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Sample records for assessing pulmonary embolisms

  1. [Pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, M; Sommer, N; Hecker, A; Bandorski, D; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Mayer, E; Walmrath, D

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal disorder and frequently seen in critical care and emergency medicine. Due to a high mortality rate within the first few hours, the accurate initiation of rational diagnostic pathways in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and timely consecutive treatment is essential. In this review, the current European guidelines on the diagnosis and therapy of acute pulmonary embolism are presented. Special focus is put on a structured patient management based on the individual risk of early mortality. In particular risk assessment and new risk-adjusted treatment recommendations are presented and discussed in this article.

  2. Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the ... and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can cause Permanent ...

  3. [Massive pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Olivier; Planquette, Benjamin; Wermert, Delphine; Marié, Elisabeth; Meyer, Guy

    2008-10-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism is defined by systemic hypotension or cardiogenic shock. Clinically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, elevated brain natriuretic peptide or troponin are usually considered as having sub-massive pulmonary embolism, but this definition is not universally accepted. The time-lag to confirm massive pulmonary embolism should be kept as short as possible and every effort should be done to rely on bedside tests and to avoid patient transfer to the radiology department. D-dimer tests are useless in this setting and the diagnosis is mainly based on clinical probability and bedside echocardiography. When clinical probability is high, right ventricular dilatation assessed by echocardiography allows confirming the diagnosis without additional testing. On the other hand a normal echocardiography does not allow excluding pulmonary embolism. In this setting, a spiral computed tomography is mandatory after the patient has been stabilized. Anticoagulant treatment should be started as soon as pulmonary embolism has been suspected. Supportive care includes oxygen, fluid loading and inotropes. There is little doubt that thrombolytic treatment is of value in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Conversely, the use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with so-called sub-massive pulmonary embolism remains controversial. Current data do not confirm that thrombolytic therapy decreases mortality in those patients but cannot exclude a clinically significant benefit. A large randomised comparison of heparin and thrombolysis in patients with sub-massive pulmonary embolism is underway to answer this question. Surgical or catheter embolectomy is nowadays only rarely performed in patients with pulmonary embolism. This method can be undertaken in the few patients with persisting shock despite supportive care and who have an absolute contraindication for thrombolytic therapy. Before new data are available there is no special

  4. Computed tomography pulmonary embolism index for the assessment of survival in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, Maciej; Wieners, Gero; Dul, Przemyslaw; Fischbach, Frank; Dudeck, Oliver; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Ricke, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    This study was an analysis of the correlation between pulmonary embolism (PE) and patient survival. Among 694 consecutive patients referred to our institution with clinical suspicion of acute PE who underwent CT pulmonary angiography, 188 patients comprised the study group: 87 women (46.3%, median age: 60.7; age range: 19-88 years) and 101 men (53.7%, median age: 66.9; age range: 21-97 years). PE was assessed by two radiologist who were blinded to the results from the follow-up. A PE index was derived for each set of images on the basis of the embolus size and location. Results were analyzed using logistic regression, and correlation with risk factors and patient outcome (survival or death) was calculated. We observed no significant correlation between the CTPE index and patient outcome (p = 0.703). The test of logistic regression with the sum of heart and liver disease or presence of cancer was significantly (p< 0.05) correlated with PE and overall patient outcome. Interobserver agreement showed a significant correlation rate for the assessment of the PE index (0.993; p< 0.001). In our study the CT PE index did not translate into patient outcome. Prospective larger scale studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of the index and refine the index criteria. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of right ventricular function in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Deisy; Morillo, Raquel; Lobo, José Luis; Nieto, Rosa; Jaureguizar, Ana; Portillo, Ana K; Barbero, Esther; Fernandez-Golfin, Covadonga; Yusen, Roger D; Jiménez, David

    2017-03-01

    The optimal approach to assess right ventricular (RV) function in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) lacks clarity. This study aimed to evaluate the optimal approach to assess RV function in normotensive patients with acute symptomatic PE. Outcomes assessed through 30-days after the diagnosis of PE included all-cause mortality and complicated course. Eight hundred forty-eight patients were enrolled. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and transthoracic echocardiography agreed on the presence or absence of RV overload in 449 (53%) patients. The combination of the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) and MDCT showed a negative predictive value for 30-day all-cause mortality of 100%. Of the 43% that had an sPESI of >0 points and MDCT RV enlargement, 41 (11.3%) experienced a complicated course that included 24 (6.6%) deaths. One hundred twenty-nine patients (15%) had an sPESI of >0 points, MDCT, and echocardiographic RV overload. Of these, 21 (16.3%) experienced a complicated course within the first 30days, and 10 (7.7%) of them died. Incorporation of echocardiographic RV overload to the sPESI and MDCT did not improve identification of low-risk PE patients, whereas it improved identification of those at intermediate-high risk for short-term complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  7. CT pulmonary angiogram for assessing the treatment outcome of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-Ting; Yan, Wen-Ying; Zhao, De-Li; Liang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Guo-Kun; Ling, Zai-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Ling

    2017-12-11

    To discuss the value of CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for assessing the treatment outcome of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). CT pulmonary angiogram data and other clinical data were collected for 28 cases diagnosed as APE and analyzed retrospectively. The number and positions of emboli in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary artery obstruction index, right ventricular/left ventricular diameter ratio, main pulmonary artery/ascending aorta diameter ratio and blood oxygen saturation, and pulmonary arterial pressure were compared before and after treatment. Of 28 cases, emboli in the pulmonary artery completely or partially disappeared in 16 and 12 cases, respectively. CPTA indicated that the pulmonary arterial pressure decreased dramatically and the blood oxygen saturation increased after treatment in 26 cases. There were significant differences in the number and positions of pulmonary emboli and in pulmonary artery obstruction index before and after treatment in 28 cases (P  .05). CT pulmonary angiogram proved reliable for assessing the treatment efficacy of APE, providing more clinical information on the patients' status. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation using helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, D.; Paramelle, P.J.; Calaque, O. [Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Bosson, J.L. [Department of Statistics and Vascular diseases, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Vanzetto, G. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Barnoud, D. [Department of Medical Intensive Care, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pison, C. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.

    2003-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the helical CT (HCT) criteria that could indicate severe pulmonary embolism (PE). In a retrospective study, 81 patients (mean age 62 years) with clinical suspicion of PE explored by HCT were studied. The patients were separated into three different groups according to clinical severity and treatment decisions: group SPE included patients with severe PE based on clinical data who were treated by fibrinolysis or embolectomy (n=20); group NSPE included patients with non-severe PE who received heparin (n=30); and group WPE included patients without PE (n=31). For each patient we calculated a vascular obstruction index based on the site of obstruction and the degree of occlusion in the pulmonary artery. We noted the HCT signs, i.e., cardiac and pulmonary artery dimensions, that could indicate acute cor pulmonale. According to multivariate analysis, factors significantly correlated with the severity of PE were: the vascular obstruction index (group SPE: 54%; group NSPE: 24%; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the left ventricle (group SPE: 30.2 mm; group NSPE: 40.4 mm; p<0.001); the diameter of the central pulmonary artery (group SPE: 32.4 mm; group NSPE: 28.3 mm; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the right ventricle (group SPE: 47.5 mm; group NSPE: 42.7 mm; p=0.029); the right ventricle/left ventricle minor axis ratio (group SPE: 1.63; group NSPE: 1.09; p<0.0001). Our data suggest that hemodynamic severity of PE can be assessed on HCT scans by measuring four main criteria: the vascular obstruction index; the minimum diameter of the left ventricle; the RV:LV ratio; and the diameter of the central pulmonary artery. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of pulmonary ventilation scans using xenon-127 in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, I.F.; Sleight, P.J.; Gaunt, J.I.; Croft, D.N.

    1984-03-01

    Pulmonary ventilation scans using /sup 127/Xe were compared with scans using /sup 133/Xe in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. A perfusion scan using sup(99m)Tc-microspheres and ventilation scans with each of the xenon isotopes were performed on 44 patients referred for lung scanning to confirm or exclude a suspected clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. No significant difference was found in the frequency of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism when comparing each of the ventilation scans with the corresponding perfusion scan. For reasons discussed, /sup 127/Xe may be more useful than /sup 133/Xe for pulmonary ventilation scanning.

  10. Pulmonary embolism; Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) requires a quick diagnostic algorithm, as the untreated disease has a high mortality and morbidity. Crucial for the diagnostic assessment chosen is the initial clinical likelihood of PE and the individual risk profile of the patient. The overall goal is to diagnose or rule out PE as quickly and safely as possible or to initiate timely treatment if necessary. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries (CTPA) with multi-slice CT scanner systems presents the actual diagnostic reference standard. With CTPA further important diagnoses can be made, like presence of right ventricular dysfunction. There are different scan and contrast application protocols that can be applied in order to gain diagnostic examinations with sufficient contrast material enhancement in the pulmonary arteries while avoiding all kinds of artifacts. This review article is meant to be a practical guide to examine patients with suspected PE according to the actual guidelines.

  11. [Parietal tuberculosis complicated by pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopaka, Regis Gothard; Bemba, Presley Lee Esthel; Janah, Hind; Okombi, Franck Hardain Okemba; Jabri, Hasna; Khattabi, Wiam El; Afif, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a frequent infectious disease in developing countries. It can affect the lung or spread to other parts of the body. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis poses a major diagnostic problem. We report the case of a patient with pulmonary embolism revealing parietal tuberculosis. This study emphasizes the importance of etiologic assessment in patients with pulmonary embolism.

  12. Multidetector computed tomography to assess clinical outcome in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becattini, C.; Vedovati, M.C.; Grifoni, S.; Casazza, F.; Douma, R.; Bianchi, M.; Salvi, A.; Konstantinides, S.; Vanni, S.; Ageno, W.; Kamphuisen, P.; Nitti, C.; Poggio, R.; Duranti, M.; Agnelli, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) right ventricle dysfunction (RVD) assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been suggested to be associated with an adverse in-hospital outcome. The aim of this study in hemodynamically stable patients with acute PE was to

  13. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, a number of new and exciting anticoagulant therapies are being developed for this disease. Definition. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic diseases can be either acute or chronic. Pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs with partial or complete obstruction of the central or peripheral pulmonary arteries by emboli. Incidence.

  14. Thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagi, D

    2010-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism carries a high mortality. Potential treatment includes anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy and embolectomy. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis leading to progressive massive pulmonary embolism despite appropriate anticoagulation, where thrombolysis with IVC filter placement resulted in a successful outcome.

  15. Acute pulmonary embolism in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen, C. Heleen; Peters, Marjolein

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an uncommon, but potentially fatal disease in children. Most children with pulmonary embolism have underlying clinical conditions, of which the presence of a central venous catheter is the most frequent. The clinical presentation is often subtle, or masked by the underlying

  16. Cardiovascular parameters to assess the severity of acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dian-Jiang Zhao; Da-Qing Ma; Wen He; Jian-Jun Wang; Yan Xu; Chun-Shuang Guan (Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)), e-mail: madaqing@263.net

    2010-05-15

    Background: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been established as a first-line test in the acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but the assessment of the severity of APE by this method remains to be explored. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severity in patients with APE without underlying cardiopulmonary disease using helical computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Seventy-three patients (35 men and 38 women) were divided into two groups according to the clinical findings: severe APE (n=22) and non-severe APE (n=51). Pulmonary artery CT obstruction index was calculated according to the location and degree of clots in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular parameters including RV short axis and left ventricular (LV) short axis, RV short axis to LV short axis (RV/LV) ratio, main pulmonary artery, azygous vein, and superior vena cava diameters were measured. Leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, reflux of contrast medium into the inferior vena cava and azygous vein, and bronchial artery dilatation were also recorded. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, x2 test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Results: CT obstruction index in patients with severe APE (median 43%) was higher than that of patients with non-severe APE (median 20%). Comparison of cardiovascular parameters between patients with severe and non-severe pulmonary embolism showed significant differences in RV short axis, LV short axis, RV/LV ratio, RV wall thickness, main pulmonary artery diameter, azygous vein diameter, leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, and bronchial artery dilatation. The correlation between CT obstruction indexes and cardiovascular parameters was significant. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was highest between RV/LV ratio and CT obstruction index. Az values were

  17. Ambulatory management of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusibah, Houssam; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M; Standen, Peter; Bhatia, Praveen; Hamad, Mahir Ma

    2018-01-02

    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism can be very difficult and elusive. It depends greatly on the use of diagnostic tests, which are in turn interpreted according to a pre-test clinical probability. These include non-specific tests such as the chest X-ray and electrocardiograph, which help exclude other conditions such as pneumonia or myocardial infarction. On the other hand, more specific tests such as computed tomography or ventilation/perfusion scanning are used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. The condition is potentially fatal, and in the past patients with suspected pulmonary embolism constituted a significant number of hospital admissions. Despite this, the majority were found not to have pulmonary embolism. More recently, studies have suggested that most patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who are haemodynamically stable can be safely managed on an ambulatory pathway. Therefore, there is a paradigm shift towards investigating and treating pulmonary embolism in the outpatient setting. This article discusses the ambulatory pathway of the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism.

  18. Pulmonary Embolism in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ahmar Urooj; Hutchins, Kelley K.; Rajpurkar, Madhvi

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) in the pediatric population is relatively rare when compared to adults; however, the incidence is increasing and accurate and timely diagnosis is critical. A high clinical index of suspicion is warranted as PE often goes unrecognized among children leading to misdiagnosis and potentially increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of children with PE are lacking and current practices are extrapolated from adult data. Treatment options include thrombolysis and anticoagulation with heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists, with newer direct oral anticoagulants currently in clinical trials. Long-term sequelae of PE, although studied in adults, are vastly unknown among children and adolescents. Additional research is needed in order to provide pediatric focused care for patients with acute PE. PMID:28848725

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Performed by Pulmonary Critical Care Physicians for Right Ventricle Assessment in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filopei, Jason; Acquah, Samuel O; Bondarsky, Eric E; Steiger, David J; Ramesh, Navitha; Ehrlich, Madeline; Patrawalla, Paru

    2017-12-01

    Risk stratification for acute pulmonary embolism using imaging presence of right ventricular dysfunction is essential for triage; however, comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography has limited availability. We assessed the accuracy and timeliness of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine Fellow's performance of goal-directed echocardiograms and intensivists' interpretations for evaluating right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism. Prospective observational study and retrospective chart review. Four hundred fifty bed urban teaching hospital. Adult in/outpatients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary critical care fellows performed and documented their goal-directed echocardiogram as normal or abnormal for right ventricular size and function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Gold standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed on schedule unless the goal-directed echocardiogram showed critical findings. Attending intensivists blinded to the clinical scenario reviewed these exams at a later date. Two hundred eighty-seven consecutive patients were evaluated for acute PE. Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine Fellows performed 154 goal-directed echocardiograms, 110 with complete cardiology-reviewed transthoracic echocardiography within 48 hours for comparison. Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine Fellow's area under the curve for size and function was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90), respectively. Intensivists' 1/2 area under the curve for size and function was (1) 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82-0.94), (1) 0.87 (95% CI, 0.80-0.93) and (2) 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95), (2) 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95). Median time difference between goal-directed echocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography was 21 hours 18 minutes. This is the first study to evaluate pulmonary critical care fellows' and intensivists' use of goal-directed echocardiography in diagnosing right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary Critical Care

  20. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Fox, Mary A.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. PMID:25846076

  1. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  2. Quality of life after pulmonary embolism as assessed with SF-36 and PEmb-QoL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Josien; den Exter, Paul L.; Kaptein, Ad A.; Andela, Cornelie D.; Erkens, Petra M. G.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Douma, Renee A.; Mos, Inge C. M.; Cohn, Danny M.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Huisman, Menno V.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although quality of life (QoL) is recognized as an important indicator of the course of a disease, it has rarely been addressed in studies evaluating the outcome of care for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). This study primarily aimed to evaluate the QoL of patients with acute PE

  3. Quality of life after pulmonary embolism as assessed with SF-36 and PEmb-QoL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Josien; den Exter, Paul L; Kaptein, Ad A; Andela, Cornelie D; Erkens, Petra M G; Klok, Frederikus A; Douma, Renee A; Mos, Inge C M; Cohn, Danny M; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Huisman, Menno V; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-11-01

    Although quality of life (QoL) is recognized as an important indicator of the course of a disease, it has rarely been addressed in studies evaluating the outcome of care for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). This study primarily aimed to evaluate the QoL of patients with acute PE in comparison to population norms and to patients with other cardiopulmonary diseases, using a generic QoL questionnaire. Secondary, the impact of time period from diagnosis and clinical patient characteristics on QoL was assessed, using a disease-specific questionnaire. QoL was assessed in 109 consecutive out-patients with a history of objectively confirmed acute PE (mean age 60.4 ± 15.0 years, 56 females), using the generic Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the disease specific Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life questionnaire (PEmb-QoL). The score of the SF-36 were compared with scores of the general Dutch population and reference populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), derived from the literature. Scores on the SF-35 and PEmb-QoL were used to evaluate QoL in the short-term and long-term clinical course of patients with acute PE. In addition, we examined correlations between PEmb-QoL scores and clinical patient characteristics. Compared to scores of the general Dutch population, scores of PE patients were worse on several subscales of the SF-36 (social functioning, role emotional, general health (PSF-36 (P ≤ 0.004) and had scores comparable with patients with AMI the previous year. Comparing intermediately assessed QoL with QoL assessed in long-term follow-up, PE patients scored worse on SF-36 subscales: physical functioning, social functioning, vitality (P<0.05), and on the PEmb-QoL subscales: emotional complaints and limitations in ADL (P ≤ 0.03). Clinical characteristics did not correlate with QoL as measured by PEmb-QoL. Our study demonstrated an impaired QoL in patients after

  4. Pediatric Pulmonary Embolism: Diagnostic and Management Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Christian; Chauhan, Aman; Turner, Jason P; Carson, Thomas H; Velez, Maria C; Arcement, Christopher; Caspi, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    A rare case of massive pulmonary embolism is presented in an oligosymptomatic teenager with predisposing factors. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography supported by three-dimensional reconstruction was diagnostic. The embolus qualified as massive by conventional anatomical guidelines, but as low risk by more recent functional criteria. Functional assessment has complemented morphologic assessment for risk stratification in adult patients. Such evidence is scarce in pediatrics. The patient underwent surgical embolectomy, followed by prophylactic anticoagulation, without further events. Diagnostic and management challenges are discussed.

  5. Computed tomography of acute pulmonary embolism: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Ravenel, James G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the detection, risk stratification and prognosis evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism. This review will discuss the technical improvements for imaging peripheral pulmonary arteries, the methods of assessing pulmonary embolism severity based on CT findings, a multidetector CT technique for pulmonary embolism detection, and lastly, how to avoid overutilization of CT pulmonary angiography and overdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary embolism and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Faucal, P. de; Touze, M.D.; Dupas, B.

    1988-01-01

    Risks related to pulmonary embolism require use of diagnostic procedures with good sensitivity, and the potential complications of effective anticoagulant therapy require procedures with good specificity. Clinical signs are not more accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary than are ECG, blood gas and chest X ray examinations. Perfusion-ventilation scintigraphy has good diagnostic accuracy approaching that of pulmonary angiography which remains the gold standard. Since pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep venous thrombosis, distal clot detection should be associated with lung explorations. Plethysmography, ultrasonography, doppler studies and scintigraphy of the lower limbs could provide data supplementing those of contrast venography. The value and role of these examinations are analyzed and discussed in terms of different clinical situations.

  7. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism, and several modalities have been employed over the years. In recent years, the choice has been narrowed to either computer tomographic or radionuclide based methods, i.e. computer tomographic...

  8. Assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism: prospective validation of the simplified Geneva score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Ebadi, H; Mostaguir, K; Hovens, M M; Kare, M; Verschuren, F; Girard, P; Huisman, M V; Moustafa, F; Kamphuisen, P W; Buller, H R; Righini, M; Le Gal, G

    2017-09-01

    Essentials The simplified Geneva score allows easier pretest probability assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE). We prospectively validated this score in the ADJUST-PE management outcome study. The study shows that it is safe to manage patients with suspected PE according to this score. The simplified Geneva score is now ready for use in routine clinical practice. Background Pretest probability assessment by a clinical prediction rule (CPR) is an important step in the management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). A limitation to the use of CPRs is that their constitutive variables and corresponding number of points are difficult to memorize. A simplified version of the Geneva score (i.e. attributing one point to each variable) has been proposed but never been prospectively validated. Aims Prospective validation of the simplified Geneva score (SGS) and comparison with the previous version of the Geneva score (GS). Methods In the ADJUST-PE study, which had the primary aim of validating the age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off, the SGS was prospectively used to determine the pretest probability in a subsample of 1621 study patients. Results Overall, PE was confirmed in 294 (18.1%) patients. Using the SGS, 608 (37.5%), 980 (60.5%) and 33 (2%) were classified as having a low, intermediate and high clinical probability. Corresponding prevalences of PE were 9.7%, 22.4% and 45.5%; 490 (30.1%) patients with low or intermediate probability had a D-dimer level below 500 μg L-1 and 653 (41.1%) had a negative D-dimer test according to the age-adjusted cut-off. Using the GS, the figures were 491(30.9%) and 650 (40.9%). None of the patients considered as not having PE based on a low or intermediate SGS and negative D-dimer had a recurrent thromboembolic event during the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions The use of SGS has similar efficiency and safety to the GS in excluding PE in association with the D-dimer test. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and

  9. The value of isovolumic acceleration for the assessment of right ventricular function in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Murat; Sayar, Nurten; Demir, Serafettin; Rodi Tosua, Aydın; Aslan, Vedat

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of tricuspid annulus myocardial isovolumic acceleration (IVA) in the assessment of right ventricular function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Fifteen patients (mean age 60.6±11.3 years) with acute PE were enrolled and a control group was formed of 15 patients with a similar mean age (60.3±11.5). Patients who were diagnosed with acute PE by thoracic computed tomography angiography underwent transthoracic echocardiography at the time of diagnosis and at one month after diagnosis. In the control group IVA was 2.8±0.2 m/s(2), while in the acute PE group, it was 2.0±0.1 m/s(2) at the time of diagnosis and 2.9±0.1 m/s(2) at the end of the first month. When IVA values of acute PE patients at the end of the first month were compared with their initial values and those of the control group, they had normalized (control and acute PE p<0.0001; control and PE at one-month follow-up p=0.983). In our study, IVA was shown to be a reliable marker of right ventricular systolic function in patients with acute PE. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrast Circulation Time to Assess Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gregor; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrier, Arnaud; Bendjelid, Karim

    2016-01-01

    To optimize enhancement of pulmonary arteries and facilitate diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), modern computed tomography angiography (CTA) contains a contrast bolus tracking system. We explored the diagnostic accuracy of the time-intensity curves given by this automated system to identify right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in acute PE. 114 CTAs with a diagnosis of PE were reviewed. RVD was defined as right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio of 1 or greater. Four parameters on time-intensity curves were identified. Parameters between CTAs with and those without RVD were compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The ability of the four parameters to discriminate patients with RVD was explored by compiling the area under the operating curves (AUC). The time needed by the contrast media to reach the pulmonary artery [8 seconds (IQR: 7-9) versus 7 seconds (IQR: 6-8), p<0.01], the time needed to reach 40 Hounsfield units (HU) [11 seconds (IQR: 8.5-14) versus 9.5 seconds (IQR: 8-10.5), p<0.01], and the contrast intensity reached after 10 seconds [19 HU (IQR: 4-67) versus 53 HU (IQR: 32-80), p<0.05] were all statistically different between CTA with and CTA without RVD. Those three parameters changed gradually across severity categories of RVD (p<0.05 for trend). Their AUC to identify RVD ranged from 0.63 to 0.66. The slope of contrast intensity over time was not informative: [31 HU/s (IQR: 20-57) in CTA with, compared to 36 HU/s (IQR: 22.5-53) in CTA without RVD, p = 0.60]. Several parameters of the time-intensity curve obtained by the bolus tracking system are associated with RVD assessed on CTA images. Of those, the time needed to reach a predefined threshold seems to be the easiest to obtain in any CTA without additional processing time or contrast injection. However, the performance of those parameters is globally low.

  11. Simplification of the revised Geneva score for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Frederikus A; Mos, Inge C M; Nijkeuter, Mathilde; Righini, Marc; Perrier, Arnaud; Le Gal, Grégoire; Huisman, Menno V

    2008-10-27

    The revised Geneva score is a fully standardized clinical decision rule (CDR) in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The variables of the decision rule have different weights, which could lead to miscalculations in an acute setting. We have validated a simplified version of the revised Geneva score. Data from 1049 patients from 2 large prospective diagnostic trials that included patients with suspected PE were used and combined to validate the simplified revised Geneva score. We constructed the simplified CDR by attributing 1 point to each item of the original CDR and compared the diagnostic accuracy of the 2 versions by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. We also assessed the clinical utility of the simplified CDR by evaluating the safety of ruling out PE on the basis of the combination of either a low-intermediate clinical probability (using a 3-level scheme) or a "PE unlikely" assessment (using a dichotomized rule) with a normal result on a highly sensitive D-dimer test. The complete study population had an overall prevalence of venous thromboembolism of 23%. The diagnostic accuracy between the 2 CDRs did not differ (area under the curve for the revised Geneva score was 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.78] vs 0.74 [0.70-0.77] for the simplified revised Geneva score). During 3 months of follow-up, no patient with a combination of either a low (0%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0%-1.7%) or intermediate (0%; 0.0%-2.8%) clinical probability, or a "PE unlikely" assessment (0%; 0.0%-1.2%) with the simplified score and a normal result of a D-dimer test was diagnosed as having venous thromboembolism. This study suggests that simplification of the revised Geneva score does not lead to a decrease in diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility, which should be confirmed in a prospective study.

  12. Pulmonary Embolism in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Dey, Sadanand; Singh, Dilip; Hill, Michael D

    2018-01-28

    Silent pulmonary embolism (PE) may be associated with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We identified 10 patients from 3,132 unique patients (3,431 CT scans). We retrospectively examined CT angiogram of patients with AIS to determine the frequency of concurrent PE in AIS. The period prevalence of PE was 0.32. Seven patients had concurrent PE, whereas three had PE diagnosed 2 days after their AIS presentation. We suspected paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale as the cause of stroke in three patients and thrombophilia in four patients. Seven patients had poor outcome including four deaths. CT angiogram stroke protocol images from aortic arch to vertex allows visualization of upper pulmonary arteries and PE detection in AIS.

  13. Patient management of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilworth, D.L.; Donovan, B.C.; Morrison, R.; Ryan, K.; Reagan, K.; Goldhaber, S.Z.

    1988-03-01

    This is the first article in a four-part continuing education series addressing patient care and the clinical management of disease. This series is not directed at nuclear medicine procedures themselves, but focuses on topics related to patients referred for nuclear medicine studies. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism; and 2) discuss conventional versus thrombolytic approaches to therapy.

  14. Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiography in the Assessment of Severity of Acute Pulmonary Embolism and Right Ventricular Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nural, M.S.; Elmali, M.; Findik, S.; Yapici, O.; Uzun, O.; Sunter, A.T.; Erkan, L. (Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis Univ., Samsun (Turkey))

    2009-07-15

    Background: The distinction between severe pulmonary embolism (PE) and right heart dysfunction is important for predicting patient mortality. Purpose: To identify the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of the severity of acute PE and right ventricular dysfunction. Material and Methods: Eighty-five patients suspected of having PE, as diagnosed by CTPA and scintigraphy, were divided into three groups: hemodynamically unstable PE (HUPE) (n = 20), hemodynamically stable PE (HSPE) (n = 33), and no PE (n = 32). For each patient, obstruction scores, including short-axis diameters of the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV), main pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava (SVC), were measured. The RV/LV short-axis ratios were calculated. The shapes of the interventricular septum and the reflux of the contrast medium into the inferior vena cava (IVC) were evaluated. The mortality due to PE within a 1-month follow-up period was recorded. Results: The median CTPA obstruction score (HUPE 64%, HSPE 28%, P < 0.001), median RV/LV short-axis ratio (HUPE 1.4, HSPE 1.0, P < 0.01), median RV diameter (HUPE 55 mm, HSPE 42 mm, P < 0.001), median SVC diameter (HUPE 23 mm, HSPE 19 mm, P < 0.01), interventricular septum convex toward the LV (HUPE 70%, HSPE 18%, P < 0.001), and reflux of the contrast medium into the IVC (HUPE 65%, HSPE 33%, p < 0.05) were significantly different between the HUPE and HSPE groups. With ROC analysis, the CTPA obstruction score and RV/LV short-axis ratio threshold values for the HUPE patients were calculated to be 48% (95% sensitivity, 76% specificity) and 1.1 (85% sensitivity, 76% specificity), respectively. Three patients in the HUPE group died within the first 24 hours. Logistic regression methods revealed only the RV diameter as a significant predictor of death (odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.04-1.48; P 0.01). Conclusion: This study found that the parameters useful for distinguishing HUPE and HSPE included CTPA

  15. Comparison between CT and MRI in the assessment of pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Shen, Yi-Hong; Zhu, Xu-Qing; Zheng, Jing; Wu, Feng-Jie

    2017-12-01

    Besides pulmonary arteriography, a number of imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), were adopted in the detection of identifying pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the contrast of sensitivity and specificity in these methods was studied little in a statistical way. To compare the effects of MRI and CT, this study used a series of methods to analyze data in included researches. A comprehensive computer search was conducted through internet up to July 2016. The quality assessment was performed by the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, version 2 tool. The diagnostic value of comparison between MRI and CT was evaluated by using the pooled estimate of sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis were applied to ensure the accuracy of the results. Ten studies with 590 cases were involved in the study. Only 2 trials had high risk regarding bias while other trials were supposed to be at low risk of applicability. Heterogeneity existed in analysis of both CT and MRI. The pooled sensitivity of CT was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93), pooled specificity was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77 to 0.95), the pooled sensitivity of MRI was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.94), and pooled specificity was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.77-0.97). The Q index of sensitivity and specificity for CT and MRI were 71.38, 19.67, 47.14, and 12.35, respectively. The SROC curve area under the curve of CT and MRI were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95), respectively. This meta-analysis demonstrates that MRI has better sensitivity and specificity in detecting subsegmental artery PE. MRI is a relatively better detection technique for PE. This conclusion is consistent with many published researches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary embolism : diagnostic management and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Frederikus Albertus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the diagnostic management, short term prognosis and long term complications of pulmonary embolism. We have validated a newly derived clinical decision rule, the revised Geneva score, for predicting the pre-test probability of having acute pulmonary embolism. This rule can be

  18. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R.

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer

  19. Does computer-assisted detection of pulmonary emboli enhance severity assessment and risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, C., E-mail: c.engelke@med.uni-goettingen.d [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Goettingen, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Schmidt, S.; Auer, F.; Rummeny, E.J. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich (Germany); Marten, K. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Goettingen, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: To prospectively assess the value of computer-aided detection (CAD) for the computed tomography (CT) severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: CT angiographic scans of 58 PE-positive patients (34-89 years, mean 66 years) were analysed by four observers for PE severity using the Mastora index, and by CAD. Patients were stratified to three PE risk groups and results compared to an independent reference standard. Interobserver agreement was tested by Bland and Altman and extended kappa (Ke) statistics. Mastora index changes after CAD data review were tested by Wilcoxon signed ranks. Results: CAD detected 343 out of 1118 emboli within given arterial segments and a total of 155 out of 218 polysegmental emboli (segmental vessel-based sensitivity = 30.7%, embolus-based sensitivity = 71.2% false-positive rate = 4.1/scan). Interobserver agreement on PE severity [95% limits of agreement (LOA) = -19.7-7.5% and-5.5-3% for reader pairs 1 versus 2 and 3 versus 4, respectively was enhanced by consensus with CAD data (LOA = -6.5-5.4% and-3.7-2% for reader pairs 1 versus 2 and 3 versus 4, respectively). Simultaneously, the percentual scoring errors (PSE) were significantly decreased (PSE = 35.4 +- 31.8% and 5.1 +- 8.9% for readers1/2 and 2/3, respectively, and PSE = 27.6 +- 31% and 3.8 +- 6.2%, respectively, after CAD consensus; p <= 0.005). Misclassifications to PE risk groups occurred in 27.6, 24.1, 5.2, and 5.2% of patients for readers 1-4, respectively, (Ke = 0.74) and were corrected by CAD consensus in 56.3, 36, 33.3, and 33.3% of misclassified patients, respectively (Ke = 0.83; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Radiologists may benefit from consensus with CAD data that improve PE severity scores and stratification to PE risk groups.

  20. Subsegmental pulmonary embolism: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Soheil; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Allameh, Seyed Farshad; Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Safavi, Enayat

    2016-02-01

    Through the introduction of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for diagnosis of the pulmonary embolism (PE), the high sensitivity of this diagnostic tool led to detecting peripheral filling defects as small as 2-3mm, termed as subsegmental pulmonary embolism (SSPE). However, despite these substantial increases in diagnosis of small pulmonary embolism, there are minimal changes in mortality. Moreover, SSPE patients generally are hemodynamically stable with mild clinical presentation, lower serum level of biomarkers, lower incidence of associated proximal DVTs and less frequent echocardiographic changes compared to the patients with emboli located in more central pulmonary arteries. However, the pros and cons of anticoagulant therapy versus non-treating, monitoring protocol and exact long term outcome of these patients are still unclear. In this article we review existing evidence and provide an overview of what is known about the diagnosis and management of subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Outpatient management of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P-M; Moumneh, T; Penaloza, A; Sanchez, O

    2017-07-01

    Despite clear potential benefits of outpatient care, most patients suffering from pulmonary embolism (PE) are currently hospitalized due to the fear of possible adverse events. Nevertheless, some teams have increased or envisage to increase outpatient treatment or early discharge. We performed a narrative systematic review of studies published on this topic. We identified three meta-analyses and 23 studies, which involved 3671 patients managed at home (n=3036) or discharged early (n=535). Two main different approaches were applied to select patients eligible for outpatient in recent prospective studies, one based on a list of pragmatic criteria as the HESTIA rule, the other adding severity criteria (i.e. risk of death) as the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Criteria (PESI) or simplified PESI. In all these studies, a specific follow-up was performed for patients managed at home involving a dedicated team. The overall early (i.e. between 1 to 3 months) complication rate was low, Outpatient management appears to be feasible and safe for many patients with PE. In the coming years, outpatient treatment may be considered as the first line management for hemodynamically stable PE patients, subject to the respect of simple eligibility criteria and on the condition that a specific procedure for outpatient care is developed in advance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interventional Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, David M; Giri, Jay; Rosenfield, Kenneth

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and prevalent cause of vascular disease. Nevertheless, optimal treatment for many phenotypes of PE remains uncertain. Treating PE requires appropriate risk stratification as a first step. For the highest-risk PE, presenting as shock or arrest, emergent systemic thrombolysis or embolectomy is reasonable, while for low-risk PE, anticoagulation alone is often chosen. Normotensive patients with PE but with indicia of right heart dysfunction (by biomarkers or imaging) constitute an intermediate-risk group for whom there is controversy on therapeutic strategy. Some intermediate-risk patients with PE may require urgent stabilization, and ≈10% will decompensate hemodynamically and suffer high mortality, though identifying these specific patients remains challenging. Systemic thrombolysis is a consideration, but its risks of major and intracranial hemorrhages rival overall harms from intermediate PE. Multiple hybrid pharmacomechanical approaches have been devised to capture the benefits of thrombolysis while reducing its risks, but there is limited aggregate clinical experience with such novel interventional strategies. One method to counteract uncertainty and generate a consensus multidisciplinary prognostic and therapeutic plan is through a Pulmonary Embolism Response Team, which combines expertise from interventional cardiology, interventional radiology, cardiac surgery, cardiac imaging, and critical care. Such a team can help determine which intervention-catheter-directed fibrinolysis, ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombus fragmentation, or percutaneous or surgical embolectomy-is best suited to a particular patient. This article reviews these various modalities and the background for each. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Acute pulmonary embolism in young: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism remains a disease which needs high clinical suspicion to prevent mortality and morbidity. More so in young healthy individuals, suspicion is very low as compared to old age individuals with multiple co-morbid conditions. Pulmonary embolism carries high mortality if not suspected and treatment initiated as early as possible. There are two case reports of young male individuals who presented as acute onset of breathlessness and later diagnosed and treated as a case of pulmonary thromboembolism.

  4. Management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Vishal; Mehta, Nimeshkumar; Rawat, Naveen; Lehrman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterized by systemic hypotension (defined as a systolic arterial pressure pulmonary embolism has a high mortality rate despite advances in diagnosis and therapy. A subgroup of patients with nonmassive PE who are hemodynamically stable but with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction or hypokinesis confirmed by echocardiography is classified as submassive PE. Their prognosis is different from that of others with non-massive PE and normal RV function. This article attempts to review the evidence-based risk stratification, diagnosis, initial stabilization, and management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism. PMID:23319967

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim-University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology, Mannheim (Germany); Ley, Sebastian; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [University Hospitals Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a very common and potentially life-threatening disease. In comparison with CT, the clinical relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of PE is low. Nevertheless, as there are some potential advantages of MRI over CT (e.g. radiation free method, better safety profile of MR contrast media, capability of functional imaging). In certain patient, groups MRI might therefore be considered as a valuable alternative in the assessment of suspected PE. This article reviews the relevant MRI techniques for the evaluation of PE and gives an overview of the current literature for contrast-enhanced MR angiography of PE. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Nooh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism.

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broder

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy is a significant and under-recognized problem. In British Columbia, where there are 46,000 pregnancies per year, it is estimated that there are approximately 160 pulmonary embolisms per year and one maternal death every two years secondary to pulmonary embolism. A complete assessment for suspected pulmonary embolus can be performed without putting the fetus at significant risk from radiation exposure. An algorithm is provided for the workup of pulmonary embolus during pregnancy. Heparin is the drug of choice for anticoagulating pregnant women, initially managing the situation with intravenous heparin and then switching to the subcutaneous route given in a bid or tid regimen, aiming to keep the activated partial thromboplastin time 1.5 to 2 times the control. The risks to both the fetus and the mother from anticoagulation during pregnancy are reviewed.

  8. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M. [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States); Ackermann, Hanns [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p < 0.003). There were 2 deaths and 1 readmission due of PE in 18 patients with >5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Toru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

  10. Effectiveness of automated quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume using dual-energy CTPA for the severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Graef, Anita; Bamberg, Fabian; Thieme, Sven F; Schwarz, Florian; Sommer, Wieland H; Neurohr, Claus; Kupatt, Christian; Reiser, Maximilian F; Johnson, Thorsten R C

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether automated quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography is of diagnostic value in assessing the severity of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Ethical approval and informed consent were waived by the responsible institutional review board for this retrospective study. Of 224 consecutive patients with dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiographic findings positive for acute PE, we excluded 153 patients because of thoracic comorbidities (n = 130), missing data (n = 11), severe artifacts (n = 11), or inadequate enhancement (n = 1). Automated quantification of PBV was performed in the remaining 71 patients (mean [SD] age, 62 [16] years) with acute PE and no cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Perfused blood volume values adjusted for age and sex were correlated with the Qanadli obstruction score, morphological computed tomographic signs of right heart dysfunction, serum levels of troponin, and the necessity for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography-derived PBV values inversely correlated with the Qanadli score (r = -0.46; P global PBV values lower than 60% were significantly more likely to require admission to an ICU than did the patients with global pulmonary PBV of 60% or higher (47% vs 11%; P = 0.003; positive predictive value, 47%; negative predictive value, 89%). On the univariate analysis, a significant negative correlation was found between the global PBV values and the Qanadli obstruction score (r = -0.46; P reader-independent estimation of global pulmonary PBV in acute PE, which inversely correlates with thrombus load, laboratory parameters of PE severity, and the necessity for ICU admission.

  11. Validity and clinical utility of the simplified Wells rule for assessing clinical probability for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, R.A.; Gibson, N.S.; Gerdes, V.E.A.; Buller, H.R.; Wells, P.S.; Perrier, A.; Le Gal, G.

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced simplified Wells rule for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE) assigns only one point to the seven variables of the original Wells rule. This study was performed to independently validate the simplified Wells rule for the exclusion of PE. We retrospectively calculated the

  12. Prospective cardiopulmonary screening program to detect chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients after acute pulmonary embolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F.A.; Kralingen, K.W. van; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Heyning, F.H.; Vliegen, H.W.; Huisman, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism is important for evaluating the need for screening but is also a

  13. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS AFTER MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM

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    Dragan Kovačić

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary embolism is a disease, which has a 30% mortality if untreated, while an early diagnosis and treatment lowers it to 2–8%. Health related quality of life (HRQL of patients who survived massive pulmonary embolism is unknown in published literature. In our research we tried to apply experience of foreign experts in estimation of quality of life in some other diseases to the field of massive pulmonary embolism.Patients and methods. Eighteen patients with shock or hypotension due to massive pulmonary embolism, treated with thrombolysis, between July 1993 and November 2000, were prospectively included in the study. Control group included 18 gender and age matched persons. There were no significant differences regarding demographic data between the groups. The HRQL and aerobic capacity of patients and control group were tested with short questions and questionnaires (Veterans brief, self administered questionnaire (VSAQ, EuroQuality questionnaire (EQ, Living with heart failure questionnaire (LlhHF. With LlhHF physical (F-LlhHF and emotional (E-LlhHF HRQL was assessed at hospitalization and 12 months later.Results. One year after massive pulmonary embolism aerobic capacity (–9.5%, p < 0.017 and HRQL (EQ (–34.5%, F-LlhHF (–85.4%, E-LlhHF (–48.7% decreased in massive pulmonary embolism group compared to aerobic capacity 6 months before massive pulmonary embolism and HRQL. Heart rate before thrombolysis correlated with aerobic capacity (r = 0.627, p < 0.01, EQ (r = 0.479, p < 0.01 and F-LlhHF (r = 0.479, p = 0.04 1 year after massive pulmonary embolism. Total pulmonary resistance at 12 hours after start of treatment correlated with aerobic capacity at 1 year (r = 0.354, p < 0.01.With short question (»Did you need any help in everyday activities in last 2 weeks?« we successfully separated patients with decreased HRQL in EQ (74.3 ± 20.8 vs. 24.5 ± 20.7, p < 0.001 and F-LlhHF (21.7 ± 6.7 vs. 32.8 ± 4.3, p < 0.01, but we

  14. Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Fowler, Sarah E.; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Naidich, David P.; Sak, Daniel J.; Sostman, H. Dirk; Tapson, Victor F.; Weg, John G.; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance venography for diagnosing pulmonary embolism has not been determined conclusively. Objective To investigate performance characteristics of magnetic resonance angiography, with or without magnetic resonance venography, for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Design Prospective, multicenter study from 10 April 2006 to 30 September 2008. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00241826) Setting 7 hospitals and their emergency services. Patients 371 adults with diagnosed or excluded pulmonary embolism. Measurements Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were measured by comparing independently read magnetic resonance imaging with the reference standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Reference standard diagnosis or exclusion was made by using various tests, including computed tomographic angiography and venography, ventilation–perfusion lung scan, venous ultra-sonography, D-dimer assay, and clinical assessment. Results Magnetic resonance angiography, averaged across centers, was technically inadequate in 25% of patients (92 of 371). The proportion of technically inadequate images ranged from 11% to 52% at various centers. Including patients with technically inadequate images, magnetic resonance angiography identified 57% (59 of 104) with pulmonary embolism. Technically adequate magnetic resonance angiography had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 99%. Technically adequate magnetic resonance angiography and venography had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 96%, but 52% of patients (194 of 370) had technically inadequate results. Limitation A high proportion of patients with suspected embolism was not eligible or declined to participate. Conclusion Magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography should be considered only at centers that routinely perform it well and only for patients for whom standard tests are contraindicated. Magnetic

  15. Treatment of Right Heart Thrombi Associated with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Deisy; Chavant, Jeremy; Jiménez, David; Bertoletti, Laurent; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Muriel, Alfonso; Viallon, Alain; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Yusen, Roger D; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based recommendations do not adequately address the treatment of right heart thrombi in patients who present with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. This study included patients who had acute pulmonary embolism associated with right heart thrombi and participated in the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica registry. We assessed the effectiveness of anticoagulation versus reperfusion treatment for the outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism-related mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding rates through 30 days after initiation of pulmonary embolism treatment. We used propensity score matching to adjust for the likelihood of receiving reperfusion treatment. Of 325 patients with pulmonary embolism and right heart thrombi, 255 (78%; 95% confidence interval, 74-83) received anticoagulation and 70 (22%; 95% confidence interval, 17-26) also received reperfusion treatment. Propensity score-matched pairs analyses did not detect a statistically lower risk of all-cause death (6.2% vs 14%, P = .15) or pulmonary embolism-related mortality (4.7% vs 7.8%; P = .47) for reperfusion compared with anticoagulation. Of the patients who received reperfusion treatment, 6.2% had a recurrence during the study follow-up period, compared with 0% of those who received anticoagulation (P = .049). The incidence of major bleeding events was not statistically different between the 2 treatment groups (3.1% vs 3.1%; P = 1.00). In patients with pulmonary embolism and right heart thrombi, no significant difference was found between reperfusion therapy and anticoagulant therapy for mortality and bleeding. The risk of recurrences was significantly higher for reperfusion therapy compared with anticoagulation. Right heart thrombi may not warrant riskier interventions than standard anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...

