistic Regression and Neural Network predictive models are used to identify students as early as possible who are in danger of failing the course they are currently enrolled in. These models compute the likelihood of any given student failing (or passing) the current course. The time series analysis indicates that assessments and continuous feedback are critical for freshman and sophomores (even with easy courses) than for seniors, and those assessments may be

  7. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales

  8. Probabilistic performance assessment of autonomous solar-wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.H.; Chedid, R.B.; Ramadan, R.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a general probabilistic model of an autonomous solar-wind energy conversion system (SWECS) composed of several wind turbines (wind farm), several photovoltaic (PV) models (solar park), and a battery storage feeding a load. The model takes into consideration outages due to the primary energy fluctuations and hardware failure. It allows the simulation of wind farms and solar parks containing either identical or different types of wind turbines and PV modules with the load being fed from either the renewable sources, or the battery storage, or both. A methodology is also presented to determine an upper limit on the size of the battery storage required to satisfy a given load profile taking into consideration the charging/discharging of the batteries.

  9. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (Lamb) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m2, LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to

  10. Assessing the performance of macroinvertebrate metrics in the Challhuaco-Ñireco System (Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Mauad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seven sites were examined in the Challhuaco-Ñireco system, located in the reserve of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, however part of the catchment is urbanized, being San Carlos de Bariloche (150,000 inhabitants placed in the lower part of the basin. Physico-chemical variables were measured and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during three consecutive years at seven sites from the headwater to the river outlet. Sites near the source of the river were characterised by Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera, whereas sites close to the river mouth were dominated by Diptera, Oligochaeta and Mollusca. Regarding functional feeding groups, collector-gatherers were dominant at all sites and this pattern was consistent among years. Ordination Analysis (RDA revealed that species assemblages distribution responded to the climatic and topographic gradient (temperature and elevation, but also were associated with variables related to human impact (conductivity, nitrate and phosphate contents. Species assemblages at headwaters were mostly represented by sensitive insects, whereas tolerant taxa such as Tubificidae, Lumbriculidae, Chironomidae and crustacean Aegla sp. were dominant at urbanised sites. Regarding macroinvertebrate metrics employed, total richness, EPT taxa, Shannon diversity index and Biotic Monitoring Patagonian Stream index resulted fairly consistent and evidenced different levels of disturbances at the stream, meaning that this measures are suitable for evaluation of the status of Patagonian mountain streams.

  11. Total system performance assessment (TSPA-1993) for Yucca Mountain: An iterative refinement addressing scientific, regulatory, and design concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) (1) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) (2) completed the first iteration of total-system performance assessment (TSPA-91) for Yucca Mountain during 1991 and 1992. TSPA-93, the successor to TSPA-91, was conducted by SNL and the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating (M ampersand O) contractor. The TSPA-93 calculations were formulated based on recommendations generated in TSPA-91. The process models used to describe contaminant mobilization and transport were expanded and the associated parameter sets were improved. Significant improvements include more sophisticated treatments of climate change and percolation flux; saturated zone flow and transport; near-field processes, such as container degradation and radionuclide mobilization; and hydrogeologic and geochemical parameter sets. New features in TSPA-93 include hydrothermal processes associated with elevated thermal loads, alternative waste container packages, and geostatistical representations of the lithologic units. Results of the analyses are shown both as releases and as individual doses, to evaluate the effect of possible changes in standards governing a high-level radioactive waste repository. 10,000-year cumulative releases are similar to those in TSPA-91, and are dominated by gaseous release of 14C. Longer term cumulative releases increase surprisingly little, with gaseous release and aqueous release more nearly equal. However, substantial individual doses are projected at very long times, as a consequence of certain features of the arid environment. Recommendations for future work to support site characterization, design, regulation assessment, and TSPAs are given, based on the results of the two studies

  12. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  13. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Albania

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    From November 8 to 17, 2010, a World Bank team undertook a Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) mission to Tirana, Albania. The mission's objective was to prepare a comprehensive assessment of government debt management functions by applying the DeMPA methodology. This report presents the results of the assessment, based on the December 2009 version of the DeMPA tool. The assessm...

  14. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    A World Bank mission visited Kazakhstan from July 15-23, 2010, to undertake a comprehensive assessment of debt management operations using the Debt Management Performance Assessment tool (DeMPA). The DeMPA report provides an overview of strengths and weaknesses in government debt management in Kazakhstan, as evaluated at end-July, 2010. The scores demonstrate that areas of strength clearly...

  15. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  16. Outline the strengths and weaknesses of performance-related pay (PRP) systems and assess their overall value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖雯静

    2015-01-01

    Performance-related pay is very important in the aspect of human resource in an organization. However, it also has some weaknesses. This article analyzes the performance-related pay (PRP) system from an overall point of view.

  17. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B.P.; Bacon, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-activity waste (LAW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. The available computer codes with suitable capabilities at the time Revision 0 of this document was prepared were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical processes expected to affect LAW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. This analysis was repeated in this report but updated to include additional processes that have been found to be important since Revision 0 was issued and to include additional codes that have been released. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the STORM code developed at PNNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of arid land disposal sites.

  18. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-activity waste (LAW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. The available computer codes with suitable capabilities at the time Revision 0 of this document was prepared were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical processes expected to affect LAW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. This analysis was repeated in this report but updated to include additional processes that have been found to be important since Revision 0 was issued and to include additional codes that have been released. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the STORM code developed at PNNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of arid land disposal sites

  19. Performance assessment of the Tactical Network Analysis and Planning System Plus (TNAPS+) automated planning tool for C4I systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegenfuss, Paul C.

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Staff established the Tactical Network Analysis and Planning System Plus (TNAPS+) as the interim joint communications planning and management system. The Marines Command and Control Systems Course and the Army's Joint Task Force System Planning Course both utilize TNAPS+ to conduct tactical C41 network planning in their course requirements. This thesis is a Naval Postgraduate School C41 curriculum practical application of TNAPS+ in an expeditionary Joint Task Force environment, focu...

  20. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  1. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models.

  2. Current issues in postclosure performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment, a type of systematic safety analysis, is a method (a) to predict the potential health, safety, and environmental effects of creating and using a nuclear waste repository, (b) to characterize these effects in terms of their magnitude and likelihood, (c) to compare the characterization of these effects to standards of acceptability, and (d) to present the results of these analyses in a format useful to regulators, scientists, and the public. Postclosure performance assessment would thus be those analyses used to predict mined geologic disposal system behavior after permanent closure. The primary focus of and motivation for performance assessment is to evaluate compliance of the repository with regulatory performance standards, although performance assessments are expected to be useful in guiding and evaluating testing, design, and site characterization activities. Given that reduction of modeling uncertainty is an important aspect of obtaining a license, a survey was made of performance assessments for high-level nuclear waste, mined geologic repositories, and of the literature addressing the major issues of performance assessment to identify potentially significant, currently outstanding issues. Given the direction that DOE received from Congress late in 1987, the issues related here are those either directly applicable to or sufficiently general to be potentially applicable to a performance assessment of a Yucca Mountain, Nevada, repository

  3. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    A World Bank mission visited Ulaanbaatar April 3-11, 2008. The team consisted of Lars Jessen and Eriko Togo, World Bank Treasury. The objective was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of debt management operations using the Debt Management Performance Assessment tool (DeMPA) that was developed with a focus on Low Income Countries (LICs). A main reason for applying the tool in Mongolia ...

  4. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Carling; Thomas Reilly; Mark Williams, A

    2009-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a cha...

  5. ACCOUNTING FOR A VITRIFIED PLUTONIUM WASTE FORM IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT (TSPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2007-02-12

    A vitrification technology utilizing a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass appears to be a viable option for dispositioning excess weapons-useable plutonium that is not suitable for processing into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A significant effort to develop a glass formulation and vitrification process to immobilize plutonium was completed in the mid-1990s to support the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP). Further refinement of the vitrification process was accomplished as part of the Am/Cm solution vitrification project. The LaBS glass formulation was found to be capable of immobilizing in excess of 10 wt% Pu and to be very tolerant of the impurities accompanying the plutonium material streams. Thus, this waste form would be suitable for dispositioning plutonium owned by the Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) that may not be well characterized and may contain high levels of impurities. The can-in-canister technology demonstrated in the PIP could be utilized to dispose of the vitrified plutonium in the federal radioactive waste repository. The can-in-canister technology involves placing small cans of the immobilized Pu form into a high level waste (HLW) glass canister fitted with a rack to hold the cans and then filling the canister with HLW glass. Testing was completed to demonstrate that this technology could be successfully employed with little or no impact to current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operation and that the resulting canisters were essentially equivalent to the present HLW glass canisters to be dispositioned in the federal repository. The performance of wastes in the repository and, moreover, the performance of the entire repository system is being evaluated by the Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) using a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) methodology. Technical bases documents (e.g., Analysis/Modeling Reports (AMR)) that address specific issues regarding

  6. Performance assessment and optimization of a combined heat and power system based on compressed air energy storage system and humid air turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A combined heat and power system based on CAES and HAT is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–HAT based CHP system are laid out. • The performance assessment of the proposed system is carried out. • The system optimization is conducted to decide the maximum conditions. - Abstract: Renewable energy based power sources have grown rapidly in the past few years owing to the dual constraint of climate change and pollution control. Compressed air energy storage (CAES), as a large-scale energy storage system (ESS) technology, has huge potential to manage the intermittent renewable energy based power sources effectively. However, the compression heat generated during charge and waste heat carried in turbine exhaust during discharge are not fully recuperated in current stage. A combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a CAES system and a humid air turbine (HAT) system is proposed to utilize the both types of heat energy. The proposed system can boost the power output, enhance performance and improve efficiency through a simultaneous supply of power and heat. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the expansion train power can be improved about 26% compared with the conventional CAES system. The parametric analysis reveals that the exergy efficiency increases with the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of high pressure turbine (HPT) and inlet pressure of low pressure turbine (LPT), but decreases with the TIT of LPT, L/G ratio and dry air inlet temperature of saturator. Meanwhile, the system optimization is carried out via particle swarm optimization (PSO) to determine the maximum power and exergy efficiency conditions

  7. Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Keith B Tierney

    2011-01-01

    Swimming performance tests of fish have been integral to studies of muscle energetics, swimming mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac physiology, disease, pollution, hypoxia and temperature. This paper describes a flexible protocol to assess fish swimming performance using equipment in which water velocity can be controlled. The protocol involves one to several stepped increases in flow speed that are intended to cause fish to fatigue. Step speeds and their duration can be set to capture swimming ...

  8. Dynamic performance management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An integrated, efficient and effective performance management system, "dynamic performance management system", is presented, which covers the entire performance management process including measures design, analysis, and dynamic update. The analysis of performance measures using causal loop diagrams, qualitative inference and analytic network process is mainly discussed. A real world case study is carried out throughout the paper to explain how the framework works. A software tool for DPMS, Performance Analyzer, is also introduced.

  9. Performance of an in-house human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotyping system for assessment of drug resistance in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Alemán

    Full Text Available As commercial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance assays are expensive, they are not commonly used in resource-limited settings. Hence, a more affordable in-house procedure was set up taking into account the specific epidemiological and economic circumstances of Cuba. The performance characteristics of the in-house assay were evaluated using clinical samples with various subtypes and resistance patterns. The lower limit of amplification was determined on dilutions series of 20 clinical isolates and ranged from 84 to 529 RNA copies/mL. For the assessment of trueness, 14 clinical samples were analyzed and the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 was used as the reference standard. The mean nucleotide sequence identity between the two assays was 98.7% ± 1.0. Additionally, 99.0% of the amino acids at drug resistance positions were identical. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting drug resistance mutations was respectively 94.1% and 99.5%. Only few discordances in drug resistance interpretation patterns were observed. The repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated using 10 clinical samples with 3 replicates per sample. The in-house test was very precise as nucleotide sequence identity among paired nucleotide sequences ranged from 98.7% to 99.9%. The acceptance criteria were met by the in-house test for all performance characteristics, demonstrating a high degree of accuracy. Subsequently, the applicability in routine clinical practice was evaluated on 380 plasma samples. The amplification success rate was 91% and good quality consensus sequences encoding the entire protease and the first 335 codons in reverse transcriptase could be obtained for 99% of the successful amplicons. The reagent cost per sample using the in-house procedure was around € 80 per genotyping attempt. Overall, the in-house assay provided good results, was feasible with equipment and reagents available in Cuba and was half as expensive as commercial

  10. Performance of an In-House Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genotyping System for Assessment of Drug Resistance in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Yoan; Vinken, Lore; Kourí, Vivian; Pérez, Lissette; Álvarez, Alina; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Fonseca, Carlos; Pérez, Jorge; Correa, Consuelo; Soto, Yudira; Schrooten, Yoeri; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2015-01-01

    As commercial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance assays are expensive, they are not commonly used in resource-limited settings. Hence, a more affordable in-house procedure was set up taking into account the specific epidemiological and economic circumstances of Cuba. The performance characteristics of the in-house assay were evaluated using clinical samples with various subtypes and resistance patterns. The lower limit of amplification was determined on dilutions series of 20 clinical isolates and ranged from 84 to 529 RNA copies/mL. For the assessment of trueness, 14 clinical samples were analyzed and the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 was used as the reference standard. The mean nucleotide sequence identity between the two assays was 98.7% ± 1.0. Additionally, 99.0% of the amino acids at drug resistance positions were identical. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting drug resistance mutations was respectively 94.1% and 99.5%. Only few discordances in drug resistance interpretation patterns were observed. The repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated using 10 clinical samples with 3 replicates per sample. The in-house test was very precise as nucleotide sequence identity among paired nucleotide sequences ranged from 98.7% to 99.9%. The acceptance criteria were met by the in-house test for all performance characteristics, demonstrating a high degree of accuracy. Subsequently, the applicability in routine clinical practice was evaluated on 380 plasma samples. The amplification success rate was 91% and good quality consensus sequences encoding the entire protease and the first 335 codons in reverse transcriptase could be obtained for 99% of the successful amplicons. The reagent cost per sample using the in-house procedure was around € 80 per genotyping attempt. Overall, the in-house assay provided good results, was feasible with equipment and reagents available in Cuba and was half as expensive as commercial assays. PMID

  11. Performance Assessment for Environmental Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Fewell, M.E.; Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Swift, P.N.; Trauth, K.M.; Vaughn, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, R.J. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have, over the last twenty (20) years, developed unique, internationally-recognized performance and risk assessment methods to assess options for the safe disposal and remediation of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous waste/contamination in geohydrologic systems. While these methods were originally developed for the disposal of nuclear waste, ongoing improvements and extensions make them equally applicable to a variety of environmental problems such as those associated with the remediation of EPA designated Superfund sites and the more generic Brownfield sites (industrial sites whose future use is restricted because of real or perceived contamination).

  12. The European CO2 Emission Trading System and State Aid. An assessment of the grandfathering allocation method and the Performance Standard Rate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center piece of the European Climate Change Program is the ambitious Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS, Directive 2003/87/EC) which helps Member States to fulfill their Kyoto commitments. It particularly facilitates the old EU 15 Member States to make progress towards meeting their particular greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals committed under the Burden Sharing Agreement. EU Member States have developed national greenhouse gas allowances allocation plans and distributed these allowances to around 5000 operators with approximately 12.000 installations. Differences between allocations can give rise to severe anticompetitive effects. European Competition law (Article 87 EC Treaty) seeks to contain government based interference with the competitive positions of market participants (so called undertakings). That is generally referred to as the granting of 'State aid'. The paper examines how (historical) grandfathering and the Performance Standard Rate system (PSR) are to be assessed under State aid rules and how they compare with this regard to each other. The PSR System is a relative benchmark system with an intended cap for all participants but without a cap for individual operators. This alternative approach has been developed and is actually in use for the Dutch NOx Emission Trading System. After the introductory part relevant State aid criteria (Article 87(1) EC Treaty) are cited. Each is introduced in turn and followed by an assessment of the grandfathering system and the PSR system. Subsequently relevant derogations of European State aid rules (Article 87(3) EC Treaty) are introduced and applied to both systems. A conclusion highlights the main points.