  17. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  18. Dermatomyositis masquerading as pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroz RM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 61-year-old Caucasian was admitted to Department of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland for progressive muscle weakness and weight loss. Eighteen months prior to admission, the patient had been diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. At that point he was started on Enoxaparin QD. Past medical history was unremarkable. In the interim, the patient developed fever, myalgia and progressive dyspnea. Physical examination on admission revealed a rash on his upper torso and back, and the extensor surfaces of all four extremities. Laboratory values included CPK 8229, MB fraction 219, LDH 981. Chest X-ray and CT scan revealed bilateral patchy consolidations and ground-glass opacities. EMG was consistent with myositis. The patient was started on solumedrol 40 mg i.v., b.i.d., and then switched to prednisone 40 mg b.i.d. His symptoms and muscle strength improved remarkably. The patient was discharged with prednisone with an outpatient follow up.

  19. The Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Islam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most current literature on the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism.  The epidemiology and symptomology of this disorder, including common symptoms such as fever, chest pain, dyspnea, edema, and syncope, are reviewed.  The utility of basic and easily available testing, such as electrocardiography and chest radiography, is evaluated. The literature on determining the pretest probability of venous thromboembolism with scoring systems, such as the Wells Score, the Geneva Scoring System, and the Pulmonary Embolism Rule Out Criteria, is appraised.  As the evaluation of pulmonary embolism has evolved, multiple imaging techniques has been developed and studied.  Ultrasonography, computed tomography with angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, ventilation perfusion lung scanning, and SPECT ventilation-perfusion lung imaging are discussed.  In conclusion, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains complicated.  Clinical suspicion and stratification should guide a diagnostic strategy for the comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis of patients with this disorder.

  20. Electrical impedance tomography for assessing ventilation/perfusion mismatch for pulmonary embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan Trang; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment.

  1. [Anticoagulation after an acute pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mao, Raphael; Tromeur, Cécile; Couturaud, Francis

    In order to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation after an acute pulmonary embolism, the benefit risk balance needs to be analysed based on the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in the absence of anticoagulation and the risk of bleeding while on anticoagulant therapy. Such evaluation take in account the frequency and the severity of the risks; clinical variables appear more informative to predict recurrent venous thromboembolism than biochemical or morphological variables. Three major results are now available: (1) the minimal duration of anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism is 3 months; (2) after pulmonary embolism that was provoked by a major transient risk factor, the risk of recurrence is low and does not justify to prolong anticoagulation beyond 6 months; and (3), in patients with an unprovoked pulmonary embolism (high risk of recurrence), the prolongation of anticoagulation up to 1 or 2 years as compared to 3 or 6 months is not associated with a long term reduction in the risk of recurrence and, consequently, these patients should be treated either during 3 to 6 months or indefinitely. This last observation has two major implications: first, to identify, among patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism, those who have a low risk of recurrence and who do not require indefinite anticoagulation; and second, in those who are eligible for indefinite anticoagulation, to reduce the risk of bleeding. If direct oral anticoagulant therapies are promising, however, additional clinical trials are needed to help physician for the daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, E. J.; Kuijer, P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is known to a limited extent only. OBJECTIVE: To address this limited knowledge in a cohort in whom pulmonary embolism was proved or ruled out. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent

  3. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu; Elnur Alizade; Abdurrahman Naser; Akin İzgi

    2017-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  4. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  5. Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Elderly Patients with Stable Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2017-03-01

    Patients aged >60 years with pulmonary embolism who were stable and did not require thrombolytic therapy were shown to have a somewhat lower in-hospital all-cause mortality with vena cava filters. In this investigation we further assess mortality with filters in stable elderly patients. In-hospital all-cause mortality according to use of inferior vena cava filters was assessed from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, 2003-2012, in: 1) All patients with pulmonary embolism; 2) All with pulmonary embolism who had none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index; 3) Patients with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and 4) Patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index. From 2003-2012, 2,621,575 stable patients with pulmonary embolism were hospitalized in the US. Patients aged >80 years showed lower mortality with vena cava filters (all pulmonary embolism, 6.1% vs 10.5%; all pulmonary embolism with no comorbid conditions, 3.3% vs 6.3%; primary pulmonary embolism, 4.1% vs 5.7%; primary pulmonary embolism with no comorbid conditions, 2.1% vs 3.7%; all P pulmonary embolism, irrespective of comorbid conditions, did not show lower mortality with filters. At present, in the absence of a randomized controlled trial, it seems prudent to consider a vena cava filter in very elderly (aged >80 years) stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management dilemmas in acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Hughes, Rodney J; Hurdman, Judith; Maclean, Rhona M; Sabroe, Ian; van Veen, Joost J; Kiely, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians treating acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are faced with difficult management decisions while specific guidance from recent guidelines may be absent. Methods Fourteen clinical dilemmas were identified by physicians and haematologists with specific interests in acute and chronic PE. Current evidence was reviewed and a practical approach suggested. Results Management dilemmas discussed include: sub-massive PE, PE following recent stroke or surgery, thrombolysis dosing and use in cardiac arrest, surgical or catheter-based therapy, failure to respond to initial thrombolysis, PE in pregnancy, right atrial thrombus, role of caval filter insertion, incidental and sub-segmental PE, differentiating acute from chronic PE, early discharge and novel oral anticoagulants. Conclusion The suggested approaches are based on a review of the available evidence and guidelines and on our clinical experience. Management in an individual patient requires clinical assessment of risks and benefits and also depends on local availability of therapeutic interventions. PMID:24343784

  7. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. Based on the data of the Register of new cases of hospital pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals in Tomsk (2003–2012, to explore the contribution of obesity to the development of venous thromboembolism.Material and Methods. Study were subjected to medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in Tomsk in 2003–2012, who at patologoanatomic and/or instrumental study revealed pulmonary embolism. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO criteria (1997. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the software package for PC Statistica 8.0 for Windows. To test the normality of the distribution of quantitative traits using the Shapiro–Wilk test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov with the adjusted Lillieforsa. Check the equality of the population variance was performed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran. Was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05.The results of the study. In Western Siberia, Tomsk, a register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. In the register included 720 patients with in vivo and/or post mortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. Analyzed data from medical records and autopsy reports. Revealed statistically significant differences in BMI (p = 0.033 and the presence of obesity (p = 0.002 in patients with pulmonary embolism, holding medical and surgical beds. As of medical, surgical and among patients with thromboembolism, obesity is significantly more common in women than men (p = 0.050 and p = 0.041 respectively. According to the study, obesity grade 1 or 2 alone (at the isolated presence of the patient is not significantly increased the odds of a massive thromboembolism. However, grade 3 obesity increased the odds of a massive pulmonary embolism by more than 2.7 times (OR = 2.708, CI: 1,461–5,020.

  8. Acute pulmonary embolism: A review | Saleh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common clinical disorder which is associated with high morbidity and mortality if untreated. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with undiagnosed and poorly treated PE, there is a need for protocols based on risk factor assessment to facilitate early diagnosis of PE ...

  9. Surgical Treatment of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Ziv; Bolotin, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) is a life-threatening condition. The management of MPE has changed over the course of the last few years. Since the emergence of thrombolytic therapy, only a few patients remain amenable for surgical treatment. Currently, surgical embolectomy is advised only in very specific indications. This chapter will review the background, history, indications, surgical technique and results of surgical pulmonary embolectomy in patients with MPE.

  10. Neural hypernetwork approach for pulmonary embolism diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucco, Matteo; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Merelli, Emanuela; Johnson, Jeffrey H; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo

    2015-10-29

    Hypernetworks are based on topological simplicial complexes and generalize the concept of two-body relation to many-body relation. Furthermore, Hypernetworks provide a significant generalization of network theory, enabling the integration of relational structure, logic and analytic dynamics. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, frequently fatal. Our study uses data on 28 diagnostic features of 1427 people considered to be at risk of pulmonary embolism enrolled in the Department of Internal and Subintensive Medicine of an Italian National Hospital "Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona". Patients arrived in the department after a first screening executed by the emergency room. The resulting neural hypernetwork correctly recognized 94% of those developing pulmonary embolism. This is better than previous results obtained with other methods (statistical selection of features, partial least squares regression, topological data analysis in a metric space). In this work we successfully derived a new integrative approach for the analysis of partial and incomplete datasets that is based on Q-analysis with machine learning. The new approach, called Neural Hypernetwork, has been applied to a case study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. The novelty of this method is that it does not use clinical parameters extracted by imaging analysis.

  11. Coagulopathy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2017-01-01

    Whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage were studied in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and evaluated in relation to PE severity. Twenty-five patients were enrolled prospectively each having viscoelastical analysis of whole blood done using thrombelastography (TEG...

  12. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R

    2016-12-17

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line treatment options for venous thromboembolism because they are associated with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists and are easier to use. Use of thrombolysis should be limited to pulmonary embolism associated with haemodynamic instability. Anticoagulant treatment should be continued for at least 3 months to prevent early recurrences. When venous thromboembolism is unprovoked or secondary to persistent risk factors, extended treatment beyond this period should be considered when the risk of recurrence outweighs the risk of major bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiz Muganlinskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE. A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with ‘saddle pulmonary embolism’ based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation

  14. Mortality from pulmonary embolism is decreasing in hospital patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcke, Douglas; Harryman, Ondina; Benbow, Emyr W; Hay, Charles; Chalmers, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary embolism is believed to be a common cause of death of hospital inpatients. The aims of this study were to estimate the number of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism and the potential to reduce this by the use of caval filters according to accepted indications. Design Review of autopsy reports and death notification records from 2007 and 2008. When pulmonary embolism was given as cause of death (in the autopsy report or in section 1 a-c or part 2 of the Medical Certificate of the Cause of Death), hospital records were reviewed for evidence of pre-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for evidence of accepted indications for caval filter placement. Setting Large UK teaching hospital. Participants Hospital inpatients whose deaths were attributed to pulmonary embolism. Main outcome measures Proportion of deaths adjudged at autopsy to be due to pulmonary embolism; evidence of pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism; total number of hospital admission and deaths. Results From a total of 186,517 adult inpatient admissions there were 2583 (1.4%) adult inpatient deaths of which 696 (27%) underwent autopsy. Of those undergoing autopsy, 14 (2.0%, 95% CI 1.2–3.3%) deaths were caused by pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolism was recorded as a cause of death in a further 12 (0.7%) of 1773 patients who did not undergo autopsy. Of these, five had a pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism. Conclusions The proportion of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism appears to be considerably lower than the widely published rate, and of this small number, few have a pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism. There is little scope for further reduction of pulmonary embolism mortality through use of caval filters according to guidelines. Current policy on pulmonary embolism risk prevention appears to be based on an over-estimate of the level of risk. PMID:21816931

  15. A rare cause of pulmonary embolism: panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Cevik, Erdem

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a patient with pulmonary embolism during a high-dose course of panax. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with sudden complaints of shortness of breath, sweating,weakness, and loss of conscious after panax pills intake. At pulmonary computed tomography angiography, hypodense filling defect compatible with pulmonary emboli was seen at the bifurcation level of right and left distal pulmonary arteries and at each of pulmonary lobary arteries. The patient was treated with pulmonary artery selective thrombolysis. Conclusion: Herbal products, which are used all over the world to support health, should not be taken indiscriminately because their ingredients' amounts and what kind of adverse effects may come up whether used alone or in combination cannot be known.

  16. Surgical Embolectomy for Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism and Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemin, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Surgical therapy for massive acute pulmonary embolism has improved with the use of rapid response teams and selective bedside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation. The chronic consequence of unresolved pulmonary embolism is a treatable form of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is a curative operation in selected cases, operated upon in an experienced center with the multidisciplinary team including imaging, pulmonary medicine, and cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute pulmonary embolism leading to cavitation and large pulmonary abscess: A rare complication of pulmonary infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Koroscil, Matthew T.; Hauser, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary infarction is an infrequent complication of pulmonary embolism due to the dual blood supply of the lung. Autopsy studies have reported cavitation to occur in only 4–5% of all pulmonary infarctions with an even smaller proportion of these cases becoming secondarily infected. Patients with infected cavitating pulmonary infarction classically present with fever, positive sputum culture, and leukocytosis days to weeks following acute pulmonary embolism. We describe a rare case of acute ...

  18. Cardiac Arrest Caused by Multiple Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjartan Eskjaer Hannig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism is a common condition with a high mortality. We describe a previously healthy 68-year-old male who suffered three pulmonary embolisms during a short period of time, including two embolisms while on anticoagulant treatment. This paper illustrates three important points. (1 The importance of optimal anticoagulant treatment in the prevention of pulmonary embolism reoccurrence. (2 The benefit of immediate accessibility to echocardiography in the handling of haemodynamically unstable patients with an unknown underlying cause. (3 Thrombolytic treatment should always be considered and may be life-saving in patients with cardiac arrest suspected to be caused by pulmonary embolism.

  19. Comparison of the Wells score with the simplified revised Geneva score for assessing pretest probability of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Andrea; Melot, Christian; Motte, Serge

    2011-02-01

    The Wells score is widely used in the assessment of pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE). The revised Geneva score is a fully standardized clinical decision rule that was recently validated and further simplified. We compared the predictive accuracy of these two scores. Data from 339 patients clinically suspected of PE from two prospective management studies were used and combined. Pretest probability of PE was assessed prospectively by the Wells score. The simplified revised (SR) Geneva score was calculated retrospectively. The predictive accuracy of both scores was compared by area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The overall prevalence of PE was 19%. Prevalence of PE in the low, moderate and high pretest probability groups assessed by the Wells score and by the simplified revised Geneva score was respectively 2%(95% CI (CI) 1-6) and 4% (CI 2-10), 28% (CI 22-35) and 25% (CI 20-32), 93% (CI 70-99) and 56% (CI 27-81). The Wells score performed better than the simplified revised Geneva score in patients with a high suspicion of PE (pGeneva score was 0.85 (CI: 0.81 to 0.89) and 0.76 (CI: 0.71 to 0.80) respectively. The difference between the AUCs was statistically significant (p=0.005). In our population the Wells score appeared to be more accurate than the simplified revised Geneva score. The impact of this finding in terms of patient outcomes should be investigated in a prospective study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary MRA: differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannas, Peter; Schiebler, Mark L; Motosugi, Utaroh; François, Christopher J; Reeder, Scott B; Nagle, Scott K

    2014-08-01

    Truncation artefact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artefact from PE. Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. Of these, 48 (74%) were artefacts and 17 (26%) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artefacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE on both arterial-phase (26% [range 12-58%] vs. 85% [range 53-91%]) and delayed-phase MRA (26% [range 11-55%] vs. 77% [range 47-89%]), p < 0.0001 for both. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed a threshold value of 51% (arterial phase) and 47% signal drop (delayed phase) to differentiate between truncation artefact and PE with 100% sensitivity and greater than 90% specificity. Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artefact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. • Inexperienced readers may mistake truncation artefacts for emboli on pulmonary MRA • Pulmonary emboli have non-uniform signal drop • 51% (arterial phase) and 47% (delayed phase) cut-off differentiates truncation artefact from PE • Quantitative signal drop measurement enables more accurate pulmonary embolism diagnosis with MRA.

  1. Comparison of the revised Geneva score with the Wells rule for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, F A; Kruisman, E; Spaan, J; Nijkeuter, M; Righini, M; Aujesky, D; Roy, P M; Perrier, A; Le Gal, G; Huisman, M V

    2008-01-01

    The revised Geneva score, a standardized clinical decision rule in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), was recently developed. The Wells clinical decision is widely used but lacks full standardization, as it includes subjective clinician's judgement. We have compared the performance of the revised Geneva score with the Wells rule, and their usefulness for ruling out PE in combination with D-dimer measurement. In 300 consecutive patients, the clinical probability of PE was assessed prospectively by the Wells rule and retrospectively using the revised Geneva score. Patients comprised a random sample from a single center, participating in a large prospective multicenter diagnostic study. The predictive accuracy of both scores was compared by area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The overall prevalence of PE was 16%. The prevalence of PE in the low-probability, intermediate-probability and high-probability categories as classified by the revised Geneva score was similar to that of the original derivation set. The performance of the revised Geneva score as measured by the AUC in a ROC analysis did not differ statistically from the Wells rule. After 3 months of follow-up, no patient classified into the low or intermediate clinical probability category by the revised Geneva score and a normal D-dimer result was subsequently diagnosed with acute venous thromboembolism. This study suggests that the performance of the revised Geneva score is equivalent to that of the Wells rule. In addition, it seems safe to exclude PE in patients by the combination of a low or intermediate clinical probability by the revised Geneva score and a normal D-dimer level. Prospective clinical outcome studies are needed to confirm this latter finding.

  2. MRI of pulmonary embolism; MRT der akuten Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Mannheim (Germany); Thieme, S.; Clevert, D.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Recent technical developments have substantially improved the potential of MRI for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. On the MR scanner side this includes the development of short magnets and dedicated whole-body MRI systems, which allow a comprehensive evaluation of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in a single exam. The introduction of parallel imaging has substantially improved the spatial and temporal resolution of pulmonary MR angiography. By combining time-resolved pulmonary perfusion MRI with high-resolution pulmonary MRA a sensitivity and specificity of over 90% is achievable, which is comparable to the accuracy of CTA. Thus, for certain patient groups, such as patients with contraindications to iodinated contrast media and young women with a low clinical probability for pulmonary embolism, MRI can be considered as a first-line imaging tool for the assessment of pulmonary embolism. (orig.) [German] Technische Weiterentwicklungen der MRT haben deren Moeglichkeiten fuer die Diagnostik der Lungenembolie erheblich verbessert. Hierzu zaehlen auf Geraeteseite kuerzere Magneten sowie dedizierte Ganzkoerper-MRT-Systeme, die einerseits den Patientenzugang beguenstigen und andererseits eine Abklaerung einer potenziell zugrunde liegenden Venenthrombose in einer Untersuchung ermoeglichen. Auf Seite der Sequenztechnik hat die Einfuehrung der parallelen Bildgebung die raeumliche und zeitliche Aufloesung der MR-Angiographie (MRA) der Lunge deutlich verbessert. Durch eine Kombination zeitaufgeloester Messungen der Lungenperfusion und einer raeumlich hochaufgeloesten MRA kann fuer die Diagnostik der Lungenembolie eine Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet von ueber 90% erzielt werden, was vergleichbar der Genauigkeit der CT-Angiographie (CTA) ist. Daher kann die MRT fuer bestimmte Personen, wie z. B. Patienten mit Kontraindikationen gegen jodhaltige Roentgenkontrastmittel (z. B. Hyperthyreose) oder juengere Frauen mit einer geringen klinischen Wahrscheinlichkeit fuer

  3. [Massive pulmonary embolism. When medical treatment is not enough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, B; Glorion, M; Rodriguez, A; Garcia, C; Stephan, F; Fabre, D; Mercier, O; Brenot, P; Fadel, E

    2017-12-01

    Emergency bedside veno-arterious ECMO implantation can be the only saving gesture in the suspicion of acute massive pulmonary embolism leading to haemodynamic failure, even before CT-scan imaging. Once the massive pulmonary embolism is confirmed it is possible to undergo surgical or percutaneous pulmonary thrombectomy, when thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN OLDER PATIENT: SURVIVAL DESPITE STATISTIC DATA

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    O. S. Makharynska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary thromboembolism is presented in this article on example of clinical case. Clinical investigation, prognosis evaluation tools, diagnosis and acute phase treatment along with prevention of recurrent episode of pulmonary embolism presented. Observed and described clinical case of pulmonary embolism in older patient, when patient was mistakenly diagnosed in emergency department as acute coronary syndrome patient.

  5. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Massive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatova, Elena V; Moazzami, Kasra; Cocke, Thomas P; Elmann, Elie; Vaidya, Pranay; Ng, Arthur F; Satya, Kumar; Narayan, Rajeev L

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has been suggested for cardiopulmonary support in patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE) refractory to other treatment or as bridging to embolectomy. The survival benefit from ECMO in patients with massive PE remains unclear. Here, we describe 5 cases in which ECMO was used as cardiopulmonary support following massive near-fatal pulmonary embolism. The overall mortality in patients with massive PE that received ECMO support was 40%. Death occurred secondary to ECMO-related complication in one case and due to inability to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion despite ECMO support in the second case. ECMO can be considered as a treatment modality for patients with massive PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the assessment of hospital mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikli, Ömer; Ekşi, Alay; Avcıoğlu, Yonca; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Yüksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gökhan; Gülel, Okan; Yılmaz, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is an essential marker of inflammation, has been shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in various cardiovascular diseases in the literature. In this study we sought to evaluate the association between NLR and prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated blood counts and clinical data of 142 patients with the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) from Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital between January 2006 and December 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to NLR: NLR 126 mg/dl, heart rate > 110 beats/min, and PCO2 50 mm Hg were predictors of in-hospital mortality. The optimal NLR cutoff value was 5.7 for mortality in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Having an NLR value above 5.7 was found to be associated with a 10.8 times higher mortality rate than an NLR value below 5.7. Conclusions In patients presenting with APE, NLR value is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality and may be used for clinical risk classification. PMID:26925123

  7. Pulmonary embolism due to exogenous estrogen intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Caner; Carus, Murat; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a relatively common clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism, which develops in relation to acute pulmonary arterial occlusion mostly caused by thrombi of the lower limbs. 29year old female admitted to emergency department with pulmonary thromboembolism due to an ingestion of 17 Diana 35 pills (2 mg cyproterone acetate and 0.035mg ethinyl estradiol) in a suicide attempt without any previously known predisposing factors. After thrombolytic therapy, the patient was discharged with oral warfarin treatment. We know that exogenous estrogen increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in therapeutic use. It should be kept in mind that even single ingestion of a single high-dose exogenous estrogen intake may induce pulmonary thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN BREAST CANCER: ETIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    I. D. Rozanov; E. A. Rozanova; E. I. Shirikov; A. S. Balkanov; L. E. Gaganov; E. A. Stepanova

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism in breast cancer is one of the causes of major deterioration of health status of the patients. Pulmonary artery occlusion is most often a  consequence of venous thromboembolism; this condition is referred to as "pulmonary thromboembolism". Significantly less common cause of occlusion of the pulmonary artery branches can be embolism by a  cluster of tumor cells, accompanied by development of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. This paper reviews data on the etiology ...

  9. Pulmonary MRA: Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artefact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schiebler, Mark L.; Motosugi, Utaroh; Francois, Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Reeder, Scott B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); Nagle, Scott K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Pediatrics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Truncation artefact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artefact from PE. Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. Of these, 48 (74 %) were artefacts and 17 (26 %) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artefacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE on both arterial-phase (26 % [range 12-58 %] vs. 85 % [range 53-91 %]) and delayed-phase MRA (26 % [range 11-55 %] vs. 77 % [range 47-89 %]), p < 0.0001 for both. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed a threshold value of 51 % (arterial phase) and 47 % signal drop (delayed phase) to differentiate between truncation artefact and PE with 100 % sensitivity and greater than 90 % specificity. Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artefact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary MRA: Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannas, Peter; Schiebler, Mark L; Motosugi, Utaroh; François, Christopher J; Reeder, Scott B; Nagle, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Truncation artifact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary MRA that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing the diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artifact from PE. Methods Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary CTA for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. Results A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. 48 (74%) of these were artifact and 17 (26%) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artifacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE at both arterial-phase (26% [range 12–58%] vs. 85% [range 53–91%]) and at delayed-phase MRA (26% [range 11–55%] vs. 77% [range 47–89%]), p90% specificity. Conclusion Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artifact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. PMID:24863886

  11. PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN BREAST CANCER: ETIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Rozanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism in breast cancer is one of the causes of major deterioration of health status of the patients. Pulmonary artery occlusion is most often a  consequence of venous thromboembolism; this condition is referred to as "pulmonary thromboembolism". Significantly less common cause of occlusion of the pulmonary artery branches can be embolism by a  cluster of tumor cells, accompanied by development of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. This paper reviews data on the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism in breast cancer, and approaches to its prevention and treatment.

  12. Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: Who Should Receive Thrombolytic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Hem; Natt, Bhupinder; Bime, Christian; Dill, Joshua; Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate management of pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction is uncertain. Recent guidelines have stressed the need for more data on the use of thrombolytic agents in the stable pulmonary embolism patient with right ventricular dysfunction. The objective of this study is to investigate the hypothesis that thrombolytic therapy in hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction is not associated with improved mortality. We did a retrospective analysis using multi-institutional observational data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes were used to identify the patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular dysfunction. In-hospital mortality was defined as the primary outcome of interest. Over the 4 years of the study period, 3668 patients with right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary embolism were found, of which 3253 patients were identified as having hemodynamically stable right-sided heart failure with pulmonary embolism. There was no significant difference in mortality between hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction who received thrombolytic agents compared with those who did not. When outcomes were assessed for patients with right ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic instability, a significant improvement in mortality was noted for patients with right ventricular dysfunction who received thrombolytic agents, which confirmed previous reports that thrombolytic therapy decreases mortality in pulmonary embolism patients who are hemodynamically unstable. Our data support the use of less aggressive treatment for stable pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction. These results argue against the reflexive use of thrombolytic agents in stable pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016

  13. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) and simple PESI (sPESI) are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events) in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15), PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17) and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41), with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14), 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51), respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16), 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21), and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38), respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916), 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415), and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978), 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388), and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0.845), 0

  14. Right Heart Thrombi Accompained with Pulmonary Embolism

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    Mustafa Çörtük

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Right sided heart thrombus (RSHT is rarely seen. It is generally detected during transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE examination or multislice thoracic computed tomographic scanning for pulmonary embolism (PE. Although RSHT and PE secondary to this situation is rare, mortality during the course of process is very high. We aim to aproach right cardiac trombus and determine the results of treatment. Method: In this study 25 patients hospital records were investigated retrospectively. The data obtained consisted of diagnostic methods, presence of shock state, treatments applied and results were assessed. Results: Th present study revealed that the 32% of patients had been admitted to hospital in shock state, hospital mortality rate was 24%, and this mortality rate was not affected by different treatment choices. Conclusion: The exact incidence of RSHT is unknown. It is reported that the probability of seeing a case suffering from RSHT during echocardiographic examination performed to diagnose the PE is 9%. RSHT may cause PE anytime and requires urgent treatment. In our study, we determined that the hospital mortaliy did not change with the type of given treatment and overall mortality was determined as 24%. There are no sufficient studies searching large series on RSHT in literature. Therefore, there is no agreement on treatment tecniques.

  15. Role of rheolytic thrombectomy in massive pulmonary embolism with contraindication to systemic thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamendi, Dabit; Bilodeau, Luc; Ibrahim, Reda; Noble, Stephane; Gallo, Richard; Lavoie-L'allier, Philippe; Gosselin, Gilbert; Deguise, Pierre; Ly, Hung; Tanguay, Jean-François; Doucet, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Mortality of massive pulmonary embolism remains exceedingly high despite thrombolytic therapy. Despite initial encouraging results, rheolytic thrombectomy has not been considered the first choice of treatment in the current European Guidelines for massive pulmonary embolism, even in cases of major contraindication to thrombolysis. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of rheolytic thrombectomy in the specific treatment of massive pulmonary embolism with contraindication to systemic thrombolytic therapy. Between January 2003 and April 2008 a total of 10 patients with massive pulmonary embolism referred for rheolytic thrombectomy were included. Clinical data including medical history, haemodynamic status, procedural characteristic, in-hospital complications and survival were collected. Seven patients survived after undergoing the procedure, three patients died in during their initial hospitalisation however, two of these deaths were not attributable to the pulmonary embolism or the procedure. Rheolytic thrombectomy resulted in reduction of mean pulmonary artery pressures from 34.6+/-13.1 mmHg to 26.9+/-8.2 mmHg immediately following the procedure. Additionally, the Miller index improved from 22.4+/-2.8 to 9.8+/-2.7. There were no periprocedural bleeding complications associated with the procedure. Rheolytic thrombectomy might be an effective and safe treatment for massive pulmonary embolism when systemic thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated. These data form the basis for further clinical investigation of this novel therapy among patients with massive pulmonary embolism.

  16. Spontaneous, resolving S1Q3T3 in pulmonary embolism: A case report and literature review on prognostic value of electrocardiography score for pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygan, Lukasz D; Weizberg, Moshe; Hahn, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiography findings in patients with pulmonary embolism have been investigated since 1935. As medicine has evolved, more effective modalities have surpassed the electrocardiogram in diagnostic utility. Despite the advent of these other modalities, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains elusive and the prognosis is variable amongst each clinical presentation of its pathology. After presenting a case of a resolving S1Q3T3 in subsequent electrocardiogram findings of a patient with pulmonary embolism, this literature review will provide information on a 21-point electrocardiogram scoring system that helps the emergency physician stratify the risk of a patient with an acute presentation of pulmonary embolism. Why should emergency care staff be aware of this? Given the time-sensitive nature of diagnosis and appropriate treatment, Electrocardiogram continues to be a tool in the assessment of patients with a clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism. Based on the information provided, 21-point electrocardiogram score has been shown to have strong usefulness in assessing prognosis of patients presenting with acute pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Follow-up CT pulmonary angiograms in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Patrick G; Hourmouzis, Zak N; Hourmouzis, Nina P; Schweiss, Robert E; Bach, Jennifer A; Kazan, Viviane M; Kakish, Edward J; Keyes, Daniel C; Hughes, Mary J

    2016-10-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) angiography is associated with a non-negligible lifetime attributable risk of cancer. The risk is considerably greater for women and younger patients. Recognizing that there are risks from radiation, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the frequency of follow-up CT angiograms in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥18 years with acute pulmonary embolism seen in three emergency departments from January 2013 to December 2014. Records of all patients were reviewed for at least 14 months. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by CT angiography in 600 patients. At least one follow-up CT angiogram in 1 year was obtained in 141 of 600 (23.5 %). Two follow-ups in 1 year were obtained in 40 patients (6.7 %), 3 follow-ups were obtained in 15 patients (2.5 %), and 4 follow-ups were obtained in 3 patients (0.5 %). Among young women (aged ≤29 years) with pulmonary embolism, 10 of 21 (47.6 %) had at least 1 follow-up and 4 of 21 (19.0 %) had 2 or more follow-ups in 1 year. Among all patients, recurrent pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 15 of 141 (10.6 %) on the first follow-up CT angiogram and in 6 of 40 (15.0 %) on the second follow-up. Follow-up CT angiograms were obtained in a significant proportion of patients with pulmonary embolism, including young women, the group with the highest risk. Alternative options might be considered to reduce the hazard of radiation-induced cancer, particularly in young women.

  18. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT imaging of cardiovascular effects of pulmonary embolism: What the radiologists need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboul-fotouh E. Mourad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with pulmonary embolism have high mortality and morbidity rate due to right heart failure and circulatory collapse leading to sudden death. Multi-detector computed tomography MDCT can efficiently evaluate the cardiovascular factors related to pulmonary embolism. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT in differentiation of between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism groups depending on the associated cardiovascular parameters and create a simple reporting system. Patients & methods: Prospective study contained 145 patients diagnosed clinically pulmonary embolism. All patients were examined by combined electrocardiographically gated computed tomography pulmonary angiography-computed tomography venography (ECG-CTPA-CTV using certain imaging criteria in a systematic manner. Results: Our study revealed 95 and 55 non-severe and severe pulmonary embolism groups respectively. Many cardiovascular parameters related to pulmonary embolism shows significant p value and can differentiate between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism patients include pulmonary artery diameter, intraventricular septum flattening, bowing, superior vena cava and Azygos vein diameters, right and left ventricular diameters. Conclusion: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT can be valuable to assess the severity of pulmonary embolism using the related cardiovascular parameters and leading the management strategy aim for best outcome. Keywords: Pulmonary embolism, MDCT, Cardiovascular, Computed tomography venography

  19. Incidence of Pleural Effusion in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Cui, Ai; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Li, Man; Teng, Lei-Lei; Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: No data on the incidence of pleural effusion (PE) in Chinese patients with pulmonary embolism are available to date. The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of PE in a Chinese population of patients with pulmonary embolism. Methods: This was a retrospective observational single-center study. All data of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) performed over 6-year period on adult patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism were analyzed. Results: From January 2008 until December 2013, PE was identified in 423 of 3141 patients (13.5%) with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism who underwent CTPA. The incidence of PE in patients with pulmonary embolism (19.9%) was significantly higher than in those without embolism (9.4%) (P pulmonary embolism patients were small to moderate and were unilateral. The locations of emboli and the numbers of arteries involved, CT pulmonary obstruction index, and parenchymal abnormalities at CT were not associated with the development of PE. Conclusions: PEs are present in about one fifth of a Chinese population of patients with pulmonary embolism, which are usually small, unilateral, and unsuitable for diagnostic thoracentesis. PMID:25881595

  20. Central Versus Peripheral Pulmonary Embolism: Analysis of the Impact on the Physiological Parameters and Long-term Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Martinez, José Luis; Anniccherico Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Urbieta Echezarreta, Miren Aranzazu; García, Ione Villar; Álvaro, Jorge Rojo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies aimed at assessing whether the emboli lodged in the central pulmonary arteries carry a worse prognosis than more peripheral emboli have yielded controversial results. Aims: To explore the impact on survival and long-term prognosis of central pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism by means of computed tomography (CT) angiography were evaluated at episode index and traced through the computed system of clinical recording and following-up. Central pulmonary embolism was diagnosed when thrombi were seen in the trunk or in the main pulmonary arteries and peripheral pulmonary embolism when segmental or subsegmental arteries were affected. Results: A total of 530 consecutive patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism were evaluated; 255 patients had central pulmonary embolism and 275 patients had segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Patients with central pulmonary embolism were older, had higher plasma levels of N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), troponin I, D-dimer, alveolar-arterial gradient, and shock index (P pulmonary embolism had an all-cause mortality of 40% while patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE) had an overall mortality of 27% and odds ratio of 1.81 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.16-1.9]. Survival was lower in patients with central PE than in patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism, even after avoiding confounders (P = .018). Conclusions: Apart from a greater impact on hemodynamics, gas exchange, and right ventricular dysfunction, central pulmonary embolism associates a shorter survival and an increased long-term mortality. PMID:27114970

  1. Using Topological Data Analysis for diagnosis pulmonary embolism

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    Rucco, Matteo; Herman, Damir; Petrossian, Tanya; Merelli, Emanuela; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is a common and potentially lethal condition. Most patients die within the first few hours from the event. Despite diagnostic advances, delays and underdiagnosis in PE are common.To increase the diagnostic performance in PE, current diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism usually starts with the assessment of clinical pretest probability using plasma d-Dimer measurement and clinical prediction rules. The most validated and widely used clinical decision rules are the Wells and Geneva Revised scores. We aimed to develop a new clinical prediction rule (CPR) for PE based on topological data analysis and artificial neural network. Filter or wrapper methods for features reduction cannot be applied to our dataset: the application of these algorithms can only be performed on datasets without missing data. Instead, we applied Topological data analysis (TDA) to overcome the hurdle of processing datasets with null values missing data. A topological network was devel...

  2. Mechanical Circulatory Support for High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Mahir; Blank, Nimrod; Shemesh, Adi; Pahuja, Mohit; Kaki, Amir; Mohamad, Tamam; Schreiber, Theodore; Giri, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices have a role in treating high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism with cardiogenic shock. Mechanical circulatory device selection should be made based on center experience and device-specific features. All current devices are effective in decreasing right arterial pressure and providing circulatory support of 4 to 5 L/min. The pulmonary artery pulsatility index may prove to be an unreliable method to assess right ventricular function. Careful clinical evaluation on an individual patient basis should determine the need for MCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical Management of Pulmonary Embolism: Beyond Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nancy; Wang, Tisha; Friedman, Oren; Barjaktarevic, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Although diagnosis, anticoagulation, and interventional clot-burden reduction strategies represent the focus of clinical research and care in PE, appropriate risk stratification and supportive care are crucial to ensure good outcomes. In this chapter, we will discuss the medical management of PE from the time of presentation to discharge, focusing on the critical care of acute right ventricular failure, anticoagulation of special patient populations, and appropriate follow-up testing after acute PE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Interventional radiology treatment for pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Miguel A; Guirola, Jose A; Lahuerta, Celia; Serrano, Carolina; Figueredo, Ana L; Kuo, William T

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an illness that has a potentially life-threatening condition that affects a large percentage of the global population. VTE with pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third leading cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. In the first three months after an acute PE, there is an estimated 15% mortality among submassive PE, and 68% mortality in massive PE. Current guidelines suggest fibrinolytic therapy regarding the clinical severity, however some studies suggest a more aggressive treatment approach. This review will summarize the available endovascular treatments and the different techniques with its indications and outcomes. PMID:28794825

  5. Massive Pulmonary Embolism after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a rare complication that may result in death after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Although pulmonary embolism mortality rates decreased with early diagnosis and treatment, delays in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is commonly seen even with advanced diagnostic methods. Even though it is rare, the risk of pulmonary embolism as well as thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis are encountered in patients undergoing spinal surgery. In this case presentation, we discussed the case of pulmonary embolism determined in a young patient developing unconsciousness and then cardiopulmonary arrest following mobilization at the postoperative 12th hour after a lumbar spinal fusion surgery and determined to have severe right ventricular enlargement, leftward deviation of the interatrial septum, severe tricuspid failure at the bedside echocardiography and who was discharged after thrombolytic therapy.

  6. Imaging for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mens, Thijs E; Scheres, Luuk Jj; de Jong, Paulien G; Leeflang, Mariska Mg; Nijkeuter, Mathilde; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2017-01-26

    Pulmonary embolism is a leading cause of pregnancy-related death. An accurate diagnosis in pregnant patients is crucial to prevent untreated pulmonary embolism as well as unnecessary anticoagulant treatment and future preventive measures. Applied imaging techniques might perform differently in these younger patients with less comorbidity and altered physiology, who largely have been excluded from diagnostic studies. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), lung scintigraphy and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE and Embase until July 2015. We used included studies as seeds in citations searches and in 'find similar' functions and searched reference lists. We approached experts in the field to help us identify non-indexed studies. We included consecutive series of pregnant patients suspected of pulmonary embolism who had undergone one of the index tests (computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography, lung scintigraphy or MRA) and clinical follow-up or pulmonary angiography as a reference test. Two review authors performed data extraction and quality assessment. We contacted investigators of potentially eligible studies to obtain missing information. In the primary analysis, we regarded inconclusive index test results as a negative reference test, and treatment for pulmonary embolism after an inconclusive index test as a positive reference test. We included 11 studies (four CTPA, five lung scintigraphy, two both) with a total of 695 CTPA and 665 lung scintigraphy results. Lung scintigraphy was applied by different techniques. No MRA studies matched our inclusion criteria.Overall, risk of bias and concerns regarding applicability were high in all studies as judged in light of the review research question, as was heterogeneity in study methods. We did not undertake meta-analysis. All studies used clinical follow-up as a reference standard

  7. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonthrombotic Pulmonary Artery Embolism: Imaging Findings and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Emre; Balci, Sinan; Atceken, Zeynep; Akpinar, Erhan; Ariyurek, Orhan Macit

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the imaging findings encountered in the setting of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism refers to a spectrum of clinical and radiologic disorders caused by embolization of the pulmonary artery vasculature by various cell types, microorganism, and foreign bodies. Awareness of the imaging and clinical features of the nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism may facilitate prompt diagnosis.

  9. Prevalence of venous thrombo-embolism in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kamel

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: VTE appeared to be a common problem in COPD patients with exacerbations. The role of CTPA is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. DVT of lower limbs was not essential in all cases of proven pulmonary embolism. Serum D-dimer, Wells criteria and Geneva score are useful bedside criteria that may help to assess the occurrence of VTE in such patients.

  10. Pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction; Lungenembolie und Lungeninfarkt - pathologische Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.M.; Mueller, A.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie]|[Bochum Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum

    1998-03-01

    Radiological and nuclear medical evaluation of pulmonary embolisms and their consequences is often problematic, since parenchymal alterations in the form of possible pulmonary infarctions occur in only 10-15% after vessel obliteration. Small embolisms rather frequently cause hemorrhagic pulmonary infarctions, which can clinically be demonstrated by radiological and nuclear medical methods, after obliteration of the pre-capillary arterio-arterial anastomoses type I. In pre-existing chronic lung diseases with often markedly developed bronchial artery systems and additional anastomoses hemorrhagic pulmonary infarctions are extremely rare. Thus, today, radiological and nuclear medical studies, such as spiral computer scanning, have to rely largely on the results of thrombembolic vessel obstruction and transitory perfusion deficits and less on parenchymal infiltration patterns. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die radiologischen und nuklearmedizinischen Begutachtungen von Lungenembolien und deren Folgen sind oft problematisch, weil Parenchymveraenderungen in Form moeglicher Lungeninfarkte in nur 10-15% nach der Gefaessverlegung entstehen. Kleine Embolien fuehren haeufiger zu haemorrhagischen Lungeninfarkten, die mit radiologischen und nukelarmedizinischen Verfahren fassbar werden. Bei vorbestehenden chronischen Lungenerkrankungen mit meist verstaerkt ausgebautem Bronchialartheriensystem und zusaetzlichen Anatomosen sind haemorrhagische Lungeninfarkte besonders selten. Die radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik muss sich daher heute nach vielversprechenden Studien, z.B. unter Einsatz der Spiralcomputertomographie, wesentlich auf die Befunde der thrombembolischen Gefaessobstruktion und transitorische Perfusionsausfaelle und weniger auf parenchymatoese Infiltratmuster stuetzen. (orig./MG)

  11. Diagnostic radialogy of pulmonary embolism. Radiologische Diagnostik der Lungenembolie

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    Gross-Fengels, W. (Koeln Univ., Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik (Germany))

    1991-10-01

    The prognosis of accute pulmonary embolism is largely determined by an early and valid diagnosis. Pulmonary angiography, currently most frequently performed by a DSA, ranks third in the range of available diagnostic method, after X-ray imaging of the thorax, and perfusion scintiscanning. The review article discusses the radiological aspects involved together with aspects of the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism. (orig.).

  12. Added value of lung perfused blood volume images using dual-energy CT for assessment of acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kunihiro, Yoshie [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kudomi, Shohei; Yonezawa, Teppei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate the added value of lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) using dual-energy CT for the evaluation of intrapulmonary clot (IPC) in patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Eighty-three patients suspected of having PE who underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) using a dual-energy technique were enrolled in this study. Two radiologists who were blinded retrospectively and independently reviewed CTPA images alone and the combined images with color-coded LPBV over a 4-week interval, and two separate sessions were performed with a one-month interval. Inter- and intraobserver variability and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated for each reviewer with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Values for inter- and intraobserver agreement, respectively, were better for CTPA combined with LPBV (ICC = 0.847 and 0.937) than CTPA alone (ICC = 0.748 and 0.861). For both readers, diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve [A{sub z}]) were also superior, when CTPA alone (A{sub z} = 0.888 [reader 1] and 0.912 [reader 2]) was compared with that after the combination with LPBV images (A{sub z} = 0.966 [reader 1] and 0.959 [reader 2]) (p < 0.001). However, A{sub z} values of both images might not have significant difference in statistics, because A{sub z} value of CTPA alone was high and 95% confidence intervals overlapped in both images. Conclusion: Addition of dual-energy perfusion CT to CTPA improves detection of peripheral IPCs with better interobserver agreement.

  13. Severity assessment of pulmonary embolism using dual energy CT - correlation of a pulmonary perfusion defect score with clinical and morphological parameters of blood oxygenation and right ventricular failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Sven F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie der LMU Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Ashoori, Nima; Bamberg, Fabian; Sommer, Wieland H.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.; Maxien, Daniel; Helck, Andreas D.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Leuchte, Hanno; Becker, Alexander [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Medicine I, Muenchen (Germany); Behr, Juergen [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Medicine I, Muenchen (Germany); Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitaetsklinikum Bergmannsheil GmbH Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Department of Medicine III, Bochum (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    To correlate a Dual Energy (DE)-based visual perfusion defect scoring system with established CT-based and clinical parameters of pulmonary embolism (PE) severity. In 63 PE patients, DE perfusion maps were visually scored for perfusion defects (P-score). Vascular obstruction was quantified using the Mastora score. Both scores were correlated with short-axis diameters of the right and left ventricle, their ratio (RV/LV ratio), width of the pulmonary trunk, a number of clinical parameters and each other. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Times to generate both scores were recorded. After univariate and multivariate analysis, a significant (p < 0.05) correlation with the P-score was shown for the Mastora score (r = 0.65), RV/LV ratio (r = 0.47), width of the pulmonary trunk (r = 0.26), troponin I (r = 0.43) and PaO{sub 2} (r = -0.50). For the left ventricular diameter, only univariate analysis showed a significant correlation. Mastora score correlated significantly with RV/LV ratio (r = 0.36), width of the pulmonary trunk (r = 0.27), PaO{sub 2} (r = -0.41) and troponin I (r = 0.37). Mean time for generating the P-score was significantly shorter than for the Mastora score. A DE-based P-score correlates with a number of parameters of PE severity. It might be easier and faster to perform than some traditional CT scoring methods for vascular obstruction. (orig.)

  14. Cancer patients and characteristics of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenberg, U.; Paul, T. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Feuersenger, A. [Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Goyen, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Kroeger, K. [Department of Angiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany)], E-mail: knut.kroeger@uk-essen.de

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To check the hypothesis that cancer patients suffer from extended pulmonary embolism (PE) more frequently than patients without cancer we analysed PEs proved by computed tomography (CT)-imaging. Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive CT scans at the University Hospital of Essen from March 2002 until December 2004 which proved a definite case of pulmonary embolism were retrospectively reviewed (79 men, 71 women; mean age 57 {+-} 15 years). Underlying disease and blood parameters were included (haemoglobin, haematocrit, fibrinogen and total protein, if determined within 48 h before the CT scans). Results: Patients with malignant disease were older (59 {+-} 12 years vs. 54 {+-} 19 years, p = 0.05) and tend to have a higher rate of central PEs (52% vs. 34%, p = 0.08) than patients without malignancies. The odds of a central PE in cancer patients was about twice as high as in patients without a malignant disease (Odds ratio: 2.08, 95%-confidence interval: 1.06-4.10; age-adjusted Odds ratio 1.88, 95%-confidence interval: 0.92-3.84). Additional adjustment for the clinical information dyspnoea, inhospital patient and clinically expected PE did not deteriorate the odds. Thrombus density determined in patients with central PE only shows a trend towards a lower density in patients with malignant disease (52 {+-} 13 HE vs. 45 {+-} 15 HE, p = 0.13). There is no statistical evidence that thrombus density is related to one of the blood parameters or even blood density measured in the pulmonary artery. Conclusion: Although this is a retrospective study including a small number of patients it shows that cancer patients are at a higher risk for central PE than patients without cancer. Characteristics of the intrapulmonal thrombus in cancer and non-cancer patients seem to be different.

  15. Is the prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis really different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, F.; Karemaker, R.; Kuijer, P. M.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested a lower prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism, as compared to patients with deep leg vein thrombosis. We studied unselected patients with pulmonary embolism, in whom we also assessed the presence of deep vein thrombosis

  16. Small pulmonary artery defects are not reliable indicators of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wallace T; Marinari, Lawrence A; Barbosa, Eduardo; Litt, Harold I; Schmitt, James E; Mahne, Anton; Lee, Victor; Akers, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the rate of agreement of pulmonary embolism diagnosis in computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiogram studies and to evaluate the rate of inaccurate interpretations in the community hospital setting. Using the keywords "pulmonary embolism/embolus/emboli," the radiology information system was searched for CT pulmonary angiograms performed over a 3-year period at three U.S. community hospitals. Studies containing probable or definite pulmonary emboli were independently reviewed by four subspecialty thoracic radiologists. Agreement about the presence of pulmonary embolism progressively decreased with decreasing diameter of pulmonary vascular lesions (P pulmonary embolism of subsegmental lesions (P pulmonary embolism diagnosis of subsegmental and/or small pulmonary arterial defects. The probability of a false-positive diagnosis and indeterminate examinations progressively increased with: (1) more peripheral location of the lesion, (2) decreased size (short-axis diameter) of the lesion, and (3) diminishing quality of the CT examination. Forty-eight of 177 (27%) of subsegmental vascular defects identified by community radiologists were deemed indeterminate, and 27 of 177 (15%) of subsegmental vascular defects were judged to be false positive for pulmonary embolism by the consensus diagnosis. Fifty-four of 274 (20%) vascular defects with short axis less than 6 mm were indeterminate for pulmonary embolism, and 37 of 274 (14%) of vascular defects with short axis less than 6 mm were false positive for pulmonary embolism. Eleven of 13 (85%) of vascular lesions identified as pulmonary emboli on the lowest-quality CT examinations were false positive or indeterminate for pulmonary embolism. False-positive examinations were most often due to respiratory motion artifact (19/38, 50%). There is relatively poor interobserver agreement for subsegmental and/or small pulmonary artery defects, especially in CT pulmonary angiograms degraded by technical artifacts. These

  17. Advanced Cardiopulmonary Support for Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Oren; Horowitz, James M; Ramzy, Danny

    2017-09-01

    Management of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of PE, options for rapid clot reduction, critical care interventions, and advanced cardiopulmonary support. PE can lead to rapid respiratory and hemodynamic collapse via a complex sequence of events leading to acute right ventricular failure. Importantly, reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance must be accomplished either by systemic thrombolytics, catheter directed thrombolytics, endovascular clot extraction, or surgical embolectomy. There are important advances in these techniques all of which have a niche role in the cardiopulmonary stabilization of critically ill patient with PE. Critical care support surrounding the above interventions is necessary. Maintenance of systemic perfusion and cardiac output may require careful titration of vasopressors, inotropes, and preload. Extreme caution should be taken with approach to intubation and positive pressure ventilation. A hemodynamically neutral induction with preparations for circulatory collapse should be the goal. Once intubated, the effect of positive pressure on pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular hemodynamics is necessary. Veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation plays an increasingly important role in the stabilization of the hemodynamically collapsed patient who either has a contraindication to systemic lytics, failed systemic lytics, or requires a bridge to surgical or catheter embolectomy. Veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation has also been used alone to stabilize the circulation until hemodynamics normalize on anticoagulation and has also been used in tenuous patient as a safety net for endovascular procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  19. Isolated Pulmonary Embolism following Shoulder Arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H. Goldhaber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE following shoulder arthroscopy is a rare complication. We present a unique case report of a 43-year-old right-hand dominant female who developed a PE 41 days postoperatively with no associated upper or lower extremity DVT. The patient had minimal preoperative and intraoperative risk factors. Additionally, she had no thromboembolic symptoms postoperatively until 41 days following surgery when she developed sudden right-hand swelling, labored breathing, and abdominal pain. A stat pulmonary computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest revealed an acute PE in the right lower lobe, and subsequent extremity ultrasounds showed no upper or lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. After a thorough review of the literature, we present the first documented isolated PE following shoulder arthroscopy. Although rare, sudden development of an isolated PE is possible, and symptoms such as sudden hand swelling, trouble breathing, and systemic symptoms should be evaluated aggressively with a pulmonary CT angiogram given the fact that an extremity ultrasound may be negative for deep vein thrombosis.

  20. [Secondary pulmonary embolism to right atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Besó, L; Zúñiga Cedó, E

    2013-10-01

    A case of pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to atrial myxoma right. The myxoma is a primary cardiac tumor, namely, has his origin in the cardiac tissue. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, including myxomas, the most common type. Have a predilection for females and the most useful tool for diagnosis is echocardiography. About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart and rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas in some sometimes associated with tricuspid stenosis and atrial fibrillation. The most common clinical manifestations include symptoms of this neoplasm constitutional, and embolic phenomena resulting from the obstruction to the flow intracavitary. The treatment of this condition is surgical. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Time Trends in Pulmonary Embolism in the United States: Evidence of Overdiagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) may improve detection of life-threatening pulmonary embolism. But this sensitive test may have a downside: overdiagnosis and overtreatment (finding clinically unimportant emboli and exposing patients to harms from unnecessary treatment). Methods To assess the impact of CTPA on national pulmonary embolism incidence, mortality, and treatment complications, we conducted a time trend analysis using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Multiple Cause-of-Death databases. We compared age-adjusted incidence, mortality, and treatment complications (in-hospital gastrointestinal or intracranial hemorrhage or secondary thrombocytopenia) of pulmonary embolism among United States adults before (1993–1998) and after (1998–2006) CTPA was introduced. Results Pulmonary embolism incidence was unchanged before CTPA (p=0.63), but increased substantially after CTPA (81% increase: from 62.1 to 112.3 per 100,000, pPulmonary embolism mortality decreased during both periods: more so before CTPA (8% reduction: from 13.4 to 12.3 per 100,000, ppulmonary embolism: pre-CTPA, the complication rate was stable (p=0.24), but post-CTPA it increased by 71% (from 3.1 to 5.3 per 100,000, p<0.001). Conclusions The introduction of CTPA was associated with changes consistent with overdiagnosis: rising incidence, minimal change in mortality, and lower case-fatality. Better technology allows us to diagnose more emboli, but to minimize harms of overdiagnosis we must learn which ones matter. PMID:21555660

  2. CT Pulmonary Angiography and Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enden, T.; Kloew, N.E. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Cardiovascular Radiology

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use and quality of CT pulmonary angiography in our department, and to relate the findings to clinical parameters and diagnoses. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 324 consecutive patients referred to CT pulmonary angiography with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). From the medical records we registered clinical parameters, blood gases, D-dimer, risk factors and the results of other relevant imaging studies. Results: 55 patients (17%) had PE detected on CT. 39 had bilateral PE, and 8 patients had isolated peripheral PE. 87% of the examinations showing PE had satisfactory filling of contrast material including the segmental pulmonary arteries, and 60% of the subsegmental arteries. D-dimer test was performed in 209 patients, 85% were positive. A negative D-dimer ruled out PE detected at CT. Dyspnea and concurrent symptoms or detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), contraceptive pills and former venous thromboembolism (VTE) were associated with PE. The presence of only one clinical parameter indicated a negative PE diagnosis (p < 0.017), whereas two or more suggested a positive PE diagnosis (p < 0.002). CT also detected various ancillary findings such as consolidation, pleural effusion, nodule or tumor in nearly half of the patients; however, there was no association with the PE diagnosis. Conclusion: The quality of CT pulmonary angiography was satisfactory as a first-line imaging of PE. CT also showed additional pathology of importance in the chest. Our study confirmed that a negative D-dimer ruled out clinically suspected VTE.

  3. [Bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism without associated hypoxemia. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, M; Chtara, K; Turki, O; Kammoun, M M; Bouaziz, W; Bouaziz, M

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a classic complication in intensive care. It is characterized by hypoxemia secondary to perturbed ventilation/perfusion ratios. We report a case of proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism that occurred without associated hypoxemia. A spiral computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to explore unexplained fever in a patient with a negative infectious investigation. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the absence of hypoxemia in this patient. A 43-year-old patient with no significant pathological history was admitted to intensive care for the management of multiple injuries following a road accident. During resuscitation, the patient developed a proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism without signs of hypertension of the pulmonary artery or associated hypoxemia. The patient improved under treatment. This case shows that bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism may be associated with normal gas exchange. The absence of hypoxemia could be explained by the bilateral nature of the pulmonary embolism that led to balanced ventilation/perfusion ratios on both sides. Furthermore, bronchoconstriction was bilateral, explaining the maintenance of a stable ventilation/perfusion ratio on both sides. The presence of unexplained fever in a victim of multiple trauma, despite the absence of hypoxemia, suggests the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors determining altered perfusion after acute pulmonary embolism assessed by quantified single-photon emission computed tomography-perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysman, Marc; Everaert, Hendrik; Vincken, Walter

    2017-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to analyze the evolution of perfusion (Q)-defects in patients treated for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), correlation with baseline parameters and evaluation of recurrence risk. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective observational cohort study in symptomatic normotensive PE. Comparison of the ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q-SPECT) acquired at baseline with a quantified SPECT (Q-SPECT) repeated at 1 week and 6 months. The Q-defect extent (percentage of total lung volume affected) was measured semiquantitatively. Data collected at baseline were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), history of previous venous thromboembolism (HVTE), Charlson's Comorbidity Score (CcS), plasma troponin-T and D-dimer levels, PE Severity Index, and tricuspid regurgitation jet (TRJ) velocity. RESULTS: Forty-six patients (22 men/24 women, mean age 61.7 years (± standard deviation 16.3)) completed the study. At 1 week, 13/46 (28.3 %) and at 6 months 22/46 (47.8%) patients had completely normalized Q-SPECT. Persistence of Q-defects was more frequent in female patients in univariate and multivariate analysis. We found no correlation between the persistence of Q-defects on Q-SPECT and HVTE, BMI, plasma troponin-T, and CcS. However, lower TRJ and younger age were statistically significantly linked to normalization of Q-scans after 6 months of treatment only in univariate analysis. There is no difference in the frequency of recurrent PE in relation to the persistence of Q-defects. CONCLUSION: Acute PE patients of female, older age, and higher TRJ in univariate analysis and patients of female in multivariate analysis seem to have a higher risk of persistent Q-defects after 6 months treatment. The presence of residual Q-abnormalities at 6 months was not associated with an increased risk for recurrent PE. PMID:28197219

  5. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, T. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)], e-mail: tilo.niemann@usb.ch; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Roser, H. W. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Remy-Jardin, M. [Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE.

  6. Persistent tachypnea in children: keep pulmonary embolism in mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen, C. H.; Heyboer, H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Teeuw, R.; Aronson, D. C.; Peters, M.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tachypnea in children is associated with respiratory disorders and nonrespiratory disorders such as cardiac disease, metabolic acidosis, fever, pain, and anxiety. Pulmonary embolism is seldom considered by pediatricians as a cause of tachypnea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three children of

  7. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Mimics Acute Coronary Syndrome in Older Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a fatal disease and an often missed diagnosis. There are no specific symptoms or signs. Accurate diagnosis followed by effective therapy can reduce mortality. We report on a 67-year-old man who underwent lumbar laminectomy and developed an acute anterior compressive-like chest pain and jaw numbness rather than dyspnea on the fifth postoperative day. Owing to refractory chest pain with suspicious posterior myocardial infarction or unstable angina on surface electrocardiogram, the patient received emergency coronary catheterization, which demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Further investigation provided a final diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary embolism with simultaneous recent neuro-surgery was a therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of postoperative hemorrhage threatening neurologic function. After treatment with enoxaparin and close monitoring of his neurologic condition, his symptoms were eliminated. Clinicians must keep in mind a differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a postoperative high-risk patient.

  8. Radiologic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism; Radiologische Diagostik der Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Ley, S.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie E010

    2004-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of venous thromboembolism. Despite numerous modern diagnostic methods, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains problematic, especially in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. In this educational review, current diagnostic methods and their role in the diagnostic workup of pulmonary embolism will be discussed. In addition, practical guidelines are given for the diagnostic cascade contingent on the clinical probability for pulmonary embolism. (orig.) [German] Die akute Lungenembolie ist eine haeufige und potenziell lebensbedrohliche Komplikation der tiefen Venenthrombose. Die Diagnose der akuten Lungenembolie bleibt trotz moderner diagnostischer Verfahren insbesondere aufgrund der unspezifischen klinischen Symptomatik problematisch. Im folgenden Artikel werden die gaengigen diagnostischen Methoden und deren Stellenwert bei der Diagnostik der akuten Lungenembolie diskutiert. Weiterhin werden praktische Richtlinien fuer das diagnostische Vorgehen gegeben - je nachdem wie wahrscheinlich eine Lungenembolie klinisch ist. (orig.)

  9. Acute pulmonary embolism: A review | Saleh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Medline and Embase databases. Key words employed were: pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thrombophilia. Information was also sourced from the British Thoracic Society and The ...

  10. S WAVE IN PULMONARY EMBOLISM, A NEW ECG SIGN TO AID THROMBOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas John

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a devastating disease that often leads to mortality . Previous investigators have found that thrombolysis reduces mortality in men but not significantly in women with pulmonary embolism. Many of the previous studies are with tenecteplase and alteplase. Here, we describe intra - venous thrombolysis with streptokinase in seven patients with pulmonary embolism who survived including two women. Further, we have one patient who had a new onset of S wave in lead I which subsequently disappeared after embolectomy. We also comment on the usefulness of shock sign in 2 deciding on thrombolysis .We propose a new sign for noninvasive assessment of need for thrombolysis in pulmonary embolism. New onset S wave in Lead I in pulmonary embolism can be used as a new sign for deciding the need for thrombolysis. When added to the shock sign it can be used in the emergency deparment to decide the need for thrombolysis. Further, there are no clear end points as to when to stop thrombolysis. In all 4 patients we switched to heparin when spontaneous bleeding or oozing started. In all 4 patients subsequent CT scans showed that the patient has mild to moderate resolution of the pulmonary embolism and patients remained stable and have been discharged and are under regular follow up. Hence we propose that bleeding can be used as an end point for thrombolysis in acute pulmonary embolism. We also describe a patient who had new onset S wave that disappeared after successful pulmonary embolectomy. Probably, the S wave is a marker of main pulmonary artery branch occlusions.

  11. Compression ultrasonography of the leg veins in patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism: is a more extensive assessment of compressibility useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mac Gillavry, M. R.; Sanson, B. J.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    We performed a multi-center study in consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a two-point compression ultrasonography (only the common femoral vein and popliteal vein) with an extensive examination of compressibility (from the common femoral vein

  12. Thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D R; Levine, M N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether thrombolytic therapy reduces the rate of death or complications in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and whether a particular thrombolytic regimen is more effective than others. DATA SOURCES: The key words "fibrinolytic agents," "plasminogen activators," "streptokinase," "urokinase" and "pulmonary embolism" were used to search MEDLINE for relevant articles in English; the bibliographies of these articles were reviewed for additional publications. STUDY SE...

  13. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  14. Ambulatory vital signs in the workup of pulmonary embolism using a standardized 3-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Qamar; Perry, Jeffrey J; Stiell, Ian G; Mohapatra, Subhra; Alsadoon, Abdulaziz; Rodger, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosing pulmonary embolism can be difficult given its highly variable clinical presentation. Our objective was to determine whether a decrease in oxygen saturation or an increase in heart rate while ambulating could be used as an objective tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. This was a two-site tertiary-care-centre prospective cohort study that enrolled adult emergency department or thrombosis clinic patients with suspected or newly confirmed pulmonary embolism. Patients were asked to participate in a standardized 3-minute walk test, which assessed ambulatory heart rate and ambulatory oxygen saturation. The primary outcome was pulmonary embolism. We enrolled 114 patients, including 30 with pulmonary embolism (26.3%). A ≥2% absolute decrease in ambulatory oxygen saturation and an ambulatory change in heart rate >10 beats per minute (BPM) were significantly associated with pulmonary embolism. An ambulatory heart rate change of >10 BPM had a sensitivity of 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.3 to 99.4) and a specificity of 31.0% (95% CI 22.1 to 45.0) for pulmonary embolism. A ≥2% absolute decrease ambulatory oxygen saturation had a sensitivity of 80.2% (95% CI 62.7 to 90.5) and a specificity of 39.3% (95% CI 29.5 to 50.0) for pulmonary embolism. The combination of both variables yielded a sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI 87.0 to 100.0) and a specificity of 11.0% (95% CI 6.6 to 21.0). In summary, our study found that an ambulatory heart rate change of >10 BPM or a ≥2% absolute decrease in ambulatory oxygen saturation from baseline during a standardized 3-minute walk test are highly correlated with pulmonary embolism. Although the findings appear promising, neither of these variables can currently be recommended as a screening tool for pulmonary embolism until larger prospective studies examine their performance either alone or with pre-existing rules.

  15. Thrombolysis for acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang-yuan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Miao; Ding, Mei; Liu, Guo-hui; Tong, Ya-liang; Yang, Chun-yan; Meng, Fan-bo

    2015-11-01

    The use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism is controversial. To compare with anticoagulation alone, no analysis before has determined whether thrombolytic therapy is associated with improved survival or lower incidence of adverse clinical outcomes for intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. This meta-analysis was performed to assess mortality benefits, bleeding and recurrent pulmonary embolism risks associated with thrombolytic therapy compared with anticoagulation in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. The Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized clinical trials comparing thrombolytic therapy with anticoagulation in intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism patients (in which the mortality data were reported) from inception to August 5, 2014. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and major bleeding. Secondary outcomes were recurrent pulmonary embolism and minor bleeding. The pooled relative risk (RR), Mantel-Haenszel corresponding method and fixed-effect model were used to estimate the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy with 95% confidence intervals. Eight clinical randomized controlled trials involving 1755 patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism were included. Patients treated with thrombolytics presented lower mortality than patients in the anticoagulation cohort (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.97; 1.39% [12/866] vs. 2.92% [26/889]). Compared with anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy was associated with a higher risk of major (RR, 3.35; 95% CI, 2.03-5.54; 7.80% [64/820] vs. 2.28% [19/834]) and minor (RR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.77-4.84; 32.78% [197/601] vs. 8.94% [53/593]) bleeding. Furthermore, thrombolytic therapy was associated with a lower incidence of recurrent pulmonary embolism (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.73; 0.73% [6/826] vs. 2.72% [23/846]). Compared with anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy in patients with intermediate

  16. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study (PIOPED III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Chenevert, Thomas L; Fowler, Sarah E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Leeper, Kenneth V; Naidich, David P; Sak, Daniel J; Sostman, H Dirk; Tapson, Victor F; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2010-04-06

    The accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance venography for diagnosing pulmonary embolism has not been determined conclusively. To investigate performance characteristics of magnetic resonance angiography, with or without magnetic resonance venography, for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Prospective, multicenter study from 10 April 2006 to 30 September 2008. 7 hospitals and their emergency services. 371 adults with diagnosed or excluded pulmonary embolism. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were measured by comparing independently read magnetic resonance imaging with the reference standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Reference standard diagnosis or exclusion was made by using various tests, including computed tomographic angiography and venography, ventilation-perfusion lung scan, venous ultrasonography, d-dimer assay, and clinical assessment. Magnetic resonance angiography, averaged across centers, was technically inadequate in 25% of patients (92 of 371). The proportion of technically inadequate images ranged from 11% to 52% at various centers. Including patients with technically inadequate images, magnetic resonance angiography identified 57% (59 of 104) with pulmonary embolism. Technically adequate magnetic resonance angiography had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 99%. Technically adequate magnetic resonance angiography and venography had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 96%, but 52% of patients (194 of 370) had technically inadequate results. A high proportion of patients with suspected embolism was not eligible or declined to participate. Magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography should be considered only at centers that routinely perform it well and only for patients for whom standard tests are contraindicated. Magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance venography combined have a higher sensitivity than magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography

  17. A Case of Tracheobronchomalacia Mimicking Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stefani M; Greco, Katherine J; Reddy, Venugopal

    2017-09-19

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary embolism is a common acute postoperative complication and is associated with 100,000 deaths per year in the USA. Tracheobronchomalacia is an uncommon condition, which presents with similar symptoms to pulmonary embolism, including hypoxemia, tachycardia, and shortness of breath. We describe a case of a patient who presented with postoperative pulmonary symptoms that were initially thought to be due to pulmonary embolism. However, following imaging investigations these symptoms were found to be due to tracheobronchomalacia. CASE REPORT A 73-year-old woman underwent elective ventral hernia repair and takedown of a Hartmann's pouch. On the ninth postoperative day, she developed symptoms of acute respiratory distress and was admitted to the surgical intensive care unit. Respiratory function tests and blood gas evaluation showed that her alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a gradient) and modified Wells' score were suggestive of a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the lungs was negative for pulmonary embolism but demonstrated findings suggestive of tracheobronchomalacia. CONCLUSIONS Tracheobronchomalacia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypoxia when evaluating a patient in the ICU.

  18. Diagnosis, management and prognosis of symptomatic and incidental pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter, den P.L.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes studies that aimed to evaluate and improve the diagnostic work-up and management of pulmonary embolism. Age-adjusted D-dimer testing was found to be an effective and safe strategy to reduce the need for CT-imaging in elderly patients with clinically suspected pulmonary

  19. Symptoms, location and prognosis of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, M T; Pena-Álvarez, C; López-Landeiro, P; Bermo-Domínguez, A; Fontúrbel, T; González-Barcala, F J

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease with variable symptoms and high overall mortality. The clinical relevance of the extent of PE is still debatable, and the role of anticoagulation in patients with subsegmental involvement has been contested. Our objective is to describe the clinical details of patients with PE in our hospital and to analyze their prognosis based on the extent of the disease. Retrospective study of 313 patients diagnosed with PE by chest computed tomography (CT) scan at the Hospital Complex of Pontevedra in Spain for six years. Predictors of mortality were determined by multivariate analysis. Women accounted for 56% of patients, and patient median age was 70 years (interquartile range 53-78 years). Subsegmental PE accounted for 7% of all cases; these patients were younger and had lower comorbidity; they reported chest pain more often, performed better in blood gas analysis and none of them had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with subsegmental PE had a higher survival rate. Factors independently associated with mortality were cancer diagnosis and higher comorbidity. Patients with subsegmental PE clinically differ from those with more proximal PE. Underlying diseases have more influence on the prognosis than the extent of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk-adapted management of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Stefano; Konstantinides, Stavros V

    2017-03-01

    The presence and severity of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a key determinant of prognosis in the acute phase of pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk-adapted treatment strategies continue to evolve, tailoring initial management to the clinical presentation and the functional status of the RV. Beyond pharmacological and, if necessary, mechanical circulatory support, systemic thrombolysis remains the mainstay of treatment for hemodynamically unstable patients; in contrast, it is not routinely recommended for intermediate-risk PE. Catheter-directed pharmacomechanical reperfusion treatment represents a promising option for minimizing bleeding risk; for reduced-dose intravenous thrombolysis, the data are still preliminary. Non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants, directly inhibiting factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) or thrombin (dabigatran), have simplified initial and long-term anticoagulation for PE while reducing major bleeding risk. Use of vena cava filters should be restricted to selected patients with absolute contraindications to anticoagulation, or PE recurrence despite adequately dosed anticoagulants. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.

  2. Diagnostic prediction models for suspected pulmonary embolism: systematic review and independent external validation in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geersing, Geert-Jan; Lucassen, Wim A M; Erkens, Petra M G; Stoffers, Henri E J H; van Weert, Henk C P M; Büller, Harry R; Hoes, Arno W; Moons, Karel G M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To validate all diagnostic prediction models for ruling out pulmonary embolism that are easily applicable in primary care. Design Systematic review followed by independent external validation study to assess transportability of retrieved models to primary care medicine. Setting 300 general practices in the Netherlands. Participants Individual patient dataset of 598 patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism in primary care. Main outcome measures Discriminative ability of all models retrieved by systematic literature search, assessed by calculation and comparison of C statistics. After stratification into groups with high and low probability of pulmonary embolism according to pre-specified model cut-offs combined with qualitative D-dimer test, sensitivity, specificity, efficiency (overall proportion of patients with low probability of pulmonary embolism), and failure rate (proportion of pulmonary embolism cases in group of patients with low probability) were calculated for all models. Results Ten published prediction models for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism were found. Five of these models could be validated in the primary care dataset: the original Wells, modified Wells, simplified Wells, revised Geneva, and simplified revised Geneva models. Discriminative ability was comparable for all models (range of C statistic 0.75-0.80). Sensitivity ranged from 88% (simplified revised Geneva) to 96% (simplified Wells) and specificity from 48% (revised Geneva) to 53% (simplified revised Geneva). Efficiency of all models was between 43% and 48%. Differences were observed between failure rates, especially between the simplified Wells and the simplified revised Geneva models (failure rates 1.2% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 3.3%) and 3.1% (1.4% to 5.9%), respectively; absolute difference −1.98% (−3.33% to −0.74%)). Irrespective of the diagnostic prediction model used, three patients were incorrectly classified as having low probability of pulmonary

  3. Point-of-care echocardiography for aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain: EASY screening focused on the assessment of effusion, aorta, ventricular size and shape and ventricular asynergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography and focused cardiac ultrasound are point-of-care echo protocols for the evaluation of cardiac disease in the emergency room; however, these protocols may not adequately assess aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain. Here, I present an echocardiography protocol focused on screening for these critical cardiovascular diseases. This protocol (termed EASY screening) consists of the assessment of effusion in the pericardial space, aortic abnormalities, the size and shape of the ventricles and asynergy of the left ventricle. Aortic dissection is suggested by positive findings for effusion and/or abnormal aortic findings. Pulmonary embolism is suggested by a dilated right ventricle and a D-shaped left ventricle in the short-axis view. Acute coronary syndrome is suggested by asynergy of left ventricular wall motion. EASY screening may facilitate the assessment of aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency room with killer chest pain.

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are often underdiagnosed and serious, but ... bloodstream to the lungs, causing a blockage called pulmonary embolism (PE). If the clot is small, and with ...

  5. Symptomatology, Clinical Presentation and Basic Work up in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Hess, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Basic knowledge of pulmonary embolism is relevant to most practicing physicians. Many medical specialties care for patients with increased risk of pulmonary embolism, why recognition of relevant symptoms, a thorough medical history, assessment of the clinical condition of the patient and possibly referral to a relevant facility should be a part of the skills of all clinicians. Sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, syncope and hemoptysis are essential symptoms of pulmonary embolism, and in most of these patients basic investigations like arterial blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram, chest x-ray and biochemical analyses are appropriate. In addition, lung ultrasound and echocardiography are indicated in many of these patients. The information available from the medical history, clinical assessment and basic investigation form the basis on which the decision about further diagnostic imaging and intensity of treatment and monitoring can be made. These decisions can be guided by clinical scoring systems like the Wells score, revised Geneva score and the PESI.

  6. Suspected pulmonary embolism in patients with pulmonary fibrosis: Discordance between ventilation/perfusion SPECT and CT pulmonary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Gabriela; Wenter, Vera; Milger, Katrin; Zimmermann, Gregor S; Matthes, Sandhya; Meinel, Felix G; Lehner, Sebastian; Neurohr, Claus; Behr, Jürgen; Kneidinger, Nikolaus

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary fibrosis presenting with a clinical deterioration. Both ventilation/perfusion (V/Q)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) are routinely used to detect PE. However, the value of V/Q-SPECT and CTPA in this scenario has not been studied so far. We aimed to investigate the concordance of V/Q-SPECT and CTPA in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and suspicion of pulmonary embolism. A total of 22 consecutive patients with pulmonary fibrosis and clinical deterioration who underwent both V/Q-SPECT and CTPA were included in the study and analyzed for the presence of pulmonary embolism. Nine of 22 patients (41%) had evidence for pulmonary embolism in V/Q-SPECT, and two of these patients had matching evidence for pulmonary embolism in CTPA. In the other seven patients with positive findings in V/Q-SPECT, no evidence of pulmonary embolism was found in CTPA. None of the 13 patients with a negative V/Q-SPECT had evidence for pulmonary embolism in CTPA. In patients with pulmonary fibrosis and suspected pulmonary embolism, pulmonary embolism is detected more frequently by V/Q-SPECT than by CTPA. Thromboembolic disease is identified on CTPA only in a minority of patients with positive findings on V/Q-SPECT. When making treatment decisions, clinicians should be aware of the high rate of discordant findings in V/Q-SPECT and CTPA in this specific patient population. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic adequacy of lung scintigraphy with that of pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) in the care of pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient characteristics, radiology report content, additional imaging performed, final diagnosis, and diagnostic adequacy were recorded for pregnant patients consecutively referred for lung scintigraphy or pulmonary CTA according to physician preference. Measurements of pulmonary arterial enhancement were performed on all pulmonary CTA images of pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy and pulmonary CTA studies deemed inadequate for diagnosis at the time of image acquisition were further assessed, and the cause of diagnostic inadequacy was determined. The relative contribution of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the heart was measured on nondiagnostic CTA images and compared with that on CTA images of age-matched nonpregnant women, who were the controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pulmonary CTA examinations were performed on 25 pregnant patients, and 25 lung scintigraphic studies were performed on 25 pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy was more frequently adequate for diagnosis than was pulmonary CTA (4% vs 35.7%) (p = 0.0058). Pulmonary CTA had a higher diagnostic inadequacy rate among pregnant than nonpregnant women (35.7% vs 2.1%) (p < 0.001). Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava was identified in eight of 10 nondiagnostic pulmonary CTA studies. CONCLUSION: We found that lung scintigraphy was more reliable than pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava is a common finding at pulmonary CTA of pregnant patients.

  8. Calcium Hydroxylapatite Pulmonary Embolism after Percutaneous Injection Laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seong Jun; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2017-11-01

    Injection medialization laryngoplasty is a procedure that has many advantages in treating vocal fold paralysis; however, undesired complications can occur. We experienced a case of a pulmonary embolism, suspected in a patient who had undergone an injection laryngoplasty with calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA). The patient suffered dyspnea after undergoing the injection laryngoplasty. Chest embolism computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a new lesion of enhancing materials at the pulmonary vasculature in the right upper lobe. The CaHA embolism was suspected, and the patient was treated with warfarin for 12 months. The patient's symptom of dyspnea nearly disappeared and a follow up chest embolism CT scan revealed no signs of the previous lesion. Thus, we would like to report this rare case along with a review of the literature. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  9. Comparison of the Wells score with the revised Geneva score for assessing suspected pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun-Hua; Chen, Hong-Lin; Chen, Jian-Rong; Xing, Jia-Li; Gu, Peng; Zhu, Bao-Feng

    2016-04-01

    The Wells score and the revised Geneva score are two most commonly used clinical rules for excluding pulmonary embolism (PE). In this study, we aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these two rules; we also compared the diagnostic accuracy between them. We searched PubMed and Web of science up to April 2015. Studies assessed Wells score and revised Geneva score for diagnosis suspected PE were included. The summary area under the curve (AUC) and the 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. For Wells score, the sensitivity ranged from 63.8 to 79.3 %, and the specificity ranged from 48.8 to 90.0 %. The overall weighted AUC was 0.778 (95 % CI 0.740-0.818; Z = 9.88, P Geneva score, the sensitivity ranged from 55.3 to 73.6 %. The overall weighted AUC was 0.693 (95 % CI 0.653-0.736; Z = 11.96, P Geneva score for predicting PE in suspected patients. Meta-regression showed diagnostic accuracy of these two rules was not related with PE prevalence. Sensitivity analysis by only included prospective studies showed the results were robust. Our results showed the Wells score was more effective than the revised Geneva score in discriminate PE in suspected patients.

  10. Effectiveness of managing suspected pulmonary embolism using an algorithm combining clinical probability, D-dimer testing, and computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belle, Arne; Büller, Harry R.; Huisman, Menno V.; Huisman, Peter M.; Kaasjager, Karin; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Kruip, Marieke J. H. A.; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Nijkeuter, Mathilde; Prins, Martin H.; Sohne, Maaike; Tick, Lidwine W.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Previous studies have evaluated the safety of relatively complex combinations of clinical decision rules and diagnostic tests in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness of a simplified algorithm using a dichotomized clinical decision rule,

  11. Comparison of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and conventional pulmonary angiography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, M; van Beek, EJR; Wielopolski, P; van Ooijen, PMA; Brouwers-Kuyper, EMJ; Bongaerts, AHH; Berghout, A

    2002-01-01

    Background Diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism are complex and consist of non-invasive diagnostic tests done to avoid conventional pulmonary angiography as much as possible. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary

  12. Symptoms, location and prognosis of pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. García-Sanz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common disease with variable symptoms and high overall mortality. The clinical relevance of the extent of PE is still debatable, and the role of anticoagulation in patients with subsegmental involvement has been contested. Our objective is to describe the clinical details of patients with PE in our hospital and to analyze their prognosis based on the extent of the disease. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of 313 patients diagnosed with PE by chest computed tomography (CT scan at the Hospital Complex of Pontevedra in Spain for six years. Predictors of mortality were determined by multivariate analysis. Results: Women accounted for 56% of patients, and patient median age was 70 years (interquartile range 53–78 years. Subsegmental PE accounted for 7% of all cases; these patients were younger and had lower comorbidity; they reported chest pain more often, performed better in blood gas analysis and none of them had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Patients with subsegmental PE had a higher survival rate. Factors independently associated with mortality were cancer diagnosis and higher comorbidity. Conclusions: Patients with subsegmental PE clinically differ from those with more proximal PE. Underlying diseases have more influence on the prognosis than the extent of the disease. Resumo: Contexto e objectivo: A embolia pulmonar (PE é uma doença comum com sintomas variáveis e uma elevada taxa de mortalidade global. A relevância clínica da extensão da PE é ainda fonte de debate, e o papel da anticoagulação em pacientes com envolvimento de sub-segmentos foi contestado. O nosso objectivo é descrever os dados clínicos de doentes com PE no nosso hospital e analisar o seu prognóstico, com base na extensão da doença. Materiais e métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 313 doentes, diagnosticados com PE, através de uma tomografia computadorizada de t

  13. Diagnostic Value of Dual-Source Computerized Tomography Combined with Perfusion Imaging for Peripheral Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xijin; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Xingyue; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Wenjian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism has become the third most common cardiovascular disease, which can seriously harm human health. Objectives To investigate the diagnostic value of dual-source computerized tomography (CT) and perfusion imaging for peripheral pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent dual-source CT exams. To compare the ability of pulmonary embolism detection software (PED) with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in determining the presence, numbers, and locations of pulmonary emboli, the subsequent images were reviewed by two radiologists using both imaging modalities. Also, the diagnostic consistency between PED and CTPA images and dual-energy pulmonary perfusion imaging (DEPI) for segmental pulmonary embolism was compared. Results CTPA images revealed 50 (7.81%) segmental and 56 (4.38%) sub-segmental pulmonary embolisms, while the PED images showed 68 (10.63%) segmental and 94 (7.34%) sub-segmental pulmonary embolisms. Thus, the detection rate on PED images for peripheral pulmonary embolism was significantly higher than that of the CTPA images (P pulmonary embolism between PED and CTPA and DEPI (kappa = 0.85). The sensitivity and specificity of DEPI images for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism were 91.7% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion PED software of dual-source CT combined with perfusion imaging can significantly improve the detection rate of peripheral pulmonary embolism. PMID:27703656

  14. Pulmonary Embolism is Enigmatic Problem in Emergency Service: Performance of Wells Score, Geneva Score and Other Test for PE

    OpenAIRE

    Tatlı, Mehmet; Altintop, Ismail; Yurtseven, Aynur

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundPulmonaryembolism which is an mysterious and difficult disease to diagnose is the thirdmost common cause of death from cardiovascular disease. Despite recent clinicalstudies and technological development, pulmonary embolism diagnosing is hardand complicated. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism starts with physcianssuspicion. Firstly, assessment of clinical pre-test probability is important. Clinicalpre-test probability is based on assessment of whether symptoms and signs aretypical for ...

  15. Usefulness of Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Unstable Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism and Patients Who Underwent Pulmonary Embolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Lawrence, Frank R; Hughes, Mary J

    2018-02-15

    Administrative data were analyzed from the Premier Healthcare Database, 2010 to 2014, to assess whether inferior vena cava (IVC) filters reduce mortality in unstable patients (in shock or on ventilator support) with acute pulmonary embolism and in stable patients who undergo surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Mortality was assumed to be due to pulmonary embolism in patients who had none of the co-morbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Data were determined on the basis of International Classification of Disease-9th Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. All-cause mortality in unstable patients was lower with IVC filters in-hospital, 288 of 1,972 (23%) versus 1339 of 3002 (45%) (p <0.0001), and at 3 months, all-cause mortality was 316 of 1,272 (25%) versus 1,428 of 3,002 (48%) (p <0.0001). Pulmonary embolism mortality was lower with IVC filters in unstable patients in-hospital, 191 of 926 (21%) versus 913 of 2,138 (43%) (p <0.0001) and at 3 months, 215 of 926 (23%) versus 971 of 2,138 (45%) (p <0.0001). A lower in-hospital and 3-month all-cause mortality and pulmonary embolism mortality was also shown with IVC filters in stable patients who underwent pulmonary embolectomy. These data, in concert with previous retrospective data, suggest that unstable patients with pulmonary embolism and stable patients who undergo pulmonary embolectomy may benefit from an IVC filter. Further investigations would be useful. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. High D-dimer levels increase the likelihood of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tick, L. W.; Nijkeuter, M.; Kramer, M. H. H.; Hovens, M. M. C.; Büller, H. R.; Leebeek, F. W. G.; Huisman, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the utility of high quantitative D-dimer levels in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Methods. D-dimer testing was performed in consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. We included patients with suspected pulmonary embolism with a high risk for venous

  17. Investigating suspected acute pulmonary embolism - what are hospital clinicians thinking?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, A.S. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)], E-mail: andrewmcqueen7@hotmail.com; Worthy, S. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Keir, M.J. [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Aims: To assess local clinical knowledge of the appropriate investigation of suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and this compare with the 2003 British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines as a national reference standard. Methods: A clinical questionnaire was produced based on the BTS guidelines. One hundred and eight-six participants completed the questionnaires at educational sessions for clinicians of all grades, within a single NHS Trust. The level of experience amongst participants ranged from final year medical students to consultant physicians. Results: The clinicians were divided into four groups based on seniority: Pre-registration, Junior, Middle, and Senior. Forty-six point eight percent of all the clinicians correctly identified three major risk factors for PE and 25.8% recognized the definition of the recommended clinical probability score from two alternatives. Statements regarding the sensitivity of isotope lung imaging and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) received correct responses from 41.4 and 43% of participants, respectively, whilst 81.2% recognized that an indeterminate ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q) study requires further imaging. The majority of clinicians correctly answered three clinical scenario questions regarding use of D-dimers and imaging (78, 85, and 57.5%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four groups for any of the eight questions. Conclusions: The recommended clinical probability score was unfamiliar to all four groups of clinicians in the present study, and the majority of doctors did not agree that a negative CTPA or isotope lung scintigraphy reliably excluded PE. However, questions based on clinical scenarios received considerably higher rates of correct responses. The results indicate that various aspects of the national guidelines on suspected acute pulmonary embolism are unfamiliar to many UK hospital clinicians. Further research is needed to identify methods to improve

  18. New Prospective for the Management of Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Assessment, Early Discharge, and Single-Drug Therapy with New Oral Anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) can be stratified into two different prognostic categories, based on the presence or absence of shock or sustained arterial hypotension. Some patients with normotensive PE have a low risk of early mortality, defined as <1% at 30 days or during hospital stay. In this paper, we will discuss the new prospective for the optimal management of low-risk PE: prognostic assessment, early discharge, and single-drug therapy with new oral anticoagulants. Several parameters have been proposed and investigated to identify low-risk PE: clinical prediction rules, imaging tests, and laboratory markers of right ventricular dysfunction or injury. Moreover, outpatient management has been suggested for low-risk PE: it may lead to a decrease in unnecessary hospitalizations, acquired infections, death, and costs and to an improvement in health-related quality of life. Finally, the main characteristics of new oral anticoagulant drugs and the most recent published data on phase III trials on PE suggest that the single-drug therapy is a possible suitable option. Oral administration, predictable anticoagulant responses, and few drug-drug interactions of direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors may further simplify PE home therapy avoiding administration of low-molecular-weight heparin. PMID:24278706

  19. Simplified diagnostic management of suspected pulmonary embolism (the YEARS study): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hulle, Tom; Cheung, Whitney Y; Kooij, Stephanie; Beenen, Ludo F M; van Bemmel, Thomas; van Es, Josien; Faber, Laura M; Hazelaar, Germa M; Heringhaus, Christian; Hofstee, Herman; Hovens, Marcel M C; Kaasjager, Karin A H; van Klink, Rick C J; Kruip, Marieke J H A; Loeffen, Rinske F; Mairuhu, Albert T A; Middeldorp, Saskia; Nijkeuter, Mathilde; van der Pol, Liselotte M; Schol-Gelok, Suzanne; Ten Wolde, Marije; Klok, Frederikus A; Huisman, Menno V

    2017-07-15

    Validated diagnostic algorithms in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism are often not used correctly or only benefit subgroups of patients, leading to overuse of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The YEARS clinical decision rule that incorporates differential D-dimer cutoff values at presentation, has been developed to be fast, to be compatible with clinical practice, and to reduce the number of CTPA investigations in all age groups. We aimed to prospectively evaluate this novel and simplified diagnostic algorithm for suspected acute pulmonary embolism. We did a prospective, multicentre, cohort study in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, including consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism between Oct 5, 2013, to July 9, 2015. Patients were managed by simultaneous assessment of the YEARS clinical decision rule, consisting of three items (clinical signs of deep vein thrombosis, haemoptysis, and whether pulmonary embolism is the most likely diagnosis), and D-dimer concentrations. In patients without YEARS items and D-dimer less than 1000 ng/mL, or in patients with one or more YEARS items and D-dimer less than 500 ng/mL, pulmonary embolism was considered excluded. All other patients had CTPA. The primary outcome was the number of independently adjudicated events of venous thromboembolism during 3 months of follow-up after pulmonary embolism was excluded, and the secondary outcome was the number of required CTPA compared with the Wells' diagnostic algorithm. For the primary outcome regarding the safety of the diagnostic strategy, we used a per-protocol approach. For the secondary outcome regarding the efficiency of the diagnostic strategy, we used an intention-to-diagnose approach. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Registry, number NTR4193. 3616 consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism were screened, of whom 151 (4%) were excluded. The remaining 3465 patients were assessed of whom 456 (13%) were

  20. [Pulmonary Embolism in Portugal: Epidemiology and In-Hospital Mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Miguel; Pinheiro, Luís; Costa, João; Borges, Margarida

    2016-08-01

    In Portugal, the epidemiology of acute pulmonary embolism is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to characterize the pulmonary embolism from the hospital data and evaluate its in-hospital mortality and respective prognostic factors. The study used diagnostic related groups data from National Health System hospitals from 2003 to 2013 and National Statistics Institute population data to establish the evolution of admissions with the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, their inhospital mortality rates and the population incidence rates. Diagnosis-related group microdata were used in a logit regression modeling in-hospital mortality as a function of individual characteristics and context variables. Between 2003 and 2013 there were 35,200 episodes of hospitalization in patients with 18 or more years in which one of the diagnoses was pulmonary embolism (primary diagnosis in 67% of cases). The estimated incidence rate in 2013 was 35/100,000 population (≥ 18 years). Between 2003 and 2013, the annual number of episodes kept increasing, but the in-hospital mortality rate decreased (from 31.8% to 17% for all cases and from 25% to 11.2% when pulmonary embolism was the main diagnosis). The probability of death decreases when there is a computerized tomography scan registry or when patients are females and increases with age and the presence of co-morbidities. In the last decade there was an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism likely related to an increased number of dependents and bedridden. However, there was a in-hospital mortality reduction of such size that the actual mortality in the general population was reduced. One possible explanation is that there has been an increase in episodes of pulmonary embolism with incrementally lower levels of severity, due to the greater capacity of diagnosis of less severe cases. Another possible explanation is greater effectiveness of hospital care. According to the logistic regression analysis, improvements in hospital care

  1. Pulmonary Embolism in the Postanesthesia Care Unit: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie; Murauski, Jackie

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a complication that can occur at any time during the perioperative period. The patient undergoing surgery to repair a hip fracture is at a high risk of developing a PE due to venous thrombosis, tissue, or fat emboli. The signs and symptoms of a PE are often nonspecific and can be obscured in the patient receiving or recovering from general anesthesia. This case study describes the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of a patient experiencing a pulmonary embolism in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after surgery to repair a hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. USE OF RHEOLYTIC THROMBECTOMY IN MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kokov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We report the use of rheolytic thombectomy in two patients with severe pulmonary embolism. In first case RT was performed as the second step in treatment of pulmonary embolism after systemic thrombolytic therapy. In second case systemic thrombolytic therapy was not performed because of extremely high risk of duodenal ulcer bleeding. Hemolysis and acute kidney injure with requirement of plasmapheresis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration was required in patient who received big volume of thrombectomy (500 ml. Rheolytic thrombectomy resulted in good angiographic and clinical effect in both patients.