  13. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  14. Progress in Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety System Reliability in Advanced Reactors. Results from the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong reliance on inherent and passive design features has become a hallmark of many advanced reactor designs, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all advanced small and medium sized reactor (SMR) designs. Advanced nuclear reactor designs incorporate several passive systems in addition to active ones — not only to enhance the operational safety of the reactors but also to eliminate the possibility of serious accidents. Accordingly, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems is a crucial issue to be resolved before their extensive use in future nuclear power plants. Several physical parameters affect the performance of a passive safety system, and their values at the time of operation are unknown a priori. The functions of passive systems are based on basic physical laws and thermodynamic principals, and they may not experience the same kind of failures as active systems. Hence, consistent efforts are required to qualify the reliability of passive systems. To support the development of advanced nuclear reactor designs with passive systems, investigations into their reliability using various methodologies are being conducted in several Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. These efforts include reliability methods for passive systems by the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, reliability evaluation of passive safety system by the University of Pisa, Italy, and assessment of passive system reliability by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. These different approaches seem to demonstrate a consensus on some aspects. However, the developers of the approaches have been unable to agree on the definition of reliability in a passive system. Based on these developments and in order to foster collaboration, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors in 2008. The

  15. A comparison between comprehensive system and an early version of the rorschach performance assessment system administration with outpatient children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer B; Viglione, Donald J; Giromini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the effects of variability in the length of Rorschach records has been debated, and a new administration procedure aimed at reducing the proportion of short and long records has recently been introduced. Using an outpatient sample of children and adolescents, this study explored the impact of an early version of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) administration, on the central tendencies of Rorschach variables. Specifically, the mean values of 51 variables in 142 Comprehensive System versus 99 R-PAS collected records were compared with each other. Results found comparable mean values across CS and R-PAS administration methods for the variables that guide interpretation with children and adolescents. Both methods produced a comparable number of long (> 27 responses) records. The only relevant difference that emerged is that the early R-PAS administration version yielded significantly fewer short (14-16 responses) records and lower variability in the number of responses. PMID:24624977

  16. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S; Imparato, J C P; Ricketts, D N J; Pedersen, Lia Mendes

    2010-01-01

    reproducibility of the indices was calculated (kappa test) and ROC analysis was performed to assess their validity and related parameters were compared using McNemar's test. The association between the indices and with the histological examination was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r......(s)). Visual criteria showed excellent reproducibility both regarding severity (NY: 0.94; ICDAS-II: 0.91) and activity (NY: 0.90; LAA: 0.91). The NY and LAA showed good association in caries activity assessment (r(s) = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.89; p <0.001). Nevertheless, considering only cavitated lesions, this...

  17. System performance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The System Performance Optimization has become an important and difficult field for large scientific computer centres. Important because the centres must satisfy increasing user demands at the lowest possible cost. Difficult because the System Performance Optimization requires a deep understanding of hardware, software and workload. The optimization is a dynamic process depending on the changes in hardware configuration, current level of the operating system and user generated workload. With the increasing complication of the computer system and software, the field for the optimization manoeuvres broadens. The hardware of two manufacturers IBM and CDC is discussed. Four IBM and two CDC operating systems are described. The description concentrates on the organization of the operating systems, the job scheduling and I/O handling. The performance definitions, workload specification and tools for the system stimulation are given. The measurement tools for the System Performance Optimization are described. The results of the measurement and various methods used for the operating system tuning are discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Methodology for NDA performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the RandD programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, a considerable effort is being dedicated to performance assessment of NDA techniques taking account of field conditions. By taking account of field conditions is meant measurement samples of the size encountered in practice and training which allows inspectors to design cost efficient verification plans for the real situations encountered in the field. Special laboratory facilities referred to as PERLA are being constructed for this purpose. These facilities will be used for measurement experiments and for training. In this paper, performance assessment is discussed under the headings of measurement capability and in-field effectiveness. Considerable emphasis is given to the role of method specific measurement error models. The authors outline the advantages of giving statistical error models a sounder basis in the physical phenomenology of the measurement method

  19. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  20. Lessons learnt from ten performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of radioactive wastes and, in particular, the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems are areas of high priority in the programme of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). In 1994, a Working Group was set up under the PAAG (Performance Assessment Advisory Group) on Integrated Performance Assessments of Deep Repositories (IPAG). The aim of the group is to provide a forum for informed discussion on performance assessment (PA), and to examine the overall status of PA and specific issues identified by the group and the PAAG. This document presents the report of a first phase of work completed in December 1996 and is expected to be of most interest to practitioners of repository PA and those with an interest in technical review of PA studies. (K.A.)

  1. Irrigation performance assessment tool (IPAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Roerink, G.J.; Noordman, E.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, the use of remote sensing data in irrigation water management is very limited, due to its low user-friendliness and the limited acquaintance of irrigation engineers with the remote sensing possibilities. To overcome these problems an easy to use GIS/Remote Sensing user interface is developed (by Alterra and WaterWatch), called Irrigation Performance Assessment Tool (IPAT), in consultation with the end users. IPAT is successfully tested and demonstrated for three pilot areas in Arge...

  2. International Review Team (IRT) Safety Case Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Supporting the Site Recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The session started with Abe Van Luik (IGSC Chair, US-DOE-YM, USA) who presented the feedback of the international peer review of the US-DOE Yucca Mountain TSPA (Total System Performance Assessment) supporting the successful designation of the site by the Congress and the President of the U.S. In particular, he listed key implications of the IRT (International Review team) recommendations on the forthcoming US-DOE documentation of its case for safety to be submitted to the regulator, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mainly: - The documentation submitted to the licensing authority should address technical aspects and compliance with regulatory criteria. - That documentation should reflect sound science and good engineering practice; it should present detailed and rigorous modelling. - In addition, it should present both quantitative and qualitative arguments, make a statement on why there can be confidence in the face of uncertainty, acknowledge remaining issues and provide the strategy to resolve them. - Demonstrating understanding is as important as demonstrating compliance. - There is a need to provide a clear explanation of the case made to the regulator for more general audiences to complement the large amount of technical documents that will be produced. The US-DOE response to these recommendations for the License Application, which is under preparation, is that the recommendations will be implemented to the maximum extent possible. In subsequent discussion, with respect to the License Application, it was acknowledged that detailed guidance from the U.S. regulator was very useful, and guidance of this type would be generally useful. At the current time, the words 'safety case' are not mentioned in U.S. regulations, but if one reads both the regulation and guidance documents it becomes evident that all aspects of a safety case need to be provided in the License Application and its accompanying documents

  3. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

  4. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design

  5. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, B00000000-01717-2200-00099, Rev. 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during the site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. A parallel effort was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and is reported in Wilson et al. (1994, in press)

  6. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, B00000000-01717-2200-00099, Rev. 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during the site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. A parallel effort was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and is reported in Wilson et al. (1994, in press).

  7. Assessment of the adsorber surface density influence on the performance and operation of the intermittent SAR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adsorber surface density effect on the SAR system performance is studied. • The cycle COP increases with decreasing the surface density. • The studied chiller has an optimum solar-to-cold conversion factor of 0.2. - Abstract: The adsorber surface density is a chief factor which is strongly coupled with other design parameters and climate conditions. This parameter has a considerable impact on the behaviour and operation of the intermittent solar adsorption refrigeration (SAR) system. This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the impact of the adsorption reactor surface density on the behaviour and overall performance indices of the intermittent SAR system. A water chiller which uses silica gel and water adsorption pair is studied under the climate conditions of Riyadh. The mathematical model is developed and a computer program is constructed to run the dynamic simulation of the chiller. Results obtained from the study show that the studied water chiller will fail to complete the cycle and to produce a cooling effect when the surface density is greater than 44 kg/m2. Moreover, the coefficient of performance (COP) increases with decreasing the surface density. Additionally, the optimum solar-to-cold conversion factor attains a value of 0.2 corresponding to surface density of 12.6 kg/m2 and COP of 0.43. This shows that the COP is not the accurate gauge for the SAR system performance and the solar-to-cold conversion factor is suggested when evaluating SAR system performance

  8. Thermodynamic performance assessment of a small size CCHP (combined cooling heating and power) system with numerical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the this work has been to evaluate the performance of a small-size CCHP (Combined Cooling Heating and Power) system based on the integration of 20 kW Lombardini diesel engine and a double effect water-LiBr absorption chiller. This integrated system has been designed to produce both hot water, by recovering heat from the engine cooling system, and chilled water, by recovering heat from the engine exhaust gasses (the exhaust gasses are sent to the fired-combustor of the absorption chiller). The analysis has been conducted by using numerical simulations: the engine and the absorption chiller have been modeled by means of 0–1D dimensional and thermochemical models, respectively, and the validation procedure has been performed by using the available operating data. The system performance has been calculated by introducing some performance parameters that have allowed: i) to estimate the efficiency of the primary energy conversion into useful energy EUF (energy utilization factor), ii) to consider the quality difference between cool/heat and work and among heats at different temperatures ExUF (exergy utilization factor); iii) to evaluate the primary energy saving with respect to the separate production of the same energy fluxes TPES (trigeneration primary energy saving). - Highlights: • The CCHP system consists of a diesel engine and a double effect absorption chiller. • Numerical models were developed in order to foresee the CCHP system performance. • The models were validated by using the operating data of each sub-system. • The performance analysis was carried out by using the coefficients EUF, EXUF, TPES

  9. Performance Assessment Institute-NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.

  10. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  11. Assessment of the Temperament, Motivation, and Capability of a School System District for Emergency Management/Crisis Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional study of leadership and staff of a public school system in Georgia concerning their temperament type, emergency management motivation and emergency management knowledge in relation to Emergency Management/Crisis performance (ERCM). The study consisted of an inclusive questionnaire that contains questions on four…

  12. Performance Indexes Assessment for Lighting Systems Based on the Normalized Power Density and Energy Losses Estimation in University Workrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hajibabaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed lighting decreases accidents and diseases of eyes and can increase productivity and concentration. Increase of energy price and a high proportion of electric lighting energy consumption in buildings due to defects in designing and maintenance led to desirable lighting to be reduced. One of our challenges in providing health and quality of lighting is lack of economic justification of projects. Furthermore, evaluating the lighting systems is very important to improve these systems and maintaining lighting quality. In this study the performance of the various lighting systems has been evaluated. The health and quality conditions of lighting systems, energy loss and the difference between the lighting variables, based on room index and the designed required levels (normalized power density in studied schools and education workrooms in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (south-west of Iran have been evaluated. Results showed that the modern lighting systems had 58% more efficient than the traditional others. In other words, modern lighting systems increase illuminance to 58 percent without increasing the electrical energy power. The performance indices of lighting systems between workrooms that had modern systems and traditional was significant (p=0.000. In 77.4% of spaces of the school of Medicine, where that had new lighting systems, the satisfaction index of users was equal to one. Evaluation of lighting systems in order to decreasing the electrical energy power along with preserving the standards of illumination intensity is very important, and some appropriate solutions could be adopted by replacing the traditional systems with the new others.

  13. Performance assessment of coupled processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers all processes to be coupled. For example, a waste package heats the surrounding rock and its pore water, creating gradients in density and pressure that result in increased water flow. That process can be described as coupled, in that the flow is a consequence of heating. In a narrower sense, one speaks also of the more weakly coupled transport processes, expressed by the Onsager reciprocal relations, that state that a transport current, i.e., flux, of heat is accompanied by a small transport current of material, as evidenced in isotope separation by thermal diffusion, the Thompson effect in thermoelectricity, etc. This paper presents a performance assessment of coupled processes

  14. Assessing compliance of the waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 13, 1998 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined (with conditions) that the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant met EPA's radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR 191 and 194. DOE demonstrated compliance with the radioactive waste disposal numerical containment requirements through the use of performance assessment simulating potential releases over a 10,000 year simulation. In addition to EPA's role in the development and implementation of regulations, EPA conducted an independent review of DOE's performance assessment, including conceptual models, computer codes, input parameters, scenario screening and documentation. EPA's review identified inadequacies that DOE addressed. EPA then directed DOE to conduct an additional set of calculations in the Performance Assessment Verification Test (PAVT). The PAVT predicted releases that were greater than the releases predicted in DOE's original calculations, but they did not violate EPA's containment requirements. This demonstrated that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a robust system that can contain radionuclides as required

  15. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants. Volume 2: Users manual for PACC-OTECs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P. E.; McDonald, A. T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J. T.

    1985-05-01

    A user's manual for an interactive computer program that can calculate the simulated performance of closed cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems is presented. The program was developed for use on the IBM personal computer. The program calculate the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids (ammonia and seawater). This manual specifies the power system flow configuration, the input data requirements, and the results calculated by the program. The geometry of the heat exchangers is also described. A listing of the computer program is included.

  16. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Technical Note: The Swiss Banking System: Structure, Performance, and Medium-Term Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note discusses the banking system structure, performance, and medium-term challenges for Switzerland. The note discusses that the Swiss banking sector has been undergoing a substantial consolidation over the last 10 years, but retains a rich collection of institutional types operating in various business segments. Consolidation has been partly driven by competitive pressures following the burst of the housing market bubble and entailed a substantial reduction in the number of i...

  17. Performance assessment of gamma cameras. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dept. of Health and Social Security and the Scottish Home and Health Dept. has sponsored a programme of measurements of the important performance characteristics of 15 leading types of gamma cameras providing a routine radionuclide imaging service in hospitals throughout the UK. Measurements have been made of intrinsic resolution, system resolution, non-uniformity, spatial distortion, count rate performance, sensitivity, energy resolution and shield leakage. The main aim of this performance assessment was to provide sound information to the NHS to ease the task of those responsible for the purchase of gamma cameras. (U.K.)

  18. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  19. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and evacuated collectors. Simulations were then performed to compare the energy, environmental and economic performance of the system with those of a desiccant-based unit where regeneration thermal energy is supplied by a natural gas boiler, and with those of a conventional air-handling unit. The only solution that allows achieving the economic feasibility of the solar desiccant cooling unit consists of 16 m2 of evacuated solar collectors. This is able to obtain, with respect to the reference system, a reduction of primary energy consumption and of the equivalent CO2 emissions of 50.2% and 49.8%, respectively, but with a payback time of 20 years.

  20. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Antoniou, I.; Dahlberg, J.A. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  1. Development of measurement system for the verification of the performance assessment of H.L.W. repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The performance of the H.L.W. (High Level Waste) repository depends on the functions of the multi-barrier system that consists on both engineered barrier and natural barrier of geosphere. In particular, the latter barrier plays an important role for isolation of radioactive materials and this function gives an incentive to dispose H.L.W. into deep geologic environment. One of the key functions of the deep geologic formation is subjected by the nearly stagnant flow of underground-water. The preliminary estimation, for instance, suggests the flow rate is as low as 10-10 - 10-8 m/s which is several orders of magnitude lower than the detection limit by conventional measurement techniques. This objection may underestimate the repository performance due to the lack of the actual data of such a low flow rate. The objective of this study is to develop the in-situ measurement method of such a low flow rate in deep underground with a new concept using the solid particle tracer coupled with the ultrasonic detection system. The solid particle tracer is designed capable to adjust its density, which is identical to the underground-water. The tracer is injected into a borehole and flows along with the underground-water. The moving track of the tracer is then monitored by the three-dimensional ultrasonic detection system, which utilizes the matrix sensor and the high-speed numerical visualization device. The integrated flow detection system is designed applicable to wide range of flow rate 10-10 - 10-5 m/s consequently this newly developed system can enhance the confidence of the isolation capability of the H.L.W. disposal system. (authors)

  2. Development of a Risk-Based Performance Assessment Method for Long-Term Cover Systems--Application to the Monticello Mill Tailings Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic, risk-based performance-assessment methodology is being developed to assist designers, regulators, and involved stakeholders in the selection, design, and monitoring of long-term covers for contaminated subsurface sites. This report presents an example of the risk-based performance-assessment method using a repository site in Monticello, Utah. At the Monticello site, a long-term cover system is being used to isolate long-lived uranium mill tailings from the biosphere. Computer models were developed to simulate relevant features, events, and processes that include water flux through the cover, source-term release, vadose-zone transport, saturated-zone transport, gas transport, and exposure pathways. The component models were then integrated into a total-system performance-assessment model, and uncertainty distributions of important input parameters were constructed and sampled in a stochastic Monte Carlo analysis. Multiple realizations were simulated using the integrated model to produce cumulative distribution functions of the performance metrics, which were used to assess cover performance for both present- and long-term future conditions. Performance metrics for this study included the water percolation reaching the uranium mill tailings, radon flux at the surface, groundwater concentrations, and dose. Results of this study can be used to identify engineering and environmental parameters (e.g., liner properties, long-term precipitation, distribution coefficients) that require additional data to reduce uncertainty in the calculations and improve confidence in the model predictions. These results can also be used to evaluate alternative engineering designs and to identify parameters most important to long-term performance

  3. Development of a measuring system to verify performance assessment for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In situ borehole test to verify performance using manufactured prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep geological formations are usually characterized by a nearly stagnant flow of groundwater. Preliminary estimation suggests that the flow rate is as low as 10-10 m/s∼10-8 m/s, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the limit of detection using conventional measurement techniques. Therefore, the authors have developed an in situ measuring device based on a new concept of using a solid particle tracer coupled with an ultrasonic detection system that can be used to measure the advection of the groundwater by eliminating the effect of diffusion. The aim of this study is to verify the performance of a three-dimensional groundwater flow measuring device (prototype device). A performance test was conducted in the 550-meter-deep borehole near the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) area of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The test confirmed that the three-dimensional groundwater flow measuring system was fully developed, and the performance of the prototype device was verified using an actual underground borehole in sedimentary rock formations. The in situ measurements indicated that the device was capable of measuring water flows between 10-10 m/s and 10-5 m/s. (author)

  4. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  5. Report of a consultants' meeting to review the IAEA programme on operational safety services as part of the programme performance assessment system (PPAS) within the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consultants consider that the ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team), ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team), and OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) programmes contribute to enhancing safe performance of Member States nuclear power plants. Continued co-ordination with the World Association of Nuclear Operators and national programmes in addition to continued emphasis on developing self assessment capabilities at the power plants will contribute to continuing improvement. International performance indicators clearly portray improvements in almost all areas. For example, the incidence of unplanned scrams and the unavailability of systems important to safety reduced. All three programmes ASCOT, ASSET and OSART may be improved by: tailoring them to meet the requested need. This includes not only the use of the OSART modular concepts but also the mixing and matching of the programmes. All three programmes can be enhanced by the sharing and use of their individual current techniques. The balance between assistance for conducting self assessment and direct assessment activities must be carefully considered. Country profiles could assist the Agency staff in advising Member States on request in the technique; power plant assistance or direct assessment, that would yield the best result. It is therefore recommended that the Agency go forward with the effort to develop these profiles. Figs, tabs

  6. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  7. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  8. Carousel system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byung Chun; Park, Jae Young; Foley, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the performance of a material handling system consisting of two carousels and one picker. We derive expressions for the system throughput and picker utilization. We work out the throughput and picker utilization for two different pick-time distributions: deterministic, which might be a reasonable model when a robot is picking, and exponential, which might be a reasonable model when a person is picking.