  3. Study of clinical profile and management of patients with pulmonary embolism – Single center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calwin Davidsingh, S.; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Balaji, P.; Kalaichelvan, U.; Mullasari, Ajit Sankaradas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical profile, diagnostic methods and management in patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Retrospective assessment of clinical features and management of patients presenting with symptomatic pulmonary embolism from January 2005 to March 2012. Results 35 patients who were newly diagnosed to have pulmonary embolism with a mean age of 52.1 years were included in the study. Dyspnea (91.4%) and syncope (22.8%) were the predominant symptoms. Echocardiography was done in all patients. 30 patients (85.7%) had pulmonary arterial hypertension, 31 patients (88.5%) had evidence of RV dysfunction and 4 patients (16.7%) had evidence of thrombus in PA, RV. Out of 35 patients, 34 patients (97.14%) showed positive d-dimer reports. Among 35 patients, 24 (68.5%) had positive troponin values. V/Q scan was done in 14 patients (40%) and CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) was done in 24 patients (68.5%.). Thrombolysis was done is 24 patients (68.5%). All patients received low molecular weight heparin followed by warfarin. Of the 35 patients, 34 (97.1%) were discharged and were under regular follow up for 6 months and one patient died during the hospital stay. Conclusion Pulmonary embolism is a common problem and can be easily diagnosed provided it is clinically suspected. Early diagnosis and aggressive management is the key to successful outcome. PMID:24814115

  4. Thrombolytic Therapy by Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-01-01

    Clinicians need to make decisions about the use of thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) therapy for pulmonary embolism (PE) after carefully considering the risks of major complications from bleeding, and the benefits of treatment, for each individual patient. They should probably not use systemic thrombolysis for PE patients with normal blood pressure. Treatment by human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), alteplase, saves the lives of high-risk PE patients, that is, those with hypotension or in shock. Even in the absence of strong evidence, clinicians need to choose the most appropriate regimen for administering alteplase for individual patients, based on assessment of the urgency of the situation, risks for major complications from bleeding, and patient's body weight. In addition, invasive strategies should be considered when absolute contraindications for thrombolytic therapy exist, serious complications arise, or thrombolytic therapy fails.

  5. ECG-gated pulmonary artery CTA for evaluation of right ventricular function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, De-Li; Liu, Xin-Ding; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Hai-Ting; Zhao, Cheng-Lei; Wang, Guo-Kun; Xu, Mei-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Ling

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate right ventricular function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) using electrocardiogram-gated CTA and to discuss the clinical value of pulmonary artery CTA PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on death risk evaluation, 86 APE patients were divided into high-risk group (n=46) and non-high-risk group (n=40). The CT pulmonary embolism (PE) index and parameters of right ventricular function were analyzed from the CTPA images and compared between the two groups. Potential correlation between the two was also discussed. CT PE index (median 24.69%) of the high-risk group was obviously higher than that of the non-high-risk group (median 8.58%) (Pright ventricular function were significantly different between the two groups (Pright ventricular function. ECG-gated pulmonary artery CTA is suitable for assessing the severity of APE and right ventricular function. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papoulidis Pavlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm together with a pulmonary embolism. The patient preferred a conservative approach and was stable at the 10-month follow-up visit after being placed on anti-coagulant treatment. The second patient was a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm also presented together with a pulmonary embolism. The aneurysm was secondary to pulmonary valve stenosis. She received anti-coagulants and, after stabilization, underwent percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. Conclusion Pulmonary embolism may be the initial presentation of a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm. No underlying cause for pulmonary embolism was found in either of our patients, suggesting a causal association with low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm.

  7. Comparison of Wells and Revised Geneva Rule to Assess Pretest Probability of Pulmonary Embolism in High-Risk Hospitalized Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marca, Salvatore; Cilia, Chiara; Campagna, Andrea; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Tripepi, Giovanni; Puccia, Giuseppe; Pisano, Marcella; Mastrosimone, Gianluca; Terranova, Valentina; Cardella, Antonella; Buonacera, Agata; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Zoccali, Carmine; Malatino, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    To assess and compare the diagnostic power for pulmonary embolism (PE) of Wells and revised Geneva scores in two independent cohorts (training and validation groups) of elderly adults hospitalized in a non-emergency department. Prospective clinical study, January 2011 to January 2013. Unit of Internal Medicine inpatients, University of Catania, Italy. Elderly adults (mean age 76 ± 12), presenting with dyspnea or chest pain and with high clinical probability of PE or D-dimer values greater than 500 ng/mL (N = 203), were enrolled and consecutively assigned to a training (n = 101) or a validation (n = 102) group. The clinical probability of PE was assessed using Wells and revised Geneva scores. Clinical examination, D-dimer test, and multidetector computed angiotomography were performed in all participants. The accuracy of the scores was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analyses. PE was confirmed in 46 participants (23%) (24 training group, 22 validation group). In the training group, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-0.98) for the Wells score and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.56-0.82) for the revised Geneva score (P < .001). These results were confirmed in the validation group (P < .05). The positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) (two indices combining sensitivity and specificity) of the Wells score were superior to those of the revised Geneva score in the training (LR+, 7.90 vs 1.34; LR-, 0.23 vs 0.66) and validation (LR+, 13.5 vs 1.46; LR-, 0.47 vs 0.54) groups. In high-risk elderly hospitalized adults, the Wells score is more accurate than the revised Geneva score for diagnosing PE. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. D-dimer test in cancer patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, M.; Sohne, M.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Büller, H. R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The safety of a D-dimer (DD) measurement in cancer patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) is unclear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the DD test in consecutive patients with clinically suspected PE with and without cancer. Methods: The

  9. D-Dimer test in cancer patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisio, M. Di; Sohne, M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Buller, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The safety of a D-dimer (DD) measurement in cancer patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the DD test in consecutive patients with clinically suspected PE with and without cancer. METHODS: The

  10. Successful thrombolysis of major pulmonary embolism 5 days after lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Licht, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive intravenous thrombolysis of pulmonary emboli after major thoracic surgery has rarely been reported and is controversial because of an assumed risk of fatal bleeding. We report a 62-year old female who underwent left upper lobectomy. Her postoperative course was complicated with symptom...... with symptomatic pulmonary embolism and on postoperative day 5 she was successfully treated with intravenous thrombolysis using alteplase (Actilyse(®)) without signs of bleeding. She was discharged from the hospital 12 days postoperatively....

  11. The relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Background Tumor markers (TMs) and D-Dimer are both hallmarks of severity and prognosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers could be related to pulmonary embolism (PE) in lung cancer. Results The number of abnormal tumor markers of lung cancer patients with pulmonary embolism (3.9 ± 1.1vs1.6 ± 0.6,P 0.005) was more than that in patients without pulmonary embolism. TMs panel (P trend pulmonary embolism. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, for tumor markers, TMs panel (OR5.98, P pulmonary embolism. The AUC (area under curve) of TMs panel and CEA were 0.82 [95%CI (0.71–0.95), P pulmonary embolism and those without pulmonary embolism Then the correlation between each tumor marker as well as panel of combined TMs and D-Dimer as well as pulmonary embolism were analyzed for patients with pulmonary embolism. Conclusions There is a relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in patients with lung cancer. The panel of combined tumor markers is a valuable diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism in lung cancer. PMID:28575869

  12. Pulmonary embolism and stroke associated with mechanical thrombectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bastianetto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thrombectomy offers the advantage of rapid removal of venous thrombi. It allows venous obstructions to be removed and requires shorter duration of infusion of thrombolytic agents. However, aspiration of thrombi can lead to complications, particularly pulmonary embolism and hemolysis. The validity of using vena cava filters during thrombectomy in order to avoid embolism has not yet been established. The authors report a case of massive pulmonary embolism associated with ischemic stroke in a patient with a hitherto undiagnosed patent foramen ovale. The patient developed respiratory failure and neurological deficit after thrombectomy. This case raise questions about the value of the thrombectomy for the treatment of proximal vein thrombosis due to the risks of this procedure. The authors also discuss the need for vena cava filters and ruling out a patent foramen ovale in patients undergoing thrombectomy.

  13. Impending paradoxical embolism presenting as a pulmonary embolism, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Scott L; Welch, Timothy S; Scally, John P; Bartoszek, Michael W; Sullenberger, Lance E; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Hnatiuk, Oleh W

    2007-10-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with complaints of nonpleuritic, substernal chest pain, dyspnea, and decreasing exercise tolerance. His vital signs were normal, with the exception of an oxygen saturation level of 93% while breathing room air. During his assessment, he developed transient left facial droop, left arm and leg weakness, and an ataxic gait, which lasted 15 min then resolved spontaneously. Cardiac enzyme levels were elevated, and an ECG revealed T-wave inversion in leads III, aVF, V1, and V2 with evolving ST-segment elevation in leads V3 through V5. The findings of a CT scan and MRI of the head were negative; a Doppler ultrasound of the right lower extremity revealed a thrombus extending from the common femoral vein to the popliteal vein. Cardiac catheterization revealed no evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease. CT pulmonary angiography revealed bilateral pulmonary emboli. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed a 4-cm, dumbbell-shaped mass lodged in a patent foramen ovale, confirming the diagnosis of an impending paradoxical embolism. The patient was started on therapy with unfractionated heparin, and his thrombus resolved spontaneously by hospital day 5. An impending paradoxical embolism is rare but should be suspected in anyone presenting with evidence of both venous and arterial emboli. The therapeutic options include anticoagulation, thrombolysis, and surgical embolectomy. We would propose that initial treatment with anticoagulation therapy and following with serial TEEs may be appropriate therapy in an otherwise stable patient, with surgical embolectomy or thrombolysis reserved for the treatment of thrombi that do not resolve with anticoagulation therapy or for patients with clinical deterioration.

  14. State-of-the-Art Imaging in Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Frary, Charles; Gerke, Oke

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, ubiquitous, and potentially lethal disease. As symptoms and clinical findings are notoriously nonspecific, diagnostic imaging is essential to avoid undertreatment as well as overtreatment. Controversies remain regarding first-line imaging in suspected PE. The ...

  15. The New Diagnostic Marker For Acute Pulmonary Embolism In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Diagnostic Marker For Acute Pulmonary Embolism In Emergency Department; Mean Platelet Volume. Fahrettin Talay, Tarık Ocak, Aytekin Alcelik, Kurşat Erkuran, Akcan Akkaya, Arif Duran, Abdullah Demirhan, Ozlem Kar Kurt, Zehra Asuk ...

  16. Catheter-based therapies in acute pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jacob; Andersen, Asger; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To provide a systematic review of catheter-based therapies of acute pulmonary embolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies published in peer-reviewed journals before February 2017 were included and categorized according to the mechanism of thrombus removal: fragmentation, rheolytic therapy...

  17. A cardiac hydatid cyst underlying pulmonary embolism: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatid cysts located in the interatrial septum are especially rare but when they occur, they might cause intracavity rupture. We report on a patient with acute pulmonary embolism caused by an isolated, ruptured hydatid cyst on the right side of the interatrial septum. A 16-year-old-boy with an uneventful history was ...

  18. Risk stratification and management of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-12-02

    The clinical management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism is rapidly changing over the years. The widening spectrum of clinical management strategies for these patients requires effective tools for risk stratification. Patients at low risk for death could be candidates for home treatment or early discharge. Clinical models with high negative predictive value have been validated that could be used to select patients at low risk for death. In a major study and in several meta-analyses, thrombolysis in hemodynamically stable patients was associated with unacceptably high risk for major bleeding complications or intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, the presence of shock or sustained hypotension continues to be the criterion for the selection of candidates for thrombolytic treatment. Interventional procedures for early revascularization should be reserved to selected patients until further evidence is available. No clinical advantage is expected with the insertion of a vena cava filter in the acute-phase management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulants used in fixed doses without laboratory monitoring showed similar efficacy (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.12) and safety (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03) in comparison with conventional anticoagulation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Based on these results and on their practicality, direct oral anticoagulants are the agents of choice for the treatment of the majority of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic Detection of Pulmonary Embolism in CTA Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Sonnemans, J.J.; Vilanova, A.; Gerritsen, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common life-threatening disorder for which an early diagnosis is desirable. We propose a new system for the automatic detection of PE in contrast-enhanced CT images. The system consists of candidate detection, feature computation and classification. Candidate

  20. Effect of Aspirin on Fractalkine in Rats with Pulmonary Embolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cai B, Sun C, Wang LC, and Qian H: Curcumin improves the outcomes of acute pulmonary embolism in rats. Zhejiang Med J 2011; 33: 457-459. 8. Widmer BJ, Bassora R, Warrender WJ, Abboud JA: Thromboembolic events are uncommon after open treatment of proximal humerus fractures using aspirin and compression ...

  1. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.F.; Bijl, A.; Van Puijenbroek, E.P.

    Introduction: PDE5i-related arterial thromboembolism is described in literature. Published venous thrombotic events are limited to one case of pulmonary embolism (tadalafil) and of recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to sildenafil. Aim of the study: Presentation of two cases of vardenafil

  2. Novel approach for the management of sub-massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdy M Idrees

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right ventricular (RV dysfunction has been identified as a poor prognostic indicator in sub-massive pulmonary embolism (SPE. We hypothesized that using selective vasodilator agent is beneficial in improving RV function in patients with this condition. Methods: We used inhaled prostacyclin analogue (Iloprost, Ventavis® in five patients with SPE. Helical computerized tomography angiogram was confirmatory for pulmonary embolism and echocardiography was used to evaluate the RV status. All patients received inhaled Iloprost, 2.5 to 5 μg every 4 hours for 3 weeks. Results: Patients were prospectively followed for 3 months. They were assessed at baseline before starting Iloprost treatment and at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after treatment. All patients showed significant improvement in their functional class, Borg dyspnea score, NT pro-BNP level, and echocardiographic parameters. Conclusion: In SPE, directing therapy toward decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance improves the associated pulmonary hemodynamic compromise and improves RV function.

  3. Identification of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism suitable for outpatient treatment using the pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, A

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that outpatient treatment of patients with low-risk stable pulmonary embolism (PE) is safe, effective and potentially reduces costs. It is not clear how many patients presenting to an Irish Emergency Department (ED) are potentially suitable for outpatient management.

  4. Clinical course of pulmonary embolism and efficacy of thrombolytic therapy in patients with thrombophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karpenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the clinical course of pulmonary embolism and the effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy in patients with thrombophilia and in those without identified thrombolytic disorders. The impact of thrombophilia on the incidence of pulmonary embolism and phlebothrombosis was analyzed. The results obtained indicate the presence of thrombophilia in 25.7% of patients with pulmonary embolism. It was found out that thrombosis and embolism in the vena cava filter occurred more frequently in patients with thrombophilia rather than in those with pulmonary embolism of unknown etiology.

  5. Outpatient Management of Emergency Department Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Variation, Patient Characteristics, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Reed, Mary E; Lin, James S; Kene, Mamata V; Sax, Dana R; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Wang, David H; McLachlan, D Ian; Pleshakov, Tamara S; Silver, Matthew A; Clague, Victoria A; Klonecke, Andrew S; Mark, Dustin G

    2017-12-13

    Outpatient management of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism is uncommon. We seek to evaluate the facility-level variation of outpatient pulmonary embolism management and to describe patient characteristics and outcomes associated with home discharge. The Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (MAPLE) study is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute pulmonary embolism undertaken in 21 community EDs from January 2013 to April 2015. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from comprehensive electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between patient characteristics and home discharge. We report ED length of stay, consultations, 5-day pulmonary embolism-related return visits and 30-day major hemorrhage, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and all-cause mortality. Of 2,387 patients, 179 were discharged home (7.5%). Home discharge varied significantly between EDs, from 0% to 14.3% (median 7.0%; interquartile range 4.2% to 10.9%). Median length of stay for home discharge patients (excluding those who arrived with a new pulmonary embolism diagnosis) was 6.0 hours (interquartile range 4.6 to 7.2 hours) and 81% received consultations. On adjusted analysis, ambulance arrival, abnormal vital signs, syncope or presyncope, deep venous thrombosis, elevated cardiac biomarker levels, and more proximal emboli were inversely associated with home discharge. Thirteen patients (7.2%) who were discharged home had a 5-day pulmonary embolism-related return visit. Thirty-day major hemorrhage and recurrent venous thromboembolism were uncommon and similar between patients hospitalized and those discharged home. All-cause 30-day mortality was lower in the home discharge group (1.1% versus 4.4%). Home discharge of ED patients with acute pulmonary embolism was uncommon and varied significantly between facilities. Patients selected for outpatient management had a

  6. CT pulmonary angiography findings that predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter, E-mail: mail@andreas-bach.de [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Nansalmaa, Baasai; Kranz, Johanna [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Taute, Bettina-Maria [Department of Internal Medicine, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wienke, Andreas [Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger-Str. 8, 06112 Halle (Germany); Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • In patients with acute pulmonary embolism contrast reflux in inferior vena cava is significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). • This finding is independent from the following comorbidities: heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust radiologic method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a better predictor of 30-day mortality after acute pulmonary embolism than any other existing radiologic predictor. This includes thrombus distribution, and morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. - Abstract: Purpose: Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can be used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, multiple findings at CTPA have been proposed as potential tools for risk stratification. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the prognostic value of (I) thrombus distribution, (II) morphometric parameters of right ventricular dysfunction, and (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava on 30-day mortality. Material and methods: In a retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 365 consecutive patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: presence of acute pulmonary embolism, and availability of 30-day follow-up. A review of patient charts and images was performed. Results: There were no significant differences between the group of 326 survivors and 39 non-survivors in (I) thrombus distribution, and (II) morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. However, (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava was significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). Results were independent from comorbidities like heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary

  7. Prognostic value of a previous medical or surgical admission in outpatients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Artacho, P; Rodríguez-López, I; Pérez Peña, C; González Del Castillo, J; Calvo, E; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether an earlier medical (MA) or surgical (SA) admission in the previous three months is a factor associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Observational, retrospective cohort study on adult patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism in a tertiary hospital over a period of 6 years. The study included 870 patients with a mean age of 72.7 years: 10.6% (92) had a prior MA, 4.9% (43) had a SA and 12.9% (112) died within the first 30 days. The MA group showed a higher frequency of simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) of high risk (≥1) (MA 90.2% vs SA 65.1% vs no prior admission 67.0%; p<0.001) and mortality at 30 days (MA 20.7% vs SA 7.0% vs no prior admission 12.9%; p=0.038). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a simplified PESI≥1 was the only independent risk factor for mortality at 30 days. The severity of the acute episode, as assessed by the simplified PESI scale, is independently associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. An earlier MA in the previous 3 months usually involves greater severity in the acute episode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. A new prognostic strategy for adult patients with acute pulmonary embolism eligible for outpatient therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Vazquez, Fernando J; Roy, Pierre Marie; Le Gal, Gregoire; Carrier, Marc; Gandara, Esteban

    2017-04-01

    We sought to derive a parsimonious predictive model to identify a subgroup of patients that will experience a low number of adverse events within 14 days of the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with acute pulmonary embolism at the Ottawa Hospital between 2007 and 2012. Primary outcome was defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism and major bleeding within 14 days. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to model the occurrence of the primary outcome so as to guide either outpatient therapy or early discharge after initial admission. Calibration and discrimination were assessed in both the derivation and internal validation cohorts. 1143 patients were included, of whom 42% were treated as outpatients. At pulmonary embolism diagnosis, final score to predict the primary outcome included age, malignancy, intravenous drug or oxygen requirement and systolic blood pressure pulmonary embolism at low risk of clinically meaningful outcomes during the first 14 days of follow up.

  9. Quantification of right ventricular function in acute pulmonary embolism: relation to extent of pulmonary perfusion defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, J.; Schaadt, B.K.; Lund, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Aims The relation of the extent of obstruction of the pulmonary vascutature in pulmonary embolism (PE) and impact on right ventricular (RV) hemodynamics is not well established. This study evaluated the relation of size of perfusion defects and changes in echocardiographic measures of global...

  10. Lung Cancer Complicated With Asymptomatic Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Analysis of 84 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangsheng; Ma, Shuping

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Pulmonary embolism is potentially life-threatening in patients with lung cancer, but the clinical studies on patients with lung cancer having asymptomatic pulmonary embolism were barely reported. Methods: Clinical data of patients with lung cancer were obtained from the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Tianjin Chest Hospital during July 2012 and June 2015 and were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 28 patients with lung cancer having pulmonary embolism (LP group) were enrolled, and another 56 cases with lung cancer alone (LC group) were enrolled as controls. Results: Seventeen (60.7%) of 28 patients in the LP group developed adenocarcinoma, which was more frequent than that in the LC group (P pulmonary embolism among 17 asymptomatic cases in the LP group was 3.6 months postdiagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.0), showing a significant difference with that of other 11 patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism, which was 10.5 months (95% confidence interval, 8.88-12.12; P pulmonary embolism was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval, 5.86-8.56), while that of symptomatic pulmonary embolism was 2.8 months (95% confidence interval, 2.48-3.12). Log-rank examination showed that survival time of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism group was statistically longer than that of symptomatic pulmonary embolism group. Conclusion: Lung adenocarcinoma, chemotherapy, hyperleukocytosis, and d-dimer increment were the risk factors for lung cancer combined with asymptomatic pulmonary embolism. PMID:29332446

  11. Clot resolution after 3 weeks of anticoagulant treatment for pulmonary embolism : comparison of computed tomography and perfusion scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, J.; Douma, R. A.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Verhamme, P.; Wells, P. S.; Bounameaux, H.; Lensing, A. W. A.; Bueller, H. R.

    Introduction Little is known about the natural history of clot resolution in the initial weeks of anticoagulant therapy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Clot resolution of acute PE was assessed with either computed tomography pulmonary angiography scan (CT-scan) or perfusion

  12. Value of CT pulmonary angiography to predict short-term outcome in patient with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed M; Abdeldayem, Emad H

    2018-01-18

    To evaluate the role of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE) severity and the related CT cardiac changes, reflecting the clinical status of the patients and predicting the outcome. A prospective study of 184 patients presented with suspicious acute PE. All patients underwent CTPA followed by ECHO. Pulmonary artery obstructive index (PAOI) using Qanadli Score was calculated and cardiac changes recorded. The patients' outcome was followed up for 30 days. Only 150 patients completed the study; 26.7% needed ICU admission while 13.3% died during follow-up. There was a significant relationship between the PAOI and the risk classification, right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) diagnosed by ECHO and the patients' short outcome. We found PAOI cut off value 45% for mortality and 35% for ICU admission and 27.5% for RVD with 60, 75 and 90% sensitivity and 80, 73.3 and 68.6% specificity respectively. CT RV/LV ratio was the most sensitive parameter to predict RV dysfunction followed by pulmonary artery diameter. CTPA is not only used for diagnosis but also to assess the severity of PE, the effect on the right ventricular function and subsequently the need for ICU admission and prediction of the outcome.

  13. Residual pulmonary embolism as a predictor for recurrence after a first unprovoked episode: Results from the REVERSE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tony; Rodger, Marc; Zeng, Wanzhen; Robin, Philippe; Righini, Marc; Kovacs, Michael J; Tan, Melanie; Carrier, Marc; Kahn, Susan R; Wells, Philip S; Anderson, David R; Chagnon, Isabelle; Solymoss, Susan; Crowther, Mark; White, Richard H; Vickars, Linda; Bazarjani, Sadri; Le Gal, Grégoire

    2017-12-07

    The optimal duration of oral anticoagulant therapy after a first, unprovoked venous thromboembolism is controversial due to tightly balanced risks and benefits of indefinite anticoagulation. Risk stratification tools may assist in decision making. We sought to determine the relationship between residual pulmonary embolism assessed by baseline ventilation-perfusion scan after completion of 5-7months of oral anticoagulant therapy and the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with the first episode of unprovoked pulmonary embolism. We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study of participants with a first, unprovoked venous thromboembolism enrolled after the completion of 5-7months of oral anticoagulation therapy. The participants completed a mean 18-month follow-up. Participants with pulmonary embolism had baseline ventilation-perfusion scan before discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy and the percentage of vascular obstruction on baseline ventilation-perfusion scan was determined. During follow-up after discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy, all episodes of suspected recurrent venous thromboembolism were independently adjudicated with reference to baseline imaging. During follow-up, 24 of 239 (10.0%) participants with an index event of isolated pulmonary embolism or pulmonary embolism associated with deep vein thrombosis and central assessment of percentage of vascular obstruction on baseline ventilation-perfusion scan had confirmed recurrent venous thromboembolism. As compared to participants with no residual pulmonary embolism on baseline ventilation-perfusion scan, the hazard ratio for recurrent venous thromboembolism was 2.0 (95% CI 0.5-7.3) for participants with percentage of vascular obstruction of 0.1%-4.9%, 2.1 (95% CI 0.5-7.8) for participants with percentage vascular obstruction of 5.0%-9.9% and 5.3 (95% CI 1.8-15.4) for participants with percentage vascular obstruction greater than or equal to 10%. Residual pulmonary

  14. Successful treatment of postoperative massive pulmonary embolism with paradoxal arterial embolism through extracorporeal life support and thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapatsas, Konstantinos; Leivaditis, Vasileios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsilogianni, Zoi; Kotoulas, Sotirios; Kotoulas, Christophoros; Koletsis, Efstratios; Iliadis, Ilias Stylianos; Spiliotopoulos, Konstantinos; Trakada, Georgia; Veletza, Lemonia; Kallianos, Anastasios; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Huang, Haidong; Haussmann, Rainer; Haussmann, Erich; Dahm, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common clinical entity related to high mortality. About 200,000 to 300,000 patients die every year due to pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of a patient who on the second postoperative day after undergoing thromboembolectomy of the left femoral artery, manifested a massive pulmonary embolism. Due to cardiorespiratory collapse a combined treatment via extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and parallel catheter thrombolysis was decided and performed. By cardiorespiratory improvement and final stabilization the patient was successfully weaned from ECLS and the system was successfully removed. After a reasonable postoperative time the patient was dismissed in good overall condition.

  15. Adjustments in the diagnostic work-up, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, J.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal condition, in which an embolus, usually a thrombus originating from one of the deep veins of the legs, blocks one or more pulmonary arteries. This leads to impaired blood flow through the lungs. Pulmonary embolism is the third most common cardiovascular

  16. Endovascular treatment of pulmonary embolism: Selective review of available techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosher, John L; Patel, Arjun; Jagpal, Sugeet; Gribbin, Christopher; Gendel, Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of death in hospitalized patients. The development of sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for PE, including endovascular therapy, affords a certain level of complexity to the treatment of patients with this important clinical entity. Furthermore, the lack of level I evidence for the safety and effectiveness of catheter directed therapy brings controversy to a promising treatment approach. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of PE, review the medical and surgical treatment of the condition, and describe in detail the tools that are available for the endovascular therapy of PE, including mechanical thrombectomy, suction thrombectomy, and fibrinolytic therapy. We also review the literature available to date on these methods, and describe the function of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team. PMID:29354208

  17. Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Stuart B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres into the left pulmonary artery for 1 day (1d PPE; 115d gestational age; GA or 5 days (5d PPE; 110-115d GA. Control fetuses received vehicle injections. Lung morphology, secondary septal crests, elastin, collagen, myofibroblast, PECAM1 and HIF1α abundance and localization were determined histologically. VEGF-A, Flk-1, PDGF-A and PDGF-Rα mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. Results At 130d GA (term ~147d, in embolized regions of the lung the percentage of lung occupied by tissue was increased from 29 ± 1% in controls to 35 ± 1% in 1d PPE and 44 ± 1% in 5d PPE fetuses (p VEGF and Flk-1, although a small increase in PDGF-Rα expression at 116d GA, from 1.00 ± 0.12 in control fetuses to 1.61 ± 0.18 in 5d PPE fetuses may account for impaired differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts and alveolar development. Conclusions PPE impairs alveolarization without adverse systemic effects and is a novel model for investigating the role of pulmonary capillaries and alveolar myofibroblasts in alveolar formation.

  18. Pulmonary embolic syndrome caused by cementing of hip endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, D W

    1980-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cementing of the femoral component in total hip replacement produces the features of the pulmonary embolic syndrome (P.E.S.). The present investigations have been carried out to ascertain if newer methods of insertion modify these features. There was no evidence to suggest that any of these approaches has any advantage over the others in relation to the various components of P.E.S.

  19. Pulmonary Embolism as the First Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vallianou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is considered a hypercoagulable state due to several mechanisms such as the increased IL-6 and immunoglobulins production, the defective fibrinolytic mechanism, and the acquired resistance to activated protein C that are involved in the pathogenesis and clinical futures of the disease. We describe a case of a female patient who presented to the hospital with pulmonary embolism as the first manifestation of the hypercoagulability of multiple myeloma.

  20. National Trends in Home Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2018-01-01

    Management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism has evolved from obligatory hospitalization to home treatment of carefully selected low-risk patients. The purpose of this investigation is to determine national trends in the prevalence of home treatment of pulmonary embolism. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was used to determine the number of patients seen in emergency departments throughout the United States with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and the proportion hospitalized according to age, from 2007 to 2012. The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample was used to determine in-hospital all-cause mortality and length of stay of hospitalized patients. Patients were adults (≥18 years) of both genders and all races from all regions of the United States. Excluded patients were those in shock or on ventilator support. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify patients and comorbid conditions. Home treatment was selected for 54 494 (6.0%) of 915 702 stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism. The proportion of patients treated at home was age-dependent, highest in those aged 30 years or younger, 12.1%, and lowest in those >80 years, 2.9%. Most patients treated at home, 66.8%, and had no comorbid conditions. In-hospital all-cause deaths were 2.6%. Deaths were ≤0.9% in those ≤40 years and 4.8% in those >80 years. Length of stay was 6 days or longer in 37.6% of patients. In view of the lower death rate among younger patients, they might be a group in whom home treatment would be more advantageous than in elderly patients.

  1. Improving the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department is challenging due to the wide range of non-specific symptoms, lack of clinical diagnostic criteria, and imperfect investigations. Various scoring systems exist in an attempt to limit unnecessary investigations in those with low risk of PE. Following a baseline audit and subsequent PDSA cycles we implemented a flowchart for use in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism encouraging the correct use of the Wells Score and Pulmonary Embolism Rule out Criteria (PERC). The standard used for comparison was based on the NICE guidelines for diagnosis of PE with the addition that PERC could also be used if appropriate. Data was collected over four week periods before and after the introduction of our flowchart in two emergency departments in Melbourne. We aimed to increase documentation of pre-test probability, reduce inappropriate investigations, and increase the use of interim parenteral anticoagulation where there was a delay to imaging. Results showed an increase in the documentation of pre-test probability and the proportion of investigations requested that were inappropriate was reduced. The percentage of inappropriate d-dimers was reduced from 36% to 24%; the percentage of inappropriate CTPAs was reduced from 34% to 10%; and the percentage of inappropriate V/Q scans was reduced from 42% to 14%. Implementation of a simple diagnostic algorithm led to an increase in documentation of pre-test probability and a reduction in inappropriate and unnecessary investigations. This intervention may be applicable to other emergency departments where similar issues in diagnosing pulmonary embolism exist.

  2. Life-Threatening Contraceptive-Related Pulmonary Embolism in a 14-Year-Old Girl with Hereditary Thrombophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a case of life-threatening COC-associated pulmonary embolism in a girl heterozygous for the prothrombin G20210A mutation and with a family history of thrombotic disease, we discuss the importance of assessing not just the genotype but also the phenotype when considering initiation of COCs...... in patients with thrombophilia. CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old girl presented with acute onset of chest pain and dyspnea followed by syncope. She was hypoxic and hemodynamically compromised at admission. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed a large central "saddle" pulmonary embolism causing nearly...

  3. Pulmonary cement embolism after pedicle screw vertebral stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tonolini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial embolization of polymethylmethacrylate cement, most usually occurring after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, is very uncommon following vertebral stabilization procedures. Unenhanced CT scans viewed at lung window settings allow confident identification of cement emboli in the pulmonary circulation along with possible associate parenchymal changes, whereas hyperdense emboli may be less conspicuous on CT-angiographic studies with high-flow contrast medium injection. Although clinical manifestations are largely variable from asymptomatic cases to severe respiratory distress, most cases are treated with anticoagulation.

  4. An unusual cause of acute pulmonary embolism: giant hepatic hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Duygu Hatice Duygu Bas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are the most common benign hepatic tumors and are usually asymptomatic. Lesions measuring more than 4 cm in diameter are known as “giant hemangiomas” and may cause various symptoms or complications depending on the size, the location, and the degree of compression of adjacent structures. Pulmonary embolism is a very rare complication of giant hepatic hemangiomas. In this case report, we describe a patient with acute pulmonary emboli, which presumably originated from laminar thrombi in the inferior vena cava caused by compression by giant hepatic hemangiomas.

  5. Pulmonary embolism: ′the great masquerader′ of pneumonia in a patient with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G Manappallil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson′s disease are at risk of developing aspiration pneumonia. Pulmonary embolism is a rare but life-threatening complication in such patients, but could the same be true in progressive supranuclear palsy, an atypical form of Parkinsonism? This case report aims at highlighting the development of unprovoked pulmonary embolism in a patient with progressive supranuclear palsy and also describes how pulmonary embolism can mimic pneumonia in such patients.

  6. Pulmonary embolism: whom to discharge and whom to thrombolyze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G; Planquette, B; Sanchez, O

    2015-06-01

    Patients with pulmonary embolism can be divided in two groups according to their risk of death or major complication: a small group of high-risk patients defined by the presence of systemic hypotension or cardiogenic shock and a large group of normotensive patients. Among normotensive patients, further risk stratification, based on clinical grounds alone or on the combination of clinical data, biomarkers, and imaging tests, allows selection of low-risk patients and intermediate-risk patients. The safety of outpatient treatment for low-risk patients has been established mainly on the basis of retrospective and prospective cohorts using different selection tools. In most studies, about 50% of the patients have been safely treated at home. Although thrombolytic therapy has a favorable benefit to risk profile in patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism, the risk of major and especially intracranial bleeding outweighs the benefits in terms of hemodynamic decompensation in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Saddle Pulmonary Embolism: Laboratory and Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiographic Findings to Predict Short-term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Miao, Ran; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Hongxia; Hou, Qing; Guo, Youmin; Yang, Yuanhua

    2017-02-01

    Saddle pulmonary embolism (SPE) is rare type of acute pulmonary embolism and there is debate about its treatment and prognosis. Our aim is to assess laboratory and computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) findings to predict short-term mortality in patients with SPE. This was a five-centre, retrospective study. The clinical information, laboratory and CTPA findings of 88 consecutive patients with SPE were collected. One-month mortality after diagnosis of SPE was the primary end-point. The correlation of laboratory and CTPA findings with one-month mortality was analysed with area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analysis. Eighteen patients with SPE died within one month. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cutoff values for the right and left atrial diameter ratio, the right ventricular area and left ventricular area ratio (RVa/LVa ratio), Mastora score, septal angle, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for detecting early mortality were 2.15, 2.13, 69%, 57°, 3036 pg/mL and 0.18ng/mL, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis of laboratory and CTPA findings with regard to one-month mortality of SPE, RVa/LVa ratio and cTnI were shown to be independently associated with early death. A combination of cTnI and RVa/LVa ratio revealed an increase in the AUC value, but the difference did not reach significance compared with RVa/LVa or cTnI, alone (P>0.05). In patients with SPE, both the RVa/LVa ratio on CTPA and cTnI appear valuable for the prediction of short-term mortality. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Massive hemoptysis in a patient with pulmonary embolism, a real therapeutic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiolanda Herodotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive Hemoptysis and pulmonary embolism are two very severe and potentially fatal pulmonary emergencies requiring completely different treatments. We present the case of a 45-year old male transmitted to our Hospital for massive hemoptysis who at the same time was found to suffer from pulmonary embolism. Hemoptysis was treated with bronchial artery embolization which resulted in cessation of haemorrhage and allowed the administration of anticoagulant therapy a few days later. This case report gives an answer on how to manage a real therapeutic conundrum which is the coexistence of a massive hemoptysis and a concomitant pulmonary embolism.

  9. Evaluation of Protein C Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism

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    Tuba Ceviz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and develops as a result of obstruction of pulmonary artery and/or branches with pieces that ruptured from the DVT of the leg. Pulmonary embolism and DVT is also referred as venous thrombo-embolism (VTE, because two events often remain together. In the studies, it was found that protein C (PROC deficiency is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between pulmonary embolism and PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism in Turkish population. Methods: The DNAs of 114 pulmonary embolism cases and 120 healthy controls have been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP to evaluate the relation between PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism and pulmonary embolism in our study. Statistical analyses were performed by using chisquare and analysis of variance tests. Results: The proportion of individuals with CT genotype carrying polymorphic T allele as heterozygous form was 38.7% in the control group and 21.9% in the pulmonary embolism cases (p=0.047. When demographic and clinical characteristics of cases compared with PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism, it was observed that the changes in chest CT ratios could be associated with -1654C>T polymorphism (p=0.017. Conclusion: As a result, individuals with CT genotypes carrying the polymorphic T allele as heterozygous form have a lower risk of developing pulmonary embolism.

  10. Evaluation of Hemodynamic Changes and Respiratory Physical Findings in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Rabieepour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a potentially fatal disease with nonspecific symptoms and signs. Patients with Pulmonary embolism often have dyspnea, chest pain, haemoptysis, tachycardia tachypnea and respiratory physical finding including hypoxia and decreased ETCO2. Daily patients with Pulmonary embolism are very few in hospital course and we aimed to determine clinical and paraclinical findings in hospital pulmonary embolism patients. Methods: we assessed in hospital course of 104 patients with pulmonary embolism with symptom (dyspnea, chest pain, and hemoptysis and signs (tachypnea, tachycardia, DVT signs, blood pressure and respiratory physical findings (PO2, ETCO2. Results: majority of patients had risk factor for PTE; the most common was cancer. 21.2% of patients had apparent DVT in Doppler sonography. Isolated dyspnea (38%, chest pain with and without hemoptysis (60% and syncope (2% were observed in patients. Mean duration of dyspnea resolution was 3.4 days. Mean duration of chest pain resolution was 1.76 days. Mean duration of hemoptysis resolution was 2 days. 64.4% of the patients were hypoxic and mean duration of hypoxic resolution was 2.63 days. Mean duration of tachycardia resolution was 2.37 days. No relation was observed between size of PTE and mortality or hypotension and PO2. Mean ETCO2 was 23±2 mmHg and 86.5% of patients had ETCO2 lower than 28. Mean duration of ETCO2 resolution was 3.6 days. Most common physical finding that resolved later than others was ETCO2. In 32.7% of patients, ETCO2 did not resolve.   Key words: Pulmonary thromboembolism; Tachycardia; Tachypnea; Hemoptysis; Hypoxic; ETCO2

  11. Contrast enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography for pulmonary embolism: Building a successful program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Scott K; Schiebler, Mark L; Repplinger, Michael D; François, Christopher J; Vigen, Karl K; Yarlagadda, Rajkumar; Grist, Thomas M; Reeder, Scott B

    2016-03-01

    The performance of contrast enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is an effective non-ionizing alternative to contrast enhanced computed tomography and nuclear medicine ventilation/perfusion scanning. However, the technical success of these exams is very dependent on careful attention to the details of the MRA acquisition protocol and requires reader familiarity with MRI and its artifacts. Most practicing radiologists are very comfortable with the performance and interpretation of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) performed to detect pulmonary embolism but not all are as comfortable with the use of MRA in this setting. The purpose of this review is to provide the general radiologist with the tools necessary to build a successful pulmonary embolism MRA program. This review will cover in detail image acquisition, image interpretation, and some key elements of outreach that help to frame the role of MRA to consulting clinicians and hospital administrators. It is our aim that this resource will help build successful clinical pulmonary embolism MRA programs that are well received by patients and physicians, reduce the burden of medical imaging radiation, and maintain good patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrast Enhanced Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Pulmonary Embolism: Building a Successful Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Scott K; Schiebler, Mark L; Repplinger, Michael D; François, Christopher J; Vigen, Karl K; Yarlagadda, Rajkumar; Grist, Thomas M; Reeder, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    The performance of contrast enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is an effective non-ionizing alternative to contrast enhanced computed tomography and nuclear medicine ventilation/perfusion scanning. However, the technical success of these exams is very dependent on careful attention to the details of the MRA acquisition protocol and requires reader familiarity with MRI and its artifacts. Most practicing radiologists are very comfortable with the performance and interpretation of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) performed to detect pulmonary embolism but not all are as comfortable with the use of MRA in this setting. The purpose of this review is to provide the general radiologist with the tools necessary to build a successful pulmonary embolism MRA program. This review will cover in detail image acquisition, image interpretation, and some key elements of outreach that help to frame the role of MRA to consulting clinicians and hospital administrators. It is our aim that this resource will help build successful clinical pulmonary embolism MRA programs that are well received by patients and physicians, reduce the burden of medical imaging radiation, and maintain good patient outcomes. PMID:26860667

  13. Predictors of pulmonary hypertension after intermediate-to-high risk pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, André; Baptista, Rui; Nogueira, Antony; Jorge, Elisabete; Teixeira, Rogério; Castro, Graça; Monteiro, Pedro; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cardiovascular emergency that, when combined with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH), is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to determine the incidence of and predisposing factors for the development of PH after a PE episode. A retrospective study was conducted in 213 patients admitted to an intensive care unit with intermediate-to-high risk PE between 2000 and 2010. Clinical data at admission were collected and the incidence of PH as assessed by echocardiography (estimated pulmonary systolic artery pressure over 40 mmHg) was determined. Multivariate analysis was used to determine predictors of development of PH. PH was detected in 12.4% of patients after a mean follow-up of three years. Only age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.20 per year; p=0.012) and body mass index (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36) per kg/m2, p=0.013) emerged as independent predictors of the development of this complication during follow-up. PH after PE was a relatively common complication in our series. We identified advanced age and increased body mass index as predisposing factors. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-severe pulmonary embolism: Prognostic CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Anne-Line [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Bosson, Jean-Luc [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Statistics, CIC, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Hohn, Noelie [Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Carpentier, Francoise [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Pernod, Gilles [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Vascular Diseases, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively evaluate CT cardiovascular parameters and pulmonary artery clot load score as predictors of 3-month mortality in patients with clinically non-severe pulmonary embolism (PE). We included 226 CT positive for PE in hemodynamically stable patients (112 women; mean age 67.1 years {+-}16.9). CT were independently reviewed by two observers. Results were compared with occurrence of death within 3 months using Cox regression. Twenty-four (10.6%) patients died, for whom 9 were considered to be due to PE. Interobserver agreement was moderate for the shape of interventricular septum ({kappa} = 0.41), and for the ratio between the diameters of right and left ventricle (RV/LV) ({kappa} = 0.76). Observers found no association between interventricular septum shape and death. A RV/LV diameter ratio >1 was predictive of death (OR, 3.83; p < 0.01) only when we also took into account the value of the embolic burden (<40%). In a multivariate model, CT cardiovascular parameters were not associated with death. Concomitant lower limb DVT and comorbid conditions were important predictors of death. In clinically non-severe PE, a RV/LV diameter ratio >1 is predictive of death when the embolic burden is low (<40%).