  9. Assessing the Hydrologic Performance of the EPA's Nonpoint Source Water Quality Assessment Decision Support Tool Using North American Land Data Assimilation System (Products)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ni-Meister, W.; Toll, D.; Nigro, J.; Guiterrez-Magness, A.; Engman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of streamflow predictions in the EPA's BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) decision support tool is affected by the sparse meteorological data contained in BASINS. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data with high spatial and temporal resolutions provide an alternative to the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)'s station data. This study assessed the improvement of streamflow prediction of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model contained within BASINS using the NLDAS 118 degree hourly precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates in seven watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Our results demonstrated consistent improvements of daily streamflow predictions in five of the seven watersheds when NLDAS precipitation and evapotranspiration data was incorporated into BASINS. The improvement of using the NLDAS data is significant when watershed's meteorological station is either far away or not in a similar climatic region. When the station is nearby, using the NLDAS data produces similar results. The correlation coefficients of the analyses using the NLDAS data were greater than 0.8, the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model fit efficiency greater than 0.6, and the error in the water balance was less than 5%. Our analyses also showed that the streamflow improvements were mainly contributed by the NLDAS's precipitation data and that the improvement from using NLDAS's evapotranspiration data was not significant; partially due to the constraints of current BASINS-HSPF settings. However, NLDAS's evapotranspiration data did improve the baseflow prediction. This study demonstrates the NLDAS data has the potential to improve stream flow predictions, thus aid the water quality assessment in the EPA nonpoint water quality assessment decision tool.

  10. Assessment of PACS Display Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, John E.; Rutledge, John D.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our experience in reviewing the performance criteria for display systems and how we have implemented a practical approach to the assessment of the workstation environment in a large tertiary care hospital. The acceptance criteria contained in the draft report of Topic Group 18 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) were used as a basis for assessment of primary and secondary displays. A telescopic photometer was used to measure the maximum luminance a...

  11. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  12. Probabilistic assessments of fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probabilistic Monte Carlo Method, coupled with quasi-random sampling, is applied for the fuel performance analyses. By using known distributions of fabrication parameters and real power histories with their randomly selected combinations, and by making a large number of ENIGMA code calculations, one expects to find out the state of the whole reactor fuel. Good statistics requires thousands of runs. A sample case representing VVER-440 reactor fuel indicates relatively low fuel temperatures and mainly athermal fission gas release if any. The rod internal pressure remains typically below 2.5 MPa, which leaves a large margin to the system pressure of 12 MPa Gap conductance, an essential parameter in the accident evaluations, shows no decrease from its start-of-life value. (orig.)

  13. Long-Term Propagation Statistics and Availability Performance Assessment for Simulated Terrestrial Hybrid FSO/RF System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiser Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monthly and annual statistics of the attenuation of electromagnetic waves that have been obtained from 6 years of measurements on a free space optical path, 853 meters long, with a wavelength of 850 nm and on a precisely parallel radio path with a frequency of 58 GHz are presented. All the attenuation events observed are systematically classified according to the hydrometeor type causing the particular event. Monthly and yearly propagation statistics on the free space optical path and radio path are obtained. The influence of individual hydrometeors on attenuation is analysed. The obtained propagation statistics are compared to the calculated statistics using ITU-R models. The calculated attenuation statistics both at 850 nm and 58 GHz underestimate the measured statistics for higher attenuation levels. The availability performance of a simulated hybrid FSO/RF system is analysed based on the measured data.

  14. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part II: Environmental and economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were

  15. Evaluation of models in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of models used for performance assessment for high-level waste repositories is a key factor in making decisions regarding the management of high-level waste. Model reliability may be viewed as a measure of the confidence that regulators and others have in the use of these models to provide information for decision making. The degree of reliability required for the models will increase as implementation of disposal proceeds and decisions become increasingly important to safety. Evaluation of the models by using observations of real systems provides information that assists the assessment analysts and reviewers in establishing confidence in the conclusions reached in the assessment. A continuing process of model calibration, evaluation, and refinement should lead to increasing reliability of models as implementation proceeds. However, uncertainty in the model predictions cannot be eliminated, so decisions will always be made under some uncertainty. Examples from the Canadian program illustrate the process of model evaluation using observations of real systems and its relationship to performance assessment. 21 refs., 2 figs

  16. Low-cost economic and environmental performance assessment of farm households systems: Application to mixed crop-livestock systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.H.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  17. Low-cost Economic and Environmental Performance Assessment of Farm Households Systems: Application to Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  18. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments;...

  19. High Performance Work Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boselie, Paul; Wiele, Ton

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this topic reveals encouraging results on organizational level. Also in relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) there is research evidence that 'best practices' and/or 'high performance work systems'...

  20. Assessing the performance of community-available global MHD models using key system parameters and empirical relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, E.; Sergeev, V.; Honkonen, I.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastätter, L.; Palmroth, M.; Janhunen, P.; Tóth, G.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling is a powerful tool in space weather research and predictions. There are several advanced and still developing global MHD (GMHD) models that are publicly available via Community Coordinated Modeling Center's (CCMC) Run on Request system, which allows the users to simulate the magnetospheric response to different solar wind conditions including extraordinary events, like geomagnetic storms. Systematic validation of GMHD models against observations still continues to be a challenge, as well as comparative benchmarking of different models against each other. In this paper we describe and test a new approach in which (i) a set of critical large-scale system parameters is explored/tested, which are produced by (ii) specially designed set of computer runs to simulate realistic statistical distributions of critical solar wind parameters and are compared to (iii) observation-based empirical relationships for these parameters. Being tested in approximately similar conditions (similar inputs, comparable grid resolution, etc.), the four models publicly available at the CCMC predict rather well the absolute values and variations of those key parameters (magnetospheric size, magnetic field, and pressure) which are directly related to the large-scale magnetospheric equilibrium in the outer magnetosphere, for which the MHD is supposed to be a valid approach. At the same time, the models have systematic differences in other parameters, being especially different in predicting the global convection rate, total field-aligned current, and magnetic flux loading into the magnetotail after the north-south interplanetary magnetic field turning. According to validation results, none of the models emerges as an absolute leader. The new approach suggested for the evaluation of the models performance against reality may be used by model users while planning their investigations, as well as by model developers and those interesting to quantitatively

  1. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    From February 19 to 28, 2009, a World Bank team undertook a debt management performance assessment (DeMPA) mission to Honiara, Solomon Islands. The objective was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of debt management functions applying the DeMPA tool. The assessment reveals that the Solomon Islands meets the minimum requirements for effective debt management performance as specified by...

  2. Developing a Framework for Science Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Park, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Ho-Kam; Noh, Suk-Goo

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Framework for Performance Assessment in Science Education (F-PASE). Science educators in the past have paid more attention to science curriculum and teaching strategies than assessment. In recent years attention has turned toward performance assessment which addresses the concerns of science curriculum…

  3. Biomethane recovery from Egeria densa in a microbial electrolysis cell-assisted anaerobic system: Performance and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Kobayashi, Takuro; Lu, Xueqin; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Xu, Kaiqin

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy recovery from submerged aquatic plants such as Egeria densa (E. densa) via continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) represents a bottleneck because of process instability. Here, a single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) equipped with a pair of Ti/RuO2 mesh electrodes (i.e. the combined MEC-AD system) was implemented at different applied voltages (0-1.0 V) to evaluate the potential effects of bioelectrochemical stimulation on methane production and process stability of E. densa fermentation. The application of MEC effectively stabilized E. densa fermentation and upgraded overall process performance, especially solid matters removal. E. densa AD process was operated steadily throughout bioelectrochemical process without any signs of imbalance. The solubilization-removal of solid matters and methane conversion efficiency gradually increased with increasing applied voltage, with an average methane yield of approximately 248.2 ± 21.0 mL L(-1) d(-1) at 1.0 V. Whereas, the stability of the process became worse immediately once the external power was removed, with weaken solid matters removal along with methane output, evidencing the favorable and indispensable role in maintaining process stability. The stabilizing effect was further quantitatively demonstrated by statistical analysis using standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variance (CV) and box-plots. The syntrophic and win-win interactions between fermenting bacteria and electroactive bacteria might have contributed to the improved process stability and bioenergy recovery. PMID:26855215

  4. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example. PMID:16198459

  5. Assessing the Performance of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems When Used by Native and Non-Native Speakers of Three Major Languages in Dictation Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Julián; Kirkedal, Andreas Søeborg

    In this paper, we report on a two-part experiment aiming to assess and compare the performance of two types of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems on two different computational platforms when used to augment dictation workflows. The experiment was performed with a sample of speakers of...... three major languages and with different linguistic profiles: non-native English speakers; non-native French speakers; and native Spanish speakers. The main objective of this experiment is to examine ASR performance in translation dictation (TD) and medical dictation (MD) workflows without manual...... transcription vs. with transcription. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of a particular ASR approach in different computational platforms when used by various speakers of a given language, who may have different accents and levels of proficiency in that language, and who may have different levels of...

  6. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    OpenAIRE

    Fastré, Greet; van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group...

  7. Concepts involved in a proposed application of uncertainty analysis to the performance assessment of high-level nuclear waste isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report introduces the concepts of a previously developed methodology which could readily be extended to the field of performance assessment for high-level nuclear waste isolation systems. The methodology incorporates sensitivities previously obtained with the GRESS code into an uncertainty analysis, from which propagated uncertainties in calculated responses may be derived from basic data uncertainties. Following a definition of terms, examples are provided illustrating commonly used conventions for describing the concepts of covariance and sensitivity. Examples of solutions to problems previously encountered in related fields involving uncertainty analysis and use of a generalized linear least-squares adjustment procedure are also presented. 5 refs., 14 tabs

  8. Developing Web-oriented Homework System to Assess Students’ Introductory Physics Course Performance and Compare to Paper-based Peer Homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neset DEMIRCI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web influences education and our lives in many ways. Nowadays, Web-based homework has been becoming widespread practice in physics courses and some other courses as well. Although are some disputes whether this is an encouraging or risky development for student learning, there is limited research assessing the pedagogical effect of changing the medium from written, hand-graded homework to online oriented, computer-graded homework. In this study, web-oriented homework system is developed to assess students’ introductory physics course performance. Later on, these results are compared with paper-based (peer homework performance for mid enrollment physics courses. One of two identical sections of introductory physics course students received paper-based, hand graded group homework while the other received the individual web-based homework. Then two groups’ on conceptual and problem-solving performance measures are compared. No significant differences were found in students’ Force Concept Inventory (FCI test scores; however, average homework performance scores were significant that could be attributed to the homework method used in favor of paper-based peer homework group.

  9. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  10. Design of Staffs Assessing System

    OpenAIRE

    Hůlová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the staff assessment system in the organization in connection with reward system. This thesis is divided into the theoretical part and the practical part. The theoretical part describes the concept of staff assessment system and system of reward. Within the frame of staff assessing in addition to these tasks further the basic and additional assessment methods are explained, assessment criteria and also the errors and problems connected with the staff assessing. The c...

  11. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRSOY, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4...

  12. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Songstad Nils; Lindkvist Ida; Moland Karen; Chimhutu Victor; Blystad Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses h...

  13. Waste package degradation from thermal and chemical processes in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste container degradation in performance assessments conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, modeling of container degradation evolved from a component of the source term in 1984 to a separate module describing both container and drip shield degradation in 2008. A thermal module for evaluating the influence of higher heat loads from more closely packed, large waste packages was also introduced. In addition, a module for evaluating drift chemistry was added in later PAs to evaluate the potential for localized corrosion of the outer barrier of the waste container composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel–chromium–tungsten–molybdenum alloy. The uncertainty of parameters related to container degradation contributed significantly to the estimated uncertainty of performance measures (cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter). - Highlights: • Progression of container modeling from an assumption of complete failure before 1993 to a stochastic description after 1995 is described. • Introduction of thermal-hydrologic model to examine interaction between the engineered and natural barrier, and container degradation is described. • The introduction of a water chemistry module to evaluate the possibility of localized corrosion of the container is described. • The addition of seismic damage models to evaluate container damage from drift degradation and container movement is described

  14. Cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System as a measure of psychotic characteristics and severity of mental disturbance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-So; Viglione, Donald J; Green, Elizabeth E; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Yi-Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), a new Rorschach administration, scoring, and interpretation system that minimizes psychometric weaknesses of the Comprehensive System (CS). This investigation addressed the validity of R-PAS measures of psychotic characteristics and psychopathology severity in Taiwan, including the incremental validity of the R-PAS relative to the CS variables measuring the same constructs. Ninety Taiwanese individuals (75 psychiatric patients and 15 nonpatients) were tested with standard R-PAS administration and scoring. Two non-Rorschach severity of disturbance measures and 2 psychosis measures served as independent criterion measures. The R-PAS measures were found to be valid in Taiwan in assessing psychotic symptoms and psychopathology severity, thus demonstrating cultural and linguistic adaptability. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated incremental validity for the R-PAS variables over their CS counterparts, providing support that the R-PAS revisions enhance the test psychometrically. These research findings also demonstrate the viability of the R-PAS as a Rorschach system that can be effectively employed outside the U.S. in a different language and culture. PMID:26011480

  15. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-Liang Liu; Chen-Chi Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance ...

  16. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  17. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  18. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  19. Enhanced FBG sensor-based system performance assessment for monitoring strain along a prestressed CFRP rod in structural monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrouche, A.; Boyle, W.J.O.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K.T.V.; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    be converted to a conventional electronic signal. This procedure provides the means for the FBG-based sensor system to be used for several monitoring applications. The aim of this research is to improve an existing monitoring system which has been used for several Held test inspections. A brief...... description of the existing FBG-based system and the evaluation of the software developed to be compatible with a resolution reaching as high as +/- 0.15 mu epsilon is presented. The system has been tested under particular conditions where a prestressed CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) rod to which a...... FBG sensor is attached is used. The test procedure and results obtained are discussed in some detail. Crown...

  20. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Angrisani; Carlo Roselli; Maurizio Sasso; Francesco Tariello

    2014-01-01

    Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and eva...

  1. DVB-S2/DVB-RCS satellite system performance assessment for IFE and ATN aeronautical communications

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Na; Bousquet, Michel; Pirovano, Alain; Radzik, José

    2006-01-01

    International audience Two concurrent satellite systems are presently proposed for in-flight entertainment (IFE) communications, thus demonstrating the capability of satellites to provide multimedia access to users on board airplanes. At the same time, an increasing interest for the use of satellite communications for air traffic control has been motivated by the increasing load of traditional radio links, mainly in the VHF band. However, the development of a dedicated satellite system for...

  2. Tax Performance Assessment in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunescu Liliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal policy performance level in Nordic countries of Europe by quantifying the gap between their performance and an optimum benchmark value. In this study it was selected Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. These countries occupy the first places in the ranking of countries with the highest rate of tax burden in Europe. The first part of paper contains general aspects of fiscal performance in international research and an overview of the Nordic tax systems model. The second part of paper focuses on evaluation of tax policy performance in these countries by using OptimTax scoring analysis. The research is based on a multivariate analysis instrument that uses quantitative data on various aspects of tax policy. OptimTax achieves a score for assessing the degree of optimization of fiscal policy. The results reveal high levels of tax performance in Scandinavian countries and a trend that seems to be more constant than ascending, except Norway.