  15. Can multislice CT alone rule out reliably pulmonary embolism? A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilabert, Jose Pamies [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain)]. E-mail: pamies_jos@gva.es; Manzur, Dolores Nauffal [Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain); Tarrasa, Maria J. Torres [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain); Llorens, Maximiliano Lloret [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain); Braun, Petra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital La Plana of Vila-real (Spain); Arques, Maria P. Bello [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety of withholding anticoagulation in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism after negative multislice computed tomography (MSCT) pulmonary angiography and lower-limb venography. Materials and methods: A total of 383 consecutive patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism were prospectively studied. Patients underwent MSCT pulmonary angiography and lower-limb venography, as well as pulmonary scintigraphy and lower-limb ultrasound examination. Patients with negative MSCT results for both pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis were not administered anticoagulants and were followed up for 6 months to rule out thromboembolism. Results: At MSCT, 156 patients were positive for pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, or both; 224 were negative; and findings were inconclusive in three. False-negatives were five patients with high probability scintigram and two with venous thrombosis detected at US. A total of 184 patients with negative MSCT and without anticoagulation were followed up for 6 months. During this period of time just one recurrence of pulmonary embolism was detected. The negative predictive value of MSCT pulmonary angiography plus lower-limb venography was 95.8% (183/191). Conclusion: MSCT is efficacious in diagnosing pulmonary embolism, with negative predictive values reported in the literature ranging from 94% to 100%. This enables omission of anticoagulation in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism after negative MSCT findings without the need for other diagnostic tests.

  16. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  17. Detection of pulmonary embolism with combined ventilation-perfusion SPECT and low-dose CT: head-to-head comparison with multidetector CT angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Mortensen, Jann; Jensen, Claus Verner

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually established by a combination of clinical assessment, D-dimer testing, and imaging with either pulmonary ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy or pulmonary multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography. Both V/Q SPECT and MDCT angiography seem to have...

  18. Pulmonary Embolism Originating from a Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into the Inferior Vena Cava: CT and MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Poyraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism due to hydatid cysts is a very rare clinical entity. Hydatid pulmonary embolism can be distinguished from other causes of pulmonary embolism with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. MRI especially displays the cystic nature of lesions better than CECT. Here we report a 45-year-old male patient with the pulmonary embolism due to ruptured hydatid liver cyst into the inferior vena cava.

  19. CTPA for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer-Prokop, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Prokop, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Utrecht Medical Center (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been suggested by the Fleischner society as the first test following a negative leg ultrasound in pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. This editorial discusses the use of CTPA as a diagnostic tool in pregnant women and comments on the need for specifically adapting CT protocols during pregnancy in the light of new research describing a substantial number of non-diagnostic examinations in pregnant women if routine scanning protocols are used for CTA of the pulmonary arteries. Potential reasons for these high numbers of insufficient examinations are physiological changes occurring during pregnancy that lead to a hyperdynamic circulation, which reduces average enhancement of the pulmonary vasculature. In addition, there are possible breathing-related effects that include an increased risk for Valsalva manoeuvre with devastating effects for pulmonary vascular enhancement. Techniques to overcome these problems are discussed: bolus triggering with short start delays, high flow rates or high contrast medium concentration, preferential use of fast CT systems and the use of low kVp CT techniques. CT data acquisition during deep inspiration should be avoided and shallow respiration may be considered as an alternative to suspended breathing in this patient group. All these factors can contribute to optimization of the quality of pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. It is time now to adapt our protocols and provide optimum care for this sensitive patient group.

  20. Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, A; Angiolillo, D J

    2001-12-01

    The pivotal role of lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) has been questioned in recent years due to the introduction of spiral computed tomography. However, the scintigraphic results used for comparisons are often those of the authoritative PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) study, carried out in the 1980s. Pulmonary scintigraphy has progressed from those years both in the methodological and interpretative fields, although perhaps too slowly. Results better than those of PIOPED's have been presented by study groups who used: 1) perfusion-only approach, 2) SPET imaging; 3) new interpretative criteria; 4) different prediction rules to integrate clinical and scintigraphic probabilities of PE. These advances are still insufficiently recognised by the nuclear medicine community, possibly due to a sort of PIOPED-based "cultural globalisation". This paper reviews the actual advantages and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques, the diagnostic role of scintigraphy within the diagnostic algorithms proposed by international working groups and scientific societies and the results obtained from SPET imaging in the diagnosis of PE.

  1. Rescue surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulrahman Elassal

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a rescue operation in high-risk PE. It could save patients with preoperative cardiac arrest. Early diagnosis, interdisciplinary team action, appropriate and emergent treatment strategy are necessary for favorable outcome.

  2. Mortality due to pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke among incident dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, G.; Stralen, K.J. van; Rosendaal, F.R.; Verduijn, M.; Ravani, P.; Palsson, R.; Leivestad, T.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Ferrer-Alamar, M.; Finne, P.; Meester, J. de; Wanner, C.; Dekker, F.W.; Jager, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    See also Zoccali C, Mallamaci F. Pulmonary embolism in chronic kidney disease: a lethal, overlooked and research orphan disease. This issue, pp 2481-3. Summary. Background: It is has been suggested that dialysis patients have lower mortality rates for pulmonary embolism than the general population,

  3. Mortality due to pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke among incident dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, G.; van Stralen, K. J.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Verduijn, M.; Ravani, P.; Palsson, R.; Leivestad, T.; Hoitsma, A. J.; Ferrer-Alamar, M.; Finne, P.; de Meester, J.; Wanner, C.; Dekker, F. W.; Jager, K. J.

    2012-01-01

    See also Zoccali C, Mallamaci F. Pulmonary embolism in chronic kidney disease: a lethal, overlooked and research orphan disease. This issue, pp 24813. Summary. Background: It is has been suggested that dialysis patients have lower mortality rates for pulmonary embolism than the general population,

  4. Syncope as a presentation of acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altınsoy B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bülent Altınsoy, Fatma Erboy, Hakan Tanrıverdi, Fırat Uygur, Tacettin Örnek, Figen Atalay, Meltem Tor Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey Purpose: Syncope is an atypical presentation for acute pulmonary embolism (APE. There are conflicting data concerning syncope and prognosis of APE. Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive patients aged 22–96 years (median, 68 years with APE were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Results: Prevalence of syncope was 13% (n=23 at the time of presentation. Compared to patients without syncope, those with syncope had a higher rate of central embolism (83% vs 43%, respectively, P=0.002, right ventricular dysfunction (91% vs 68%, P=0.021, and troponin positivity (80% vs 39%, P=0.001 but not 30-day mortality (13% vs 10%, P=0.716. Multivariate analysis showed that central localization (odds ratio: 9.08 and cardiac troponin positivity (odds ratio: 4.67 were the independent correlates of the presence of syncope in the patients with APE. Frequency of cardiopulmonary disease was lower, and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was shorter in patients with syncope (P=0.138 and 0.118, respectively, although not significant. Conclusion: Syncope most likely represents an intermediate condition between massive APE and hypotension. In APE patients with syncope, the prognosis seems to depend on the underlying pathology, the patient’s age, comorbidities and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission, and the use of thrombolytic therapy. Keywords: syncope, prognosis, pulmonary embolism, mortality rate, compression sonography, right ventricular dysfunction

  5. Pulmonary embolism as the primary presenting feature of nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Periwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old previously healthy male presented with subacute onset of shortness of breath and chest pain. He was diagnosed with bilateral extensive pulmonary embolism (PE. In the absence of any predisposing factors, an extensive workup for unprovoked thrombophilia was done. During the course of his illness, the patient developed anasarca and was diagnosed to be suffering from nephrotic syndrome (NS, secondary to membranous glomerulopathy. Although, thrombotic complications are commonly associated with NS, it is unusual for PE to be the primary presenting feature in these patients.

  6. Massive pulmonary embolism at the onset of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Sorà

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL, but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in  APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and arsenic trioxide (ATO obtaining complete remission.

  7. Multiple cardiac arrests induced by pulmonary embolism in a traumatically injured patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Qing; Li, Ke-Peng; Zhi, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pulmonary embolism-induced cardiac arrest should not be given up arbitrarily, knowing that the etiology of pulmonary embolism is reversible in most cases. Patient concerns: We present a case of continuous resuscitation lasting approximately 4 hours, during which 21 episodes of cardiac arrest occurred in a 46-year-old man who sustained high-level paraplegia after a road traffic accident. Diagnoses: Multiple cardiac arrests induced by pulmonary embolism. Interventions: The patient received cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolytic therapy. Outcomes: The patient was discharged in 2 weeks when his condition turned for the better. Lessons: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of patients with pulmonary embolism-induced cardiac arrest should not be given up arbitrarily, knowing that the etiology of pulmonary embolism is reversible in most cases. Effective external cardiac compression can not only save the patient's life but also attenuate neurological sequelae. Thrombolytic therapy is the key to the final success of resuscitation. PMID:29245284

  8. High D-dimer levels after stopping anticoagulants in pulmonary embolism with sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Suquia, Angela; Alonso-Fernández, Alberto; de la Peña, Mónica; Romero, David; Piérola, Javier; Carrera, Miguel; Barceló, Antonia; Soriano, Joan B; Arque, Meritxell; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Lorenzo, Alicia; García-Río, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. Elevated D-dimer levels and other biomarkers are associated with recurrent pulmonary embolism. The objectives were to compare the frequency of elevated D-dimer levels (>500 ng·mL(-1)) and further coagulation biomarkers after oral anticoagulation withdrawal in pulmonary embolism patients, with and without obstructive sleep apnoea, including two control groups without pulmonary embolism.We performed home respiratory polygraphy. We also measured basic biochemical profile and haemogram, and coagulation biomarkers (D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and soluble P-selectin).64 (74.4%) of the pulmonary embolism cases and 41 (46.11%) of the controls without pulmonary embolism had obstructive sleep apnoea. Plasmatic D-dimer was higher in PE patients with OSA than in those without obstructive sleep apnoea. D-dimer levels were significantly correlated with apnoea-hypopnoea index, and nocturnal hypoxia. There were more patients with high D-dimer after stopping anticoagulants in those with pulmonary embolism and obstructive sleep apnoea compared with PE without obstructive sleep apnoea (35.4% versus 19.0%, p=0.003). Apnoea-hypopnoea index was independently associated with high D-dimer.Pulmonary embolism patients with obstructive sleep apnoea had higher rates of elevated D-dimer levels after anticoagulation discontinuation for pulmonary embolism than in patients without obstructive sleep apnoea and, therefore, higher procoagulant state that might increase the risk of pulmonary embolism recurrence. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  9. RVAD Support in the Setting of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsano, Antonio; Sportelli, Elena; Olivieri, Guido Maria; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Borile, Silvia; Santini, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE), although normotensive, are characterized by right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and elevated levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage. The best treatment option in these cases is still a subject of debate and the use of thrombolysis in submassive PE remains controversial. A 57-year-old Caucasian male with unprovoked PE, normal blood pressure, and elevated troponin I values was referred to the cardiovascular department. In view of the presence of a right atrium thrombus, the patient underwent surgical embolectomy under extracorporeal circulation, with the extraction of a huge thrombus together with fragmented thrombi from both pulmonary arteries. The patient developed an acute right heart failure solved with a temporary RV assist device (RVAD) support. The RV recovery was observed after 72 hours following the implantation. RVAD placement should be considered in the management of PE in case of acute right heart failure after reperfusion therapy since it can bring the patient out of a death spiral.

  10. Pulmonary Embolism Caused by Intravenous Leiomyosarcoma of the Lower Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Soichiro; Goto, Masahide; Yamao, Hidetsugu; Tsukada, Toru; Sato, Masataka; Uekusa, Yoshifumi

    2018-01-11

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually caused by thrombosis or tumor. We report the long-term survival of a patient with PE due to a leiomyosarcoma in the deep vein. A 71-year-old woman complained of dyspnea and swelling of the left lower limb. Computed tomography revealed filling defects in the pulmonary arteries and deep vein. She was diagnosed with PE caused by venous thrombosis and treated with anticoagulant therapy. Her symptoms were prolonged, and D-dimer tests remained negative. Biopsy of the substance in the deep vein revealed leiomyosarcoma. The possibility of PE caused by extravascular or intravascular tumors should be considered when a patient is negative for D-dimer.

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization With Spherical Embolic Agent for Pulmonary Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Akihiko, E-mail: sekia@igtc.jp; Hori, Shinichi, E-mail: horishin@igtc.jp; Sueyoshi, Satoru, E-mail: sueyoshis@igtc.jp; Hori, Atsushi, E-mail: horiat@igtc.jp; Kono, Michihiko, E-mail: konom@igtc.jp; Murata, Shinichi, E-mail: muratas@igtc.jp; Maeda, Masahiko, E-mail: maedam@igtc.jp [Gate Tower Institute for Image Guided Therapy, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and local efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with superabsorbent polymer microspheres (SAP-MS) in patients with pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Sixteen patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases from RCC refractory to standard therapy were enrolled to undergo TAE with the purpose of mass reduction and/or palliation. The prepared SAP-MS swell to approximately two times larger than their dry-state size (100-150 {mu}m [n = 14], 50-100 {mu}m [n = 2]). Forty-nine pulmonary nodules (lung n = 22, mediastinal lymph node n = 17, and hilar lymph node n = 10) were selected as target lesions for evaluation. Local tumor response was evaluated 3 months after TAE according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST; version 1.1). The relationship between tumor enhancement ratio by CT during selective angiography and local tumor response was evaluated. Results: The number of TAE sessions per patient ranged from 1 to 5 (median 2.9). Embolized arteries at initial TAE were bronchial arteries in 14 patients (87.5 %) and nonbronchial systemic arteries in 11 patients (68.8 %). Nodule-based evaluation showed that 5 (10.2 %) nodules had complete response, 17 (34.7 %) had partial response, 15 (30.6 %) had stable disease, and 12 (24.5 %) had progressive disease. The response rate was significantly greater in 22 lesions that had a high tumor enhancement ratio than in 27 lesions that had a slight or moderate ratio (90.9 vs. 7.4 %, p = 0.01). Severe TAE-related adverse events did not occur. Conclusion: TAE with SAP-MS might be a well-tolerated and locally efficacious palliative option for patients with pulmonary metastases from RCC.

  12. Co-existance of Lymph Node Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Embolism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižbrahim Koc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism is occlusion of pulmonary arteries with a material originating from another part of the body and has a high fatality rate if not diagnosed and managed early. Tuberculosis is an infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, generally effecting lungs but involvement of other parts of the body is possible. Here we report a sixty three years old woman who admitted to our clinic with complaints of shortness of breath, weight loss and night sweats. Weight loss and night sweats in old age were suggestive of a malignancy but tumor markers were negative. Low oxygen saturation in a non-smoking previously healty person arise suspicion of pulmonary embolism. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed lymphadenopathy and pulmonary embolism. Pathology of the servical lymph node revealed caseation necrosis. In conclusion in patients with pulmonary embolism who has weight loss and low oxygen saturation beside the malignancy tuberculosis also should be excluded.

  13. A Pulmonary Embolism Response Team: initial experiences and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zern, Emily K; Young, Michael N; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cardiovascular condition resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Consensus recommendations suggest risk stratification of patients into three main categories: high-risk or 'massive' PE, intermediate-risk or 'submassive' PE, and low-risk PE. Given the relative dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials delineating optimal selection of the diverse medical, interventional, and surgical treatment approaches, clinical care requires a multidisciplinary expert approach to patients with PE. Areas covered: The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) was the first of its kind to create a multidisciplinary, rapid response team for acute PE, integrated within a research and educational framework. The MGH PERT has treated more than 700 patients with PE, the majority of which are in the 'massive' or 'submassive' categories. The PERT Consortium™ was founded in 2015 as a collaborative network between the growing number of PERT programs internationally, with greater than 80 institutions participating within one year of establishment. Expert commentary: Since its advent, the PERT model has expanded throughout the United States and internationally through a collaborative institutional and research network. PERT may represent a new standard for the care of patients with acute PE.

  14. Evaluation of computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in independent data sets of computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been reported to be an effective means for clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in detection of pulmonary embolism in CTPA images. The pulmonary vessel tree is extracted based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices at multiple scales followed by 3D hierarchical EM segmentation. A multiprescreening method is designed to identify suspicious PEs along the extracted vessels. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with feature selection is then used to reduce false positives (FPs). Two data sets of 59 and 69 CTPA PE cases were randomly selected from patient files at the University of Michigan (UM) and the PIOPED II study, respectively, and used as independent training and test sets. The PEs that were identified by three experienced thoracic radiologists were used as the gold standard. The detection performance of the CAD system was assessed by free response receiver operating characteristic analysis. The results indicated that our PE detection system can achieve a sensitivity of 80% at 18.9 FPs/case on the PIOPED cases when the LDA classifier was trained with the UM cases. The test sensitivity with the UM cases is 80% at 22.6 FPs/cases when the LDA classifier was trained with the PIOPED cases.

  15. A Pulmonary Embolism Response Team's initial 20 month experience treating 87 patients with submassive and massive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Friedman, Oren A; Dou, Eda; Denvir, Brendan; Askin, Gulce; Stern, Jamie; Estes, Jaclyn; Salemi, Arash; Winokur, Ronald S; Horowitz, James M

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERTs) have emerged to provide rapid multidisciplinary assessment and treatment of PE patients. However, descriptive institutional experience and preliminary outcomes data from such teams are sparse. PERT activations were identified through a retrospective review. Only confirmed submassive or massive PEs were included in the data analysis. In addition to baseline variables, the therapeutic intervention, length of stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality, and bleeding rate/severity were recorded. A total of 124 PERT activations occurred over 20 months: 43 in the first 10 months and 81 in the next 10. A total of 87 submassive (90.8%) and massive (9.2%) PE patients were included. The median age was 65 (51-75 IQR) years. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) was administered to 25 patients, systemic thrombolysis (ST) to six, and anticoagulation alone (AC) to 54. The median ICU stay and overall LOS were 6 (3-10 IQR) and 7 (4-14 IQR) days, respectively, with no association with any variables except a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) >100 pg/mL ( p=0.008 ICU LOS; p=0.047 overall LOS). Twelve patients (13.7%) died in the hospital, nine of whom had metastatic or brain cancer, with a median overall LOS of 13 (11-17 IQR) days. There were five major bleeds: one in the CDT group, one in the ST group, and three in the AC group. Overall, (1) PERT activations increased after the first 10 months; (2) BNP >100 pg/mL was associated with a longer LOS; (3) rates of mortality and bleeding did not correlate with treatment; and (4) the majority of in-hospital deaths occurred in patients with advanced cancer.

  16. Catheter-Directed Fibrinolysis of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism After IVC Filter Migration to Renal Veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kershaw V; Leef, Jeffrey A; Blair, John E; Shah, Atman P; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    A 76-year-old male presented with a submassive pulmonary embolism despite having an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Imaging demonstrated pulmonary artery emboli and a deep vein thrombosis in the left common femoral vein. Venography revealed the IVC filter with struts extending into the left and right renal veins. A new IVC filter was deployed below the prior filter. This case demonstrates IVC filter migration complicated by a submassive pulmonary embolism.

  17. Successful Surgical Treatment of Massive Pulmonary Embolism after Coronary Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Akay, Tankut Hakki; Sezgin, Atilla; Ozkan, Suleyman; Gultekin, Bahadir; Aslim, Erdal; Aslamaci, Sait

    2006-01-01

    Acute massive pulmonary embolism after cardiac surgery is very rare. Although accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment are crucial to a successful outcome, there is no standard treatment option. Thrombolytic therapy and catheter embolectomy are the usual treatment options, but they are associated with risks, especially in patients who experience massive pulmonary embolism after coronary artery bypass surgery. Open pulmonary embolectomy may be the best choice for treating these patients. This re...

  18. Suspected Pulmonary Embolism during Hickman Catheterization in a Child: What Else Should Be Considered besides Pulmonary Embolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemi Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A 16-month-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia expired during Hickman catheter insertion. She had undergone chemoport insertion of the left subclavian vein six months earlier and received five cycles of chemotherapy. Due to malfunction of the chemoport and the consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, insertion of a Hickmann catheter on the right side and removal of the malfunctioning chemoport were planned under general anesthesia. The surgery was uneventful during catheter insertion, but the patient experienced the sudden onset of pulseless electrical activity just after saline was flushed through the newly inserted catheter. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was commenced aggressively, but the patient was refractory. Migration of a thrombus generated by the previous central catheter to the pulmonary circulation was suspected, resulting in a pulmonary embolism.

  19. High risk of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis but not of stroke in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Obel, Niels; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with GPA at a Danish tertiary care center during 1993-2011 were identified (n = 180). Each patient was matched...

  20. Impact of delay in clinical presentation on the diagnostic management and prognosis of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Exter, Paul L.; Van Es, Josien; Erkens, Petra M.G.; Van Roosmalen, Mark J.G.; Van Den Hoven, Pim; Hovens, Marcel M.C.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The nonspecific clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE) frequently leads to delay in its diagnosis. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of delay in presentation on the diagnostic management and clinical outcome of patients with suspected PE. Methods: In 4,044

  1. Right ventricular dysfunction as an echocardiographic prognostic factor in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jae Hyung; Kutti Sridharan, Gurusaravanan; Kim, Seon Ha; Kaw, Roop; Abburi, Triveni; Irfan, Affan; Kocheril, Abraham G

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated whether right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) as assessed by echocardiogram can be used as a prognostic factor in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Short-term mortality has been investigated only in small studies and the results have been controversial. Methods A PubMed search was conducted using two keywords, “pulmonary embolism” and “echocardiogram”, for articles published between January 1st 1998 and December 31st 2011. Out of 991 ...

  2. Quantitative CT Evaluation of Small Pulmonary Vessels in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shin; Kotoku, Akiyuki; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Matsushita, Shoichiro; Fujikawa, Atsuko; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2018-01-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels and the CT obstruction index in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and the correlation between the changes in these measurements after anticoagulant therapy. Fifty-two patients with acute PE were selected for this study. We measured the CSA less than 5 mm2 on coronal reconstructed images to obtain the percentage of the CSA (%CSA < 5). CT angiographic index was obtained based on the Qanadli method for the evaluation of the degree of pulmonary arterial obstruction. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the initial and the follow-up values and changes in the %CSA < 5 and the CT obstruction index. There was no significant correlation between the %CSA < 5 and CT obstruction index on both initial (ρ = -0.03, P = 0.84) and follow-up (ρ = -0.03, P = 0.82) assessments. In contrast, there was a significant negative correlation between the changes in %CSA < 5 and the CT obstruction index (ρ = -0.59, P < 0.0001). Although the absolute %CSA < 5 and CT obstruction index were not significantly correlated, the changes in the values of the two parameters had a significant correlation. Changes in %CSA < 5, which can be obtained easily, can be used as biomarker of therapeutic response in patients with acute PE. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal pain as pulmonary embolism presentation, usefulness of bedside ultrasound: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, Matteo; Cattabiani, Chiara; Mumoli, Nicola; Dentali, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that a number of patients affected by hemodynamic stable pulmonary embolism are admitted to the emergency department presenting chest pain without further symptoms of pulmonary embolism, such as dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, syncope, and tachycardia, but in a few cases, the presenting symptoms are even more unusual. The gold standard for pulmonary embolism diagnosis is computed tomography pulmonary angiogram resulting in significant exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast, but recently bedside ultrasound has shown to be useful in diagnosing pulmonary embolism in the emergency department. We describe two cases of pulmonary embolism in young men evaluated in the emergency department for acute pain of the upper abdomen, preliminarily diagnosed as abdominal colic, in which bedside ultrasound ruled out abdominal diseases and showed basal pulmonary abnormalities consistent with infarction, suggesting the need of diagnostic completion with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. Bedside ultrasound was useful as complementary imaging test in diagnosing pulmonary embolism in young patients admitted for abdominal pain of unknown origin.

  4. [Pulmonary Embolism Despite Rivaroxaban in an Obese Patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Thomas; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is approved for therapy of venous thromboembolism. It is unclear whether the standard dose for patients with a body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2 is sufficient. History The 45-year-old patient was admitted because of increasing respiratory distress. She had a history of pulmonary embolism 30 months before the admission, a factor V Leiden mutation and several hospitalisations due to dermatomycoses. The patient briefly took phenprocoumon which was changed to 20 mg rivaroxaban due to a lack of adherence. Six months before admission, the patient paused the rivaroxaban therapy because of dental surgery and suffered a recurrent pulmonary embolism. Findings and Diagnosis The patient presented with increasing difficulty of breathing, morbid obesity with a BMI of 59.3 kg/m2 and intertrigo of the lower extremities. The ECG showed a right axis deviation, a pulmonary P-wave and an incomplete right bundle branch block. Computed tomography showed pulmonary embolisms of the left lower lobe. The pulmonary artery was dilated, and the right atrium was enlarged. Venous thrombosis of the lower limb could not be certainly ruled out. The D-dimer was elevated with 5.895 mg/L (normal value up to 169 mg/L) and NT-pro-BNP was elevated at 5.580 ng/L (normal value up to 0.5 ng/L). Sixteen hours after the onset of symptoms, 22 hours after the last dose, the serum rivaroxaban level was 137 ng/ml. According to manufacturers, the therapeutic range of rivaroxaban after 2 - 4 hours is 22 - 535 ng/ml, and after 24 hours 6 - 239 ng/ml. Therapy and course After initiation of a therapy with low-molecular weight heparin and subsequent oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon, the symptoms decreased. Conclusions It is highly probable that the pulmonary embolism occurred at a time when the rivaroxaban level was in the therapeutic range. Since there are only few data about safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and

  5. Utility and prevalence of imaging for underlying cancer in unprovoked pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homewood, R; Medford, A R

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines state that patients over 40 years of age with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism should be offered limited screening for possible cancer and considered for intensive screening (abdomino-pelvic computed tomography and mammography), despite no evidence for the latter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility and cost of intensive screening in routine clinical practice. Methods All patients diagnosed with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism between January 2014 and June 2014 in a single large UK teaching hospital were included. The information management department searched for patients with an International Classification of Diseases 10 discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and limited to 'acute pulmonary embolism with/without cor pulmonale'. Only patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism were included. Patients with chronic medical conditions predisposing to pulmonary embolism were excluded. NHS costs were obtained from the Trust Finance Department. These costs were used to generate the costs of limited versus intensive screening, and then scaled up using adult population census information and assuming the same incidence of idiopathic pulmonary embolism to estimate the annual NHS cost of intensive screening. Results Ninety-two patients were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, and 25 met the inclusion criteria. Clinical examination was often incomplete (84%). Limited screening was often missed (urinalysis 100%, serum calcium 64%). Intensive screening was performed in the majority of cases (68%, all abdomino-pelvic computed tomography with no cancer detected) with an £88 excess cost per patient. Conclusion Intensive screening in first unprovoked pulmonary embolism has a low yield, is costly and should not replace thorough clinical examination and basic screening.

  6. Incremental diagnostic quality gain of CTA over V/Q scan in the assessment of pulmonary embolism by means of a Wells score Bayesian model: results from the ACDC collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochon, Laila; McIntyre, Kaitlin; Nicolás, José M; Baez, Amado Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic value of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scan in the assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE) by means of a Bayesian statistical model. Wells criteria defined pretest probability. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA and V/Q scan for PE were derived from pooled meta-analysis data. Likelihood ratios calculated for CTA and V/Q were inserted in the nomogram. Absolute (ADG) and relative diagnostic gains (RDG) were analyzed comparing post- and pretest probability. Comparative gain difference was calculated for CTA ADG over V/Q scan integrating ANOVA p value set at 0.05. The sensitivity for CT was 86.0% (95% CI: 80.2%, 92.1%) and specificity of 93.7% (95% CI: 91.1%, 96.3%). The V/Q scan yielded a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI: 95%, 97%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI: 96%, 98%). Bayes nomogram results for CTA were low risk and yielded a posttest probability of 71.1%, an ADG of 56.1%, and an RDG of 374%, moderate-risk posttest probability was 85.1%, an ADG of 56.1%, and an RDG of 193.4%, and high-risk posttest probability was 95.2%, an ADG of 36.2%, and an RDG of 61.35%. The comparative gain difference for low-risk population was 46.1%; in moderate-risk 41.6%; and in high-risk a 22.1% superiority. ANOVA analysis for LR+ and LR- showed no significant difference (p = 0.8745, p = 0.9841 respectively). This Bayesian model demonstrated a superiority of CTA when compared to V/Q scan for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Low-risk patients are recognized to have a superior overall comparative gain favoring CTA.

  7. Oral direct thrombin inhibitors or oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Kesteven, Patrick; McCaslin, James E

    2015-12-04

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition in which a clot can travel from the deep veins, most commonly in the leg, up to the lungs. Previously, a pulmonary embolism was treated with the anticoagulants heparin and vitamin K antagonists. Recently, however, two forms of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been developed: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) and oral factor Xa inhibitors. The new drugs have characteristics that may be favourable over conventional treatment, including oral administration, a predictable effect, lack of frequent monitoring or re-dosing and few known drug interactions. To date, no Cochrane review has measured the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in the long-term treatment (minimum duration of three months) of pulmonary embolism. To assess the effectiveness of oral DTIs and oral factor Xa inhibitors for the long-term treatment of pulmonary embolism. The Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched January 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (last searched January 2015). Clinical trials databases were also searched for details of ongoing or unpublished studies. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles retrieved by electronic searches for additional citations. We included randomised controlled trials in which patients with a pulmonary embolism confirmed by standard imaging techniques were allocated to receive an oral DTI or an oral factor Xa inhibitor for the long-term (minimum duration three months) treatment of pulmonary embolism. Two review authors (LR, JM) independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias in the trials. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion with the third author (PK). We used meta-analyses when we considered heterogeneity low. The two primary outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality and major bleeding. We calculated all outcomes

  8. New Oral Anticoagulants in the Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism: Efficacy, Bleeding Risk, and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Rudd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulation therapy is mandatory in patients with pulmonary embolism to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. The mainstay of therapy has been vitamin-K antagonist therapy bridged with parenteral anticoagulants. The recent approval of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs: apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban has generated significant interest in their role in managing venous thromboembolism, especially pulmonary embolism due to their improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, predictable anticoagulant response, and lack of required efficacy monitoring. This paper addresses the available literature, on-going clinical trials, highlights critical points, and discusses potential advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants in patients with pulmonary embolism.

  9. The relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Xu, Mei; Guo, Jian; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Background Tumor markers (TMs) and D-Dimer are both hallmarks of severity and prognosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers could be related to pulmonary embolism (PE) in lung cancer. Results The number of abnormal tumor markers of lung cancer patients with pulmonary embolism (3.9 ? 1.1vs1.6 ? 0.6,P 0.005) was more than that in patients without pulmonary embolism. TMs panel (P trend < 0.001), CEA (R2 0.735, P0.003) and CYFRA21-1 (R2 0.718, P0.005) were positively correlated with D-Dimer in patients...

  10. Fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Guy; Vicaut, Eric; Danays, Thierry; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Becattini, Cecilia; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bluhmki, Erich; Bouvaist, Helene; Brenner, Benjamin; Couturaud, Francis; Dellas, Claudia; Empen, Klaus; Franca, Ana; Galiè, Nazzareno; Geibel, Annette; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Jimenez, David; Kozak, Matija; Kupatt, Christian; Kucher, Nils; Lang, Irene M; Lankeit, Mareike; Meneveau, Nicolas; Pacouret, Gerard; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Petris, Antoniu; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Rugolotto, Matteo; Salvi, Aldo; Schellong, Sebastian; Sebbane, Mustapha; Sobkowicz, Bozena; Stefanovic, Branislav S; Thiele, Holger; Torbicki, Adam; Verschuren, Franck; Konstantinides, Stavros V

    2014-04-10

    The role of fibrinolytic therapy in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism is controversial. In a randomized, double-blind trial, we compared tenecteplase plus heparin with placebo plus heparin in normotensive patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Eligible patients had right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography or computed tomography, as well as myocardial injury as indicated by a positive test for cardiac troponin I or troponin T. The primary outcome was death or hemodynamic decompensation (or collapse) within 7 days after randomization. The main safety outcomes were major extracranial bleeding and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke within 7 days after randomization. Of 1006 patients who underwent randomization, 1005 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Death or hemodynamic decompensation occurred in 13 of 506 patients (2.6%) in the tenecteplase group as compared with 28 of 499 (5.6%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.87; P=0.02). Between randomization and day 7, a total of 6 patients (1.2%) in the tenecteplase group and 9 (1.8%) in the placebo group died (P=0.42). Extracranial bleeding occurred in 32 patients (6.3%) in the tenecteplase group and 6 patients (1.2%) in the placebo group (P<0.001). Stroke occurred in 12 patients (2.4%) in the tenecteplase group and was hemorrhagic in 10 patients; 1 patient (0.2%) in the placebo group had a stroke, which was hemorrhagic (P=0.003). By day 30, a total of 12 patients (2.4%) in the tenecteplase group and 16 patients (3.2%) in the placebo group had died (P=0.42). In patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, fibrinolytic therapy prevented hemodynamic decompensation but increased the risk of major hemorrhage and stroke. (Funded by the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique in France and others; PEITHO EudraCT number, 2006-005328-18; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00639743.).

  11. An Experimental Model of Large Pulmonary Embolism Employing Controlled Release of Subacute Caval Thrombus in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Israel M.; Schenke, William H.; Halabi, Majdi; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Lederman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to develop a catheter based model of large pulmonary embolism in swine based on in situ venous thrombus formation. Materials and Methods Ten Yorkshire swine underwent transjugular implantation of a retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. A thrombin and collagen mixture was injected into a confined space created by two inflated balloons proximal and distal to the IVC filter. Animals were survived for 7±3 days to allow the thrombus to organize in situ. The caval thrombus was released upon transcatheter retrieval of the IVC filter and embolized into the main and branch pulmonary arteries. The severity of pulmonary embolism was scored by digital subtraction angiography (Miller index). At necropsy thrombi were recovered and analyzed by histopathology. Results Large pulmonary embolism was induced in all animals (average Miller index score of 15±5). Two animals developed saddle embolus with bilateral pulmonary artery occlusion and five developed proximal occlusion of either the left or right pulmonary arteries. Nevertheless no animal exhibited significant hemodynamic compromise. Large tubular thrombi were explanted in the size range of 5–10 cm long and .5–1 cm wide. Histology indicated an organized thrombus with infiltration of white blood cells and fibrin deposition. Conclusions Large caval thrombi can be formed in vivo and released at a predetermined time to induce large pulmonary embolism in a large animal model. This may help developing and testing new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary embolism. PMID:21802315

  12. Adaptive contrast-based computer aided detection for pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, M. S.; Devarakota, Pandu; Raghupathi, Laks; Lakare, Sarang; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnan, Arun

    2009-02-01

    This work involves the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in contrast-enhanced computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Contrast plays an important role in analyzing and identifying PE in CTPA. At times the contrast mixing in blood may be insufficient due to several factors such as scanning speed, body weight and injection duration. This results in a suboptimal study (mixing artifact) due to non-homogeneous enhancement of blood's opacity. Most current CAD systems are not optimized to detect PE in sub optimal studies. To this effect, we propose new techniques for CAD to work robustly in both optimal and suboptimal situations. First, the contrast level at the pulmonary trunk is automatically detected using a landmark detection tool. This information is then used to dynamically configure the candidate generation (CG) and classification stages of the algorithm. In CG, a fast method based on tobogganing is proposed which also detects wall-adhering emboli. In addition, our proposed method correctly encapsulates potential PE candidates that enable accurate feature calculation over the entire PE candidate. Finally a classifier gating scheme has been designed that automatically switches the appropriate classifier for suboptimal and optimal studies. The system performance has been validated on 86 real-world cases collected from different clinical sites. Results show around 5% improvement in the detection of segmental PE and 6% improvement in lobar and sub segmental PE with a 40% decrease in the average false positive rate when compared to a similar system without contrast detection.

  13. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Stratification, and Natural History of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nicholas J; Jansson, Paul S; Young, Michael N; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal form of venous thromboembolism that can be challenging to diagnose and manage. PE occurs when there is obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. A combination of acquired and inherited factors may contribute to the development of this disease and should be considered, since they have implications for both susceptibility to PE and treatment. Patients with suspected PE should be evaluated efficiently to diagnose and administer therapy as soon as possible, but the presentation of PE is variable and nonspecific so diagnosis is challenging. PE can range from small, asymptomatic blood clots to large emboli that can occlude the pulmonary arteries causing sudden cardiovascular collapse and death. Thus, risk stratification is critical to both the prognosis and management of acute PE. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and natural history of PE and deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Pulmonary artery catheter-directed thrombolysis for intermediate high risk acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of 60-year-old male with acute pulmonary embolism without hypotension but signs of right ventricular dysfunction and elevated cardiac biomarkers is reported in this study. The patient comes under intermediate high-risk category and was successfully thrombolysed with alteplase infused through pulmonary artery catheter. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT can be considered as much safer and effective alternative to systemic thrombolysis in such patients with lower risk of bleeding. This novel bedside method of pulmonary artery CDT with the advantage of no radiation exposure and real time monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures as an end-point of thrombolysis can be utilized in the near future.

  15. "Pulmonary Vein Sign" for Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis in Computed Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Zanon, Matheus; Souza, Arthur Soares; Irion, Klaus; Penha, Diana; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Considering that pulmonary arterial obstruction decreases venous flow, we hypothesized that filling defects in pulmonary veins can be identified in areas adjacent to pulmonary embolism (PE). This sign was named the "pulmonary vein sign" (PVS), and we evaluated its prevalence and performance for PE diagnosis in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of PE who underwent CTPA scan. The PVS was defined by the following criteria: (a) presence of a homogeneous filling defect of at least 2 cm in a pulmonary vein; (b) attenuation of the left atrium > 160 Hounsfield units. Using the cases that presented PE on CTPA as reference, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for PVS. In total, 119 patients (73 female; mean age, 62 years) were included in this study. PE was diagnosed in 44 (35.8%) patients. The PVS was present in 16 out of 44 patients with PE. Sensitivity was 36.36% (95% confidence interval (CI) 22.83-52.26%); specificity, 98.67% (95% CI 91.79-99.93%); positive predictive value, 94.12% (95% CI 69.24-99.69%); negative predictive value, 72.55% (95% CI 62.67-80.70%). The Kappa index for the PVS was good (0.801; 95% CI 0.645-0.957). PVS was correlated with lobar and segmental pulmonary embolism (p < 0.01). Despite a low sensitivity, presence of the pulmonary vein sign was highly specific for PE, with a good agreement between readers. This sign could contribute for PE diagnosis on CTPA studies.

  16. Catheter-directed therapy as a treatment for submassive pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Wan, Cheng-Quan; He, Xue-Gai; Qiu, Jia-Yong; Li, Dan-Yang; Sun, Yu-Xia; Mao, Yi-Min

    2017-11-01

    Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) is included in the guidelines for diagnosing and treating massive pulmonary embolism. However, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of CDT as a treatment for submassive pulmonary embolism (SPE). Therefore, we used evidence-based medicine to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CDT in treating SPE. Search terms describing CDT in SPE and patients with intermediate pulmonary embolism were entered into the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles without language restrictions published between January 1990 and December 2016. A quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two investigators. The clinical efficacy of and major complications associated with treatment were analysed using a fixed effects model. A total of 552 patients in 16 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The clinical success rate in CDT was approximately 100% (95% confidence interval (CI): 99%, 100%), the primary bleeding rate was 0.02% (95% CI: 0%, 0.05%), and mortality during hospitalization was approximately 0% (95% CI: 0%, 0.01%). The mean decrease in pulmonary artery systolic pressure after treatment was -14.9% (95% CI: -19.25%, -10.55%), and the mean post-treatment change in the ratio of the right to the left ventricle (RV/LV) was -0.35% (95% CI: -0.48%, -0.22%). CDT is effective and safe as a treatment for SPE and could be a first-line treatment for SPE under specific conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    physical restraint may occur in spite of no pre-existing risk factors. Medical guidelines for the prevention of thrombosis following physical restraint are presented. Despite the absence of controlled trials of treatment effectiveness, the catastrophic outcome of DVT and PE warrants early and vigorous......OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented....... The literature on physical restraint, DVT, and PE was reviewed using a search of Medline and Psychinfo from 1966 to the present. RESULTS: Four other reported cases of DVT and PE were found in association with physically restrained patients. CONCLUSION: Risk of DVT and PE in association with immobilization during...

  18. Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, considerable progress in technology and clinical research methods have led to advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute venous thromboembolism. Despite this, however, the diagnosis is still often missed and preventive methods are often ignored. Published guidelines are useful, but are limited by the existing evidence base so that controversies remain with regard to topics such as duration of anticoagulation, indications for placement and removal of inferior vena caval filters, and when and how to administer thrombolytic therapy. The morbidity and mortality of this disease remain high, particularly when undiagnosed. While preventive approaches remain crucial, the focus of this review is on the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to acute venous thromboembolism, with an emphasis on acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:22619694

  19. Diagnostic imaging of pulmonary embolism; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, A. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    1999-07-01

    There is a wide range of underlying causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: Coronary infarction, pneumothorax, pneumonia, acute cardiac insufficiency, symptomatic aortic aneurysma, or acute dissection of the aorta. The modalities available for radiological examination are plain X-ray radiography of the chest, ventilation/perfusion scintiscanning, spiral CT, MRT and primarily MR angiography, and intra-arterial DSA. (orig./MG) [German] Die differentialdiagnostische Palette zur Lungenembolie ist weit: Genannt werden als Differentialdiagnosen der Herzinfarkt, der Pneumothorax, die Pneumonie, das akute Herzversagen, das symptomatische Aortenaneurysma oder die akute Aortendissektion. An radiologischen diagnostischen Verfahren stehen die Roentgen-Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme, die Ventilations-/Perfusionsszintigraphie, das Spiral-CT, die MRT, insbesondere die MR-Angiographie und die intraarterielle DSA zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  20. D-Dimer and thrombus burden in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karsten; Beule, Johannes; Balzer, Jörn Oliver; Dippold, Wolfgang

    2018-01-17

    Thrombus burden in pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with higher D-Dimer-levels and poorer prognosis. We aimed to investigate i) the influence of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and high-risk PE-status on D-Dimer-levels and ii) effectiveness of D-Dimer to predict RVD in normotensive PE patients. Overall, 161 PE patients were analyzed retrospectively, classified in 5 subgroups of thrombus burden according to clinical indications and compared regarding D-Dimer-levels. Linear regression models were computed to investigate the association between D-Dimer and the groups. In hemodynamically stable PE patients, a ROC curve was calculated to assess the effectiveness of D-Dimer for predicting RVD. Overall, 161 patients (60.9% females, 54.0% aged >70 years) were included in this analysis. The D-Dimer-level was associated with group-category in a univariate linear regression model (β 0.050 (95%CI 0.002-0.099), P = .043). After adjustment for age, sex, cancer, and pneumonia in a multivariate model we observed an association between D-Dimer and group-category with borderline significance (β 0.047 (95%CI 0.002-0.096), P = .058). The Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated that D-Dimer increased significantly with higher group-category. In 129 normotensive patients, patients with RVD had significantly higher D-Dimer values compared to those without (1.73 (1.11/3.48) vs 1.17 (0.65/2.90) mg/l, P = .049). A ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.61, gender non-specific, with calculated optimal cut-off of 1.18 mg/l. Multi-variate logistic regression model confirmed an association between D-Dimer >1.18 mg/l and RVD (OR2.721 (95%CI 1.196-6.190), P = .017). Thrombus burden in PE is related to elevated D-Dimer levels, and D-Dimer values >1.18 mg/l were predictive for RVD in normotensive patients. D-Dimer levels were influenced by DVT, but not by cancer, pneumonia, age, or renal impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Influencing Hospital Stay for Pulmonary Embolism. A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Ruano-Raviña, Alberto; Abelleira, Romina; Ferreiro, Lucía; Lama, Adriana; González-Barcala, Francisco J; Golpe, Antonio; Toubes, María E; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M; Valdés, Luis

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing hospital stay due to pulmonary embolism. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized between 2010 and 2015. Patients were identified using information recorded in hospital discharge reports (ICD-9-CM codes 415.11 and 415.19). We included 965 patients with a median stay of 8 days (IQR 6-13 days). Higher scores on the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) were associated with increased probability of longer hospital stay. The probability of a hospital stay longer than the median was 8.65 (95% CI 5.42-13.79) for patients referred to the Internal Medicine Department and 1.54 (95% CI 1.07-2.24) for patients hospitalized in other departments, compared to those referred to the Pneumology Department. Patients with grade 3 on the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale had an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI: 1.07-2.49). The likelihood of a longer than median hospital stay was 1.72 (95% CI: 0.85-3.48) when oral anticoagulation (OAC) was initiated 2-3 days after admission, and 2.43 (95% CI: 1.16-5.07) when initiated at 4-5 days, compared to OAC initiation at 0-1 days. sPESI grade, the department of referral from the Emergency Department, the grade of dyspnea and the time of initiating OAC were associated with a longer hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Presentation of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Survey of 800 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Massimo; Cenci, Caterina; Monti, Simonetta; Poli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal disease that is still underdiagnosed. The objective of our study was to reappraise the clinical presentation of PE with emphasis on the identification of the symptoms and signs that prompt the patients to seek medical attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 800 patients with PE from two different clinical settings: 440 were recruited in Pisa (Italy) as part of the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED); 360 were diagnosed with and treated for PE in seven hospitals of central Tuscany, and evaluated at the Atherothrombotic Disorders Unit, Firenze (Italy), shortly after hospital discharge. We interviewed the patients directly using a standardized, self-administered questionnaire originally utilized in the PISAPED. The two samples differed significantly as regards age, proportion of outpatients, prevalence of unprovoked PE, and of active cancer. Sudden onset dyspnea was the most frequent symptom in both samples (81 and 78%), followed by chest pain (56 and 39%), fainting or syncope (26 and 22%), and hemoptysis (7 and 5%). At least one of the above symptoms was reported by 756 (94%) of 800 patients. Isolated symptoms and signs of deep vein thrombosis occurred in 3% of the cases. Only 7 (1%) of 800 patients had no symptoms before PE was diagnosed. Conclusions/Significance Most patients with PE feature at least one of four symptoms which, in decreasing order of frequency, are sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, fainting (or syncope), and hemoptysis. The occurrence of such symptoms, if not explained otherwise, should alert the clinicians to consider PE in differential diagnosis, and order the appropriate objective test. PMID:22383978

  3. Clinician gestalt estimate of pretest probability for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism in patients with chest pain and dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Stubblefield, William B

    2014-03-01

    Pretest probability helps guide diagnostic testing for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Pretest probability derived from the clinician's unstructured gestalt estimate is easier and more readily available than methods that require computation. We compare the diagnostic accuracy of physician gestalt estimate for the pretest probability of acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism with a validated, computerized method. This was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected, multicenter study. Patients (N=840) had chest pain, dyspnea, nondiagnostic ECGs, and no obvious diagnosis. Clinician gestalt pretest probability for both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism was assessed by visual analog scale and from the method of attribute matching using a Web-based computer program. Patients were followed for outcomes at 90 days. Clinicians had significantly higher estimates than attribute matching for both acute coronary syndrome (17% versus 4%; Pprobability but on receiver operating curve analysis were as accurate for pulmonary embolism but not acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Barometric pressure and the incidence of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, Mehmet; Mirici, Arzu; Aslan, Sahin; Akgun, Metin; Kaynar, Hasan; Saglam, Leyla; Gorguner, Metin

    2005-10-01

    Reports in the literature suggest that weather changes may play a role in venous thrombotic disease. An increase in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) during the spring season led us to investigate the relationship between atmospheric pressure (AP) and the incidence of PE, as diagnosed in most of the patients by helical CT angiography, and in the minority of patients by conventional pulmonary angiography and lung scanning. We retrospectively investigated the charts of 91 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PE who were evaluated by the Department of Pulmonary Medicine between August 2000 and September 2004. We documented AP changes as recorded by the Erzurum Provincial Department of Meteorology. Of the 91 patients, the diagnosis of PE was made by helical CT angiography in 84 patients, isotope lung scan in 5 patients, and conventional pulmonary angiography in 2 patients. More patients presented in the spring months (March, n = 15; April, n = 10; and May, n = 12) than during other seasons (p < 0.001). The frequency of PE was inversely related to general average AP (r = - 0.70; p < 0.01). When the average seasonal AP was correlated with the incidence of PE, however, the relationship was found to not be statistically significant (r = - 0.66; p = 0.34). There was no correlation between the severity of PE or mortality and AP. The incidence of PE was significantly higher in the spring months, when AP was low. A regional study to capture all PE patients will need to be done to confirm our findings. Other meteorologic factors should be investigated regarding their effect on thromboembolic disease.

  5. Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism--a 12-year retrospective analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Møller, Christian H; Carlsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE....

  6. Prognostic importance of quantitative echocardiographic evaluation in patients suspected of first non-massive pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Schaadt, Bente Krogsgaard; Lund, Jens Otto

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Patients suspected of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) frequently undergo echocardiography as a part of the initial work-up. Prognostic implication of routine echocardiography in patients suspected of PE remain to be established. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transthoracic echocardiography, including...

  7. Oral and inhaled corticosteroid use and risk of recurrent pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneeboer, Marlous M. S.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Majoor, Christof J.; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.

    Introduction: Chronic inflammatory diseases predispose for development of a first pulmonary embolism ( PE). Previous studies showed that corticosteroids, which are the mainstay of treatment for inflammatory diseases, enhance the risk of a first venous thromboembolism. Yet, it is unknown whether

  8. Use of bisphosphonates and raloxifene and risk of deep venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Schwartz, K; Pinholt, E M

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have associated raloxifene and strontium ranelate with deep venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. In a cohort study, we observed an increased risk also with the bisphosphonates. However, the increase was present already before the start of bisphosphonates pointing...

  9. Multidetector-CT angiography in pulmonary embolism - can image parameters predict clinical outcome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, Christoph M.; Lemburg, Stefan P.; Nicolas, Volkmar; Roggenland, Daniela [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitaetsklinikum Bergmannsheil GmbH, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Knoop, Heiko [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitaetsklinikum Bergmannsheil GmbH, Medical Clinic III - Pneumology, Allergology, and Sleep Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Holland-Letz, Tim [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Bochum (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To assess if pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) can predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective analysis of CTA studies of patients with PE and documentation of pulmonary artery (PA)/aorta ratio, right ventricular (RV)/left ventricular (LV) ratio, superior vena cava (SVC) diameter, pulmonary obstruction index (POI), ventricular septal bowing (VSB), venous contrast reflux (VCR), pulmonary infarction and pleural effusion. Furthermore, duration of total hospital stay, necessity for/duration of ICU therapy, necessity for mechanical ventilation and mortality were recorded. Comparison was performed by logistic/linear regression analysis with significance at 5%. 152 patients were investigated. Mean duration of hospital stay was 21 {+-} 24 days. 66 patients were admitted to the ICU; 20 received mechanical ventilation. Mean duration of ICU therapy was 3 {+-} 8 days. Mortality rate was 8%. Significant positive associations of POI, VCR and pulmonary infarction with necessity for ICU therapy were shown. VCR was significantly associated with necessity for mechanical ventilation and duration of ICU treatment. Pleural effusions were significantly associated with duration of total hospital stay whereas the RV/LV ratio correlated with mortality. Selected CTA findings showed significant associations with the clinical course of PE and may thus be used as predictive parameters. (orig.)

  10. [D-dimer testing in the emergency department: age adjustment, inappropriate use, and ability to predict the extension and severity of pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraondo Fraile, Javier; Juan Samper, Gustavo; Fernández-Fabrellas, Estrella; Konishi, Izumi; López Vazquéz, Ana; Bediaga Collado, Ana; Ramón Capilla, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether using D-dimer test results adjusted for age according to the formula proposed by Douma et al. improves diagnostic accuracy; to assess the appropriateness of ordering D-dimer tests on clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism; and to explore the association of test results with the extension and severity of the embolism. Retrospective observational study of 1833 cases in which D-dimer testing was ordered for patients in our hospital's emergency department in the course of a year. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values using our hospital's D-dimer cutoff of 250 μg/mL adjusted for age with a modification of Douma et al.'s formula. When information about pulmonary embolism extension and severity was on record, we assessed the correlation with test results. Adjusting D-dimer level for age increased the number of true negatives and the specificity and positive predictive value of the test. D-dimer level correlated significantly with the extension of pulmonary embolism (r=0.41, P<.05) but not with clinical severity. Adjusting the D-dimer test result by age improves accuracy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, even though clinical suspicion in Spain does not follow guideline recommendations. Our findings suggest that Ddimer level correlates with the extension but not the severity of pulmonary embolism.

  11. Pulmonary embolism after long duration rail travel: economy class syndrome or rail coach syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, S K; Chopra, S; Calton, R

    2011-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism after long duration air travel is well described. However it can also occur following a long duration rail or road transport. We present a case of 43 year old male who developed deep venous thrombosis and acute pulmonary embolism after a long rail journey. We propose to call it as rail coach syndrome and stress the need for taking the same preventive measures as recommended for airline passengers.

  12. Ventilation-perfusion patterns in lung diseases (with reference to those observed in pulmonary embolism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H R; Amir, R; Vandevivere, J

    1985-01-01

    The frequency distributions of ventilation-perfusion (V-P) patterns in various lung diseases were compared to those observed in pulmonary embolism in order to determine whether the specific V-P patterns for pulmonary embolism constituted a frequent finding in these disorders. The results showed that a segmental or lobar perfusion defect with normal ventilation, was associated with a high probability of thromboembolic lung disease, and was not present in any of the other lung diseases studied.

  13. Ventilation-perfusion patterns in lung diseases (with reference to those observed in pulmonary embolism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, H.R.; Amir, R.; Vandevivere, J.

    1985-02-01

    The frequency distributions of ventilation-perfusion (V-P) patterns in various lung diseases were compared to those observed in pulmonary embolism in order to determine whether the V-P patterns for pulmonary embolism constituted a frequent finding in these disorders. The results showed that a segmental or labor perfusion defect with normal ventilation, was associated with a high probability of thromboembolic lung disease, and was not present in any of the other lung diseases studied.

  14. Limited value of novel pulmonary embolism biomarkers in patients with coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Mortensen, Jann; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2011-01-01

    Recent research supports the efficacy of various plasma biomarkers in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) including E-selectin, MMP-9, MPO, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, adiponectin, hs-CRP and tPAI-1.......Recent research supports the efficacy of various plasma biomarkers in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) including E-selectin, MMP-9, MPO, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, adiponectin, hs-CRP and tPAI-1....

  15. Case-crossover study to examine the change in postpartum risk of pulmonary embolism over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheur, Grégoire; Caron, Alexandre; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Ferret, Laurie; Jung, Yu-Jin; Garabedian, Charles; Beuscart, Régis; Chazard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-14

    Although the current guidelines recommend anticoagulation up until 6 weeks after delivery in women at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the risk of VTE may extend beyond 6 weeks. Our objective was to estimate the risk of a pulmonary embolism in successive 2-week intervals during the postpartum period. In a population-based, case-crossover study, we analyzed the French national inpatient database from 2007 to 2013 (n = 5,517,680 singleton deliveries). Using ICD-10 codes, we identified women who were diagnosed with a postpartum pulmonary embolism between July 1st, 2008, and December 31st, 2013. Deliveries were identified during a case "period" immediately before the pulmonary embolism, and five different control periods one year before the pulmonary embolism. Using conditional logistic regression, Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) were estimated for ten successive 2-week intervals that preceded the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We identified 167,103 cases with a pulmonary embolism during the inclusion period. After delivery, the risk of pulmonary embolism declined progressively over time, with an OR [95%CI] of 17.2 [14.0-21.3] in postpartum weeks 1 to 2 and 1.9 [1.4-2.7] in postpartum weeks 11 to 12. The OR [95%CI] in postpartum weeks 13 to 14 was 1.4 [0.9-2.0], and the OR did not fall significantly after postpartum week 14. Our findings indicate that women are at risk of a pulmonary embolism up to 12 weeks after delivery. The shape of the risk curve suggests that the risk decreases exponentially over time. Future research is needed to establish whether the duration of postpartum anticoagulation should be extended beyond 6 weeks.

  16. Midterm outcomes of catheter-directed interventions for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nathan L; Chaer, Rabih A; Marone, Luke K; Singh, Michael J; Makaroun, Michel S; Avgerinos, Efthymios D

    2017-04-01

    Objective The hemodynamic benefits of catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute pulmonary embolism have not been clearly defined beyond the periprocedural period. The objective of this study is to report midterm outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis for treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Methods Records of all patients undergoing catheter-directed thrombolysis for high- or intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism were retrospectively reviewed. Endpoints were clinical success, procedure-related complications, mortality, and longitudinal echocardiographic parameter improvement. Results A total of 69 patients underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis (mean age 59 ± 15 y, 56% male). Eleven had high-risk and 58 intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Baseline characteristics did not differ by pulmonary embolism subtype. Fifty-two percent of patients underwent ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis, 39% standard catheter-directed thrombolysis, and 9% other interventional therapy; 89.9% had bilateral treatment. Average treatment time was 17.7 ± 11.3 h with average t-Pa dose of 28.5 ± 19.6 mg. The rate of clinical success was 88%. There were two major (3%) and six minor (9%) periprocedural bleeding complications with no strokes. All echocardiographic parameters demonstrated significant improvement at one-year follow-up. Pulmonary embolism-related in-hospital mortality was 3.3%, and estimated survival was 81.2% at one year. Conclusions Catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective for treatment of acute pulmonary embolism, with sustained hemodynamic improvement at one year. Further prospective large-scale studies are needed to determine comparative effectiveness of interventions for acute pulmonary embolism.

  17. Pulmonary Embolism following Cessation of Infliximab for Treatment of Miliary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 41-year-old male who presented with tachycardia and swelling of his left arm six weeks after he started antituberculosis treatment and stopped his rheumatoid arthritis infliximab treatment. He was diagnosed with pulmonary embolism by chest CT and initially treated with warfarin, which interacted with his antituberculosis treatment. This presentation of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as part of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has not been previously reported for infliximab treated patients.

  18. Dual-energy CT angiography of the lung in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Michaely, H.J. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Johnson, T.R.; Morhard, D.; Becker, C.; Reiser, M.; Nikolaou, K. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT angiography (CTA) of the lung in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). 24 patients with suspected PE were examined with a single-acquisition, dual-energy CTA protocol (A-system: 140 kV/65 mAsref, B-system: 80 kV/190 mAsref) on a dual-source CT system. Lung perfusion was visualized by color-coding voxels containing iodine and air using dedicated dual-energy post-processing software. Perfusion defects were classified by two blinded radiologists as being consistent or non-consistent with PE. Subjective image quality of perfusion maps and CTA was rated using a 5-point scale (1: excellent, 5: poor). The reading of a third independent radiologist served as the standard of reference for the diagnosis of PE. In all patients with PE (n = 4), perfusion defects classified as being consistent with PE were identified in lung areas affected by PE. Both readers did not record perfusion defects classified as being consistent with PE in any of the patients without PE. Thus, on a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of PE was 100% for both readers. On a per segment basis the sensitivity and specificity ranged between 60 - 66.7% and 99.5 - 99.8%. The interobserver agreement was good (k = 0.81). Perfusion defects rated as non-consistent with PE were most frequently caused by streak artifacts from dense contrast material in the great thoracic vessels. The median score of the image quality of both the perfusion maps and CTA was 2. In conclusion, dual-energy CTA of pulmonary embolism is feasible and allows the assessment of perfusion defects caused by pulmonary embolism. Further optimization of the injection protocol is required to reduce artifacts from dense contrast material. (orig.)

  19. Wells score and Pulmonary Embolism Rule Out Criteria in preventing over investigation of pulmonary embolism in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, Müge; Topbaşi Sinanoğlu, Nazlı; Doğan, Nurettin Ozgür; Oğuzülgen, Ipek Kıvılcım; Demircan, Ahmet; Bildik, Fikret; Ekim, Numan Nadir

    2014-01-01

    Unnecessary diagnostic tests are usually ordered to most of the patients with dyspnea or pleuritic chest pain, because of the worse outcomes of missed diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). To identify rates and causes of over investigation for PE and to search whether it was possible to reduce this over investigation by using Wells score and Pulmonary Embolism Rule Out Criteria (PERC). A retrospective observational cohort study performed in an emergency department of a tertiary care university hospital. All patients who were ordered diagnostic with the suspicion of PE were included in the study. They were grouped into two as PE (+) and PE (-) and compared. Among 108 patients, 53 (49%) were diagnosed as PE (+) and overdiagnosis was present in 55 (51%) patients i.e., PE (-). The sensitivity of high Wells score was 43%, specificity 78%, positive predictive value 66% and negative predictive value 59%. PERC criteria found to be negative (when all of the eight criteria were fulfilled) in only five patients. The sensitivity of the test was 98%, specificity 7%, positive predictive value 50%, negative predictive value 80%. When individual parameters of PERC were evaluated solely for the exclusion of PE; "no leg swelling" and "no previous deep venous thrombosis or PE history" were found significantly negatively correlated with PE diagnosis (p= 0.001, r= -0.325 and p= 0.013, r= -0.214 respectively). Over investigation of PE in emergency departments still remains as an important problem. In order to prevent this, the clinical prediction rules must be developed further and their use in combination should be searched in future studies.

  20. Fatal pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients. Clinical diagnosis versus pathological confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To assess the incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism (FPE, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, and the profile of patients who suffered an FPE in a tertiary University Hospital. METHODS - Analysis of the records of 3,890 autopsies performed at the Department of General Pathology from January 1980 to December 1990. RESULTS - Among the 3,980 autopsies, 109 were cases of clinically suspected FPE; of these, 28 cases of FPE were confirmed. FPE accounted for 114 deaths, with clinical suspicion in 28 cases. The incidence of FPE was 2.86%. No difference in sex distribution was noted. Patients in the 6th decade of life were most affected. The following conditions were more commonly related to FPE: neoplasias (20% and heart failure (18.5%. The conditions most commonly misdiagnosed as FPE were pulmonary edema (16%, pneumonia (15% and myocardial infarction (10%. The clinical diagnosis of FPE showed a sensitivity of 25.6%, a specificity of 97.9%, and an accuracy of 95.6%. CONCLUSION - The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism made on clinical grounds still has considerable limitations.

  1. Reduction of lymph tissue false positives in pulmonary embolism detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Bernard; Liang, Jianming; Bi, Jinbo; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious medical condition, characterized by the partial/complete blockage of an artery within the lungs. We have previously developed a fast yet effective approach for computer aided detection of PE in computed topographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA),1 which is capable of detecting both acute and chronic PEs, achieving a benchmark performance of 78% sensitivity at 4 false positives (FPs) per volume. By reviewing the FPs generated by this system, we found the most dominant type of FP, roughly one third of all FPs, to be lymph/connective tissue. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that specifically aims at reducing this FP type. Our idea is to explicitly exploit the anatomical context configuration of PE and lymph tissue in the lungs: a lymph FP connects to the airway and is located outside the artery, while a true PE should not connect to the airway and must be inside the artery. To realize this idea, given a detected candidate (i.e. a cluster of suspicious voxels), we compute a set of contextual features, including its distance to the airway based on local distance transform and its relative position to the artery based on fast tensor voting and Hessian "vesselness" scores. Our tests on unseen cases show that these features can reduce the lymph FPs by 59%, while improving the overall sensitivity by 3.4%.

  2. CT Angiography: Post-processed Contrast Enhancement for Improved Detection of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzel, Daniela; Fingerle, Alexander A; Zahel, Tina; Sauter, Andreas; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Dobritz, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to improve the detection of pulmonary embolism via an iodine contrast enhancement tool in patients who underwent suboptimal enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA). We evaluated the CT examinations of 41 patients who underwent CTA for evaluation of the pulmonary arteries which suffered from suboptimal contrast enhancement. The contrast enhancement of the reconstructed images was increased via a post-processing tool (vContrast). Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were assessed in eight different regions: main pulmonary artery, right and left pulmonary arteries, right and left segment arteries, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and bone. For subjective image assessment, three experienced radiologists evaluated the diagnostic quality. While employing the post-processing algorithm, the CNR for contrast-filled lumen and thrombus/muscle improves significantly by a factor of 1.7 (CNR without vContrast = 8.48 ± 6.79/CNR with vContrast = 14.46 ± 5.29) (P image analysis illustrated a significant improvement using post-processing for clinically relevant criteria such as diagnostic confidence. vContrast makes CT angiograms with inadequate contrast applicable for diagnostic evaluation, offering an improved visualization of the pulmonary arteries. In addition, vContrast can help in the significant reduction of the iodine contrast material. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of the sharp changes in the use of contraception in 2013 on the risk of pulmonary embolism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricotel, A; Collin, C; Zureik, M

    2015-09-01

    In late 2012, a national pill crisis led French women to promptly change their behavior regarding contraception, with a significant increase in the use of first-generation and second-generation combined oral contraceptives to the detriment of third-generation and fourth-generation products (C3Gs and C4Gs). To assess the impact of the sharp changes in 2013 on the rate of women hospitalized for pulmonary embolism in France. All hospitalized pulmonary embolisms in women aged 15-49 years, excluding those occurring during delivery stay, were identified from the French national hospital discharge databases from 2010 to 2013. Hospitalization rates, overall and by age group, were calculated. We compared rates in 2013 with those in 2012, and with mean rates over the preceding 3-year period (2010-2012). Two populations of non-users of contraceptives were used as control groups: men aged 15-49 years, and women aged 50-69 years. The expected reduction in pulmonary embolism incidence, estimated by modeling the number of expected cases based on modifications of combined oral contraceptive exposure, was also considered. In France, in 2013 as compared with 2012, the pulmonary embolism hospitalization incidence rate in women aged 15-49 years fell by 10.6%, corresponding to a reduction of 322 hospitalizations (95% confidence interval -468 to -156). The expected pulmonary embolism reduction is consistent with the observed reduction in hospitalization incidence rate (-10.2% and -10.6%, respectively). Such a pattern was not observed in the control groups. The sharp change in contraception methods, with decreased use of C3Gs and C4Gs, probably played a major role in the reduction in venous thromboembolism morbidity in France. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Non-ECG-gated CT pulmonary angiography and the prediction of right ventricular dysfunction in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Mortensen, Jann; Mørk, Mette Louise

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is an important prognostic factor of 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiovascular parameters attained during computed tomography pulmonary...

  5. Clinical impact of findings supporting an alternative diagnosis on CT pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Josien; Douma, Renée A.; Schreuder, Sanne M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is commonly used as the first imaging test in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Other CTPA findings may provide an alternative explanation for signs and symptoms in these patients, but the clinical impact is not

  6. [Potential utility of a renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for improving the exclusion of pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Yang, Jinghua; Wang, Zengzhi; Zhu, Chenxi; Li, Jie; Liu, Shuang

    2015-08-11

    To evaluate the potential utility of a renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for improving the exclusion of pulmonary embolism. Retrospective analyses were performed for 1 784 inpatients and outpatients with low and moderate probability of pulmonary embolism at Anzhen Hospital from January 2011 to June 2013. The Well's score was used. The diagnoses of pulmonary embolism were confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and ventilation-perfusion scan. Based upon estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), they were divided into three subgroups of normal renal function, mild renal impairment and moderate renal impairment. Negative D-dimer was defined as a level of age-standardized D-dimer valuecut-off point in patients with renal impairment was developed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the effect of diagnostic efficiency of ruling out pulmonary embolism with renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off was assessed. The medians of D-dimer of three subgroups with normal renal function, mild renal impairment and moderate renal impairment were 291.5, 995.5 and 1 901.5 µg/L (Pcut-off value increased to 1.2 and 1.75 times of old one in patients with mild and moderate renal impairments and the proportion of patients with a negative D-dimer level rose from 48.7% to 53.0% as compared with old D-dimer cut-off value. The sensitivity and specificity of negative D-dimer for ruling out pulmonary embolism was 98% and 62% with the new cut-off value versus 99% and 57% with the old cut-off value and the NNT of D-dimer for ruling out pulmonary embolism declined from 3.52 to 3.34. The renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off point can improve the diagnostic efficiency of D-dimer test for ruling out pulmonary embolism.

  7. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and embolic complications in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Ferreyro, Bruno L; Wainstein, Esteban J; Serra, Marcelo M

    2014-07-01

    Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) face higher risk of embolic complications. It is not clear whether poor outcomes are related to PAVM severity or pulmonary symptoms. Furthermore, there is currently no available data on HHT patients in Argentina. We conducted a cross sectional study in a teaching hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We describe baseline characteristics of HHT and compare the prevalence of embolic complications in patients with significant PAVM compared to patients without significant PAVM. One hundred and eight consecutive patients were included. Significant PAVM was defined as: contrast echocardiography grade 2 or greater; bilateral PAVM or feeding artery bigger than 3mm; or previous PAVM treatment. Primary composite outcome was defined as: cerebrovascular accident, cerebral abscess or peripheral embolism. 20% of participants had embolic complications, the most frequent one was stroke. Embolic complications were associated with significant PAVM and respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index and its Prognostic Value in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Ghaffari, Samad; Pourafkari, Leili; Dehghani, Pooyan; Hajizadeh, Reza; Nadiri, Mehdi; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Various risk stratification systems have been used to predict the clinical outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). In this study we present a modification of the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (S-PESI) score and evaluate its accuracy in predicting the outcome of these patients. Patients older than 18 years with documented PE were enrolled in this study. S-PESI was calculated in all patients. We added electrocardiographic evidence of right ventricular strain as a new criteria and replaced the O2 saturation of <90% in S-PESI score with PaO2 /PaCO2 ratio obtained from the arterial blood gas analysis as two newly modified criteria to define a modified form of S-PESI system (modified s-PESI). Patients were followed for about one year in outpatient clinics. Any deaths attributable to PE or for unknown reasons were considered as PE related. We defined Major Adverse Cardio-Pulmonary Events (MACPE) as sum of one-year mortality, need for thrombolysis and mechanical ventilation during index hospitalisation. Among 300 enrolled patients, in-hospital mortality occurred in 38 (12.7%) and one-year mortality in 73 (24.3%) patients. Considering a cut-off point of 3, modified s-PESI score had a lower sensitivity (49.3% vs. 89%) and higher specificity (79.4% vs. 37.7%) than S-PESI to predict one-year mortality. Area Under Curve (AUC) to predict MACPE was significantly higher for modified s-PESI (0.692 vs 0.730, P=0.012). The modified s-PESI is superior to S-PESI in predicting one-year outcome in patients with PE and can be used for more accurate risk stratification of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Carolina; Jiménez, David; De Miguel, Javier; Martí, David; Díaz, Gema; Sueiro, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is often complicated by the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some studies have suggested that patients with PE and concomitant COPD have a worse prognosis than patients without COPD. Outpatients diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE at a university tertiary care hospital were prospectively included in the study. Clinical characteristics, time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis, and outcome were analyzed according to presence or absence of COPD. The primary endpoint was all-cause deaths at 3 months. Of 882 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute symptomatic PE, 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6%-9%) had COPD. Patients with COPD were significantly more likely to have a delay in diagnosis of more than 3 days and to have a low pretest probability of pulmonary embolism according to a standardized clinical score. The total number of deaths during 3 months of follow-up was 128 (14%; 95% CI, 12%-17%). Factors significantly associated with mortality from all causes were a history of cancer or immobilization, systolic blood pressure less than 100mm Hg, and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation less than 90%. COPD was significantly associated with PE-related death in the logistic regression analysis (relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-5.1). Patients with COPD and PE more often have a lower pretest probability and a longer delay in diagnosis of PE. COPD is significantly associated with PE-related death in the 3 months following diagnosis.

  10. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging of cardiovascular effects of pulmonary embolism: What the radiologists need to know

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Aboul-fotouh E. Mourad; Ahmed Fathy A. Al Gebaly; Manal F. Abu Samra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with pulmonary embolism have high mortality and morbidity rate due to right heart failure and circulatory collapse leading to sudden death. Multi-detector computed tomography MDCT can efficiently evaluate the cardiovascular factors related to pulmonary embolism. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in differentiation of between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism groups depending on the associated cardiovascular ...

  11. Widening of coronary sinus in CT pulmonary angiography indicates right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staskiewicz, Grzegorz [Medical University of Lublin, 1. Department of Radiology, Lublin (Poland); Medical University of Lublin, Department of Human Anatomy, Lublin (Poland); Czekajska-Chehab, Elzbieta; Trojanowska, Agnieszka; Drop, Andrzej [Medical University of Lublin, 1. Department of Radiology, Lublin (Poland); Przegalinski, Jerzy; Tomaszewski, Andrzej [Medical University of Lublin, Chair and Department of Cardiology, Lublin (Poland); Torres, Kamil; Torres, Anna [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Human Anatomy, Lublin (Poland); Maciejewski, Ryszard [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Human Anatomy, Lublin (Poland); UITM Rzeszow, Medical Emergency Department, Rzeszow (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) may occur in the course of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Patients with RVD need more intensive treatment, and the prognosis is more severe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the measurement of the coronary sinus in the assessment of RVD in patients with acute PE and to compare it with other indicators of RVD. Retrospective assessment of 55 CT pulmonary angiography examinations with signs of acute PE was performed. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was echocardiographically assessed in all patients, and RVD was defined as PASP values greater than 30 mmHg. CT measurements included the size of the heart ventricles, mediastinal vessels and the width of the coronary sinus. Median width of the coronary sinus was 16 mm (range 12-24 mm) in patients with increased PASP and 10 mm (range 7-22 mm) in patients with normal PASP (p = 0.001). Best cut-off value was assessed to be 12.5 mm, with sensitivity 94% and specificity 75%. It was characterised by the largest area under ROC curve (0.82) among analysed parameters. Width of the coronary sinus seems to be a promising parameter for identification of RVD in patients with acute PE. A prospective study should be undertaken to further assess its clinical and prognostic applicability. (orig.)

  12. Pulmonary Embolism Rates Following Total Hip Arthroplasty With Prophylactic Anticoagulation: Some Pulmonary Emboli Cannot Be Avoided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Jay R; Cheng, Vincent; Cote, Mark P

    2017-03-01

    A symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) after total joint arthroplasty has been described as a "never event." Despite potent anticoagulants and improvements in patient care, PE continues to occur following total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study evaluates symptomatic PE rates over time in THA patients enrolled in multicenter randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis regimens. The MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify clinical trials assessing prophylactic anticoagulation in patients undergoing THA between January 1995 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria consisted of RCTs evaluating prophylactic anticoagulation in patients undergoing THA. A random effect model was used to combine PE rates across studies. A total of 21 studies (34,764 patients) were included. Patients were administered low molecular weight heparin (13,590 patients), oral factor Xa inhibitors (6609 patients), oral direct thrombin inhibitors (5965 patients), indirect factors Xa/IIa inhibitors (3444 patients), aspirin (2427 patients), and warfarin (489 patients). Mobile compression was used in 199 patients, and placebo was used in 2041 patients. Across all included studies, the estimated PE rate was 0.21% (95% confidence interval: 0.13%, 0.32%). Between 1997 and 2013, the proportion of PEs did not change in regression analysis. Although the PE rate was low, it was consistent throughout the 17 years spanning these RCTs, which excluded patients with significant morbidity. These results suggest that even healthy THA patients receiving aggressive anticoagulation still have a risk for PE, and the "never event" designation requires reassessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism in Patients With Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giorgio; Ruwald, Martin H; Quinn, James; Camargo, Carlos A; Dalgaard, Frederik; Gislason, Gunnar; Goto, Tadahiro; Hasegawa, Kohei; Kaul, Padma; Montano, Nicola; Numé, Anna-Karin; Russo, Antonio; Sheldon, Robert; Solbiati, Monica; Sun, Benjamin; Casazza, Giovanni

    2018-01-29

    Sparse data and conflicting evidence exist on the prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with syncope. To estimate the prevalence of PE among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of syncope. This retrospective, observational study analyzed longitudinal administrative data from 5 databases in 4 different countries (Canada, Denmark, Italy, and the United States). Data from all adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who presented to the ED were screened to identify those with syncope codes at discharge. Data were collected from January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2016. The prevalence of PE at ED and hospital discharge, identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, was considered the primary outcome. Two sensitivity analyses considering prevalence of PE at 90 days of follow-up and prevalence of venous thromboembolism were performed. A total of 1 671 944 unselected adults who presented to the ED for syncope were included. The prevalence of PE, according to administrative data, ranged from 0.06% (95% CI, 0.05%-0.06%) to 0.55% (95% CI, 0.50%-0.61%) for all patients and from 0.15% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.16%) to 2.10% (95% CI, 1.84%-2.39%) for hospitalized patients. The prevalence of PE at 90 days of follow-up ranged from 0.14% (95% CI, 0.13%-0.14%) to 0.83% (95% CI, 0.80%-0.86%) for all patients and from 0.35% (95% CI, 0.34%-0.37%) to 2.63% (95% CI, 2.34%-2.95%) for hospitalized patients. Finally, the prevalence of venous thromboembolism at 90 days ranged from 0.30% (95% CI, 0.29%-0.31%) to 1.37% (95% CI, 1.33%-1.41%) for all patients and from 0.75% (95% CI, 0.73%-0.78%) to 3.86% (95% CI, 3.51%-4.24%) for hospitalized patients. Pulmonary embolism was rarely identified in patients with syncope. Although PE should be considered in every patient, not all patients should undergo evaluation for PE.

  14. Derivation of a clinical prediction score for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, F A; Dzikowska-Diduch, O; Kostrubiec, M; Vliegen, H W; Pruszczyk, P; Hasenfuß, G; Huisman, M V; Konstantinides, S; Lankeit, M

    2016-01-01

    Essentials Predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after pulmonary embolism is hard. We studied 772 patients with pulmonary embolism who were followed for CTEPH (incidence 2.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed 7 easily collectable clinical variables that combined predict CTEPH. Our score identifies patients at low (0.38%) or higher (10%) risk of CTEPH. Introduction Validated risk factors for the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are currently lacking. Methods This is a post hoc patient-level analysis of three large prospective cohorts with a total of 772 consecutive patients with acute PE, without major cardiopulmonary or malignant comorbidities. All underwent echocardiography after a median of 1.5 years. In cases with signs of pulmonary hypertension, additional diagnostic tests to confirm CTEPH were performed. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the acute PE event were included in a multivariable regression analysis. Independent predictors were combined in a clinical prediction score. Results CTEPH was confirmed in 22 patients (2.8%) by right heart catheterization. Unprovoked PE, known hypothyroidism, symptom onset > 2 weeks before PE diagnosis, right ventricular dysfunction on computed tomography or echocardiography, known diabetes mellitus and thrombolytic therapy or embolectomy were independently associated with a CTEPH diagnosis during follow-up. The area under the receiver operating charateristic curve (AUC) of the prediction score including those six variables was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.94). Sensitivity analysis and bootstrap internal validation confirmed this AUC. Seventy-three per cent of patients were in the low-risk category (CTEPH incidence of 0.38%, 95% CI 0-1.5%) and 27% were in the high-risk category (CTEPH incidence of 10%, 95% CI 6.5-15%). Conclusion The 'CTEPH prediction score' allows for the identification of

  15. The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Halil; de Roos, Albert; Geleijins, Jacob; Huisman, Menno V.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life threatening condition requiring adequate diagnosis and treatment. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is excellent for including and excluding PE, therefore CT is the first-choice diagnostic imaging technique in patients suspected of having acute PE. Due to its wide availability and low invasiveness, CTPA tends to be overused. Correct implementation of clinical decision rules in diagnostic workup for PE improves adequate use of CT. Also, CT adds prognostic value by evaluating right ventricular (RV) function. CT-assessed RV dysfunction and to lesser extent central emboli location predicts PE-related mortality in normotensive and hypotensive patients, while PE embolic obstruction index has limited prognostic value. Simple RV/left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio measures >1.0 already predict risk for adverse outcome, whereas ratios <1.0 can safely exclude adverse outcome. Consequently, assessing the RV/LV diameter ratio may help identify patients who are potential candidates for treatment at home instead of treatment in the hospital. A minority of patients develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) following acute PE, which is a life-threatening condition that can be diagnosed by CT. In proximal CTEPH, involving the more central pulmonary arteries, thrombectomy usually results in good outcome in terms of both functional status and long-term survival rate. CT is becoming the imaging method of choice for diagnosing CTEPH as it can identify patients who may benefit from thrombectomy. New CT developments such as distensibility measurements and dual-energy or subtraction techniques may further refine diagnosis and prognosis for improved patient care. PMID:26133321

  16. Acute pulmonary embolism: prediction of cor pulmonale and short-term patient survival from assessment of cardiac dimensions in routine multidetector-row CT; Mehrschicht-Spiral-CT bei vermuteter und inzidenteller akuter Lungenembolie: prognostischer Wert morpholoqischer Herzparameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeike, C. [Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Rummeny, E.; Marten, K. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: evaluation of the prognostic value of morphological cardiac parameters in patients with suspected and incidental acute pulmonary embolism (PE) using multidetector-row chest CT (MSCT). Materials and methods: 2335 consecutive MSCT scans were evaluated for the presence of PE. The arterial enhancement and analysability of pulmonary arteries and the heart were assessed as parameters of the scan quality. The diastolic right and left ventricular short axes (RV{sub D}, LV{sub D}) and the interventricular septal deviation (ISD) were measured in all PE-positive patients and the echocardiography reports were reviewed. The clinical data assessment included cardio-respiratory and other co-morbidities, systemic anticoagulant therapy (ACT), and the 30-day outcome. Predictors of acute cor pulmonale and the short-term outcome were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions including odds ratios (OR) and ROC analyses using positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Results: 90 patients with acute PE were included (36 with clinically suspected PE, 54 with incidental PE). 26 patients had cardio-respiratory co-morbidities. Four patients underwent systemic thrombolysis, 43 underwent anticoagulation in therapeutic doses, 19 underwent anticoagulation in prophylactic doses, and 24 patients did not undergo ACT. 15 of 41 patients had echocardiographic evidence of acute cor pulmonale. 8 patients died within 30 days. The RV{sub D} was the best independent predictor of acute cor pulmonale (p = 0,002, OR = 9.16, PPV = 0.68, NPV=1 at 4.49 cm cut off) and short-term outcome (p= 0,0005, OR = 2.82, PPV = 0.23, NPV = 0.98 at 4.75 cm cut off). The RV{sub D}/LV{sub D} ratio had a PPV of 0.85 for cor pulmonale. (orig.)

  17. Wells Score and Poor Outcomes Among Adult Patients With Subsegmental Pulmonary Embolism: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Ferreyro, Bruno L; Posadas-Martinez, María L; Giunta, Diego; Vazquez, Fernando J; Vollmer, William M

    2015-09-01

    Since the introduction of computed tomography pulmonary angiography, isolated subsegmental pulmonary embolism has become a commonly recognized clinical problem, but its clinical relevance remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the simplified Wells score discriminates between patients with varying levels of risk of complications after presenting with subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Retrospective cohort study. Patients included had subsegmental pulmonary embolism (1 or multiple emboli limited to subsegmental arteries). Primary explanatory variable was the simplified Wells score, categorized as high (>4) or low (≤4). The primary outcome was time to death or new venous thromboembolism. Kaplan-Meier techniques and Cox regression analysis were used to compare the survival experience of patients with high versus low Wells score with and without adjustment for active malignancy, age, Charlson score, previous venous thromboembolism, and previous major surgery in the last 30 days. Seventy-nine patients with subsegmental pulmonary embolism were included. Patients with a high Wells score had a 4-fold increased risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio = 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-8.9, P pulmonary embolism. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01372514. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Risk stratifying emergency department patients with acute pulmonary embolism: Does the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index perform as well as the original?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Mark, Dustin G; Huang, Jie; Reed, Mary E; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Wang, David H; Lin, James S; Kene, Mamata V; Pleshakov, Tamara S; Sax, Dana K; Sax, Jordan M; McLachlan, D Ian; Yamin, Cyrus K; Swap, Clifford J; Iskin, Hilary R; Vemula, Ridhima; Fleming, Bethany S; Elms, Andrew R; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-12-01

    The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a validated prognostic score to estimate the 30-day mortality of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A simplified version (sPESI) was derived but has not been as well studied in the U.S. We sought to validate both indices in a community hospital setting in the U.S. and compare their performance in predicting 30-day all-cause mortality and classification of cases into low-risk and higher-risk categories. This retrospective cohort study included adults with acute objectively confirmed PE from 1/2013 to 4/2015 across 21 community EDs. We evaluated the misclassification rate of the sPESI compared with the PESI. We assessed accuracy of both indices with regard to 30-day mortality. Among 3006 cases of acute PE, the 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 4.4%. The sPESI performed as well as the PESI in identifying low-risk patients: both had similar sensitivities, negative predictive values, and negative likelihood ratios. The sPESI, however, classified a smaller proportion of patients as low risk than the PESI (27.5% vs. 41.0%), but with similar low-risk mortality rates (<1%). Compared with the PESI, the sPESI overclassified 443 low-risk patients (14.7%) as higher risk, yet their 30-day mortality was 0.7%. The sPESI underclassified 100 higher-risk patients (3.3%) as low risk who also had a low mortality rate (1.0%). Both indices identified patients with PE who were at low risk for 30-day mortality. The sPESI, however, misclassified a significant number of low-mortality patients as higher risk, which could lead to unnecessary hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful treatment of massive pulmonary embolism with prolonged catheter-directed thrombolysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Peter

    2012-02-03

    This is a case report of a young woman who presented with an extensive pulmonary embolism and echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction. Although hemodynamically stable, the patient\\'s clinical condition failed to improve with standard heparin anticoagulation. Successful local catheter-directed thrombolysis was performed over an extended period of 48 h with regular monitoring of response to therapy by computed tomography-pulmonary angiography and echocardiography. To our knowledge, treatment of a pulmonary embolism by catheter-directed thrombolytic infusion over an extended period of 48 h has not previously been described.

  20. [Treatment of Right Atrial Myxoma Complicated with Pulmonary Embolism;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnouchi, Kouki; Rikitake, Kazuhisa; Furutachi, Akira; Yoshida, Nozomi

    2016-07-01

    Myxomas are account for approximately half of primary cardiac tumors, 75% of which originate in the left atrium. We report a case of a right atrial myxoma complicated with bilateral pulmonary embolism. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a complaint of dyspnea. Echocardiography and computed tomography angiography showed a right atrial tumor and bilateral pulmonary embolism. We performed an emergency surgery to remove both the right atrial tumor and the pulmonary emboli. Histopathologically, the tumor was revealed to be myxoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. She is now doing well without any symptoms.

  1. Catheter-Based Embolectomy for Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Devices, Technical Considerations, Risks, and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Wissam A; McDaniel, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    A significant number of patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism have contraindications to thrombolytic therapy. Catheter-based therapy may be helpful and consists of a multitude of catheters and techniques, some old and some new. Although there are few data supporting the use of any of these techniques, there has been a recent rise in interest and use of catheter-based pulmonary embolectomy. This text describes the contemporary devices used in pulmonary embolism treatment, discusses their challenges, and proposes some future directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of nuclear medicine in pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, G; Giordano, A

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear medicine procedures and mainly perfusion lung scanning (often associated with ventilation lung scanning), after thirty years still play a major role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. International study groups with accurate statistical methods have shown their efficacy in the diagnosis and follow-up, in reducing the clinical uncertainty, in directing the therapy and in lowering health care costs. The major limitation of nuclear medicine procedures lies in the high percentage of patients for whom intermediate or indeterminate probability is reported. However this percentage is steadily decreasing based on: patient clinical preselection; improved procedures and especially an extensive use of D-SPET with a three-head gamma camera; the combination with other advanced diagnostic imaging procedures (HRCT, fast-CT, MRI); suitable diagnostic algorithms for nuclear medicine procedures which should consider laboratory data (D-dimer, TAT) and the study of deep vein thrombosis; the use of artificial intelligence; the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals which enable direct scanning of the intravasal embolus (as P180 polypeptide) in combination with perfusion scanning which shows the hemodynamic alterations.