  3. High Performance Work Systems and Firm Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A review of 17 studies of high-performance work systems concludes that benefits of employee involvement, skill training, and other high-performance work practices tend to be greater when new methods are adopted as part of a consistent whole. (Author)

  4. Research on Performance Assessment of the Control System based on MATLAB/GUI%基于MATLAB/GUI的控制系统性能评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 王印松; 田靖雨

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the control system directly affects the safety, stability, economic operation of industrial production. In order to regularly monitor and assess the performance of the control system conveniently and effectively, this paper takes MATLAB/GUI as the development platform, introduced the related concepts of simulation interface design and the steps of performance evaluation in detail. At the same time, we designed the thermal power unit load control system performance evaluation simulation interface based on time domain design index and covariance index, and verified using the MATLAB model simulation data. The results confirm the validity and rationality of the interface of the performance evaluation.%控制系统的性能直接影响到工业生产的安全、稳定、经济运行。为了方便、有效地进行控制系统性能的实时监测与评价,本文以MATLAB/GUI为开发平台,详细介绍了性能评价仿真界面设计的相关概念与步骤。同时,设计了基于时域指标和基于协方差指标的火电机组负荷控制系统性能评价仿真界面,利用MATLAB模型仿真数据进行仿真验证。仿真结果证实了该性能评价仿真界面的有效性和合理性。

  5. OVERVIEW OF MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING NATURAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF THE HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For two decades, extensive hydrologic investigations have been conducted for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste in fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Extensive field and laboratory geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical testing has provided a large amount of data for developing the conceptual understanding of these processes and parameters for quantifying these processes. A suite of sophisticated numerical models has been developed to assess the long-term performance of the natural barrier of unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) to flow of groundwater and transport of radionuclides released from the repository. This work focuses on characterizing surface and subsurface processes of climate change, infiltration, percolation in the UZ and groundwater flow in the SZ, as well as on predicting hydrologic responses of the natural system to the emplacement of waste packages in drifts, including seepage of water into emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport in the UZ and SZ. These models are then abstracted into a total system performance assessment (TSPA) model. The TSPA integrates these natural attributes with features of engineered systems, and through systematic stochastic analyses involving Monte Carlo simulations, predicts the dose consequences and groundwater concentrations for at least 10,000 years for various future climate conditions, waste types, release scenarios, and transport pathways. The TSPA predictions demonstrate compliance with postclosure individual and groundwater protection standards in the license application for the repository. This presentation provides an overview of the development and use of these natural-system models, including the infiltration model, the site-scale UZ flow model, the seepage calibration and abstraction models, the UZ radionuclide transport and abstraction models, and the site-scale SZ flow and transport models. It describes the approaches used in the design and construct of these

  6. Numerical simulation and performance assessment of an absorption solar air-conditioning system coupled with an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. Solar energy, via thermal collectors can provide a part of the heating needs. Moreover, it can drive absorption chiller in order to satisfy the cooling needs of buildings. The objective of the work is to evaluate accurately the energy consumption of an air conditioning system including a solar driven absorption chiller. The c...

  7. Field performance assessment and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Juan Carlos [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Ziff Energy Group is a company with a presence in over 60 countries, where it operates in the oil and gas industry, particularly the heavy oil sector. The aim of this presentation is to show the benefits of benchmarking in the heavy oil industry. Heavy oil is defined as oil with a gravity between 10 and 20 API and a viscosity of 100 to 10,000 cp; resources are distributed through all the continents. Benchmarking consists in analyzing performance, looking for new ways to improve it, and implementing those new methods; benchmarking thus promotes measurement and improvement within a company. However, benchmarking in the heavy oil sector presents challenges, due to the difference of the oil play properties, the different cultures inherent in each company, and the abundance of data. This presentation demonstrated that, despite the challenges, benchmarking is a useful tool for optimizing heavy oil operations.

  8. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  9. Review of SR 97 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review has identified many technical problems in the SR 97 performance assessment. The general impression of this reviewer is that SKB has been disingenuous in its performance assessment effort. It has not cited important differences of opinion with its own views. Furthermore, there are many inconsistencies in the SR 97 report that all together leave the impression that there are many more uncertainties in the SR 97 performance assessment than SKB would perhaps care to admit. Additionally, despite SKB's statements to the contrary, many of the analyses conducted for the SR 97 performance assessment can be clearly shown not to have been based on 'conservative' assumptions. Finally, SKB has made little effort to consider possible coupling effects between their different scenarios in SR 97. This is a serious flaw in the SR 97 performance assessment. The comments in this review should not be taken to imply that the KBS-3 nuclear waste disposal method will not be able to meet the safety and radiation protection requirements which SKI and SSI have specified in recent years. Instead, my conclusion is simply that the SR 97 performance assessment of the KBS-3 method would have been more believable had it been based on a forthright and comprehensive discussion of facts, uncertainties and opinions, and on a more conservative choice of assumptions. As it stands, the SR 97 performance assessment is not very credible

  10. Program Performance Assessment System (PPAS). External reviewers' report of the consultants' meeting on analytical quality control services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reviewing the recommendations of previous Consultants' Meetings concerning the AQCS program, it is apparent that there has been a clear and consistent agreement on what the objectives of the AQCS activities should be. The mission statement as given in the Agency's 'Blue Book 1997-1998' states 'To assist analytical laboratories in Member States in maintaining/improving the quality of their analytical measurements, to achieve internationally acceptable levels of quality assurance and to develop and supply appropriate reference standards to achieve these objectives'. In concert with this mission statement, the consultants have endorsed an elaboration of these objectives for both the Agency' s laboratories and Member State laboratories as outlined in the 1994 Consultants' Report (KONA, HI, USA) which includes: the improvement of the reliability of results for the intended purposes; the enhancement of the comparability of results from one measurement laboratory to another; the attainment of compatibility of results in physical and chemical sciences with specific coverage of international standards for food and agriculture, human health, environment, industry, earth sciences, radiation safety, and safeguards activities; the demonstration of quality measurement systems sufficient for laboratory/analyst accreditation or acceptance, and; the establishment of traceability of radioactivity measurements and chemical analyses to the international SI system of measurements

  11. Consolidated results of the AECB staff's detailed review of Ontario Hydro Nuclear's integrated independent performance assessment and safety system functional inspection findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1997, Ontario Hydro announced that a team of nuclear industry experts from the United States, called the Nuclear Performance Advisory Group (NPAG), had been employed to help manage its nuclear program and to implement needed improvements in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) operations. In the spring of 1997, NPAG initiated a series of detailed reviews of OHN's operations, at its Pickering, Bruce and Darlington nuclear generating stations and in OHN's Head Office groups. These reviews, called 'Independent Integrated Performance Assessments' (UPA) and 'Safety System Functional Inspections' (SSFI), were carried out in April and May of this year with the objective of developing 'an integrated, accurate, and comprehensive understanding of the performance of OHN'.They were conducted in response to a request from the President of Ontario Hydro for a 'brutally honest' assessment of Ontario Hydro Nuclear. NPAG has since been integrated into Ontario Hydro's line organization. Ontario Hydro's Board of Directors received the results of the IIPAs and SSFIs and an Ontario Hydro report titled Basis for Continued Operation on August 12, 1997. AECB staff has been reviewing the reports containing these results since receiving them at that time. The conclusions of these studies are extremely critical of the management of Ontario Hydro Nuclear. They identify a large number of shortcomings in the operation and maintenance of the nuclear generating stations. Ontario Hydro states in the IIPA and SSFI reports that the reports are, by design, negative in slant and emphasize the weaknesses in performance rather than the strengths. The reports conclude that the stations can continue to operate safety while the near and long term improvements are implemented. This report contains the consolidated results of the AECB staffs detailed review of the IIPA and SSFI findings. (author)

  12. A modular approach for assessing the effect of radiation environments on man in operational systems. The radiobiological vulnerability of man during task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    A modular approach for assessing the affects of radiation environments on man in operational systems has been developed. The feasibility of the model has been proved and the practicality has been assessed. It has been applied to one operational system to date and information obtained has been submitted to systems analysts and mission planners for the assessment of man's vulnerability and impact on systems survivability. In addition, the model has been developed so that the radiobiological data can be input to a sophisticated man-machine interface model to properly relate the radiobiological stress with other mission stresses including the effects of a degraded system.

  13. Development of integrated assessment technology for risk and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below - Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure · New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic) in NPP Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP Development of the risk-informed severe accident management supporting system - Resolution technology for pending issues in Pasa Basic technology for Pasa of digital I and C system Basic technology for seismic Pasa reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 Pasa and best estimation of containment failure frequency - Assessment technology for new emerging risk/performance issues Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP B/P model development for performance monitoring

  14. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  15. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  16. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  17. Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

  18. Thermodynamics, data estimation and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment provides a narrative of a system and its development. One may use a literary metaphor; the procedure is like writing a novel where the 'chapters' are the various sub-systems and where both the 'plot' and the 'grammar' are based on scientific and other information, some hard facts and other more or less reliable guesses. I will begin with some general remarks on models, which may provide a useful starting point for what follows. - Models never provide complete descriptions of real systems; they are used to highlight certain aspects of them and to answer 'what-if' questions; - Modelling is an iterative process that provides guidance as to what are important phenomena and what is less relevant for the description of the system and its function; - It is necessary to distinguish between model uncertainties and parameter uncertainties; - It is often better to estimate a quantity for which no data are available than to exclude the particular process where it is needed. Thermodynamics provide not only numerical values for different chemical processes, but more important a theory framework that can be used for the estimation of data. I will not discuss activity coefficient corrections of thermodynamic data, an important area that has already been addressed by Professor Fanghaenel. In the following overview I will be using examples of estimations of different kinds to illustrate what can be accomplished using thermodynamics in combination with chemical theories. (author)

  19. Performing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. Kinoshita

    2013-06-01

    The Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment (RAVEN) code is a software tool that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing engine for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. RAVEN is now a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities: Derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures), allowing on-line monitoring/controlling in the Phase Space Perform both Monte-Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Dynamic Event Tree based analysis Facilitate the input/output handling through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data mining module

  20. Performance Assessment of Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    the performance measures and benchmarks adopted in M&A research field and the relevant empirical results. We find that the definitions of performance varied in terms of accounting, financial, operational and perceptual metrics. And performance assessment is sensitive to the definition of performance......, methodology selected, benchmarks construct, sample used, and observation time horizon, which is the main reason for a vast body of controversial research findings. Besides, we also get some finding from questionnaire survey, which are reported in the paper....

  1. Inspection system performance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system

  2. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  3. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  4. In vitro dispersion test that could serve as a predictive method for assessing performance of lipid-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal N. Prajapati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple in vitro dispersion test using the USP Dissolution Apparatus II filled with 250 ml of dispersion fluid (0.01M HCl at 37°C and a rotation speed of 50 RPM was used to assess the performance of lipid-based formulations. Solutions of probucol in mixtures with the surfactant Cremophor® EL with four different medium chain lipids (glyceryl monocaprylocaprate, Capmul® MCM EP; glyceryl dicaprylate; glyceryl tricaprylate, Captex® 8000 EP/NF; caprylic/capric triglyceride, Captex® 355 EP/NF were formulated and filled into Size 00 hard gelatin capsules (~1 g/capsule for dispersion testing. Drug concentration in the dispersion fluid and the particle size of the dispersed phase as a function of time were measured with, and without, filtration through 0.45 micron filters. All the lipid/surfactant mixtures dispersed in 80%, indicating suitability for their use in immediate-release formulations. The particle size of the unfiltered samples confirmed whether a microemulsion (1000 nm was formed. The dispersion test developed here could be used to screen different lipid-based formulations for in vitro performance. Justification for using an in vitro dispersion test to predict in vivo performance of lipid-based drug delivery systems has been provided.

  5. The European Emission Trading System and competition. Anticompetitive measures beyond reach? An assessment of the grandfathering allocation method and the Performance Standard Rate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center piece of the European Climate Change Program is the ambitious Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS, Directive 2003/87/EC) which helps Member States to fulfill their Kyoto commitments. It particularly facilitates the old EU 15 Member States to make progress towards meeting their particular greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals committed under the Burden Sharing Agreement. EU Member States have developed national greenhouse gas allowances allocation plans and distributed these allowances to around 5000 operators with approximately 12.000 installations. Differences between allocations can give rise to severe anticompetitive effects. Undue interventions by Member States are largely contained through the application of the four freedoms, while EC Competition law (Articles 81 and 82) is geared to the containment of competitive distortions arising in particular from undue behavior of firms. State involvement in infringements is addressed through Articles 87 (State aid) and 86 (public undertakings) and the 'joint application doctrine' (Articles 10(2), 3(g), 81 and 82) which was developed by the ECJ upon recognition that State measures can undermine the effectiveness of the EC Treaty. The paper examines how anticompetitive distortions originating from Member State action under National Allocation Plans in general and by application of (historical) grandfathering and the (hypothetical) Performance Standard Rate (PSR) allocation format in particular are dealt with under European competition law rules. The PSR System is a relative benchmark system with an intended cap for all participants but without a cap for individual operators. This alternative approach has been developed and is actually in use for the Dutch NOx Emission Trading System. An interdisciplinary industrial economic and competition law framework is chosen to formulate an economic critique. After the introductory part the anticompetitive effects originating in State measures are examined

  6. Development of Integrated Assessment Technology of Risk and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below 1) Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure - New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic in NPP) - BOP model development for performance monitoring - Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP 2) Resolution technology for pending issues in PSA - Base technology for PSA of digital I and C system - Base technology for seismic PSA reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect - Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 PSA and best estimation of containment failure frequency 3) Next generation risk/performance assessment technology - Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP

  7. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report

  8. River Protection Project information systems assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report

  9. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  10. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  11. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  12. Overview of total system model used for the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented for the total system model used to represent physical processes associated with the seven scenario classes (i.e., nominal conditions, early waste package (WP) failure, early drip shield (DS) failure, igneous intrusive events, igneous eruptive events, seismic ground motion events and seismic fault displacement events) considered in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The total system model estimates dose to an exposed individual resulting from radionuclide movement through the repository system and biosphere. Components of the total system model described in this presentation include models for (i) climate analysis, (ii) land surface infiltration and associated unsaturated zone flow, (iii) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal–hydrologic environment, (iv) EBS physical and chemical environment, (v) WP and DS degradation, (vi) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, (vii) waste form degradation and mobilization, (viii) water and radionuclide movement in the EBS and underlying unsaturated and saturated zones, (ix) radionuclide movement in the biosphere and resultant human exposure, and (x) processes specific to early WP and DS failures, intrusive and eruptive igneous events, and seismic ground motion and fault displacement events. - Highlights: • The models indicated below associated with four scenario classes are described: (i) nominal conditions, (ii) early waste package (WP) and/or early drip shield (DS) failure, (iii) igneous events, and (iv) seismic events. • Models for (i) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal-hydrologic environment, (ii) EBS physical and chemical environment, (iii) WP and DS degradation, (iv) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, and (vi) waste form degradation and mobilization. • Models for processes specific to (i) early WP and DS failures, (ii

  13. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    The Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) comprises a set of fifteen debt performance indicators (DPIs), which aim to encompass the complete spectrum of government debt management (DeM) operations as well as the overall environment in which these operations are conducted. While the DeMPA does not specify recommendations on reforms and/or capacity and institution building needs, th...

  14. Assessing irrigation performance by using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandara, K.M.P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Performance indicators, performance assessment, diagnostic approach, SEBAL, target level, grain yield, water productivity, error estimation, spatio-temporal resolution.

    In

  15. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  16. Assessment of the clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument performance and stability on the Aqua, Terra, and S-NPP spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Shankar, Mohan; Hess, Phillip C.; Smith, Natividad M.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.

    2015-09-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure reflected solar radiation and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. Five CERES instruments are currently taking active measurements in-orbit with two aboard the Terra spacecraft (FM1 and FM2), two aboard the Aqua spacecraft (FM3 and FM4), and one aboard the S-NPP spacecraft (FM5). The CERES instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - >100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The ICM sources, along with a solar diffusor called the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM), are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In addition, validation studies are conducted to understand any spectral changes that may occur with the sensors and assess the pointing accuracy of the instrument, allowing for corrections to be made to the radiance calculations in CERES data products. This paper covers the observed trends in the internal and solar calibration data, discusses the latest techniques used to correct for sensor response, and explains the validation studies used to assess the performance and stability of the instrument.

  17. SPHERE eXtreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Costille, A.; Vigan, A.; Soenke, C.; Perret, D.; Rochat, S.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Kasper, M.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.

    2014-08-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument is an ESO project aiming at the direct detection of extra-solar planets. SPHERE has been successfully integrated and tested in Europe end 2013 and has been re-integrated at Paranal in Chile early 2014 for a first light at the beginning of May. The heart of the SPHERE instrument is its eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO) SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation) subsystem that provides extremely high correction of turbulence and very accurate stabilization of images for coronagraphic purpose. However, SAXO, as well as the overall instrument, must also provide constant operability overnights, ensuring robustness and autonomy. An original control scheme has been developed to satisfy this challenging dichotomy. It includes in particular both an Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI) to control the Deformable Mirror (DM) and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law to manage the tip-tilt (TT) mirror. LQG allows optimal estimation and prediction of turbulent angle of arrival but also of possible vibrations. A specific and unprecedented control scheme has been developed to continuously adapt and optimize LQG control ensuring a constant match to turbulence and vibrations characteristics. SPHERE is thus the first operational system implementing LQG, with automatic adjustment of its models. SAXO has demonstrated performance beyond expectations during tests in Europe, in spite of internal limitations. Very first results have been obtained on sky last May. We thus come back to SAXO control scheme, focusing in particular on the LQG based TT control and the various upgrades that have been made to enhance further the performance ensuring constant operability and robustness. We finally propose performance assessment based on in lab performance and first on sky results and discuss further possible improvements.

  18. Visualizing Parallel Computer System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    Parallel computer systems are among the most complex of man's creations, making satisfactory performance characterization difficult. Despite this complexity, there are strong, indeed, almost irresistible, incentives to quantify parallel system performance using a single metric. The fallacy lies in succumbing to such temptations. A complete performance characterization requires not only an analysis of the system's constituent levels, it also requires both static and dynamic characterizations. Static or average behavior analysis may mask transients that dramatically alter system performance. Although the human visual system is remarkedly adept at interpreting and identifying anomalies in false color data, the importance of dynamic, visual scientific data presentation has only recently been recognized Large, complex parallel system pose equally vexing performance interpretation problems. Data from hardware and software performance monitors must be presented in ways that emphasize important events while eluding irrelevant details. Design approaches and tools for performance visualization are the subject of this paper.

  19. Assessment of ultrasound monitor image display performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sally C; Munnings, Craig R; Brettle, David S; Evans, J Anthony

    2011-06-01

    The display monitor on an ultrasound scanner is used to make primary diagnoses. In this study, 31 ultrasound systems were assessed against current American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) display standards. Measurements of peak levels (L(max) and L(min)) were generated. Ambient light, L(amb) (cd/m(2)) and room illuminance, L(x) (Lux) were measured. Luminance ratio was calculated (LR' = (L(max)+L(amb))/(L(min)+L(amb))). Initially, only 8/31 systems (26%) passed all the criteria. After adjustment, a further 7/31 (23%) passed making a total of 15/31 passes (48%). A total of 16/31 (52%) were considered overall fails: three due to poor room lighting, 14 due to poor monitor performance. Considering errors this could be as low as 6/31 (19%). Although further work is required to confirm the applicability of these results, it is of concern that three-quarters of ultrasound scanners could be suboptimally adjusted with 19%-55% unable to pass the AAPM criteria. The impact of this on clinical practice is unknown but there is clearly a need to review display quality assurance on ultrasound scanners. PMID:21601138

  20. CMS muon system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note contains a description of the muon system constructed for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at LHC. A description of all three different subdetectors composing the spectrometer (Drift Tube Chambers, Cathode Strip Chambers and Resistive Plate Chambers), their construction and commissioning will be reviewed, together with some results obtained in different campaigns of cosmic data taking.

  1. Development of JNC geological disposal technical information integration system - an approach to integrate and share technical information among performance assessment, repository design and site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a current status of development of 'JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System (JGIS)' which aims to facilitate integration and sharing of technical information among Site Investigation (SI), Repository Design (RD) and Performance Assessment (PA) teams. SI, RD and PA are inter-independent and should strongly interact to optimize each activity. SI, in particular, needs to provide basic information for all activities. However, it is not always easy to strongly interact because geological disposal requires the integration of disciplines that are highly complicated and wide-ranging. It is also difficult to understand the entire scope of activities and to correlate one's own work with the needs of other disciplines. This difficulty increases as the site investigation proceeds and more information becomes available. JNC is developing two underground research laboratories, one in crystalline rock and the other in Tertiary sedimentary rock. RD methods and PA methods will be developed and demonstrated using these two URLs. Starting in 2001, JNC initiated the development of JGIS to activate interaction within and among each team. JGIS is an archive system of technical information in which a relational database is constructed to record, catalogue, and manage technical information in the structure of a flow chart, which systematically represents ST activities, RD activities and PA activities. JGIS facilitates the sharing of information between users and provides for up-to-date checks on the status of each activity. It also helps RD and PA to maintain traceability and consistency as well as assure quality. Thus, the system supports the integration of these three teams and facilitates the iterative SI, RD and PA processes. JNC is planning to complete the development of the initial version of the system by March 2004 and to start using it for the JNC project thereafter. (author)

  2. Subjective and objective performance assessment : Performance pay at Trelleborg Forsheda AB

    OpenAIRE

    Luotonen, David; Hasselström, Markus

    2009-01-01

      The purpose of this thesis is to understand the opinions and potential effects of objective and subjective assessments of performance as a basis for performance pay for blue-collar workers. The study takes a qualitative approach to find out how and why four companies - Trelleborg Forsheda, Finnveden Powertrain, Isaberg Rapid and Parker Hannifin- work with salaries, incentive system and performance assessment the way they do. The concept of individual salary is central in this thesis, and in...

  3. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system

  4. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  5. Comparative performance of two inhaler systems to assess distribution of convective ventilation by 99m Tc-labeled aerosol scintigraphy in patients with airway obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    airway-obstructed patients (3.4±0.8 min versus 8.4±2 min, P<0.001). With the MMI, appreciable radio aerosol deposition in the large bronchi prevented reliable quantitative assessment of ventilation, even in the control subjects. With the FAI, radio aerosol deposition in the central large airways was never observed in the controls and was only sporadically or occasionally observed in patients with COPD or asthma, respectively. This feature allowed quantitative ventilation assessment. The FAI-generated radio aerosol particles reached the peripheral respiratory spaces more efficiently than those generated by MMI; on the ventilation scans, the FAI allowed better discrimination than the MMI of the different pathophysiologic conditions. Conclusions. These findings consistently indicate that the smaller-sized radiolabeled droplets generated by FAI, combined with the better breathing dynamics of the inhaler device, result in better overall performance as compared to the commercial system. This makes scintigraphic images obtained with the new device especially suitable for assessing convective ventilation in COPD patients, a particularly helpful feature for analytically describing the distribution patterns observed in airway-obstructed patients and for evaluating the effects of drugs, mechanical ventilation, and other interventions in such patients.

  6. Documenting Student Performance through Effective Performance Assessments: Workshop Summary. Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Education Curriculum Materials Service.

    This document contains materials about and from a workshop that was conducted to help Ohio horticulture teachers learn to document student competence through effective performance assessments. The document begins with background information about the workshop and a list of workshop objectives. Presented next is a key to the 40 performance…

  7. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teaming skills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team

  8. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P in the public health sector in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songstad Nils

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers

  9. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  10. Self-Assessed Intelligence and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a two-year longitudinal study of the relationship between self-assessed intelligence (SAI) and academic performance (AP) in a sample of 184 British undergraduate students. Results showed significant correlations between SAI (both before and after taking an IQ test) and academic exam marks obtained two years later,…

  11. An Investigation of Interrater Reliability for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) in a Nonpatient U.S. Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisalu, Trisha M; Lewey, Jennifer H; Shaffer, Thomas W; Canfield, Merle L

    2016-01-01

    The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) aims to provide an evidence-based approach to administration, coding, and interpretation of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). R-PAS analyzes individualized communications given by respondents to each card to code a wide pool of possible variables. Due to the large number of possible codes that can be assigned to these responses, it is important to consider the concordance rates among different assessors. This study investigated interrater reliability for R-PAS protocols. Data were analyzed from a nonpatient convenience sample of 50 participants who were recruited through networking, local marketing, and advertising efforts from January 2013 through October 2014. Blind recoding was used and discrepancies between the initial and blind coders' ratings were analyzed for each variable with SPSS yielding percent agreement and intraclass correlation values. Data for Location, Space, Contents, Synthesis, Vague, Pairs, Form Quality, Populars, Determinants, and Cognitive and Thematic codes are presented. Rates of agreement for 1,168 responses were higher for more simplistic coding (e.g., Location), whereas agreement was lower for more complex codes (e.g., Cognitive and Thematic codes). Overall, concordance rates achieved good to excellent agreement. Results suggest R-PAS is an effective method with high interrater reliability supporting its empirical basis. PMID:26730817

  12. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  13. Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop an off-design model for a CCP system driven by gas turbine. • An alternative operating strategy is proposed to improve the system performance. • Off-design performance of the combined cooling and power system (CCP) is enhanced. • Effects of both the different operating strategy are analyzed and compared. • Performance enhancement mechanism of the proposed operating strategy is presented. - Abstract: A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating

  14. Retardation mechanism studies for performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessments of geological repositories for nuclear waste require information about how possibly escaping radionuclides will be transported through the bedrock. Retardation mechanism studies provide an important part of the database required. So far Finnish performance assessments have considered sorption and matrix diffusion as retardation mechanisms. In this report we discuss how the data supplied by experimental retardation mechanism studies meet those required by performance assessments in the Finnish case. Experimental structural studies on small-scale pore network are discussed in detail. The C-14-PMMA method and helium-gas methods provide porosity, diffusivity and permeability data. The effort within the Palmottu natural analogue project that aimed to locate large-scale flow channels is described briefly. Specific retardation mechanism studies are discussed. The laboratory studies cover column experiments and anion exclusion studies. Column experiments provide data on sorption and matrix diffusion. The natural analogue studies cover work done in the Palmottu, the Haemeenlinna boulder, and the Haestholmen projects. Studies at Palmottu provide in situ data about sorption and matrix diffusion. This review indicates that data required by current migration models in performance assessments can be met by existing experimental methods. But the situation changes if more detailed modelling is wanted. In that case, a strategic question must be answered: what is a reasonable level of detail and conceptual rigour in performance assessment modelling, considering the unavoidable overall uncertainties due to long time scales and heterogeneous bedrock? The results obtained so far in natural analogue studies indicate that there is room for improvements in sorption modelling. The current Kd based approach could be supported by parallel mechanistic sorption modelling. It is acknowledged, however, that mechanistic sorption modelling is possible for neither all

  15. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  16. Bootstrap performance profiles in stochastic algorithms assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization with stochastic algorithms has become a relevant research field. Due to its stochastic nature, its assessment is not straightforward and involves integrating accuracy and precision. Performance profiles for the mean do not show the trade-off between accuracy and precision, and parametric stochastic profiles require strong distributional assumptions and are limited to the mean performance for a large number of runs. In this work, bootstrap performance profiles are used to compare stochastic algorithms for different statistics. This technique allows the estimation of the sampling distribution of almost any statistic even with small samples. Multiple comparison profiles are presented for more than two algorithms. The advantages and drawbacks of each assessment methodology are discussed

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  19. Integrated corporate performance measurement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Biljana

    2004-01-01

    Corporate performance measurement is a key prerequisite for successful management, a process of guiding the enterprise from the existing to the particular, desired performance. Traditional performance measurement systems, based on the use of financial indicators, do not satisfy the needs of modern enterprises. They provide the measurement of the past results, but they do not provide enough quality information for improvement of performance in the future. Nowadays, a great number of different ...

  20. Performance assessment implementation plan for the geologic repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations of repository-system performance to access compliance with regulations and to support the development of the geologic repository. To define the strategy for these evaluations, the DOE has developed this performance assessment strategy plan. This document discusses the need for such a strategy, the objectives and scope of the strategy plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans. Additionally, it defines performance assessment and describes the roles of performance assessment in this program, discusses concepts and general strategies needed for performance assessment, outlines the content of the Safety Analysis Report, summarizes the requirements for the repository Environmental Impact Statement, discusses the requirements that apply to the site-suitability analyses and describes the site characterization. 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Performance assessment implementation plan for the geologic repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations of repository-system performance to access compliance with regulations and to support the development of the geologic repository. To define the strategy for these evaluations, the DOE has developed this performance assessment strategy plan. This document discusses the need for such a strategy, the objectives and scope of the strategy plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans. Additionally, it defines performance assessment and describes the roles of performance assessment in this program, discusses concepts and general strategies needed for performance assessment, outlines the content of the Safety Analysis Report, summarizes the requirements for the repository Environmental Impact Statement, discusses the requirements that apply to the site-suitability analyses and describes the site characterization. 10 figs., 7 tabs

  2. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  3. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  4. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  5. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  6. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided

  7. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T. [Yucca Mountain Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  8. Automated Autonomy Assessment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has expressed the need to assess crew autonomy relative to performance and evaluate an optimal level of autonomy that maximizes individual and team...

  9. Assessment of the performance of waste water treatment systems; Valoracion sobre el rendimiento de los sistemas de depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, R.

    2004-07-01

    This article sets out to examine the performance standard required of treatment systems in a hydro graphic basin from an overall viewpoint taking into account existing environmental requirements. The growing pressure on resources and the environment has reached the point where treatment has begun to be a problem not of the number of treatment plants, but of the performance of the technology employed. Without going into the issue of the byproducts of refuse generated by the best-performing technologies, a conceptual analysis is made of the impact of performance in solving waste water treatment needs. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  11. Assessing Students – Clinical Competence Versus Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ruedy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent elaboration of the range of physiciancompetencies upon which the quality of health care isdependent has fostered the development of a variety ofmethods of assessing medical student competencies andperformance. Such assessments are essential inproviding feedback to students to guide their learningand to faculty on the success of the curriculum inachieving competency outcomes. In addition theyprovide evidence that students have achieved minimumrequirements for progressing. Well-designed ObservedStructured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, MiniClinical Examinations (Mini-CEXs and some forms ofMulti-Source Feedback (MSF can meet acceptablestandards of validity and reliability and are feasible.Competency assessments are limited in predicting howa student will actually act in the work situationparticularly in humanistic skills. More emphasis needsto be placed on student performance, in suchcompetencies as communication and professionalism, ina variety of settings by a number of observers.

  12. Thailand: Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment (FSSA) on Thailand. The assessment reveals that the soundness of Thailand’s financial system has been strengthened since the financial crisis of the late 1990s. Substantial progress has been made in upgrading the regulatory and supervisory system and improving macroeconomic management. Banking fundamentals have strengthened, with most Thai banks reporting high levels of capital and solid profitability. Private co...

  13. Integrated theater assessment profiling system

    OpenAIRE

    Wiest, James A.; Hadley, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The Integrated Theater Assessment Profiling System (iTAPS) takes the original stove-piped Theater Assessment Profiling System (TAPS) software solution and turns it into a robust, data-centric, web-based decision support system for Commander, Second Fleet. ITAPS uses the .Net Framework and ASP.NET/ADO.NET, along with SQL Server to provide a web-enabled application that gives an overarching, abstracted view of the battle space for the Op...

  14. Fracture network modelling and performance assessment support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Fracture Network Modelling and Performance Assessment Support performed by Golder Associates Inc. during the Heisei-12 (2000-2001) fiscal year. The primary objective of the work described in this report was to assist JNC in research related to characterization of solute transport pathways in fracture networks by the discrete fracture network (DFN) and channel network (CN) approaches. In addition, Golder supported JNC participation in the Aespoe Modeling Task Force on of Groundwater Flow and Transport (AMTF). Golder carried out extensive analyses of flow and transport for a 5 meter scale fracture network pathway for AMTF Task 4, and assisted in development of AMTF Task 6 which will address the integration of site characterization and repository safety assessment. Technical information about Golder Associates HY-12 support to JNC/Tokai is provided in the appendices to this report. (author)

  15. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  16. Joint Performance and Planning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A joint State/USAID system hosted by State that integrates resource and performance information at the program level and enables more flexible and frequent entry of...

  17. Online performance assessment of heat exchanger using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ahilan, S. Kumanan, N. Sivakumaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger is a device in which heat is transferred from one medium to another across a solid surface. The performance of heat exchanger deteriorates with time due to fouling on the heat transfer surface. It is necessary to assess periodically the heat exchanger performance, in order to maintain at high efficiency level. Industries follow adopted practices to monitor but it is limited to some degree. Online monitoring has an advantage to understand and improve the heat exchanger performance. In this paper, online performance monitoring system for shell and tube heat exchanger is developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs. Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design of experiments to develop a model using the parameters such as temperatures and flow rates. ANN model for overall heat transfer coefficient of a design/ clean heat exchanger system is developed using a feed forward back propagation neural network and trained. The developed model is validated and tested by comparing the results with the experimental results. This model is used to assess the performance of heat exchanger with the real/fouled system. The performance degradation is expressed using fouling factor (FF, which is derived from the overall heat transfer coefficient of design system and real system. It supports the system to improve the performance by asset utilization, energy efficient and cost reduction interms of production loss.

  18. Biobjective Performance Assessment with the COCO Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Brockhoff, Dimo; Tušar, Tea; Tušar, Dejan; Wagner, Tobias; Hansen, Nikolaus; Auger, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This document details the rationales behind assessing the performance of numerical black-box optimizers on multi-objective problems within the COCO platform and in particular on the biobjective test suite bbob-biobj. The evaluation is based on a hypervolume of all non-dominated solutions in the archive of candidate solutions and measures the runtime until the hypervolume value succeeds prescribed target values.

  19. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of U.S. and Italian children's performance on the PASS theory of intelligence as measured by the Cognitive Assessment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M

    2013-03-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das, 1997; Naglieri & Otero, 2011). CAS subtest, PASS scales, and Full Scale scores for Italian (N=809) and U.S. (N=1,174) samples, matched by age and gender, were examined. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis results supported the configural invariance of the CAS factor structure between Italians and Americans for the 5- to 7-year-old (root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.038; 90% confidence interval [CI]=.033, .043; comparative fit index [CFI]=.96) and 8- to 18-year-old (RMSEA=.036; 90% CI=.028, .043; CFI=.97) age groups. The Full Scale standard scores (using the U.S. norms) for the Italian (100.9) and U.S. (100.5) samples were nearly identical. The scores between the samples for the PASS scales were very similar, except for the Attention Scale (d=0.26), where the Italian sample's mean score was slightly higher. Negligible mean differences were found for 9 of the 13 subtest scores, 3 showed small d-ratios (2 in favor of the Italian sample), and 1 was large (in favor of the U.S. sample), but some differences in subtest variances were found. These findings suggest that the PASS theory, as measured by CAS, yields similar mean scores and showed factorial invariance for these samples of Italian and American children, who differ on cultural and linguistic characteristics. PMID:22984802

  20. Operating System Performance Analyzer for Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzada Khayyam Nisar; Maqsood Ahmed; Huma Ayub; Iram Baig

    2011-01-01

    RTOS provides a number of services to an embedded system designs such as case management, memory management, and Resource Management to build a program. Choosing the best OS for an embedded system is based on the available OS for system designers and their previous knowledge and experience. This can cause an imbalance between the OS and embedded systems. RTOS performance analysis is critical in the design and integration of embedded software to ensure that limits the application meet at runti...