  3. Electroconvulsive therapy and anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lazaro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is considered the most effective treatment for catatonia regardless its underlying condition. The rigid fixed posture and immobility observed in catatonia may lead to several clinical complications, of which, pulmonary embolism (PE is one of the most severe. The rapid improvement of the psychiatric condition in catatonia-related PE is essential, since immobility favors the occurrence of new thromboembolic events and further complications. In that scenario, ECT should be considered, based on a risk-benefit analysis, aiming at the faster resolution of the catatonia. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 66-years-old woman admitted to the psychiatric ward with catatonia due to a depressive episode presented bilateral PE. Clinically stable, but still severely depressed after a trial of antidepressants, she was treated with ECT in the course of full anticoagulation with enoxaparin. After five ECT sessions, her mood was significantly better and she was walking and eating spontaneously. She did not present complications related either to PE or to anticoagulation. After the eighth ECT session, she evolved with hypomania, which was managed with oral medication adjustments. The patient was completely euthymic at discharge. Conclusion The case we presented provides further evidence to the anecdotal case reports on the safety of ECT in the course of concomitant full anticoagulant therapy after PE, and illustrates how, with the proper precautions, the benefits of ECT in such condition might outweigh its risks.

  4. Acute kidney injury in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fu, Chung-Ming; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chen, Shao-Wei; Chang, Su-Wei; Mao, Chun-Tai; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is overlooked in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk factors for and long-term outcomes of this complication remain unknown. This study evaluated the predictors and prognosis of AKI in patients with PE. This retrospective cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We enrolled a total of 7588 patients who were admitted to a hospital for PE from January1997 to December 2011 and administered anticoagulation or thrombolytic agents. All demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were analyzed. AKI was diagnosed in 372 (4.9%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed pre-existing chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, massive PE, anemia, and sepsis as independent risk factors for AKI. In the long-term follow-up, the survival rate was similar in the AKI and non-AKI groups. Careful risk factor screening and intensive intervention in patients with AKI might yield outcomes similar to those in patients without AKI. PMID:28248851

  5. Direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Joanna B; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review is to examine the management strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE) with an emphasis of the role of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). PubMed was searched to identify relevant journal articles published through April 2017. Additional references were obtained from articles discovered during the database search. Initial heparinization followed by long-term anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists has been considered the mainstay for the treatment of PE. However, DOACs now offer comparably effective and potentially safer alternatives for both acute and long-term treatment of PE using a monotherapy approach without the need for initial heparinization for rivaroxaban or apixaban. Advantages to using DOACs include oral availability, rapid onset of action, minimal drug and food interactions, predictable pharmacokinetics, and lack of need for routine monitoring. Limitations of using these agents include a limited availability of assays to quickly and efficiently measure their anticoagulant effects and the lack of widely available reversal agents for the direct oral factor Xa inhibitors; although idarucizumab has recently been approved for the reversal of dabigatran's anticoagulant effects. Advantages to using DOACs render them an attractive alternative to conventional therapy in PE treatment that may simplify acute and long-term treatment paradigms, improve patient outcomes, and increase patient compliance. However, questions remain pertaining to the use of DOACs in PE patients with high-risk features and in cancer patients and fragile populations. Clinical studies are under way to address many of these issues.

  6. [Clinical analysis of 12 patients with pediatric antiphospholipid syndrome with pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J R; Song, H M; Xiao, J; Tang, X Y; He, Y Y; Wei, M

    2017-01-02

    Objective: To identify the clinical and immunological characteristics of pediatric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients with pulmonary embolism. Method: Among 47 pediatric APS patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the year of 2000 to 2015, 12 patients were diagnosed of pulmonary embolism, who were investigated and compared with APS patients without pulmonary embolism. Result: Twelve patients (among whom 6 cases were primary and the other 6 were secondary APS)had pulmonary embolism and all of them were non-shock type, which was the first presenting manifestation in 6 of them.Eight cases were misdiagnosed as infection, while 3 cases were missed.Among patients with pulmonary embolism, 10 patients suffered from deep vein thrombosis at the same time, mainly in lower extremities.2 cases had thrombotic recurrence, which happened only in primary APS patients, because of irregular monitoring of International Normalized Ratio, or not taking aspirin after quitting warfarin.Positive anticardiolipin (ACL) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) were found in 10 and 9 patients respectively.Four primary APS patients had positive anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). During follow-up of 3-100 months (median 23 months) of primary APS, no one had evolved manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.Primary APS was more often seen in males (M∶F 5∶1 vs. 0∶6) and the patients were much younger ((15±1) vs. (17±0) years old) than those with secondary APS.Besides that, no statistically significant difference was seen between primary and secondary APS (P all>0.05). Compared with APS patients without pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension was more common in patients suffered from pulmonary embolism (3/12 vs. 0, PPulmonary embolism can be the first symptom in pediatric APS patients and all of them are non-shock type, which tends to be misdiagnosed or missed. A majority of them suffer from deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities.Rethrombosis takes place when the

  7. [Clinical efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment with reteplase in patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H G; Wang, S X; Lu, Z N; Yan, X X; Lyu, Z C; Peng, F H; Wu, Y; Gao, X; Hua, L; Jing, Z C; Xu, X Q

    2017-04-24

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment with reteplase in patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Ten consecutive patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism who received thrombolytic treatment with reteplase at Thrombosis and Vascular Medicine Center, Fuwai Hospital from March to November in 2016 were included.Vital signs, right ventricular diameter, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and biochemical markers were assessed before and after thrombolytic therapy with reteplase, and bleeding complications were also observed during 3 months follow up. Results: (1) For the efficacy outcomes: at 48 hours after thrombolytic treatment with reteplase, echocardiography-derived diameter of right ventricular was significant reduced from (27.9±3.8) mm to (24.8±2.6) mm (P=0.03), systolic pulmonary artery pressure decreased from (63.9±21.6) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to (34.4±19.8) mmHg (P=0.02). Heart rate and breathing rate were also decreased significantly (both Ppulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis during the 3 months follow-up. (2) For the safety outcomes: a thrombolytic relevant hemoptysis (about 70 ml) occurred in 1 patient, and was controlled by PCC therapy.No other clinically relevant events were observed during thrombolytic treatment. Eight patients were followed more than 3 months, there was no major bleeding complication or death during the follow up period. Conclusion: Treatment of intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism with reteplase is effective and safe and there are no obvious side effects.

  8. Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Detachable Silicone Balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2008-01-01

    Long-term follow-up results after embolization of 13 pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in 10 patients by use of 14 detachable silicone balloons are given. Patients were followed for a mean of 99 months (range, 63-123 months) with chest x-rays and for a mean of 62 months (range, 3-101 months......) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not available...... anymore, but use of these balloons for embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations has been shown to be a safe and precise method, with immediate occlusion of the feeding artery and with long-lasting occlusion, even though many balloons deflate with time, leaving a fibrotic scar replacing...

  9. The influence of weather and environment on pulmonary embolism: pollutants and fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Ralf; Mayes, Julian; Hilton, Paul; Lawrenson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Previous publications have highlighted seasonal variations in the incidence of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and that weather patterns can influence these. While medical risk factors for pulmonary thrombo-embolism such as age, obesity, hypercoagulable states, cancer, previous thrombo-embolism, immobility, limb paralysis, surgery, major illness, trauma, hypotension, tachypnoea and right ventricular hypokinesis are not directly implicated regarding environmental factors such as weather, they could be influenced indirectly by these. This would be especially relevant in polluted areas that are associated with a higher pulmonary embolism risk. Routine nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion studies (V/Q scans) of 2071 adult patients referred to the nuclear medicine department of the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, UK, between January 1998 and October 2002 were reviewed and 316 of these patients were classified as positive for pulmonary embolism with high probability scan on PIOPED criteria. The occurrence of positive scans was compared to environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vapour pressure, air pressure and rainfall. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the significance of these relations. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was positively related to vapour pressure and rainfall. The most significant relation was to vapour pressure (p=0.010) while rainfall was less significant (p=0.017). There was no significant relation between pulmonary embolism and air pressure, humidity or temperature. It is postulated that rainfall and water vapour may be contributary factors in thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by way of pollutants that are carried as condensation nuclei in micro-droplets of water. In particular, fossil fuel pollutants are implicated as these condensation nuclei. Pollutants may be inhaled by populations exposed to windborne vapour droplets in cities or airports. Polluted vapour droplets may be absorbed by the lung

  10. Chronic pulmonary embolism - radiological imaging and differential diagnosis; Chronische Lungenembolie - Radiologische Bildmorphologie und Differenzialdiagnose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenrath, E.; Herzog, P.; Attenberger, U.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    In chronic pulmonary embolism branches of the pulmonary arterial tree remain partially or totally occluded. This may lead to pulmonary hypertension with the development of right ventricular hypertrophy as well as structural changes of pulmonary arteries. Imaging of chronic pulmonary embolism should prove vessel occlusions (pulmonary angiography, MSCT, MRI) and reduction of regional lung perfusion (lung scanning, MSCT, MRI). According to current guidelines ventilation-perfusion lung scanning and pulmonary angiography are still recommended as the methods of choice. MSCT and MRI provide technical alternatives which are helpful in differential diagnosis versus other types of pulmonary hypertension. In spite of medical and surgical measures (in rare cases pulmonary thromboendarterectomy) the prognosis of chronic pulmonary embolism remains unfavourable. (orig.) [German] Bei der chronischen Lungenembolie sind Abschnitte der arteriellen Lungenstrombahn dauerhaft verschlossen. Dies kann zu einer Erhoehung des pulmonal-arteriellen Drucks mit den Folgen einer Rechtsherzbelastung und strukturellen Veraenderungen der Pulmonalarterien fuehren. Bildmorphologisch nachzuweisen sind Gefaessverschluesse (Pulmonalisangiographie, MSCT, MRT) und die Minderperfusion des Lungenparenchyms (Szintigraphie, MSCT, MRT). Nach den bisherigen Empfehlungen gelten fuer die Diagnostik der chronischen Lungenembolie die Lungenszintigraphie (Ventilation/Perfusion) und die Pulmonalisangiographie als Methoden der ersten Wahl. Die MSCT und MRT (Angiographie/Perfusion) stellen technische Alternativen dar. Differenzialdiagnostisch sind andere Formen der pulmonalen Hypertonie abzugrenzen. Trotz medikamentoeser und chirurgischer Therapiemassnahmen (z. B. pulmonale Thrombendarterektomie) bleibt die Prognose der chronischen Lungenembolie unguenstig. (orig.)

  11. Patent foramen ovale in patients with pulmonary embolism: A prognostic factor on CT pulmonary angiography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Stephanie; Patel, Vishal; Zalta, Benjamin A; Shmukler, Anna; Levsky, Jeffrey M; Jain, Vineet R; Shaban, Nada M; Haramati, Linda B

    2017-12-02

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a risk factor for mortality, but this has not been evaluated for CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between PFO and mortality in patients with acute PE diagnosed on CTPA. This retrospective study included 268 adults [173 women, mean age 61 (range 22-98) years] diagnosed with acute PE on non-ECG-gated 64-slice CTPA in 2012 at our medical center. The images were reviewed for PFO by a panel of cardiothoracic radiologists with an average of 11 years of experience (range 1-25 years). CT signs of right heart strain and PE level were noted. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE), when available (n = 207), were reviewed for PFO by a cardiologist with subspecialty training in advanced imaging and with 3 years of experience. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. Fischer's exact test was utilized to compare mortality. PFO prevalence on CTPA was 22% (58/268) and 4% (9/207) on TTE. Overall 30-day mortality was 6% (16/268), 9% (5/58) for patients with PFO and 5% (11/210) for those without (p = 0.35). CT signs of right heart strain trended with higher mortality, but statistically significant only for hepatic vein contrast reflux [14% (6/44) vs 4% (10/224), p = 0.03]; right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio >1 [8% (13/156) vs RV:LV ≤ 1 3% (3/112), p = 0.07], septal bowing [10% (4/42) vs without 5% (12/226), p = 0.30]. PFO was demonstrated on CTPA in a proportion similar to the known population prevalence, while routine TTE was less sensitive. Mortality was non-significantly higher in patients with acute PE and PFO in this moderate-sized study. A larger study to answer this clinically important question is worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  12. D-dimer testing for safe exclusion and risk stratification in patients with acute pulmonary embolism in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yin; Yiyi Chen; Qiong Xie; Zhexin Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Safe exclusion and risk stratification are currently recommended for the initial management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The aim of this study was to assess the safe exclusion and risk stratification value of D-dimer (DD) for APE when tested at the beginning of admission. Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese APE patients and controls were recruited from January 2010 to December 2012. All measurements of serum indexes were made in duplicate and blinded...

  13. Post-traumatic pulmonary embolism in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabrouk Bahloul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the predictive factors, clinical manifestations, and the outcome of patients with post-traumatic pulmonary embolism (PE admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: During a four-year prospective study, a medical committee of six ICU physicians prospectively examined all available data for each trauma patient in order to classify patients according to the level of clinical suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism. During the study period, all trauma patients admitted to our ICU were classified into two groups. The first group included all patients with confirmed PE; the second group included patients without clinical manifestations of PE. The diagnosis of PE was confirmed either by a high-probability ventilation/perfusion (V/Q scan or by a spiral computed tomography (CT scan showing one or more filling defects in the pulmonary artery or its branches. Results: During the study period, 1067 trauma patients were admitted in our ICU. The diagnosis of PE was confirmed in 34 patients (3.2%. The mean delay of development of PE was 11.3 ± 9.3 days. Eight patients (24% developed this complication within five days of ICU admission. On the day of PE diagnosis, the clinical examination showed that 13 patients (38.2% were hypotensive, 23 (67.7% had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, three (8.8% had clinical manifestations of deep venous thrombosis (DVT, and 32 (94% had respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. In our study, intravenous unfractionated heparin was used in 32 cases (94% and low molecular weight heparin was used in two cases (4%. The mean ICU stay was 31.6 ± 35.7 days and the mean hospital stay was 32.7 ± 35.3 days. The mortality rate in the ICU was 38.2% and the in-hospital mortality rate was 41%. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with poor prognosis in the ICU were the presence of circulatory failure (Shock (Odds ratio (OR = 9.96 and thrombocytopenia (OR = 32

  14. Improved Delineation of Pulmonary Embolism and Venous Thrombosis Through Frequency Selective Nonlinear Blending in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Malte Niklas; Bier, Georg; Kloth, Christopher; Schabel, Christoph; Fritz, Jan; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a novel frequency selective nonlinear blending (NLB) algorithm increases the delineation of pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis in portal-venous phase whole-body staging computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 67 patients with incidental pulmonary embolism and/or venous thrombosis in contrast-enhanced oncological staging CT were retrospectively selected. Computed tomography data sets were acquired 65 to 90 seconds after intravenous iodine contrast administration using state-of-the-art multi-detector CT scanners. A novel frequency selective NLB postprocessing technique was applied to reconstructed standard CT images. Two readers determined the most suitable settings to increase the delineation of pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis. Outcome measure included region of interest and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) analyses, image noise, overall image quality, subjective delineation, as well as number and size of emboli and thrombi. Statistical testing included quantitative comparisons of Hounsfield units of thrombus and vessel, image noise and related CNR values and subjective image analyses of image noise, image quality and thrombus delineation, number and size in standard, and NLB images. Using frequency selective NLB settings with a center of 100 HU, delta of 40 HU, and a slope of 5, CNR values of pulmonary embolism (StandardCNR, 10 [6, 16]; NLBCNR, 22 [15, 30]; P pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis.

  15. The prognostic impact of chest pain in 1306 patients presenting with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher C Y; Ng, Austin C C; Lau, Jerrett K; Chow, Vincent; Sindone, Andrew P; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-10-15

    The prognostic influence of chest pain in patients presenting with pulmonary embolism has not been well defined. We investigated whether the presence of chest pain at presentation affected the mortality of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary hospital with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism from 2000 to 2012, with study outcomes tracked using a state-wide death registry. Of the 1306 patients included in the study, 771 (59%) had chest pain at presentation. These patients were younger with fewer comorbidities, and had lower 6-month mortality compared to patients without chest pain (5% vs 15%, PChest pain was consistently found to be an independent predictor of 6-month mortality in three separate multivariable models (range of hazard ratios 0.52-0.60, all with Pchest pain to a multivariable model that included the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, haemoglobin, and sodium led to a significant net reclassification improvement of 18% (PChest pain is a novel, favourable prognostic marker in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of PESI, echocardiogram, CTPA, and NT-proBNP as risk stratification tools in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsidhar, A; Rajasekhar, D; Vanajakshamma, V; Lakshmi, A Y; Latheef, K; Siva Sankara, C; Obul Reddy, G

    The aim of this study is to prospectively assess the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary embolism severity index, echocardiogram, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA), and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for predicting adverse events in acute pulmonary embolism patients. Thirty consecutive acute pulmonary embolism patients were included in this study. Combined adverse events consisted of in-hospital death or use of escalation of care including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, or secondary thrombolysis during hospital stay. The outcomes were met in 30% of patients. Qanadli index (a measure of clot burden on CTPA) and NT-proBNP were significantly higher in patients with adverse events than those without (p=0.005 and p=0.009, respectively). PESI had moderate positive correlation with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) (r=0.449, p=0.013) but there was no significant difference in PESI between patients with and without adverse events (p=0.7). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that Qanadli index was the best predictor of adverse events with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.807 (95% CI: 0.651-0.963) with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 47.4% at cut-off value of 19. Right ventricle to left ventricle ratio on CTPA was found to predict RVD with AUC of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.842-1.000), NPV (77.8%), and PPV (95.2%) at cut-off value at 1.15. Qanadli index is more accurate predictor of adverse events than pulmonary embolism severity index, NT-proBNP, and RVD on echocardiogram and CTPA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension in the setting of negative computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui PV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH can display acute elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP in the setting of hypoxemia, pulmonary embolism (PE, and possibly sepsis. Case Description: A 68-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, recent tobacco cessation, and recent 2-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG presented with one to two weeks of respiratory symptoms and syncope on the day of admission. He was found to have a urinary tract infection and Escherichia coli bacteremia. Transthoracic echocardiography found a systolic PAP of 100-105 mmHg, increased from a mean PAP of 32 mmHg before CABG. PE was not seen on computed tomography angiography (CTA. Ventilation-perfusion scan two days later found evidence of subsegmental PE. PAP prior to discharge was 30-35 mmHg plus right atrial pressure. Conclusion: PAP can rise substantially in the acute or subacute setting, particularly when multiple disease processes are involved, and decrease to (near baseline with proper therapy. Chronic PH may even be protective. In a complex clinical setting with multiple possible etiologies for elevated PAP, clinicians should have a high suspicion for PE despite a negative CTA.

  18. Long-term outcome of patients with persistent vascular obstruction on computed tomography pulmonary angiography 6 months after acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golpe, Rafael; Llano, Luis A. Perez de; Olalla, Castro-Anon [The Respiratory Service, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain)], e-mail: Rafael.golpe.gomez@sergas.es; Vazquez-Caruncho, Manuel [The Radiology Service, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Gonzalez-Juanatey, Carlos [The Cardiology Service, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Farinas, Maria Carmen [Internal Medicine Dept., Hospital Univ. Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Background: The incidence and clinical significance of pulmonary residual thrombosis 6 months after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are still not well-known. Purpose: To evaluate the association between residual vascular obstruction and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence or death. Material and Methods: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) was repeated in 97 consecutive patients 6 months after an acute episode of hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism. We assessed the long-term consequences of residual thrombosis on vital status and incidence of recurrent VTE. Results: Six patients were lost for follow-up. The remaining 91 patients were classified according to the presence (Group 1: 18 cases) or absence (Group 2: 73 cases) of residual pulmonary vascular obstruction. After a mean {+-}SD of 2.91 {+-}0.99 years, there were eight (8.8%) deaths and 11 (12.1%) VTE recurrences. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in the incidence of death or VTE recurrence. Conclusion: Persistent pulmonary vascular obstruction on 6-month CTPA did not predict long-term adverse outcome events.

  19. [From acute pulmonary embolism to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Pathobiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Gámez, Miguel E; Sandoval-Zárate, Julio; Pulido, Tomás

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and micro-vascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of right ventricular performance in patients with acute pulmonary embolism by helical CT; Beurteilung der Rechtsherzbelastung in der Spiral-CT bei Patienten mit akuter Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintersperger, B.J.; Staebler, A.; Seemann, M.; Holzknecht, N.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.F. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Fink, U. [Klinikum Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spiral-CT allows judgment of right ventricular failure in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Materials and Methods: 61 patients underwent spiral-CT due to suspicion of acute pulmonary embolism. Patients with pulmonary embolism were divided into subpopulations according to the severity of pulmonary embolism in the CT scan. Cardiac measurements were performed on axial spiral-CT images and compared to those of patients without suspicion of pulmonary embolism or cardiac diseases. Results: In 30 patients spiral-CT revealed acute pulmonary embolism. Significant differences in cardiac measurements in patients with severe and less severe pulmonary embolism were found on comparing the following dimensions: left ventricular width (p=0.0003), left (p=0.008) and right (p=0.009) ventricular cross-sectional area, proportion of right to left ventricular width (p=0.0003) and proportion of right to left ventricular cross-sectional area (p=0.0001). The proportion of the cross-sectional areas (r=0.65) and the proportion of the width (r=0.60) of both ventricles correlated well with the severity of central pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Besides reliable assessment of pulmonary embolism spiral-CT allows the evaluation of cardiac dimensions for judgment of right ventricular failure. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es wurde untersucht, ob bei Patienten mit akuter Lungenembolie durch die Spiral-CT kardiale Messparameter zur Abschaetzung der rechtsventrikulaeren Belastung bestimmt werden koennen. Material und Methoden: 61 Patienten mit Verdacht auf akute Lungenembolie wurden mit Spiral-CT untersucht. Bei Patienten mit Lungenembolie in der Spiral-CT erfolgte die Evaluierung kardialer Messparameter (Laenge, Breite, Flaeche) beider Ventrikel anhand axialer Spiral-CT Bilddaten. Patienten wurden anhand der Spiral-CT in Gruppen verschiedenen Embolieausmasses eingeteilt und mit einem Normalkollektiv verglichen. Ergebnisse: Bei 30 Patienten

  1. The predictive value of echocardiography for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Sup; Ahn, Jinhee; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Lee, Han Cheol; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong

    2017-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening complication after acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea and to determine echocardiographic predictors of CTEPH. Among 381 patients with APE confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT) between January 2007 and July 2013, 246 consecutive patients with available echocardiographic data were enrolled in this study. CTEPH was defined as a persistent right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) greater than 35 mmHg on echocardiography during follow-up and persistent pulmonary embolism on the follow-up CT. Fifteen patients (6.1%) had CTEPH. The rate of right ventricular (RV) dilatation (66.7% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.002) and the RVSP (75.5 mmHg vs. 39.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the CTEPH group. D-dimers, RV dilatation, RV hypertrophy, RVSP, and intermediate-risk APE were associated with the risk of CTEPH after APE (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 5.11, 7.82, 1.06, and 4.86, respectively) on univariate analysis. RVSP remained as a significant predictor of CTEPH on multivariate analysis (OR, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.006 to 1.109; p = 0.029). This study showed that the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea was 6.1% and that initial RVSP by echocardiography was a strong prognostic factor for CTEPH.

  2. Predictive value of insufficient contrast medium filling in pulmonary veins in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Ma, Yanhe; Song, Zhenchun; Lv, Jun; Yang, Yapeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study is to investigate the predictive value of insufficient contrast medium filling (ICMF) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A total of 108 PE patients were enrolled and divided into group A and group B according to the presence of ICMF. PE index and ventricul araxial lengths were measured. Heart cavity volumes were examined and right ventricle (RV) to left ventricle (LV) diameter ratio (RV/LV(d)) and volume ratio (RV/LV(V)) and right atrium (RA) to left atrium (LA) volume ratio (RA/LA(V)) were calculated and compared. Group A was further divided into A1 and A2 based upon the pulmonary vein filling degree and each index was compared. There were no significant differences between group A and B in general condition. PE index of group A was higher than that of group B. LA and LV in group A were smaller than that of group B, whereas RA in group A was larger than that of group B. RV/LV(d), RV/LV(V), and RA/LA(V) in group A were significantly larger than that of group B. Embolism index of group A2 was higher than that of groupA1, but without statistical significant difference. LA in group A2 was smaller than that of group A1, whereas RA, RV/LV(d), and RV/LV(V) were larger than that of group A1, all with significant differences. PE increased with serious ICMF in pulmonary veins could be used as an indicator for risk stratification in patients with acute PE. PMID:28906373

  3. Design and rationale of a randomized trial comparing standard versus ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis for submassive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Mohapatra, Abhisekh; Rivera-Lebron, Belinda; Toma, Catalin; Kabrhel, Christopher; Fish, Larry; Lacomis, Joan; Ocak, Iclal; Chaer, Rabih A

    2018-01-01

    Catheter-directed interventions for the treatment of patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (sPE) have shown promise in rapidly improving right-sided heart strain and preventing decompensation to massive pulmonary embolism. Among various catheter interventions, ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis (USAT) has attracted interest as potentially having more efficient lytic effect that could achieve thrombolysis faster and with a reduced lytic dose. However, based on clinical evidence, it is unclear whether USAT is superior to standard catheter-directed thrombolysis (SCDT). We herein describe the study design of the Standard vs UltrasouNd-assiSted CathEter Thrombolysis for Submassive Pulmonary Embolism (SUNSET sPE) trial, an ongoing randomized clinical trial designed to address this question. Adults with sPE presenting or referred to our institution are considered for enrollment in the trial. At the discretion of the treatment team, all patients undergo a catheter-directed intervention plus concomitant therapeutic anticoagulation. Participants are randomized 1:1 to a USAT catheter or an SCDT catheter. Study assessors are blinded to treatment group. The primary outcome is clearance of pulmonary thrombus burden, assessed by postprocedure computed tomography angiography. Secondary outcomes include resolution of right ventricular strain by echocardiography; improvement in pulmonary artery pressures; and 3- and 12-month improvement in echocardiographic, functional capacity, and quality of life measures. The study is powered to detect a 50% improvement in pulmonary artery thrombus clearance. Our enrollment target is 40 patients per treatment arm. SUNSET sPE is an ongoing randomized, head-to-head, single-blinded clinical trial with the goal of assessing whether USAT results in superior thrombus clearance compared with SCDT in patients with sPE. We expect the results of our study to inform future guidelines on choice of thrombolysis modality in this population of challenging

  4. Physician failure to stratify patients hospitalized with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mitchell D; Greco, Allison; Mukhtar, Umer; Dunn, Jonathan; Scharf, Michael L

    2017-12-01

    In 2011, the AHA recommended risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Failure to risk stratify may cause under recognition of intermediate-risk PE and its attendant short- and long-term consequences. We sought to determine if patients hospitalized with acute PE were appropriately risk stratified according to the 2011 AHA Scientific Statement within our hospital system and whether differences exist in adherence to risk stratification by hospital or treating hospital service. We also wished to know the frequency of in-hospital consultations for acute PE which might assist in the risk stratification process. This is a retrospective chart audit of all patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute PE between January 2011 and December 2013 at our 937-bed metropolitan, three hospital system comprised of academic University, neuroscience Specialty, and teaching Community hospitals. We evaluated the presence of imaging, laboratory tests, and specialty consultation within 72 h of PE diagnosis by hospital. 701 patients with acute PE were admitted to our hospital system during the study period. 308 patients (43.9%) met criteria for intermediate-risk PE. 347 patients (49.5%) were considered 'Low-Risk - At Risk', patients defined in a low-risk category not having undergone all recommended risk stratification testing and so truly may have been in a higher risk category. No specialty consultations were utilized for 265 patients (37.8%). Our large metropolitan hospital system inadequately risk stratifies hospitalized patients with acute PE. Because nearly one-half of patients with acute PE did not have all recommended testing, clinicians may be under recognizing patients with intermediate-risk PE and their risk for long-term morbidity. Specialty consultations were underutilized and may help guide medical decision-making.

  5. New Electrocardiographic Changes in Patients Diagnosed with Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Ivan; Eilbert, Wesley; Chiganos, Terry

    2017-03-01

    The electronic medical record is a relatively new technology that allows quick review of patients' previous medical records, including previous electrocardiograms (ECGs). Previous studies have evaluated ECG patterns predictive of pulmonary embolism (PE) at the time of PE diagnosis, though none have examined ECG changes in these patients when compared with their previous ECGs. Our aim was to identify the most common ECG changes in patients with known PE when their ECGs were compared with their previous ECGs. A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PE in the emergency department was performed. Each patient's presenting ECG was compared with their most recent ECG obtained before diagnosis of PE. A total of 352 cases were reviewed. New T wave inversions, commonly in the inferior leads, were the most common change found, occurring in 34.4% of cases. New T wave flattening, also most commonly in the inferior leads, was the second most common change, occurring in 29.5%. A new sinus tachycardia occurred in 27.3% of cases. In 24.1% of patients, no new ECG changes were noted, with this finding more likely to occur in patients younger than 60 years. The most common ECG changes when compared with previous ECG in the setting of PE are T wave inversion and flattening, most commonly in the inferior leads, and occurring in approximately one-third of cases. Approximately one-quarter of patients will have a new sinus tachycardia, and approximately one-quarter will have no change in their ECG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Systemic Thrombolysis for Pulmonary Embolism: Who and How.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Victor F; Friedman, Oren

    2017-09-01

    Anticoagulation has been shown to improve mortality in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Initiation of anticoagulation should be considered when PE is strongly suspected and the bleeding risk is perceived to be low, even if acute PE has not yet been proven. Low-risk patients with acute PE are simply continued on anticoagulation. Severely ill patients with high-risk (massive) PE require aggressive therapy, and if the bleeding risk is acceptable, systemic thrombolysis should be considered. However, despite clear evidence that parenteral thrombolytic therapy leads to more rapid clot resolution than anticoagulation alone, the risk of major bleeding including intracranial bleeding is significantly higher when systemic thrombolytic therapy is administered. It has been demonstrated that right ventricular dysfunction, as well as abnormal biomarkers (troponin and brain natriuretic peptide) are associated with increased mortality in acute PE. In spite of this, intermediate-risk (submassive) PE comprises a fairly broad clinical spectrum. For several decades, clinicians and clinical trialists have worked toward a more aggressive, yet safe solution for patients with intermediate-risk PE. Standard-dose thrombolysis, low-dose systemic thrombolysis, and catheter-based therapy which includes a number of devices and techniques, with or without low-dose thrombolytic therapy, have offered potential solutions and this area has continued to evolve. On the basis of heterogeneity within the category of intermediate-risk as well as within the high-risk group of patients, we will focus on the use of systemic thrombolysis in carefully selected high- and intermediate-risk patients. In certain circumstances when the need for aggressive therapy is urgent and the bleeding risk is acceptable, this is an appropriate approach, and often the best one. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Inferior vena cava filters in pulmonary embolism: A historic controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Rodriguez, David; Navarrete, Aline; Parra-Cantu, Carolina; Joya-Harrison, Jorge; Vazquez, Eduardo; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia

    Rationale for non-routine use of inferior venous cava filters (IVCF) in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Thrombosis mechanisms involved with IVCF placement and removal, the blood-contacting medical device inducing clotting, and the inorganic polyphosphate in the contact activation pathway were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed clinical evidence from randomized trials, including patients with and without cancer. Furthermore, we estimated the absolute risk reduction (ARR), the relative risk reduction (RRR), and the number needed to treat (NNT) based on the results of each study using a frequency table. Finally, we analyzed the outcome of our PE patients that were submitted to thrombolysis with short and long term follow-up. IVCF induces thrombosis by several mechanisms including placement and removal, rapid protein adsorption, and simultaneous surface-induced activation via the contact activation pathway. Also, inorganic polyphosphate has an important role as a procoagulant, reversing the effect of anticoagulants. Randomized control trials included 904 cancer and non-cancer PE patients. In terms of ARR, RRR, and NNT, there is no evidence for routine use of IVCF. In 290 patients with proved PE, extensive thrombotic burden and right ventricular dysfunction under thrombolysis and oral anticoagulation, we observed a favorable outcome in a short- and long-term follow-up; additionally, IVCF was only used in 5% of these patients. Considering the complex mechanisms of thrombosis related with IVCF, the evidence from randomized control trials and ARR, RRR, and NNT obtained from venous thromboembolism patients with and without cancer, non-routine use of IVCF is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulmonary Perfusion in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Agreement of MRI and SPECT for Lobar, Segmental and Subsegmental Perfusion Defects

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    Kluge, A.; Gerriets, T.; Stolz, E.; Dill, T.; Mueller, K.D.; Mueller, C.; Bachmann, G. [Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To assess prospectively the agreement of magnetic resonance (MR) pulmonary perfusion with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion for perfusion defects down to the subsegmental level in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: In 41 patients with suspected PE, contrast-enhanced MR pulmonary perfusion (3D-FLASH, TR/TE 1.6/0.6 ms) was compared to SPECT perfusion on a per-examination basis as well as at the lobar, segmental, and subsegmental level. Results: The MRI protocol was completed in all patients, and mean examination time was 3 min 56 s. MR perfusion showed a very high agreement with SPECT (kappa value per examination 0.98, and 0.98, 0.83, and 0.69 for lobar, segmental, and subsegmental perfusion defects, respectively). Of 15 patients with PE, MR perfusion detected 14 cases. Conclusion: The very high agreement of MR perfusion with SPECT perfusion enables the detection of subtle findings in suspected PE.

  9. Pulmonary Embolism in 2017: How We Got Here and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Geno J

    2017-09-01

    In the 1970s, both the Urokinase Pulmonary Embolism and Urokinase-Streptokinase Pulmonary Embolism trials began the quest to develop thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). The goals of these studies were the immediate reduction in clot burden, restoration of hemodynamic stability, and improved survival. Major bleeding became the major barrier for clinicians to employ these therapies. From 1980s to the present time, a number of studies using recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for achieving these same above outcomes were completed but major bleeding continued to remain an adoption barrier. Finally, the concept of bringing the thrombolytic agent into the clot has entered the quest for the Holy Grail in the treatment of PE. This article will review all the major trials using peripheral thrombolysis and provide insight into the need for a team approach to pulmonary care (Pulmonary Embolism Response Team), standardization of pulmonary classification, and the need for trials designed for both short- and long-term outcomes using thrombolysis for selected PE populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A porcine in-vivo model of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jacob; Andersen, Asger; Gade, Inger Lise; Ringgaard, Steffen; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2018-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cardiovascular cause of death after acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Patients are, however, often under-treated due to the risks associated with systemic thrombolysis and surgical embolectomy. Novel pharmacological and catheter-based treatment strategies show promise, but the data supporting their use in patients are sparse. We therefore aimed to develop an in vivo model of acute PE enabling controlled evaluations of efficacy and safety of novel therapies. Danish Landrace pigs (n = 8) were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Two pre-formed autologous PEs (PE1, PE2, 20 × 1 cm) were administered consecutively via the right external jugular vein. The intact nature and central location were visualized in situ by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hemodynamic and biochemical responses were evaluated at baseline (BL) and after each PE by invasive pressure measurements, MRI, plus arterial and venous blood analysis. Pulmonary arterial pressure increased after administration of the PEs (BL: 16.3 ± 1.2, PE1: 27.6 ± 2.9, PE2: 31.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, BL vs. PE1: P = 0.0027, PE1 vs. PE2: P = 0.22). Animals showed signs of right ventricular strain evident by increased end systolic volume (BL: 60.9 ± 5.1, PE1: 83.3 ± 5.0, PE2: 99.4 ± 6.5 mL, BL vs. PE1: P = 0.0005, PE1 vs. PE2: P = 0.0045) and increased plasma levels of Troponin T. Ejection fraction decreased (BL: 58.9 ± 2.4, PE1: 46.4 ± 2.9, PE2: 37.3 ± 3.5%, BL vs. PE1: p = 0.0008, PE1 vs. PE2: P = 0.009) with a compensatory increase in heart rate preserving cardiac output and systemic blood pressure. The hemodynamic and biochemical responses were comparable to that of patients suffering from intermediate-high-risk PE. This porcine model mirrors the anatomical and physiologic changes seen in human patients with intermediate-high-risk PE, and may enable testing of future therapies

  11. Ultrasound Assisted Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hiba; Bansal, Vikas; Zuberi, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism continues as a very common and also presumably life-threatening disorder. For affected individuals with intermediate- as well as high-risk pulmonary embolism, catheter-based revascularization procedures have developed a possible substitute for systemic thrombolysis or for surgical embolectomy. Ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis is an innovative catheter-based approach; which is the main purpose of the present review article. Ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis is much more efficacious in reversing right ventricular dysfunction as well as dilatation in comparison to anticoagulation alone in individuals at intermediate risk. However, a direct comparison of ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis with systemic thrombolysis or surgical thrombectomy is not available. Ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis with early intrapulmonary thrombolytic bolus could also be successful in high-risk patients, but unfortunately, data from randomized trials is limited. This review article recapitulates existing information on ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis for acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:28944131

  12. Benefits of texture analysis of dual energy CT for Computer-Aided pulmonary embolism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Jiménez del Toro, Óscar Alfonso; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning; Depeursinge, Adrien

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an avoidable cause of death if treated immediately but delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to an increased risk. Computer-assisted image analysis of both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) have proven useful for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Dual energy CT provides additional information over the standard single energy scan by generating four-dimensional (4D) data, in our case with 11 energy levels in 3D. In this paper a 4D texture analysis method capable of detecting pulmonary embolism in dual energy CT is presented. The method uses wavelet-based visual words together with an automatic geodesic-based region of interest detection algorithm to characterize the texture properties of each lung lobe. Results show an increase in performance with respect to the single energy CT analysis, as well as an accuracy gain compared to preliminary work on a small dataset.

  13. Quality of Life, Dyspnea, and Functional Exercise Capacity Following a First Episode of Pulmonary Embolism: Results of the ELOPE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Susan R; Akaberi, Arash; Granton, John T; Anderson, David R; Wells, Philip S; Rodger, Marc A; Solymoss, Susan; Kovacs, Michael J; Rudski, Lawrence; Shimony, Avi; Dennie, Carole; Rush, Chris; Hernandez, Paul; Aaron, Shawn D; Hirsch, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life (QOL), dyspnea, and functional exercise capacity during the year following the diagnosis of a first episode of pulmonary embolism. This was a prospective multicenter cohort study of 100 patients with acute pulmonary embolism recruited at 5 Canadian hospitals from 2010-2013. We measured the outcomes QOL (by Short-Form Health Survey-36 [SF-36] and Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life [PEmb-QoL] measures), dyspnea (by the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire [SOBQ]) and 6-minute walk distance at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after acute pulmonary embolism. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed at baseline, echocardiogram was performed within 10 days, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed at 1 and 12 months. Predictors of change in QOL, dyspnea, and 6-minute walk distance were assessed by repeated-measures mixed-effects models analysis. Mean age was 50.0 years; 57% were male and 80% were treated as outpatients. Mean scores for all outcomes improved during 1-year follow-up: from baseline to 12 months, mean SF-36 physical component score improved by 8.8 points, SF-36 mental component score by 5.3 points, PEmb-QoL by -32.1 points, and SOBQ by -16.3 points, and 6-minute walk distance improved by 40 m. Independent predictors of reduced improvement over time were female sex, higher body mass index, and percent-predicted VO2 peak pulmonary embolism. However, a number of clinical and physiological predictors of reduced improvement over time were identified, most notably female sex, higher body mass index, and exercise limitation on 1-month cardiopulmonary exercise test. Our results provide new information on patient-relevant prognosis after pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) rule in European patients with low implicit clinical probability (PERCEPIC): a multicentre, prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Andrea; Soulié, Caroline; Moumneh, Thomas; Delmez, Quentin; Ghuysen, Alexandre; El Kouri, Dominique; Brice, Christian; Marjanovic, Nicolas S; Bouget, Jacques; Moustafa, Fares; Trinh-Duc, Albert; Le Gall, Catherine; Imsaad, Lionel; Chrétien, Jean-Marie; Gable, Béatrice; Girard, Philippe; Sanchez, Olivier; Schmidt, Jeannot; Le Gal, Grégoire; Meyer, Guy; Delvau, Nicolas; Roy, Pierre-Marie

    2017-12-01

    The ability of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) to exclude pulmonary embolism without further testing remains debated outside the USA, especially in the population with suspected pulmonary embolism who have a high prevalence of the condition. Our main objective was to prospectively assess the predictive value of negative PERC to rule out pulmonary embolism among European patients with low implicit clinical probability. We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study in 12 emergency departments in France and Belgium. We included consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with suspected pulmonary embolism. Patients were excluded if they had already been hospitalised for more than 2 days, had curative anticoagulant therapy in progress for more than 48 h, or had a diagnosis of thromboembolic disease documented before admission to emergency department. Physicians completed a standardised case report form comprising implicit clinical probability assessment (low, moderate, or high) and a list of risk factors including criteria of the PERC rule. They were asked to follow international recommendations for diagnostic strategy, masked to PERC assessment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with low implicit clinical probability and negative PERC who had venous thromboembolic events, diagnosed during initial diagnostic work-up or during 3-month follow-up, as externally adjudicated by an independent committee masked to the PERC and clinical probability assessment. The upper limit of the 95% CI around the 3-month thromboembolic risk was set at 3%. We did all analyses by intention to treat, including all patients with complete follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02360540. Between May 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, 1773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were prospectively assessed for inclusion, of whom 1757 were included. 1052 (60%) patients were classed as having low clinical probability

  15. Multiple cardiac arrests induced by pulmonary embolism in a traumatically injured patient: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Qing; Li, Ke-Peng; Zhi, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism-induced cardiac arrest should not be given up arbitrarily, knowing that the etiology of pulmonary embolism is reversible in most cases. We present a case of continuous resuscitation lasting approximately 4 hours, during which 21 episodes of cardiac arrest occurred in a 46-year-old man who sustained high-level paraplegia after a road traffic accident. Multiple cardiac arrests induced by pulmonary embolism. The patient received cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolytic therapy. The patient was discharged in 2 weeks when his condition turned for the better. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of patients with pulmonary embolism-induced cardiac arrest should not be given up arbitrarily, knowing that the etiology of pulmonary embolism is reversible in most cases. Effective external cardiac compression can not only save the patient's life but also attenuate neurological sequelae. Thrombolytic therapy is the key to the final success of resuscitation.

  16. Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ryan W; Stinson, Hannah R; Wolfe, Heather; Lindell, Robert B; Topjian, Alexis A; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Sutton, Robert M; Berg, Robert A; Kilbaugh, Todd J

    2017-12-19

    Pulmonary embolism is a rarely reported and potentially treatable cause of cardiac arrest in children and adolescents. The objective of this case series is to describe the course of five adolescent patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to pulmonary embolism. Case series. Single, large academic children's hospital. All patients under the age of 18 years (n = 5) who experienced an in-hospital cardiac arrest due to apparent pulmonary embolism from August 1, 2013, to July 31, 2017. All five patients received systemic thrombolytic therapy (IV tissue plasminogen activator) during cardiac arrest or periarrest during ongoing resuscitation efforts. Five adolescent patients, 15-17 years old, were treated for pulmonary embolism-related cardiac arrests during the study period. These accounted for 6.3% of all children and 25% of adolescents (12-17 yr old) receiving at least 5 minutes of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the study period. All five had venous thromboembolism risk factors. Two patients had known, extensive venous thrombi at the time of cardiac arrest, and one was undergoing angiography at the time of arrest. The diagnoses of pulmonary embolism were based on clinical suspicion, bedside echocardiography (n = 4), and low end-tidal CO2 levels relative to arterial CO2 values (n = 5). IV tissue plasminogen activator was administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in three patients and after the return of spontaneous circulation, in the setting of severe hemodynamic instability, in the other two patients. Four of five patients were successfully resuscitated and survived to hospital discharge. Pulmonary embolism was recognized as the etiology of multiple adolescent cardiac arrests in this single-center series and may be more common than previously reported. Recognition, high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and treatment with thrombolytic therapy resulted in survival in four of five patients.