  1. Video systems for alarm assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  2. THE NEED AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivating employees is one of the highly important areas of human resources management (HRM. As people are best motivated by their intention to satisfy their own needs, the task of HRM is to satisfy the employees’ need for remuneration in a fair and just manner. This can be achieved if an organization operates a formal and professional system of performance assessment. The importance of having such a system in place is further confirmed by the fact that six out of the seven large Hungarian corporations reviewed operate a global system of performance assessment. In areas where intellectual activity plays a dominant role, as is the case with higher education, omitting an evaluation of the performance of „white collar workers” is, of course, out of the question. Satisfying the employees’ need for fair remuneration in the public sphere, including higher education (HE, is essentially hindered by a lack of evaluating individual performance and, hence, performance-dependent wages and financial benefits derived from extra performance. Given the centrally determined and uniform wage schedule, there is almost no opportunity to differentiate between the performance of one person in a given wage category and another. This entails, at least for a large part of public employees and public servants, a lack of drive to perform better than average. These people could be forced to make greater efforts only by way of measuring their performance on an individual basis and applying a wage system that would rely on individual output and represent a system of wages that would be both differentiated and motivating. In the first part of my paper, I will present the performance assessment methods applied by the large Hungarian enterprises included in the investigation. The second part will deal with the issue of how all of this can be actually implemented in HE.

  3. Transport modeling in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes modeling of radionuclide transport in the unsaturated and saturated zone conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One dimensional (1-D) transport for a single porosity media without lateral dispersion was solved in both the saturated zone (SZ) and unsaturated zone (UZ) for the first assessment in 1984 but progressed to a dual-porosity formulation for the UZ in the second assessment in 1991. By the time of the viability assessment, a dual-permeability transport formulation was used in the UZ. With the planned switch to a dose performance measure, individual dose from a drinking water pathway was evaluated for the third assessment in 1993 and from numerous pathways for the viability assessment in 1998 and thereafter. Stream tubes for transport in the SZ were initially developed manually but progressed to particle tracking in 1991. For the viability assessment, particle tracking was used to solve the transport equations in the 3-D UZ and SZ flow fields. To facilitate calculations, the convolution method was also used in the SZ for the viability assessment. For the site recommendation in 2001 and licensing compliance analysis in 2008, the 3-D transport results of the SZ were combined with 1-D transport results, which evaluated decay of radionuclides, in order to evaluate compliance with groundwater protection requirements. Uncertainty in flow within the unsaturated and saturated zone was generally important to explaining the spread in the individual dose performance measure. - Highlights: • progression from single-porosity, to dual-porosity, and then to dual-permeability transport models for the unsaturated zone is described. • progression from single-porosity to dual-porosity transport models in combination with convolution method is described for the saturated zone. • progression from one-, to

  4. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios

  5. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios

  6. Quality assessment of healthcare systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koubeková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Quality assessment of healthcare systems is considered to be the basic tool of developing strategic concepts in healthcare quality improvement and has a great impact on quality of life. The thesis' main focus is on possibilities of quality assessment on international quality model level and its transformation into national structures. It includes teoretical points of quality and economic evaluation of quality in healthcare. The objective is to assess the participation of czech hospitals in he...

  7. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  9. Integration of classroom science performance assessment tasks by participants of the Wisconsin Performance Assessment Development Project (WPADP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnis, Dorothy Ann

    The goals of this interpretive study were to examine selected Wisconsin science teachers' perceptions of teaching and learning science, to describe the scope of classroom performance assessment practices, and to gain an understanding of teachers' personal and professional experiences that influenced their belief systems of teaching, learning and assessment. The study was designed to answer the research questions: (1) How does the integration of performance assessment relate to the teachers' views of teaching and learning? (2) How are the selected teachers integrating performance assessment in their teaching? (3) What past personal and professional experiences have influenced teachers' attitudes and beliefs related to their classroom performance assessment practices? Purposeful sampling was used to select seven Wisconsin elementary, middle and high school science teachers who participated in the WPADP initiative from 1993-1995. Data collection methods included a Teaching Practices Inventory (TPI), semi-structured interviews, teacher developed portfolios, portfolio conferences, and classroom observations. Four themes and multiple categories emerged through data analysis to answer the research questions and to describe the results. Several conclusions were drawn from this research. First, science teachers who appeared to effectively integrate performance assessment, demonstrated transformational thinking in their attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science. In addition, these teachers viewed assessment and instructional practices as interdependent. Third, transformational teachers generally used well defined criteria to judge student work and made it public to the students. Transformational teachers provided students with real-world performance assessment tasks that were also learning events. Furthermore, student task responses informed the transformational teachers about effectiveness of instruction, students' complex thinking skills, quality of

  10. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  11. Assessing eco-environmental performance of agricultural production in OECD countries: combination of soil surface, soil system and farm gate methods of nutrient auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Viet-Ngu Hoang; Mohammad Alauddin

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen balance is increasingly used as an indicator of the environmental performance of agricultural sector in national, international, and global contexts. There are three main methods of accounting the national nitrogen balance: farm gate, soil surface, and soil system. OECD (2008) recently reported the nitrogen and phosphorus balances for member countries for the 1985 - 2004 period using the soil surface method. The farm gate and soil system methods were also used in some international p...

  12. Developing Web-oriented Homework System to Assess Students’ Introductory Physics Course Performance and Compare to Paper-based Peer Homework

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRCI, Neset

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web influences education and our lives in many ways. Nowadays, Web-based homework has been becoming widespread practice in physics courses and some other courses as well. Although are some disputes whether this is an encouraging or risky development for student learning, there is limited research assessing the pedagogical effect of changing the medium from written, hand-graded homework to online oriented, computer-graded homework. In this study, web-oriented homework system ...

  13. Critical groups for geological disposal performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International recommendations and many national regulations on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste include requirements to demonstrate that radiation doses and/or risks to individuals after waste disposal meet particular quantitative standards. Therefore, an important question for performance assessments (PAs) is how to define the characteristics of the relevant individuals so as to allow their radiation exposure to be assessed. In the USA and in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal, this question has been given an increased profile following the publication of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on technical bases for Yucca Mountain standards. This paper presents a summary compilation and analysis of information on critical groups being prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute in order to inform judgements on assumptions for critical groups which might be used in PA of Yucca Mountain. Consideration has been given to the regulatory development of the concept of a critical group and its use in radiological assessments, including assessments of present day effluent releases as well as releases which might occur in the long term future as a result of land based disposal of solid radioactive waste

  14. Performance Assessment of WhatsApp and IMO on Android Operating System (Lollipop and KitKat) during VoIP calls using 3G or WiFi

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Oliveira; de Oliveira, H. M.; Ramalho, R. A.; Viana, L. P. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the performance of mobile messaging and VoIP connections. We investigate the CPU usage of WhatsApp and IMO under different scenarios. This analysis also enabled a comparison of the performance of these applications on two Android operating system (OS) versions: KitKat or Lollipop. Two models of smartphones were considered, viz. Galaxy Note 4 and Galaxy S4. The applications behavior was statistically investigated for both sending and receiving VoIP calls. Connections have b...

  15. INFA Performance Indicator Diagnostic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Neumaierová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial analysis is an essential tool for those interested in assessing the economic management situation of enterprises and subsequent decision making. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the capacity the IN Financial Analysis (INFA system has to inform, i.e. its information capability. This is a tool that allows users to comprehensively assess the economic management of enterprises in that it causally links the indicators of financial controlling and risk controlling. We apply it to the best industrial enterprises in the Czech Republic in 2011 and 2012 and at the same time use the representative database of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic.

  16. Dynamic performance assessment of a micro-trigeneration system with a desiccant-based air handling unit in Southern Italy climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of a desiccant cooling system with microcogenerator was implemented. • Experimental and manufacturer data were used to characterize components models. • An energy, environmental and economic analysis was carried out. • A comparison with a reference system based on conventional equipment was performed. • Results strongly depend on the share of cogenerated electricity used on-site. - Abstract: In this work, a system consisting of a small scale trigeneration system, in which a heat-led microcogenerator interacts with a desiccant-based cooling system, equipped with a silica-gel desiccant wheel, is analyzed. The system provides the air-conditioning service to a lecture room during summer and winter periods and, over the whole year, thermal energy for domestic hot water production to a nearby multifamily house. Electricity from the cogenerator is used to drive the electric chiller, the auxiliaries as well as further electric appliances of the lecture room. This trigeneration system is compared with a reference system, equipped with a conventional air handling unit, based on cooling dehumidification for summer air conditioning. Electricity to power the electric chiller, the auxiliaries, as well as electric appliances is drawn from the grid. Thermal energy for winter space heating, air post-heating during summer and domestic hot water purposes is provided by a natural gas boiler. Experimental tests, as well as data derived from manufacturers, are used to implement a model of both systems. Simulations were then performed by means of TRNSYS software to compare their thermo-economic performance. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, to analyse the effect of the share of cogenerated electricity consumed on-site. The analysis shows encouraging results, given the Italian energy context for the small scale trigeneration system, in terms of primary energy consumption and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions reductions, with maximum values of 7

  17. Data management system performance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  18. Control Systems for Logistics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Virolainen, V.-M.

    1991-01-01

    This text is concerned with identifying and outlining the various aspects of logistics control and performance measurement process. The objective is to identify, based on available literature, methods and techniques which can be used to measure the performance of logistics. Logistics management is essentially a task of balancing between minimizing cost and ensuring availability objectives. Availability can be seen as the output of logistics system. On the input side, management is concer...

  19. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH framework and the calculation structure. The main novelties compared to other LCA software are as follows. First, the focus is put on material flow modelling, as each flow is characterised as a mix of mate...

  20. Evaluation of EIT system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system images internal conductivity from surface electrical stimulation and measurement. Such systems necessarily comprise multiple design choices from cables and hardware design to calibration and image reconstruction. In order to compare EIT systems and study the consequences of changes in system performance, this paper describes a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of the EIT systems. The system to be tested is connected to a saline phantom in which calibrated contrasting test objects are systematically positioned using a position controller. A set of evaluation parameters are proposed which characterize (i) data and image noise, (ii) data accuracy, (iii) detectability of single contrasts and distinguishability of multiple contrasts, and (iv) accuracy of reconstructed image (amplitude, resolution, position and ringing). Using this approach, we evaluate three different EIT systems and illustrate the use of these tools to evaluate and compare performance. In order to facilitate the use of this approach, all details of the phantom, test objects and position controller design are made publicly available including the source code of the evaluation and reporting software

  1. Performance assessment of the centralised points for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals and purposes of safety assessment and performance assessment of waste management concepts and the respective tools are discussed in the paper. The safety of a disposal system is judged by comparing the results of the safety analyses. The requirements concerning waste management and especially radiological criteria are given in ICRP 1998 (estimated doses and risks should be 10 mSv/y, the design of the repository is reconsidered. A recommended content of a safety case is given. The paper presents the performance of cement, bitumen and glass. For immobilised HLW, SNF and SRS radiation effects need to be taken into account. Important results increasing the confidence in performance assessment are provided through natural (or field) tests of simulating and real waste forms. Countries, currently developing geological repositories for HLW disposal, adopted a stepwise approach that includes a period of intensive underground investigations and testing

  2. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  3. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  4. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  5. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation

  6. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  7. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    spuriously precise model results at face value, and it is able to make predictions even where data is scarce. It thus provides a rapid and honest assessment option that can quickly supply decision-makers with system performance estimates, offering an opportunity to improve the targeting of agroforestry interventions.

  8. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  9. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN OPERATING DRY PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for recognizing and defining correct and operable performance will be presented with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of processes in dry ports (inland intermodal hubs. The challenge in evaluating the possible improvements of the underlying processes lies in the special nature and the complex structure of dry ports. It is important to consider that all the processes are highly interconnected and that changes in parameters in one process also have an impact on parameters in other processes. Furthermore, the performance of dry ports, seen as the backbone of the system, has a significant impact on the overall performance of the whole transportation network.

  10. Performance assessment of a new laser system for efficient spin exchange optical pumping in a spin maser measurement of {sup 129}Xe EDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funayama, C., E-mail: funayama@yap.nucl.ap.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Sato, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ohtomo, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, S.; Suzuki, T.; Hirao, C.; Chikamori, M.; Hikota, E.; Tsuchiya, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A. [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Bidinosti, C. P. [University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics (Canada); Ino, T. [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN (Japan); Matsuo, Y. [Hosei University, Department of Advanced Sciences (Japan); Fukuyama, T. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We demonstrate spin-exchange optical pumping of {sup 129}Xe atoms with our newly made laser system. The new laser system was prepared to provide higher laser power required for the stable operation of spin maser oscillations in the {sup 129}Xe EDM experiment. We studied the optimum cell temperature and pumping laser power to improve the degree of {sup 129}Xe spin polarization. The best performance was achieved at the cell temperature of 100 {sup ∘}C with the presently available laser power of 1 W. The results show that a more intense laser is required for further improvement of the spin polarization at higher cell temperatures in our experiment.

  11. Performance assessment of a new laser system for efficient spin exchange optical pumping in a spin maser measurement of 129Xe EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate spin-exchange optical pumping of 129Xe atoms with our newly made laser system. The new laser system was prepared to provide higher laser power required for the stable operation of spin maser oscillations in the 129Xe EDM experiment. We studied the optimum cell temperature and pumping laser power to improve the degree of 129Xe spin polarization. The best performance was achieved at the cell temperature of 100 ∘C with the presently available laser power of 1 W. The results show that a more intense laser is required for further improvement of the spin polarization at higher cell temperatures in our experiment

  12. Performance assessment of a new laser system for efficient spin exchange optical pumping in a spin maser measurement of 129Xe EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, C.; Furukawa, T.; Sato, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ohtomo, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, S.; Suzuki, T.; Hirao, C.; Chikamori, M.; Hikota, E.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yoshimi, A.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Asahi, K.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate spin-exchange optical pumping of 129Xe atoms with our newly made laser system. The new laser system was prepared to provide higher laser power required for the stable operation of spin maser oscillations in the 129Xe EDM experiment. We studied the optimum cell temperature and pumping laser power to improve the degree of 129Xe spin polarization. The best performance was achieved at the cell temperature of 100 ∘C with the presently available laser power of 1 W. The results show that a more intense laser is required for further improvement of the spin polarization at higher cell temperatures in our experiment.

  13. Italy: Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

    2013-01-01

    This Financial System Stability Assessment report provides a review of .Italian financial system. The announcement of outright monetary transactions (OMT) and steps toward a banking union have blunted the impact of the sovereign debt crisis on banks, and the expansion of European Central Bank (ECB) liquidity facilities has temporarily shielded Italian banks from wholesale funding volatility. Stress tests suggest that the system as a whole is able to withstand both the already weak baseline ma...

  14. Performance Confirmation Data Aquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    2000-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M&O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application.

  15. Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M and O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application

  16. Use of performance assessments to generate a repository Q list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Items identified and classified as important to safety are placed on the repository Q list. The Q list identifies structures, systems, and components that are subject to quality assurance (QA) requirements beyond standard engineering practices as specified by 10CFR60, Part G. These QA requirements correspond to those imposed by 10CFR50, Appendix B, for safety class systems in nuclear power plants. These QA measures are applied to the repository design, procurement, and construction activities and operations to provide a higher degree of assurance that Q-list items will perform their intended functions. The QA measures are implemented by the direct incorporation of the requirements into appropriate design documents, such as drawings, specifications, and operational procedures. An assessment to identify items important to safety was completed for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The assessment implemented a classification methodology based on general guidance developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for use by all repository projects. Although some qualitative judgment techniques were used, the assessment was based on quantitative dose and frequency performance assessments. This paper discusses the results of applying a performance assessment to generate the initial Yucca Mountain repository Q list

  17. Performance of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data packet dropout is a special kind of time delay problem. In this paper, predictive controllers for networked control systems (NCSs with dual-network are designed by model predictive control method. The contributions are as follows. (1 The predictive control problem of the dual-network is considered. (2 The predictive performance of the dual-network is evaluated. (3 Compared to the popular networked control systems, the optimal controller of the new NCSs with data packets dropout is designed, which can minimize infinite performance index at each sampling time and guarantee the closed-loop system stability. Finally, the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the controllers designed.

  18. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Cognitive reliability analysis technique: (Technical report, May 1986-June 1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Cognitive reliability analysis technique: [Technical report, May 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Modeling human intention formation: [Technical report, May 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 43 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  1. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico's National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico's 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country's main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences-one of SNI's first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research-was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI's own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a model for

  2. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico’s National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico’s 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country’s main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences—one of SNI’s first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research—was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI’s own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a

  3. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico's National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Frixione

    Full Text Available Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico's 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country's main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences-one of SNI's first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research-was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI's own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists, as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is

  4. The role of natural analogs in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geologic repository is currently being designed to isolate the nations's high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation for HLW disposal (10CFR60) requires compliance with the overall Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for waste isolation and places additional requirements on other components of the geologic repository. The demonstration of compliance with these regulations will require prediction of the system and subsystem performance for times up to 10,000 yr. The ability of system performance models to predict the behavior of the repositories over the spatial and temporal scales of interest can only be partially validated using short-term, laboratory scale models and field tests. The use of natural analogs has often been cited as a possible means of validation of repository system performance models. This idea has met with much opposition, generally from modelers and those experienced in validation of system performance models for complex engineered systems. It is concluded here that natural analog studies are useful to the performance assessment model validation process; however, caution must be taken in carefully identifying the questions, the appropriate natural system to answer those questions, and the type and amount of data to be collected in an attempt to both understand the natural system and validate the model. With careful planning of natural analog studies, the studies will be useful for quantitative as well as qualitative purposes

  5. Hospital evacuation; planning, assessment, performance and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Nero C; Örtenwall P; Khorram-Manesh A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malfunction in hospitals´ complex internal systems, or extern threats, may result in a hospital evacuation. Factors contributing to such evacuation must be identified, analyzed and action plans should be prepared. Our aims in this study were 1) to evaluate the use of risk and vulnerability analysis as a basis for hospital evacuation plan, 2) to identify risks/hazards triggering an evacuation and evaluate the respond needed and 3) to propose a template with main key points for planning, performance and evaluation of such evacuation. Methods: A risk and vulnerability analysis at two county hospitals along with a systematic online literature search based on the following keywords; “evacuation/closure”, “hospitals/medical facilities” and“disaster/hazards” alone or with “planning”, was conducted. Results: We found that although all hospitals have a disaster plan, there is a lack of knowledge and appropriate instruments to plan, perform and evaluate a hospital evacuation. Risk and vulnerability analysis can be used to reveal threats leading to an evacuation (e.g. on-going climate changes and terror actions). These key points can later be used to plan, perform and evaluate such evacuation. Conclusion: There is a need for an elaborated evacuation planning for hospitals. An evacuation plan should continuously be drilled based on a risk and vulnerability analysis. A general guide can be used as foundation to plan, perform and evaluate such plan.

  6. Performance Management Systems in Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Julia Garaldi; de Carvalho, Marly Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to propose a project performance indicators system, based on the analysis of theproject success criteria´s importance. The research took place in a company whose businessincludes engineering and infrastructure integrated solutions in various industrial sectors, based onaction-research method. Multiple sources of evidence were used, such as analysis of the currentsystem of indicators of the company, analysis of projects in the databases and interviews withrepresentatives of the...

  7. Portable Immune-Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mishra, Saroj K.

    1995-01-01

    Portable immune-assessment system developed for use in rapidly identifying infections or contaminated environment. System combines few specific fluorescent reagents for identifying immune-cell dysfunction, toxic substances, buildup of microbial antigens or microbial growth, and potential identification of pathogenic microorganisms using fluorescent microplate reader linked to laptop computer. By using few specific dyes for cell metabolism, DNA/RNA conjugation, specific enzyme activity, or cell constituents, one makes immediate, onsite determination of person's health or of contamination of environment.

  8. E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, M

    2006-01-31

    After major changes to the limits for various disposal units of the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) last year, no major changes have been made during FY2005. A Special Analysis was completed which removes the air pathway {sup 14}C limit from the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). This analysis will allow the disposal of reactor moderator deionizers which previously had no pathway to disposal. Several studies have also been completed providing groundwater transport input for future special analyses. During the past year, since Slit Trenches No.1 and No.2 were nearing volumetric capacity, they were operationally closed under a preliminary closure analysis. This analysis was performed using as-disposed conditions and data and showed that concrete rubble from the demolition of 232-F was acceptable for disposal in the STs even though the latest special analysis for the STs had reduced the tritium limits so that the inventory in the rubble exceeded limits. A number of special studies are planned during the next years; perhaps the largest of these will be revision of the Performance Assessment (PA) for the ELLWF. The revision will be accomplished by incorporating special analyses performed since the last PA revision as well as revising analyses to include new data. Projected impacts on disposal limits of more recent studies have been estimated. No interim measures will be applied during this year. However, it is being recommended that tritium disposals to the Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches be suspended until a limited Special Analysis (SA) currently in progress is completed. This SA will give recommendations for optimum placement of tritiated D-Area tower waste. Further recommendations for tritiated waste placement in the CIG Trenches will be given in the upcoming PA revision.

  9. Assessment on tracking error performance of Cascade P/PI, NPID and N-Cascade controller for precise positioning of xy table ballscrew drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, positioning plants in machine tools are looking for high degree of accuracy and robustness attributes for the purpose of compensating various disturbance forces. The objective of this paper is to assess the tracking performance of Cascade P/PI, Nonlinear PID (NPID) and Nonlinear cascade (N-Cascade) controller with the existence of disturbance forces in the form of cutting forces. Cutting force characteristics at different cutting parameters; such as spindle speed rotations is analysed using Fast Fourier Transform. The tracking performance of a Nonlinear cascade controller in presence of these cutting forces is compared with NPID controller and Cascade P/PI controller. Robustness of these controllers in compensating different cutting characteristics is compared based on reduction in the amplitudes of cutting force harmonics using Fast Fourier Transform. It is found that the N-cascade controller performs better than both NPID controller and Cascade P/PI controller. The average percentage error reduction between N-cascade controller and Cascade P/PI controller is about 65% whereas the average percentage error reduction between cascade controller and NPID controller is about 82% at spindle speed of 3000 rpm spindle speed rotation. The finalized design of N-cascade controller could be utilized further for machining application such as milling process. The implementation of N-cascade in machine tools applications will increase the quality of the end product and the productivity in industry by saving the machining time. It is suggested that the range of the spindle speed could be made wider to accommodate the needs for high speed machining

  10. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further

  11. Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSCL Magnet Quality Assurance Department has implemented a Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS) to assess supplier performance throughout the development and production stages of the SSCL program. The main objectives of SPEARS are to promote teamwork and recognize performance. This paper examines the current implementation of SPEARS. MSD QA supports the development and production of SSC superconducting magnets while implementing the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C. The MSD QA program is based on the concept of continuous improvement in quality and productivity. The QA program requires that procurement of items and services be controlled to assure conformance to specification. SPEARS has been implemented to meet DOE requirements and to enhance overall confidence in supplier performance. Key elements of SPEARS include supplier evaluation and selection as well as evaluation of furnished quality through source inspection, audit, and receipt inspection. These elements are described in this paper

  12. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  13. Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments

  14. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  15. Assessment of Residential GSHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    This report first briefly reviews geothermal heat pump (GHP) technology and the current status of the GHP industry in the United States. Then it assesses the potential national benefits, in terms of energy savings, reduced summer peak electrical demand, consumer energy cost savings, and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions from retrofitting the space heating, space cooling, and water heating systems in existing U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems. The investment for retrofitting typical U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems is also analyzed using the metrics of net present value and levelized cost.

  16. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty

  17. Economics and Research Assessment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Gillies

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the effects on Economics of Research Assessment Systems, such as the Research Assessment Exercise (or RAE) which was carried out in the UK between 1986 and 2008. The paper begins by pointing out that, in the 2008 RAE, economics turned out to be the research area which was accorded the highest valuation of any subject in the UK, even though economists were then under attack for failing to predict the global financial crash which had occurred a few months earlier. On...

  18. Analytical Assessment of the Reciprocating Feed System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, David E.; Blackmon, James B.; Morton, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary analysis tool has been created in Microsoft Excel to determine deliverable payload mass, total system mass, and performance of spacecraft systems using various types of propellant feed systems. These mass estimates are conducted by inserting into the user interface the basic mission parameters (e.g., thrust, burn time, specific impulse, mixture ratio, etc.), system architecture (e.g., propulsion system type and characteristics, propellants, pressurization system type, etc.), and design properties (e.g., material properties, safety factors, etc.). Different propellant feed and pressurization systems are available for comparison in the program. This gives the user the ability to compare conventional pressure fed, reciprocating feed system (RFS), autogenous pressurization thrust augmentation (APTA RFS), and turbopump systems with the deliverable payload, inert mass, and total system mass being the primary comparison metrics. Analyses of several types of missions and spacecraft were conducted and it was found that the RFS offers a performance improvement, especially in terms of delivered payload, over conventional pressure fed systems. Furthermore, it is competitive with a turbopump system at low to moderate chamber pressures, up to approximately 1,500 psi. Various example cases estimating the system mass and deliverable payload of several types of spacecraft are presented that illustrate the potential system performance advantages of the RFS. In addition, a reliability assessment of the RFS was conducted, comparing it to simplified conventional pressure fed and turbopump systems, based on MIL-STD 756B; these results showed that the RFS offers higher reliability, and thus substantially longer periods between system refurbishment, than turbopump systems, and is competitive with conventional pressure fed systems. This is primarily the result of the intrinsic RFS fail-operational capability with three run tanks, since the system can operate with just two run

  19. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  20. Approaches to assess biocover performance on landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Humer, M; Röder, S; Lechner, P

    2009-07-01

    Methane emissions from active or closed landfills can be reduced by means of methane oxidation enhanced in properly designed landfill covers, known as "biocovers". Biocovers usually consist of a coarse gas distribution layer to balance gas fluxes placed beneath an appropriate substrate layer. The application of such covers implies use of measurement methods and evaluation approaches, both during the planning stage and throughout the operation of biocovers in order to demonstrate their efficiency. Principally, various techniques, commonly used to monitor landfill surface emissions, can be applied to control biocovers. However, particularly when using engineered materials such as compost substrates, biocovers often feature several altered, specific properties when compared to conventional covers, e.g., respect to gas permeability, physical parameters including water retention capacity and texture, and methane oxidation activity. Therefore, existing measuring methods should be carefully evaluated or even modified prior to application on biocovers. This paper discusses possible strategies to be applied in monitoring biocover functionality. On the basis of experiences derived from investigations and large-scale field trials with compost biocovers in Austria, an assessment approach has been developed. A conceptual draft for monitoring biocover performance and recommendations for practical application are presented. PMID:19282167

  1. AMiBA: System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.09 - 0.32$. We achieved a point source sensitivity of $63\\pm 7$ mJy with the seven 0.6m dishes in 1 hour of on-source integration in 2-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the an...

  2. Performance assessment of SMART startup opeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main circulation pumps (MCP) are contained within reactor vessel in SMART, which makes it impossible to heatup the coolant with MCP heating that used in the conventional loop-type nuclear power plant. This situation leads to a invention of new strategy for SMART start-up operation. The start-up operation of SMART consists of nuclear start-up reactor heat-up, and reactor start-up. Each operation step has its own control concept and logic. The strategy for startup operation has been discussed and analyzed with the TASS/SMR code for SMART. The analysis results have shown that the SMART system behavior is in acceptable operation range with required performance when the strategy for SMART start-up operation is applied

  3. Coupled process analyses for salt repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt sites are investigated as potential candidates for a deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. To assess the performance of a repository in salt it is necessary to estimate the potential for naturally occurring and/or intrusive fluids to contact the radioactive waste and transport it to the accessible environment. The long-term performance assessment of a salt repository consists of multidisciplinary studies of the coupled physical and chemical interactions in geologic systems involving heat transfer, groundwater hydrology, geomechanics, geochemistry, and radionuclide transport. The coupled process analyses performed or planned to be conducted include coupled thermal, stress, and pressure-induced brine migration; flow, thermal, mechanical, and geomechanical (corrosion and leach rate) analyses for waste package and waste form performance; flow, thermal, and mechanical analyses for shaft seals and near-field performance; flow, thermal, dissolution, and salt creep analyses for borehole scenarios; flow, energy, and solute transport analyses of the groundwater system in the vicinity of the site; and coupled analyses of hydrologic, mechanical, geochemical, and radionuclide transport

  4. Evaluation of Ventilation Performance of Greenhouse Fans Based on Fans Assessment Numeration System%基于FANS的温室风机通风性能测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智; Steven E Ford; Richard S Gates; 邹志荣

    2014-01-01

    Fans assessment numeration system (FANS) was taking for testing the ventilation for each fan at the range of static pressures from 5.0 Pa to 61.5 Pa under different operating conditions.The results suggested that the existence and cleanliness of the fan safety guard reduced ventilation by less than 5 %.The ventilation and efficiency of fans fitted with plastic shutters were 13.1% and 15.1% higher than the fans with aluminum shutters.The most difference of fans efficiency with same parameters reached to 12.7%.The average ventilation was reduced by 38.7% when the rotational speed drove by belt reduced by 16.1%.The energy consumption significantly increased when static pressure was more than 30 Pa.%试验采用Fans assessment numeration system(FANS)为现场监测系统,利用位置上下移动持续运行的螺旋桨风速计和静压传感器对风机通风性能进行测试.试验共测定3个玻璃温室内3种类型共9个排风风机在不同工况下静压5.0~61.5 Pa范围内的通风量和能源消耗.结果显示,风机防护网的存在及清洁状况对通风量的影响低于5%;塑料百叶窗风机比相同配置的铝制百叶窗风机通风量和能效分别平均高13.1%、15.1%;参数完全相同的风机能效差异最高达12.7%;胶带驱动的风机转速减少16.1%时通风量平均降低38.7%;温室内静压超过30 Pa时风机能耗显著增加.

  5. Sorption, Diffusion and Solubility Databases for Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a deterministic and probabilistic databases for application in Performance Assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal. This work includes a theoretical description of sorption, diffusion and solubility phenomena of radionuclides in geological media. The report presents and compares the databases of different nuclear wastes management agencies, describes the materials in the Spanish reference system, and the results of sorption diffusion and solubility in this system, with both the deterministic and probabilistic approximation. The probabilistic approximation is presented in the form of probability density functions (pdf). (Author) 52 refs

  6. Risk Assessment for Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Elsinger; Alfred Lehar; Martin Summer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a new approach to risk assessment for banks. Rather than looking at them individually we try to undertake an analysis at the level of the banking system. Such a perspective is necessary because the complicated network of mutual credit obligations can make the actual risk exposure of banks invisible at the level of individual institutions. We apply our framework to a cross section of individual bank data as they are usually collected at the central bank. Using standard...

  7. Performance Assessment Strategy Plan for the Geologic Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations to assess compliance with the performance requirements in the regulations for a geologic repository and to support the development of the repository. The strategy for these evaluations has been documented in the Performance Assessment Strategy Plan (DOE, 1989). The implementation of the performance assessment strategy is defined in this document. This paper discusses the scope and objectives of the implementation plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans, summarizes the performance assessment areas and the integrated strategy of the performance assessment program. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Assessment of hydraulic performance and biocompatibility of a MagLev centrifugal pump system designed for pediatric cardiac or cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Kurt A; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V; Woolley, Joshua R; Johnson, Carl A; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R; Gilbert, Richard J; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the PediVAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to (1/4) in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3-3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future. PMID:18043164

  9. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  10. Review of Teaching Performance Assessments for Use in Human Capital Management. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony T.; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Kimball, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The major goal of this study is to review the current state of the art in teaching assessment by examining a sample of assessment systems, then to develop a "specification" for a state-of the art performance assessment system to be used for human capital management (HCM) functions. This specification could be a stimulus and guidepost for working…

  11. Post-closure performance assessment treatment of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term isolation of the waste from those parts of the environment that are in contact with or readily available for use by humans (i.e. the biosphere). Even so, there remains the possibility that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly-sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Biosphere models are used in post-closure performance assessments to quantify the competing effects of dilution and accumulation processes on radionuclide concentrations in the accessible environment. Understanding biosphere processes and their time dependence is necessary not only to determine the radiological impact of possible future releases, but also to characterise the dynamics of transport in groundwater and the location, duration and extent of any such releases. Nirex is developing a new biosphere model for use in post-closure radiological assessments for the proposed Sellafield repository. A compartment modelling approach has been adopted, as in studies performed previously, but the system will be dynamic, allowing changes with time in both the properties of compartments and the transfers between compartments. The transport model considers both mass transport within the biosphere and the migration of radionuclides, thereby ensuring that a self-consistent description of the biosphere, in a spatially-extensive domain is maintained. The above approach is designed to link the assessment models used by the Nirex assessment team more closely into the Nirex biosphere research programme than has hitherto been possible with time-invariant assessment models. (author)

  12. Power probability density function control and performance assessment of a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In this paper, the performance assessment of static PDF control system is discussed. • The reactor PDF model is set up based on the B-spline functions. • Acquaints of Nu, and Th-h. equations solve concurrently by reformed Hansen’s method. • A principle of performance assessment is put forward for the PDF of the NR control. - Abstract: One of the main issues in controlling a system is to keep track of the conditions of the system function. The performance condition of the system should be inspected continuously, to keep the system in reliable working condition. In this study, the nuclear reactor is considered as a complicated system and a principle of performance assessment is used for analyzing the performance of the power probability density function (PDF) of the nuclear research reactor control. First, the model of the power PDF is set up, then the controller is designed to make the power PDF for tracing the given shape, that make the reactor to be a closed-loop system. The operating data of the closed-loop reactor are used to assess the control performance with the performance assessment criteria. The modeling, controller design and the performance assessment of the power PDF are all applied to the control of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) power in a nuclear process. In this paper, the performance assessment of the static PDF control system is discussed, the efficacy and efficiency of the proposed method are investigated, and finally its reliability is proven

  13. Equipment performance monitoring in NPP Krsko (Summarized system health report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management common goal is safe, reliable, effective, acceptable to public and conservative/cautious operation of NPP Krsko. A set of programs, including Corrective Action Program, Performance Indicators, Operating Experience, Self Assessment and System Health Report, is developed to assist NPP Krsko management in fulfilling those goals. System Health Report is a tool that management can use to quickly assess how selected systems are performing, to determine where additional management attention is required and to determine if appropriate corrective actions have been established. Summarized System Health Report is developed for management's quick overview of systems status, important system malfunctions and problems as well as major changes from previous assessment period. Summarized Report contains nine sections: status difference including brief explanation, selected performance indicators, new equipment problems, functional failures, important problem analyses, action plan for systems with Potential Danger (RED) status, maintenance rule status overview and systems availability (planned and unplanned).(author)

  14. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  15. Clinical task performance and imaging task performance compared for two different commercial electronic portal imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper reports on the investigation and comparison of performance of a Varian Portal Vision system and a Siemens Beamview Plus system using the framework outlined by ICRU Report 54. Radiation Therapy EPI (Electronic Portal Imaging) systems are one of the main applications of digital imaging technology in a radiation therapy department. Radiation Therapy EPI systems may produce images of a lesser quality than the diagnostic radiology equivalent. It is therefore important to optimise the system to obtain the best performance possible. Contrasting opinion on the performance of EPI by clinicians, radiation therapists, medical physicists and engineers often exists, even when the same system and even the same image are being evaluated. Differing opinion occurs because of differences in task end points and task assessment methods of two broad groups of individuals, the human-observer group and the technical-measurement group. Each group uses different task criteria and methodology for assessing performance. The human-observer group is primarily interested in system performance that assures a high level clinical-task performance while the technical-measurement group is concerned with system performance that assures a high level of imaging-task performance. The technical-measurement group tends to be closely associated with imaging system technology, testing, adjustment and optimisation tasks which are couched in terms imaging-task criteria. The human-observer group is usually attempting to optimise performance using clinical-task criteria. The challenge is to provide a balanced evaluation using complementary imaging-task performance and clinical-task performance assessments. Comparison of the systems is on the basis of imaging-task performance i.e. technical-measurement through physical performance assessments such as spatial resolution and noise level, and clinical-task performance i.e. human-observer measurements through the application of psychophysical

  16. 77 FR 55510 - Guidance on Performing a Seismic Margin Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... COMMISSION Guidance on Performing a Seismic Margin Assessment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Interim Staff Guidance (JLD-ISG), JLD-ISG-2012-04, ``Guidance on Performing a Seismic Margin Assessment in... Assessment in Response to the March 2012, Request for Information Letter,'' (ADAMS Accession No....

  17. Uma metodologia de avaliação do desempenho do sistema de saúde brasileiro A methodology for assessing the performance of the Brazilian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Viacava

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma síntese de alguns dos principais resultados das discussões realizadas ao longo de 18 meses entre pesquisadores de diversas instituições, afiliadas à Abrasco, e procura contribuir para a formulação de uma metodologia que permita: a compreender quais são e como se inter-relacionam os fatores que influenciam a eficiência, a efetividade e a eqüidade no desempenho do SUS; b melhorar a formulação de políticas e c monitorar as desigualdades no acesso e na qualidade dos serviços recebidos pelos diferentes grupos sociais no Brasil. A metodologia desenvolvida nutre-se de elementos utilizados nas propostas de avaliação de desempenho dos sistemas de saúde canadense, australiano, inglês e a da OPS e tem o formato de um painel de controle (dashboard, onde podem ser visualizadas simultaneamente diferentes dimensões da avaliação. O artigo descreve a experiência na adaptação e desenvolvimento da metodologia e fornece sugestões no sentido de aplicá-la para melhorar a formulação da política de saúde no Brasil.This paper is the result of a Brazilian multidisciplinary public health working group and consists of a methodology developed to: a identify the factors that influence the efficiency, effectiveness, and equity of the Brazilian public health system and understand how these factors function; b improve the formulation of health policies; and c monitor inequalities in access to and quality of health services among different population groups in Brazil. The methodology developed here is based on Australian and Canadian and PAHO proposals that use a "dashboard" approach, allowing one to examine and evaluate simultaneously multiple dimensions of health system performance. This article describes the experience of adapting and developing the methodology and provides suggestions on how such a system might be employed to improve health policy-making in Brazil.

  18. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  19. AMiBA: System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y.; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-04-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.09-0.32. We achieved a point-source sensitivity of 63 ± 7 mJy with the seven 0.6 m dishes in 1 hr of on-source integration in two-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on timescales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hr per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hr for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using external calibrators (Jupiter and Saturn). Using Jupiter as the flux standard, we measured the disk brightness temperature of Saturn to be 149+5 -12 K.

  20. AMiBA: System Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-01-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.09 - 0.32$. We achieved a point source sensitivity of $63\\pm 7$ mJy with the seven 0.6m dishes in 1 hour of on-source integration in 2-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on time scales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hours per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hours for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using extern...

  1. Framework of integrated performance assessment in Kristallin-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristallin-I is an integrated analysis carried out by Nagra to investigate the option of disposal of vitrified high level waste in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland, which takes account of the findings in the Phase 1 geological investigation of this host rocks. Kristallin-I updates and complements Project Gewahr 1985 with extended data bases, improved calculational tools and models. Performance assessment aims at quantitatively assessing the long term, post-closure performance of the repository system in the expected geological environment, analyzing the sensitivity of prediction of parameter variation and identifying the key processes contributing to safety, assessing the relative importance of engineered and natural barriers, and identifying the requirement on site-specific geology. The Nagra concept of the disposal is described. In order to evaluate the radiological consequence of the repository, scenario uncertainty, conceptual model uncertainty and data uncertainty must be taken into account. The assessment method is explained. The reference scenario, the time history of annual individual dose, the effect on the radiological impact of varying groundwater flow rate and alternative scenarios are reported. The current repository design and the geological interpretation of the potential host rocks are shown to provide the condition for safe repositories. (K.I.)

  2. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  3. Probabilistic performance assessment of a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Power plant equipment is usually oversized to account for input uncertainties. • Oversized equipment degrades its rated efficiency and increases capital cost. • A stochastic methodology to assess probabilities of equipment failure was proposed. • The methodology was proven applicable for design and analysis of the power plants. • Estimated high reliability indices allow reducing power plant equipment oversizing. - Abstract: Despite the low-carbon environmental policies, coal is expected to remain a main source of energy in the coming decades. Therefore, efficient and environmentally friendly power systems are required. A design process based on the deterministic models and application of the safety factors leads to the equipment oversizing, hence fall in the efficiency and increase in the capital and operating costs. In this work, applicability of a non-intrusive stochastic methodology to determine the probability of the power plant equipment failure was investigated. This alternative approach to the power plant performance assessment employs approximation methods for the deterministic prediction of the key performance indicators, which are used to estimate reliability indices based on the uncertainty of the input to a process model of the coal-fired power plant. This study revealed that high reliability indices obtained in the analysis would lead to reduced application of conservative safety factors on the plant equipment, which should result in lower capital and operating cost, through a more reliable assessment of its performance state over its service time, and lead to the optimisation of its inspection and maintenance interventions

  4. High Performance Work Systems, Performance and Innovativeness in Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kok; Deanne den Hartog

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on the effectiveness of a high performance work system. This system is comprised of practices in the areas of extensiveness of staffing, performance based pay, pay level, job rotation, training and participation. In particular, this study focuses on the effects of such a system on the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. Results of our study, among small and medium size enterprises in the Netherlands, show that firms with such a syste...

  5. Assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, AKC; Lau, SSY; Wong, WS; Lung, DPY; Chau, KW; Ho, DCW; Wong, SK; Leung, HF

    2004-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome has aroused public concern on environmental health and hygiene. Develops a practical assessment scheme for assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings in Hong Kong. The scheme involves assessing a hierarchy of building factors that have a bearing on environmental qualities, and thus occupants' health. Proposes an index method to integrate the assessment outcomes into a simple and user- friendly performance...

  6. A Metric to Assess the Performance of MLIR Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moganarangan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Retrieval plays a vital role in extraction of relevant information. Many researches have been working on for satisfying user needs, tough the problem arises when accessing multilingual information. This Multilingual environment provides a platform where a query can be formed in one language and the result can be in the same language and/or different languages. Performance evaluation of Information Retrieval for monolingual environments especially for English are developed and standardized from its inception. There is no specialized evaluation model available for evaluating the performance of services related to multilingual environments or systems. The unavailability of MLIR domain specific standards is a challenging task. This paper presented enhanced metric to assess the performance of MLIR systems over its counterpart IR metric. This analysis shows that the performance of the enhanced metric is better than the conventional metric. And also these metric can facilitate the researchers and developers to improve the quality of the MLIR systems in the present and future scenarios.

  7. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  8. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPERAS is a personal-computer (PC) based software to collect and process simulator data on control-room operators responses during requalification training scenarios. The data collection scheme is based upon approach developed earlier during the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments project. The software allows automated data collection from simulator, thus minimizing simulator staff time and resources to collect, maintain and process data which can be useful in monitoring, assessing and enhancing the progress of crew reliability and effectiveness. The system is designed to provide the data and output information in the form of user-friendly charts, tables and figures for use by plant staff. OPERAS prototype software has been implemented at the Diablo Canyon (PWR) and Millstone (BWR) plants and is currently being used to collect operator response data. Data collected from similator include plant-state variables such as reactor pressure and temperature, malfunction, times at which annunciators are activated, operator actions and observations of crew behavior by training staff. The data and systematic analytical results provided by the OPERAS system can contribute to increase objectivity by the utility probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and training staff in monitoring and assessing reliability of their crews

  9. ACCESS Sub-system Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; Aldoroty, Lauren Nicole; Godon, David; Pelton, Russell; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Wright, Edward L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Paul D.; Moos, H. Warren; Riess, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Sahnow, David J.; Lampton, Michael; Perlmutter, Saul

    2016-01-01

    ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to leverage significant technological advances in detectors, instruments, and the precision of the fundamental laboratory standards used to calibrate these instruments to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of laboratory absolute detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass.A cross wavelength calibration of the astrophysical flux scale to this level of precision over this broad a bandpass is relevant for the data used to probe fundamental astrophysical problems such as the SNeIa photometry based measurements used to constrain dark energy theories.We will describe the strategy for achieving this level of precision, the payload and calibration configuration, present sub-system test data, and the status and preliminary performance of the integration and test of the spectrograph and telescope. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX14AH48G supports this work.

  10. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview of the OPERAS project. It discusses the background which led to the design of the PC-based data collection and analysis system connected to plant training simulators including those used for nuclear power plants. The usefulness of a system like OPERAS was perceived during an earlier EPRI project, the Operator Reliability Experiments project, by EPRI and PG and E. The data collection and analysis approaches used in OPERAS were developed during the ORE project. The paper not only discusses the design of OPERAS but discusses the functions performed and the current experiences with the two prototype systems. Also listed are potential uses of OPERAS by utility personnel in Operations, Training and PRA groups

  11. IT Performance Dashboard: Systems Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The IT Performance Dashboard a trusted source for IT performance information across VA. This is available only on the VA intranet. The dashboard is a collection of...

  12. Performance assessment of non-destructive assay techniques in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques have become ever more important and are being used to a large extent in nuclear material accountancy and control. There are two main reasons for this: (1) Most NDA techniques have been improved so that their performance has become close to that of destructive assay (DA) techniques; (2) Because of the parallel improvement of statistical and procedural inspection approaches the traditional scheme has been abandoned, with NDA being used for semi-quantitative or consistency checks and DA for quantitative determinations. Thus, NDA is now constantly used by safeguards authorities for scenarios involving quantitative analysis. Therefore, planning of inspections, analysis of data and of differences between inspectors and operators, as well as studies of strategic systems, require accurate knowledge of the quality of NDA data or, in a broader sense, accurate assessment of NDA performance. There is yet another element that makes the assessment of performance values so important, namely that they are also required for safeguards and verification agreements to ensure that the accountancy and verification records used conform to or are equivalent to the latest standards. Thus internationally agreed performance values are an important component of technical improvement and of measurement traceability and are therefore an invaluable element of safeguards transparency. The paper presents different methodological approaches to performance evaluation, discussing modelling and testing of models. The role of performance laboratories, such as PERLA, is also discussed, together with the importance of special exercises and of performance evaluation for well characterized reference materials. (author). 55 refs

  13. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  14. Performance assessment methodology as applied to the Greater Confinement Disposal site: Preliminary results of the third performance iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has contracted Sandia National Laboratories to conduct a performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Nevada. The performance assessment is an iterative process in which transport models are used to prioritize site characterization data collection. Then the data are used to refine the conceptual and performance assessment models. The results of the first two performance assessment iterations indicate that the site is likely to comply with the performance standards under the existing hydrologic conditions. The third performance iteration expands the conceptual model of the existing transport system to include possible future events and incorporates these processes in the performance assessment models. The processes included in the third performance assessment are climate change, bioturbation, plant uptake, erosion, upward advection, human intrusion and subsidence. The work completed to date incorporates the effects of bioturbation, erosion and subsidence in the performance assessment model. Preliminary analyses indicate that the development of relatively deep-rooting plant species at the site, which could occur due to climate change, irrigated farming or subsidence, poses the greatest threat to the site's performance

  15. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The results of this assessment show that seven (7) indicators warranted an overall score of C or better, demonstrating compliance with the minimum requirement; these referred to the debt management strategy; evaluation of debt management operation; coordination with fiscal policy; domestic borrowing; external borrowing; debt records and debt reporting, and debt administration and data secu...

  16. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included

  17. Comments on SKB's SFL 3-5 preliminary performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion (-6 per year) for the long-term performance of repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. SKB has not focused its assessment of SFL 3-5 on demonstrating compliance with this regulation. Instead, SKB has calculated individual dose and provided a comparison with an annual individual dose of 14 iSv (derived from the risk criteria using the ICRP's dose-risk conversion factor of 0.073 per Sv). The justification of this approach is that probabilities do not need to be determined if doses are less than the dose equivalent to the risk criterion. However, there is insufficient information regarding uncertainty provided in the documentation of the SFL 3-5 assessment to determine whether this approach is reasonable. SKB's parallel assessment of a repository for spent fuel using the KBS-3 concept (SR 97) accounts for uncertainty by specifying a 'reasonable' and a 'pessimistic' value for uncertain parameters in the assessment calculations. Although there are problems with the way probabilities have been assigned to these values, this approach does indicate where there are significant uncertainties. The SFL 3-5 PA does not include a structured approach to defining uncertainty, although a number of assumptions and parameter values are stated to be conservative. As a preliminary assessment, there is insufficient information to identify key uncertainties or sensitivities, or to determine where further work should be focused. Any assessment requires the use of expert judgement to determine how the assessment is conducted, what modelling approach to use, what features, events and processes (FEPs) could potentially affect the disposal system, which FEPs should be included in the conceptual models, and which scenarios should be assessed. Judgements are also required in determining how to parameterize the models, and this may extend to formal expert elicitation for particular parameter

  18. The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, K

    1992-02-01

    The fundamental principles of industrial hygiene are based upon the recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace hazards. Occupational safety and health professionals (e.g., industrial hygienists) perform this task by assessing numerous complex factors. In many situations industrial hygienists are not available; therefore, an expert system has been developed to assist the performance of workplace exposure assessments (WEAs). The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT) evaluates various hazardous substances, workplace conditions, and worker exposures for designated homogeneous exposure groups (HEGs). The three major components of WORKSPERT (i.e., substance, workplace, and exposure factors) are described by 27 multiple attribute variables. An air monitoring program (AMP) may be recommended for each HEG based upon the WEA. The AMP provides recommendations for an appropriate sampling strategy, sampling duration, multiple substance exposures, and number of samples to be obtained in the future. The use of WORKSPERT or other expert systems should never supersede the judgment of occupational safety and health professionals. However, WORKSPERT can be a valuable tool when used by knowledgeable, qualified technical professionals (e.g., safety and health specialists, chemists, engineers, and toxicologists) who understand the specific substance, workplace, and exposure factors for designated HEGs. WORKSPERT allows these people to benefit from the expertise of an industrial hygienist by performing systematic evaluations and obtaining recommendations for corrective actions or an AMP. The use of WORKSPERT to perform WEAs promotes the protection of workers from hazardous substances and assists compliance with occupational safety and health regulations. It also facilitates the communication of substance hazards, workplace controls, and worker exposures in a succinct manner. PMID:1543134

  19. Procedures for establishing defensible programmes for assessing practice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Stephen R; Page, Gordon G; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Baron-Maldonado, Margarita; Lescop, Joelle M J; Paget, Neil S; J Southgate, Lesley; Wade, Winifred B

    2002-10-01

    The assessment of the performance of doctors in practice is becoming more widely accepted. While there are many potential purposes for such assessments, sometimes the consequences of the assessments will be 'high stakes'. In these circumstances, any of the many elements of the assessment programme may potentially be challenged. These assessment programmes therefore need to be robust, fair and defensible, taken from the perspectives of consumer, assessee and assessor. In order to inform the design of defensible programmes for assessing practice performance, a group of education researchers at the 10th Cambridge Conference adopted a project management approach to designing practice performance assessment programmes. This paper describes issues to consider in the articulation of the purposes and outcomes of the assessment, planning the programme, the administrative processes involved, including communication and preparation of assessees. Examples of key questions to be answered are provided, but further work is needed to test validity. PMID:12390461

  20. Assessment of Emergency Management Performance and Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous industries in the UK and Europe are under pressure to increase the transparency and accountability of the ways in which they manage their hazards and the risks they pose to the population and environment. The literature has indicated that the field would benefit from a risk-based, continuous improvement approach to emergency management in hazardous industry. The aim of this research was to construct a framework to enable assessment of the emergency management pe...