  17. Pathophysiology of dyspnoea in acute pulmonary embolism: A cross-sectional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Olivier; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Riant, Elisabeth; Plantier, Laurent; Dres, Martin; Louis, Bruno; Collignon, Marie-Anne; Diebold, Benoit; Meyer, Guy; Peiffer, Claudine; Delclaux, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Dyspnoea in pulmonary embolism (PE) remains poorly characterized. Little is known about how to measure intensity or about the underlying mechanisms that may be related to ventilatory abnormalities, alveolar dead space ventilation or modulating factors such as psychological modulate. We hypothesized that dyspnoea would mainly be associated with pulmonary vascular obstruction and its pathophysiological consequences, while the sensory-affective domain of dyspnoea would be influenced by other factors. We undertook a prospective study of 90 consecutive non-obese patients (mean ± SD age: 49 ± 16 years, 41 women) without cardiorespiratory disease. All patients were hospitalized with symptoms for <15 days and a confirmed PE (multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan, n = 87 and high-probability ventilation/perfusion scan, n = 3). Patients underwent assessment of dyspnoea using the Borg score, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale, assessment of psychological trait, state of anxiety and depression and chest pain via the Visual Analogical Scale at the time of maximum dyspnoea. Functional evaluations such as the quantitative ventilation-perfusion lung scan, echocardiography, alveolar dead space fraction and tidal ventilation measurements were completed within 48 h of admission. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that dyspnoea was mainly linked to pulmonary vascular obstruction and/or its consequences such as raised pulmonary arterial pressure and chest pain. The sensory-affective domain of dyspnoea showed additional determinants such as age, depression and breathing variability. Dyspnoea is mainly related to vascular consequences of PE such as increased pulmonary arterial pressure or chest pain. The sensory-affective domain of dyspnoea also correlates with age, depression and breathing variability. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. ANP, BNP and D-dimer predict right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Mortensen, Jann; Jensen, Claus V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) using plasma concentration of D-dimer, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and cardiac troponin I (TNI) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).......The aim of this study was to predict right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) using plasma concentration of D-dimer, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and cardiac troponin I (TNI) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE)....

  19. Concomitant Deep Venous Thrombosis, Femoral Artery Thrombosis, and Pulmonary Embolism after Air Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Abunnaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between air travel and deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism “economy-class syndrome” is well described. However, this syndrome does not describe any association between long duration travel and arterial thrombosis or coexistence of venous and arterial thrombosis. We present a case of concomitant deep venous thrombosis, acute femoral artery thrombosis, and bilateral pulmonary embolisms in a patient following commercial air travel. Echocardiogram did not reveal an intracardiac shunt that may have contributed to the acute arterial occlusion from a paradoxical embolus. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that associates air traveling with both arterial and venous thrombosis.

  20. Transient right bundle branch block in a patient with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Jonathan; Viard, François-Valéry; Jost, Daniel; Lefort, Hugues; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    We report the case of an 86-year-old man found at home with acute chest pain and dyspnea. He presented some episodes of left chest pain combined with dyspnea. The physical examination revealed crackling sounds on the bases of the lungs without other anomalies. Electrocardiograms revealed a transient and complete right bundle branch block with inverted T waves in leads V1, V2, and V3. He was diagnosed with a proximal bilateral acute pulmonary embolism without acute cor pulmonale. We describe a case of a transient bundle branch block, without tachycardia or acute cor pulmonale, revealing a pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Catheter-Directed Therapy for Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Summary of Current Evidence and Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselman, Andrew; Kuo, William T

    2017-09-01

    Treatment of acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) with thrombolytic therapy remains an area of controversy. For patients who fail or who have contraindications to systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapy (CDT) may be offered depending on the patient's condition and the available institutional resources to perform CDT. Although various CDT techniques and protocols exist, the most studied method is low-dose catheter-directed thrombolytic infusion without mechanical thrombectomy. This article reviews current protocols and data on the use of CDT for acute submassive pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of recurrent massive pulmonary embolism in Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndrome treated with thrombolytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinesh Upadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klippel – Trenaunay – Weber syndrome (KTWS is a congenital condition characterized by a triad of capillary malformations of the skin, soft tissue and bone hypertrophy resulting in limb enlargement, and abnormalities of arteriovenous and lymphatic systems of the affected limb. In this case, we present a patient with KTWS receiving chronic anticoagulation that had a massive pulmonary embolism and was successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy. The purpose of this case is to educate readers about this uncommon condition and to increase awareness, recognition and timely treatment of its most common complications, namely thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

  3. Splenic Infarct and Pulmonary Embolism as a Rare Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Rawla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a type of herpes infection that has a characteristic feature of maintaining lifelong latency within the host cell. CMV manifestations can cover a broad spectrum from fever to as severe as pancytopenia, hepatitis, retinitis, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, pneumonia, and thrombosis. Multiple case reports of thrombosis associated with CMV have been reported. Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is more common in immunocompetent patients while splenic infarct is more common in immunocompromised patients. However, here we report a female patient on low-dose methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis who presented with both pulmonary embolism and splenic infarct.

  4. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. Pulmonary embolism due to compression of the inferior vena cava by a hepatic hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, V; Sicuro, M; Nejrotti, A; Rizzetto, M; Casaccia, M

    1993-01-01

    We describe a 35-year-old man who had a pulmonary embolism with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, apparently resulting from compression by a hepatic hemangioma. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was confirmed by pulmonary angiography; however, the hemangioma was detected only incidentally, as a hyperechoic mass, during an echocardiogram for intracardiac thrombosis. Abdominal sonography, computed tomography, celiac angiography, technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy all assisted in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma and its compression of the inferior vena cava. Because of the multisegmental and perihilar involvement of the tumor, surgery was not performed. For dissolution of the clots, the patient was given thrombolytic therapy followed by heparin administration. He was then placed on long-term warfarin therapy and is well after 5 years; the size of the hemangioma is unchanged. Cases of pulmonary embolism due to diseases of the upper abdominal organs are rare and probably underestimated. This case stresses the need for a systematic investigation of the abdomen when a pulmonary embolism is present without evidence of deep vein thrombosis. Images PMID:8508068

  6. Nutritional management of a patient with obesity and pulmonary embolism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Maria Luisa; Fietchner, Lauren; Manuelli, Matteo; Cena, Hellas

    2016-10-19

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the issue of nutritional therapy in patients taking warfarin. Patients are often prescribed vitamin K free diets without nutritional counseling, leading to possible health consequences. A 52-year-old woman with obesity and hypertension was prescribed a low calorie diet by her family doctor in an effort to promote weight loss. After a pulmonary embolism, she was placed on anticoagulant therapy and on hospital discharge she was prescribed a vitamin K free diet to avoid interactions. Given poor control of her anticoagulant therapy, she was referred to our Nutritional Unit outpatients' service. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough medical nutrition assessment in the management of patients with obesity and the need for a change in the dietary approach of nutritional therapy in the management of vitamin K anticoagulant therapy. In patients taking warfarin, evidence suggest that the aim of nutritional therapy should be to keep dietary intake of vitamin K constant.

  7. Pulmonary embolism in congenital bleeding disorders: intriguing discrepancies among different clotting factors deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Cosi, Elisabetta; Tasinato, Valentina; Peroni, Edoardo; Girolami, Bruno; Lombardi, Anna Maria

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in the population with a normal clotting mechanism, but it may also occur in patients with congenital bleeding conditions. Here, we report on all cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital hemorrhagic disorders. All reported cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital coagulation disorders have been gathered by a time-unlimited PubMed search. Cross-checking of the references listed at the end of the single papers was carried out to avoid omissions. Seventy-two patients had an objectively demonstrated pulmonary embolism. The event occurred in patients with fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII (FVII), FVIII, FIX, and FXI deficiency, and in those with von Willebrand's disease. No embolism was reported in FII, factor X, and FXIII deficiency. Thirty were women and 28 were men, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, sex was not reported. Age varied from 6 to 81 years (mean age 34.3 years). The management varied from only supportive to the administration of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and anti-vitamin K medications, accompanied by adequate replacement therapy. Evolution was fair or good in the majority of cases, but there were 10 fatalities. Risk factors were present in 61 patients. The most frequent of these were replacement therapy (35 cases), surgery (34), and old age (13). Some patients had more than one risk factor. Eleven patients had no risk factors. There are discrepancies in the prevalence of pulmonary embolism among different clotting disorders. The conditions most frequently affected are FVII deficiency and fibrinogen defects. The significance of the findings is discussed.

  8. Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2011-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

  9. Assessment of risk and prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in medically ill patients during their early days of hospital stay at a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Pandey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambarish Pandey, Nivedita Patni, Mansher Singh, Randeep GuleriaDepartment of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAim: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE are important causes of morbidity and mortality in medically ill patients. This study was done to assess risk factors and prophylaxis given for DVT and PE in newly admitted medically ill patients during the first two weeks of their hospital stay at a tertiary care center hospital in India.Methods: All patients within one week of their admission in intensive care unit (ICU and wards were enrolled in the study after an informed written consent. Patients who had DVT prophylaxis within the past month or any contraindications for DVT prophylaxis were excluded. A structured proforma was designed and effective risk stratification for DVT was done. Patients were followed for up to two weeks to record any changes in the risk categories and document any signs of PE or DVT if present. Any prophylaxis given for DVT or PE was noted.Results: Seventy-five percent of patients had the highest risk for DVT and PE. Only 12.5% had DVT prophylaxis within the first two days of admission. Within two weeks of admission, 30.8% of patients were discharged, and 16.2% died. 72.6% of the patients still in the wards belonged to the highest risk category. Clinical signs and symptoms of DVT and PE were present in 25.8% and 9.8% of patients, respectively after the second week of admission. 86% of symptomatic patients belonged to the highest risk category initially and none of them received any prophylaxis. 21.6% of the highest risk category patients died within two weeks of their admission. A statistically significant correlation was found between mortality and risk score of the patients for DVT and between lack of prophylaxis and mortality (p < 0.05.Conclusion: A significant risk for DVT and PE exists in medically ill patients, but only a small proportion of the patients

  10. Outcome of surgical embolectomy in patients with massive pulmonary embolism with and without cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Samad; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Safaei, Naser; Mohammadi, Kamran; Ranjbar, Abdolmohammad; Ghodratizadeh, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary embolism is a challenging critical cardiovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. Surgical embolectomy has favorable results in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Aim To study the outcome of embolectomy in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Material and methods In this single-center, retrospective study, 36 patients including 14 male and 22 female patients with a mean age of 50.80 ±18.89 years with acute pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical pulmonary embolectomy from January 2011 to January 2016 were included. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and preoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Results Common risk factors for acute PE were major surgery within 3 months and deep vein thrombosis. The most common presenting symptoms of patients were dyspnea, followed by chest pain and syncope. Mean duration of hospitalization was 14.76 ±8.69 days and mean operation duration was 4.47 ±1.54 h. Mean time from admission to embolectomy was 6.58 ±1.13 h. Ten (27.8%) patients died during the operation including 3 cases with cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to surgery and 2 cases with severe cardiogenic shock. Patients who survived were followed for 6 months. The mortality rate during follow-up was 15.4%; all 4 patients died during follow-up period due to metastatic cancer. No pulmonary embolism recurrance were seen. Conclusions Although surgical embolectomy mostly was done for high risk patients, it had good in-hospital and excellent mid-term outcomes. PMID:29354176

  11. Risk factors for recurrent venous thromboembolism after unprovoked pulmonary embolism: the PADIS-PE randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromeur, Cécile; Sanchez, Olivier; Presles, Emilie; Pernod, Gilles; Bertoletti, Laurent; Jego, Patrick; Duhamel, Elisabeth; Provost, Karine; Parent, Florence; Robin, Philippe; Deloire, Lucile; Leven, Florent; Mingant, Fanny; Bressollette, Luc; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Nonent, Michel; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Planquette, Benjamin; Girard, Philippe; Lacut, Karine; Melac, Solen; Mismetti, Patrick; Laporte, Silvy; Meyer, Guy; Mottier, Dominique; Leroyer, Christophe; Couturaud, Francis

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to identify risk factors for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after unprovoked pulmonary embolism.Analyses were based on the double-blind randomised PADIS-PE trial, which included 371 patients with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism initially treated during 6 months who were randomised to receive an additional 18 months of warfarin or placebo and followed up for 2 years after study treatment discontinuation. All patients had ventilation/perfusion lung scan at inclusion (i.e. at 6 months of anticoagulation).During a median follow-up of 41 months, recurrent VTE occurred in 67 out of 371 patients (6.8 events per 100 person-years). In main multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for recurrence was 3.65 (95% CI 1.33-9.99) for age 50-65 years, 4.70 (95% CI 1.78-12.40) for age >65 years, 2.06 (95% CI 1.14-3.72) for patients with pulmonary vascular obstruction index (PVOI) ≥5% at 6 months and 2.38 (95% CI 1.15-4.89) for patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. When considering that PVOI at 6 months would not be available in practice, PVOI ≥40% at pulmonary embolism diagnosis (present in 40% of patients) was also associated with a 2-fold increased risk of recurrence.After a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism, age, PVOI at pulmonary embolism diagnosis or after 6 months of anticoagulation and antiphospholipid antibodies were found to be independent predictors for recurrence. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  12. Helical CT in the detection of pulmonary embolism; Spiral-CT in der Diagnostik der Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, H.U. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Ries, B.G. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Schmidt, H.C. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Within a few years, helical CT has proved its value as a useful, relatively risk-free and non-invasive procedure for the detection of acute and chronic pulmonary embolism. Providing the use of carefully chosen angiographic CT procedures of examination, the presence of acute pulmonary embolism may be confirmed or disproved with a high degree of sensitivity and specifity. Even though helical CT is superior to radionuclide procedures as a method of screening for acute pulmonary embolism, acute subsegmental embolism cannot be excluded in all cases, where the examination failed to reveal any particular findings. In the persistence of clinical symptoms and to resolve questions of therapeutical relevance, pulmonary angiography still has an indication. Helical CT must be regarded as the procedure of choice for the detection of chronic pulmonary embolism, while pulmonary angiography is to be used here as a supplementary method in patients undergoing surgery. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Die Spiral-CT hat sich innerhalb weniger Jahre als ein aussagekraeftiges, wenig belastendes und nichtinvasives Verfahren in der Diagnostik der akuten und chronischen Lungenembolie bewaehrt. Unter Verwendung gezielter CT-angiographischer Untersuchungsstrategien ist die Diagnose oder der Ausschluss einer akuten Lungenembolie bis zur Segmentebene mit hoher Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet moeglich. Obwohl die Spiral-CT der Szintigraphie als Screeningverfahren zum Nachweis einer akuten Lungenembolie ueberlegen ist, schliesst eine unauffaellige Spiral-CT jedoch eine akute subsegmentale Lungenembolie nicht sicher aus. Bei fortbestehendem klinischem Verdacht und therapeutischer Konsequenz ist weiterhin die Pulmonalisanigographie indiziert. Fuer die Diagnostik der chronsichen Lungenembolie ist die Spiral-CT als Methode der Wahl anzusehen, die praeoperativ durch die Pulmonalisangiographie ergaenzt werden sollte. (orig./VHE)

  13. Anticoagulant treatment of cancer patients with pulmonary embolism in the real world Actual use of low-molecular-weight heparin in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Hutten, B. A.; Di Nisio, M.; Buller, H. R.; Kamphuisen, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2004, guidelines recommend long-term treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with cancer and pulmonary embolism (PE). We assessed the proportion of cancer patients with PE actually treated with LMWH and the duration of anticoagulant treatment in the

  14. Anticoagulant treatment of cancer patients with pulmonary embolism in the real world. Actual use of low-molecular-weight heparin in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Hutten, B. A.; Di Nisio, M.; Büller, H. R.; Kamphuisen, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, guidelines recommend long-term treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with cancer and pulmonary embolism (PE). We assessed the proportion of cancer patients with PE actually treated with LMWH and the duration of anticoagulant treatment in the Netherlands. A

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic venous embolization of pulmonary artery aneurysm in Hughes-Stovin syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Man Deuk; Oh, Do Yun; Park, Pil Won [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Hughes-Stovin syndrome is an extremely rare entity. We present a case of a 42-year-old man, who developed deep vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis, repeated internal bleeding and pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs). The patient presented with massive hemoptysis and with PAAs of a 2.5 cm maximum diameter. We describe the successful percutaneous transhepatic venous embolization of the PAAs due to occluded common vascular pathways to the pulmonary artery.

  16. Lung cancer detected in patients presenting to the Emergency Department studies for suspected pulmonary embolism on computed tomography pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kino, Aya [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)]. E-mail: akino@bidmc.harvard.edu; Boiselle, Phillip M. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Raptopoulos, Vassilios [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: To study the frequency and demographics of lung cancer on CT pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism referred from the Emergency Department. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of the medical records and radiology reports, clinical and imaging follow-up studies and pathological reports revealed 1106 CT pulmonary angiography studies referred from our Emergency Department during the 15-month period between March 2003 and June 2004. Results: Five incidental lung cancer cases were found in 1106 studies from 1081 patients (0.47%). Pulmonary embolism was found in 95 patients (8.5%). Among the five incidental cases three patients were female and two were male (62-81 years old; mean 73 years, 17-130 packs year; mean 51 packs year). Tumor size ranged from 1.8 to 4.5 cm (mean 3.3 cm). The stagings of the lung cancers were IIIB in one patient and IV in four patients. Conclusion: Previously undiagnosed lung cancer was detected in 0.45% of patients among 1081 patients referred from Emergency Department, one of whom had coexistent pulmonary embolism. All five patients presented at advanced lung cancer stages of IIIB and IV.

  17. Is CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries indicated in patients with high clinical probability of pulmonary embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Montesinos, L; Plasencia Martínez, J M; García Santos, J M

    2017-06-30

    When a diagnostic test confirms clinical suspicion, the indicated treatment can be administered. A problem arises when the diagnostic test does not confirm the initially suspected diagnosis; when the suspicion is grounded in clinically validated predictive rules and is high, the problem is even worse. This situation arises in up to 40% of patients with high suspicion for acute pulmonary embolism, raising the question of whether CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries should be done systematically. This paper reviews the literature about this issue and lays out the best evidence about the relevant recommendations for patients with high clinical suspicion of acute pulmonary embolism and negative findings on CT angiography. It also explains the probabilistic concepts derived from Bayes' theorem that can be useful for ascertaining the most appropriate approach in these patients. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill, Alain; Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-05-10

    To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Observational cohort study. Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial thromboembolism compared with levonorgestrel. For the same type of progestogen, an oestrogen

  19. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  20. Role of Transthoracic Lung Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libing; Ma, Yuefeng; Zhao, Changwei; Shen, Weifeng; Feng, Xia; Xu, Yongan; Zhang, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Although computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the reference standard for diagnosis, its early diagnosis remains a challenge, and the concerns about the radiation exposures further limit the general use of CTPA. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the overall diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic lung ultrasound (TLS) in the diagnosis of PE. PubMed, Web of science, OvidSP, ProQuest, EBSCO, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrial.gov were searched systematically. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves were used to examine the TS performance. The Bayes analysis was used to calculate the post-test probability of PE. Publication bias was assessed with Deeks funnel plot. The results indicated that the sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR were 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78 to 0.90), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.90). And the DOR and HSROC were 28.82 (95% CI, 17.60 to 47.21), 0.91(95% CI, 0.88, 0.93). The present meta-analysis suggested that transthoracic lung ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Although the application of transthoracic lung ultrasound may change some patients' diagnostic processes, it is inappropriate to generally use transthoracic ultrasonography in diagnosing pulmonary embolism currently.

  1. Role of Transthoracic Lung Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libing Jiang

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a potentially life-threatening condition. Although computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA is the reference standard for diagnosis, its early diagnosis remains a challenge, and the concerns about the radiation exposures further limit the general use of CTPA. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the overall diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic lung ultrasound (TLS in the diagnosis of PE.PubMed, Web of science, OvidSP, ProQuest, EBSCO, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrial.gov were searched systematically. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC curves were used to examine the TS performance. The Bayes analysis was used to calculate the post-test probability of PE. Publication bias was assessed with Deeks funnel plot.The results indicated that the sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR were 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.78 to 0.90, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.90. And the DOR and HSROC were 28.82 (95% CI, 17.60 to 47.21, 0.91(95% CI, 0.88, 0.93.The present meta-analysis suggested that transthoracic lung ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Although the application of transthoracic lung ultrasound may change some patients' diagnostic processes, it is inappropriate to generally use transthoracic ultrasonography in diagnosing pulmonary embolism currently.

  2. Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke in lung cancer patients : results from a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P. P.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Penning-Van Beest, Fernie J. A.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Majoor, Christof J.; Overbeek, Lucy I. H.; Herings, Ron M. C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this cohort study, the rates of pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke (IS) before and after lung cancer (LC) diagnosis were compared to cancer-free controls. METHODS: Patients with LC during 2000-2007 were selected from PALGA, the Dutch Pathology

  3. Gene expression of ANP, BNP and ET-1 in the heart of rats during pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Oxbøl, Jytte; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic petide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may reflect the severity of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). The exact nature and source of BNP, ANP and ET-1 expression and secretion following PE has...

  4. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, Iris M.; Di Nisio, Marcello; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning the efficacy and safety of medical or surgical treatments of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A

  5. Anticoagulant treatment of cancer patients with pulmonary embolism in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Hutten, B.; Di Nisio, M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Büller, H.R.

    Background: Since 2004, international guidelines provide specific recommendations for patients with cancer and pulmonary embolism (PE), namely long-term treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). However, recent studies indicate that the use of LMWH mono-therapy might be far from optimal.

  6. Symptomatology, Clinical Presentation and Basic Work up in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Hess, Søren

    2017-01-01

    referral to a relevant facility should be a part of the skills of all clinicians. Sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, syncope and hemoptysis are essential symptoms of pulmonary embolism, and in most of these patients basic investigations like arterial blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram, chest x...

  7. Detection of Pulmonary Embolism During Cardiac Arrest-Ultrasonographic Findings Should Be Interpreted With Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Rasmus; Caap, Philip; Hansson, Nicolaj C; Bøtker, Morten T; Granfeldt, Asger; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the right ventricle is more dilated during resuscitation from cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary embolism, compared with hypoxia and primary arrhythmia. Twenty-four pigs were anesthetized and cardiac arrest was induced using three different methods. Pigs were resuscitated after 7 minutes of untreated cardiac arrest. Ultrasonographic images were obtained and the right ventricular diameter was measured. University hospital animal laboratory. Female crossbred Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc pigs (27-32 kg). Pigs were randomly assigned to cardiac arrest induced by pulmonary embolism, hypoxia, or primary arrhythmia. There was no difference at baseline. During induction of cardiac arrest, the right ventricle dilated in all groups (p cardiac ultrasonography were able to detect a difference in right ventricle diameter of approximately 10 mm with a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 64-94) and a specificity of 68% (95% CI, 56-80). The right ventricle was more dilated during resuscitation when cardiac arrest was caused by pulmonary embolism compared with hypoxia and primary arrhythmia. However, the right ventricle was dilated, irrespective of the cause of arrest, and diagnostic accuracy by physicians with basic training in focused cardiac ultrasonography was modest. These findings challenge the paradigm that right ventricular dilatation on ultrasound during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is particularly associated with pulmonary embolism.

  8. Treatment options in massive pulmonary embolism during pregnancy; A case-report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, G. Doreen te; Ribbert, Lucie S. M.; Snijder, Repke J.; Biesma, Douwe H.

    Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), streptokinase or urokinase is considered as high-risk treatment in pregnancy. However, several reports have described the successful use of systemic thrombolysis in pregnant patients with massive pulmonary embolism and

  9. Risk profile and clinical outcome of symptomatic isolated subsegmental pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Exter, P. L.; Van Es, J.; Klok, F. A.; Kroft, L. J. M.; Kruip, J. H. A.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Buller, H. R.; Huisman, M.

    Background: Improved imaging techniques have led to an increased detection of subsegmental pulmonary embolism (SSPE). The clinical significance of SSPE is often doubted by clinicians and remains to be determined. Aims: To investigate whether SSPE forms a distinct subset of thromboembolic disease

  10. A simple diagnostic strategy in hospitalized patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, M. J. H. A.; Söhne, M.; Nijkeuter, M.; Kwakkel-van Erp, H. M.; Tick, L. W.; Halkes, S. J. M.; Prins, M. H.; Kramer, M. H. H.; Huisman, M. V.; Büller, H. R.; Leebeek, F. W. G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic strategies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism have been extensively studied in outpatients; their value in hospitalized patients has not been well established. Our aim was to determine the safety and clinical utility of a simple diagnostic strategy in hospitalized

  11. Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Stable Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism Who Receive Thrombolytic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for further analyses of subgroups of patients with pulmonary embolism who might benefit from vena cava filters. In the present investigation, we analyze mortality with vena cava filters in the subgroup of stable patients with pulmonary embolism who received thrombolytic therapy. We use a different database than used previously, and we analyze data in more recent years. Administrative data were analyzed from the Premier Healthcare Database, 2010-2014, in hospitalized stable patients with pulmonary embolism who received thrombolytic therapy and may or may not have received a vena cava filter. Patients were identified on the basis of International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. In-hospital all-cause mortality in stable patients who received a vena cava filter in addition to thrombolytic therapy was 139 of 2660 (5.2%), compared with 697 of 4332 (16.1%) who did not receive a filter (P pulmonary embolism who receive thrombolytic therapy, irrespective of the reason, the additional use of an inferior vena cava filter results in a lower in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Elevated Fibrinogen Levels Associate with Risk of Pulmonary Embolism, but not with Deep Venous Thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether elevated plasma fibrinogen associates with both deep venous thrombosis(DVT) and its complication pulmonary embolism(PE), and whether elevated fibrinogen is a direct cause of these disorders. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that elevated plasma fibrinogen...

  13. High‑risk pulmonary embolism in a patient with acute dissecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last decades, an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute dissection (AD) of aortic aneurysms has been registered mostly due to increased availability of advanced imaging techniques. They seldom occur concomitantly in the same patient. In this paper, we present the clinical challenges and ...

  14. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gunter Bach

    Full Text Available Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality.A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II.In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7% died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10 and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335, and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg.Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one.

  15. Catheter-directed therapy for submassive pulmonary embolism after unsuccessful systemic thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chang; Jiang, Shufen; Ji, Donghua; Ji, Yingqun; Zhang, Zhonghe

    2018-01-01

    Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) has emerged as an important treatment for pulmonary embolism (PE). We present a patient with life-threatening submassive PE with transient hypotension, progressive right ventricular dysfunction, and respiratory failure who failed anticoagulation and had little improvement with systemic thrombolysis, but responded well to catheter-directed therapy.

  16. Patient's Guide to Recovery After Deep Vein Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the following A Patient’s Guide to Recovery After Deep Vein Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Circulation Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation web site. Your Personal Message Send Message Share on ...

  17. Red cell distribution width in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Hong-Lin; Ni, Song-Shi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate red cell distribution width (RDW) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). A single-center, retrospective study design was used between January 1, 2014, and February 1, 2016. The primary end point was 30-day mortality after admission. The RDW predicting value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve. A total of 309 patients with PE were included. The 30-day mortality was 14.9% (46/309). The mean RDW level was 13.9%±0.6% (range, 10.7%-21.9%) at admission. The 30-day mortality was higher in the high-RDW-level group compared with the normal-RDW-level group (12.5% vs 23.5%, χ2=5.140, P=.023), with an odds ratio of 2.164 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.019-4.450). Logistic regression showed that presence of shock, RDW level, and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients with PE. After adjustment by these risk factors, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.439 (95% CI, 1.024-2.116). The area under the curve for RDW predicting the 30-day mortality was 0.6646 (95% CI, 0.5585-0.7518). The cutoff was 16%. The Youden index for RDW and sPESI was 0.400 and 0.453, respectively. When adding RDW into sPESI, the modified sPESI showed highest prediction accuracy, with Youden index 0.499. Our results suggested that the RDW is a simple and useful indicator in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with PE. However, this conclusion showed be confirmed by prospective study with large sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relation between international normalized ratio and mortality in acute pulmonary embolism: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Tuncay; Yazıcı, Selcuk; Durmuş, Gündüz; Çanga, Yiğit; Karaca, Mustafa; Nazlı, Cem; Dogan, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical disease characterized by a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of international normalized ratio (INR) in acute PE patients not on anticoagulant therapy. The study included 244 hospitalized acute PE patients who were not receiving previous anticoagulant therapy. Based on their 30-day mortality, patients were categorized as survivors or non-survivors. INR was measured during the patients' admission, on the same day as the diagnosis of PE but before anticoagulation started. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 39 patients (16%). INR was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (1.3±0.4 vs 1.1±0.3, P=.003). In multivariate analysis, INR (HR: 3.303, 95% CI: 1.210-9.016, P=.020) was independently associated with 30-day mortality from PE. Inclusion of INR in a model with simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score improved the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve from 0.736 (95% CI: 0.659-0.814) to 0.775 (95% CI: 0.701-0.849) (P=.028). Also, the addition of INR to sPESI score enhanced the net reclassification improvement (NRI=8.8%, P<.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.043, P=.027). Elevated INR may have prognostic value for 30-day mortality in acute PE patients not on anticoagulation. Combining INR with sPESI score improved the predictive value for all-cause mortality. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm it's prognostic role. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Retrospective Cohort Study of the Predictive Value of Perfusion Defect Volume Measured With Dual-Energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong Jin; Hur, Jin; Han, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Kwon, Woocheol; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2017-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate dual-energy CT findings predictive of clinical outcome and to determine the incremental risk stratification benefit of dual-energy CT findings compared with CT ventricular diameter ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. A retrospective evaluation was conducted of the cases of 172 patients with acute pulmonary embolism who underwent dual-energy CT. Ventricular diameter ratio and relative perfusion defect volume were measured. The primary endpoints were death within 30 days and pulmonary embolism-related death. A ventricular diameter ratio of 1 or greater was associated with increased risk of death within 30 days (hazard ratio, 3.822; p = 0.002) and pulmonary embolism-related death (hazard ratio, 18.051; p pulmonary embolism-related death (hazard ratio, 1.046; p = 0.017). However, the addition of relative perfusion defect volume to ventricular diameter ratio had no added benefit for prediction of death of any cause within 30 days (concordance statistic, 0.833 vs 0.815; p = 0.187) or pulmonary embolism-related death (concordance statistic, 0.873 vs 0.874; p = 0.866). Compared with ventricular diameter ratio alone, lung perfusion defect volume had no statistically significant added benefit for prediction of death of any cause within 30 days or of pulmonary embolism-related death among patients with acute PE.

  20. Investigation of Suspected Pulmonary Embolism at Hutt Valley Hospital with CT Pulmonary Angiography: Current Practice and Opportunities for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the use of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA at Hutt Hospital and investigate the use of pretest probability scoring in the assessment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE. Methods. We studied patients with suspected PE that underwent CTPA between January and May 2012 and collected data on demographics, use of pretest probability scoring, and use of D Dimer and compared our practice with the British Thoracic Society (BTS guideline. Results. 105 patients underwent CTPA and 15% of patients had PE. 13% of patients had a Wells score prior to their scan. Wells score calculated by researchers revealed 54%, 36%, and 8% patients had low, medium, and high risk pretest probabilities and 8%, 20%, and 50% of these patients had positive scans. D Dimer was performed in 58% of patients and no patients with a negative D Dimer had a PE. Conclusion. The CTPA positive rate was similar to other contemporary studies but lower than previous New Zealand studies and some international guidelines. Risk stratification of suspected PE using Wells score and D Dimer was underutilised. A number of scans could have been safely avoided by using accepted guidelines reducing resources use and improving patient safety.

  1. Amplatzer Vascular Plugs Versus Coils for Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tau, Noam, E-mail: taunoam@gmail.com; Atar, Eliyahu [Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson and HaSharon Campuses, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Mei-Zahav, Meir [Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, Department of Pulmonology and National HHT Center (Israel); Bachar, Gil N. [Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson and HaSharon Campuses, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Dagan, Tamir; Birk, Einat; Bruckheimer, Elchanan [Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, Institute of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeCoil embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) has a high re-canalization/re-perfusion rate. Embolization with Amplatzer plugs has been previously described, but the long-term efficacy is not established. This study reports the experience of a referral medical center with the use of coils and Amplatzer plugs for treating PAVMs in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.MethodsThe study was approved by the Institutional Review Board with waiver of informed consent. The cohort included all patients who underwent PAVM embolization in 2004–2014 for whom follow-up imaging scans were available. The medical files were retrospectively reviewed for background data, embolization method (coils, Amplatzer plugs, both), and complications. Re-canalization of treated PAVMs was assessed from intrapulmonary angiograms (following percutaneous procedures) or computed tomography angiograms. Fisher’s exact test and Pearson Chi-squared test or t test were used for statistical analysis, with significance at p < 0.05.Results16 patients met the study criteria. Imaging scans were available for 63 of the total 110 PAVMs treated in 41 procedures. Coils were used for embolization in 37 PAVMs, Amplatzer plugs in 21, and both in five. Median follow-up time was 7.7 years (range 1.4–18.9). Re-canalization was detected in seven vessels, all treated with coils; there were no cases of re-canalization in plug-occluded vessels (p = 0.0413).ConclusionThe use of Amplatzer plugs for the embolization of PAVMs in patients with hemorrhagic telangiectasia is associated with a significantly lower rate of re-canalization of feeding vessels than coils. Long-term prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  2. The model of pulmonary embolism caused by autologous thrombus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jiao Ding

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a model of pulmonary embolism in rabbits by using autologous thrombosis of rabbit ear vein, to study the method of establishing acute pulmonary embolism by using autologous thrombus and to explore the diagnostic value of oxygen partial pressure in acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into normal group (n=5, 7 h group, 24h group, 1 week after model establishment Group. The arterial blood gas analysis was performed on the carotid arteries of rabbits at 7 h, 24 h and 1 W after modeling. Results: Normal group oxygen partial pressure (93.15 ± 2.26 mmHg, 7 h group oxygen partial pressure (81.98 ± 1.94 mmHg, 24 h group oxygen partial pressure (84.55 ± 2.18 mmHg, 1 W group oxygen partial pressure (92.66 ± 1.92 mmHg. Normal group oxygen partial pressure and 7 h group, 24 h group oxygen partial pressure, P value was less than 0.05 and less than 0.01, indicating that the difference was statistically significant. Normal group oxygen partial pressure and 1 week group oxygen partial pressure, P value greater than 0.05, indicating that the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The oxygen partial pressure was reduced at 7 h after the establishment of the acute pulmonary embolism model and failed to return to normal within 24 h. After 1 week, the embolus began to dissolve, the respiratory and circulatory system was reestablished, and the oxygen partial pressure gradually Return to normal level. Indicating that there is a positive correlation between oxygen partial pressure and acute pulmonary embolism.

  3. Dynamic (4D) CT perfusion offers simultaneous functional and anatomical insights into pulmonary embolism resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, Saeed, E-mail: saeed.mirsadraee@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, John H.; Connell, Martin [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); MacNee, William; Hirani, Nikhil [The Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Murchison, John T. [Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Beek, Edwin J. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: Resolution and long-term functional effects of pulmonary emboli are unpredictable. This study was carried out to assess persisting vascular bed perfusion abnormalities and resolution of arterial thrombus in patients with recent pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and materials: 26 Patients were prospectively evaluated by dynamic (4D) contrast enhanced CT perfusion dynamic pulmonary CT perfusion. Intermittent volume imaging was performed every 1.5–1.7 s during breath-hold and perfusion values were calculated by maximum-slope technique. Thrombus load (modified Miller score; MMS) and ventricular diameter were determined. Perfusion maps were visually scored and correlated with residual endoluminal filling defects. Results: The mean initial thrombus load was 13.1 ± 4.6 MMS (3–16), and 1.2 ± 2.1 MMS (0–8) at follow up. From the 24 CTPs with diagnostic quality perfusion studies, normal perfusion was observed in 7 (29%), and mildly-severely abnormal in 17 (71%). In 15 patients with no residual thrombus on follow up CTPA, normal perfusion was observed in 6, and abnormal perfusion in 9. Perfusion was abnormal in all patients with residual thrombus on follow up CTPA. Pulmonary perfusion changes were classified as reduced (n = 4), delayed (systemic circulation pattern; n = 5), and absent (no-flow; n = 5). The right ventricle was dilated in 12/25 (48%) at presentation, and normal in all 26 follow up scans. Weak correlation was found between initial ventricular dilatation and perfusion abnormality at follow up (r = 0.15). Conclusions: Most patients had substantial perfusion abnormality at 3–6 months post PE. Abnormal perfusion patterns were frequently observed in patients and in regions with no corresponding evidence of residual thrombus on CTPA. Some defects exhibit delayed, presumed systemic, enhancement (which we have termed ‘stunned’ lung). CT perfusion provides combined anatomical and functional information about PE resolution.

  4. Computed tomography angiography with pulmonary artery thrombus burden and right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio after pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriel, Kenneth; Ouriel, Richard L; Lim, Yeun J; Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Computed tomography angiography is used for quantifying the significance of pulmonary embolism, but its reliability has not been well defined. Methods The study cohort comprised 10 patients randomly selected from a 150-patient prospective trial of ultrasound-facilitated fibrinolysis for acute pulmonary embolism. Four reviewers independently evaluated the right-to-left ventricular diameter ratios using the standard multiplanar reformatted technique and a simplified (axial) method, and thrombus burden with the standard modified Miller score and a new, refined Miller scoring system. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for intra-observer variability was .949 and .970 for the multiplanar reformatted and axial methods for estimating right-to-left ventricular ratios, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was high and similar for the two methods, with intraclass correlation coefficient of .969 and .976. The modified Miller score had good intra-observer agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient .820) and was similar to the refined Miller method (intraclass correlation coefficient .883) for estimating thrombus burden. Inter-observer agreement was also comparable between the techniques, with intraclass correlation coefficient of .829 and .914 for the modified Miller and refined Miller methods. Conclusions The reliability of computed tomography angiography for pulmonary embolism was excellent for the axial and multiplanar reformatted methods for quantifying the right-to-left ventricular ratio and for the modified Miller and refined Miller scores for quantifying of pulmonary artery thrombus burden.

  5. Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

    2010-03-01

    In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum

  6. Scintigraphic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism - current status; Szintigraphische Diagnostik der akuten Lungenembolie - aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1998-03-01

    Due to its principle of detection, perfusion scintigraphy can detect small and even the smallest pulmonary embolisms with a maximum degree of sensitivity. There are weaknesses in specificity, in detection of pulmonary infarction and of non-occlusive emboli. To increase specificity, perfusion scintigrams should only be interpreted in conjunction with a current chest X-ray and a ventilation scintigram. Perfusion defects with V/Q mismatch should be interpreted and treated as pulmonary embolism even without angiographic correlates. In emergencies (serious dyspnea), however, perfusion scintigraphy alone provides results which are sufficiently precise, as far as prevalence is sufficiently high. Perfusion scintigraphy is the only imaging procedure which shows directly the functional consequences of pulmonary embolism, the degree of obstruction in the pulmonary arterial circulation can be estimated semiquantitatively. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die Perfusionsszintigraphie kann aufgrund ihres indirekten Nachweisprinzips auch kleinere und kleinste Lungenembolien mit einem Hoechstmass an Sensitivitaet nachweisen. Schwaechen zeigen sich bei der Spezifitaet, beim Erkennen von Lungeninfarkten sowie von nicht okkludierenden Emboli. Zur Anhebung der Spezifitaet sollen Perfusionsszintigramme nur in Verbindung mit einem aktuellen Roentgenthoraxbild und einem Ventilationsszintigramm befundet werden. Perfusionsdefekte mit V/Q mismatch sind auch ohne angiographisches Korrelat als Lungenembolie zu deuten und zu behandeln. Im Notfall (schwere Dyspnoe) liefert aber auch die Perfusionsszintigraphie allein ein ausreichend genaues Ergebnis, sofern die Praevalenz ausreichend hoch ist. Die Perfusionsszintigraphie kann als einziges bildgebendes Verfahren die funktionellen Folgen der Lungenembolie direkt sichtbar machen, der Obstruktionsgrad der Lungenarterienendstrombahn wird semiquantitativ abschaetzbar. (orig./MG)

  7. Successful Treatment of Bronchial Fistula after Pulmonary Lobectomy by Endobronchial Embolization Using an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Machida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bronchial fistula is one of the most serious complications that can occur following pulmonary lobectomy. We herein report a case of bronchial fistula that was successfully treated by endobronchial embolization using an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS. A 72-year-old male underwent right lower lobectomy of the lung with nodal dissection for a pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. A bronchial fistula developed 53 days after surgery. Tube drainage was performed, and air leakage was apparent. Under endoscopic observation, intrathoracic injection of indigo carmine revealed that a fistula existed at the peripheral site of the B2ai bronchus. After one EWS (small was inserted into the B2a bronchus tightly using a bronchoscope, the air leakage was stopped. Pleurodesis was further carried out, the thoracostomy tube was subsequently removed, and the patient was discharged. Endobronchial embolization using an EWS is an option for the treatment of a bronchial fistula after pulmonary resection.

  8. The Location and Size of Pulmonary Embolism in Antineoplastic Chemotherapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Joo; Kwon, Woo cheol; Lee, Won Yeon; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Seong Ah; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the prevalent location and size of pulmonary embolism (PE) in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy patients by multidetector row CT (MDCT). This study was conducted on 101 patients that were positively diagnosed with PE by CT. Among these patients, 23 had received or were undergoing chemotherapy. The location and the mean size of the largest PE were compared between anti-neoplastic chemotherapy patients and non-cancer patients using the Chisquare test and paired t-test, respectively. We also used a multiple linear regression to assess the risk posed by the other risk factors of PE. The most prevalent location of PE in patients on anti-neoplastic chemotherapy was in the lobar or segmental pulmonary arteries and was not significantly different from non-cancer patients. The size of the PE was smaller in patients on anti-neoplastic chemotherapy (1.14 mL [standard error = 0.29]) compared to non-cancer patients. (2.14 mL [standard error = 0.40]) (p < 0.05). The size of PE is smaller in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy patients than in non-cancer patients

  9. Age Adjusted D-Dimer for exclusion of Pulmonary Embolism: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monks, D

    2017-08-01

    D-Dimer (DD) will increase with age and recent studies have shown the upper limit of normal can be raised in those who are low risk and over 50. We studied age adjusted D-dimer (AADD) levels to assess whether pulmonary embolism (PE) could be safely excluded. This study analysed the Emergency Department (ED) Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) requests. There were 756 requests. The parameters studied were; age, DD value, calculated AADD, CT result and Simplified Geneva Score (SGS). The primary outcome was the diagnostic performance of AADD. One hundred and eighty-five patients were included in the final cohort. Twenty-one patients had a negative DD after age adjustment. Of these one had a PE, corresponding to a failure rate of 4.76% (1 in 22). The sensitivity of AADD was 0.96 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) and its specificity was 0.12 (95% CI 0.08- 0.19). AADD demonstrated a reduction in false positives with one false negative, giving rise to a failure rate higher than that of other larger studies. Further study is indicated to accurately define the diagnostic characteristics for the Irish context.

  10. Recovery of right and left ventricular function after acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, F.A., E-mail: f.a.klok@lumc.nl [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Romeih, S. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, L.J.M.; Westenberg, J.J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, M.V. [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Roos, A. de [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To evaluate recovery of cardiac function after acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Routine breath-held computed tomography (CT)-pulmonary angiography was performed in patients with suspected PE to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of PE at initial presentation. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered cardiac CT was performed to assess biventricular function. After 6 months, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In total, 15 consecutive patients with PE and 10 without were studied. A significant change in ventricular volume was defined as a >15% change in end-diastolic or -systolic volumes (EDV, ESV), and significant ventricular function improvement as a >5% increase in ejection fraction (EF) as based on reported cut-off values. Results: Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) EDV and ESV changed non-significantly (<1.3%) in the patients without PE, indicating good comparability of those values measured by CT and MRI. PE patients with baseline normal RV function (RVEF {>=}47%) revealed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+5.4 {+-} 3.1%) due to a decrease in the RVESV. Patients with baseline abnormal RV function showed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+14 {+-} 15%) due to decreases in both the RVESV and RVEDV. Furthermore, the LVEDV increased in this latter patient group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated an improvement in RV function in the majority of patients with PE, independent of baseline RV function. The degree of RV and LV recovery was dependent on the severity of baseline RV dysfunction.

  11. Unsuspected pulmonary embolism identified using multidetector computed tomography in hospital outpatients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, C.; Jones, M.; Girvin, F.; Ritchie, G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Murchison, J.T., E-mail: john.murchison@luht.scot.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence of unsuspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in an unselected population of outpatients undergoing contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for indications other than the investigation of PE. Materials and methods: Outpatients undergoing CT of the chest over a 6-month period were retrospectively identified and images reviewed. Inpatients and patients undergoing unenhanced CT of the chest were excluded. Data, including referring specialty, patient age and sex, reasons for examination, level of embolism, image quality, and section thickness were recorded. Radiology reports were reviewed with respect to whether or not the embolism was noted at the time of initial reporting. Results: Following exclusions 440 patients were reviewed (195 women and 245 men). PE was identified in 10 of the 440 patients, an incidence of 2.23%. One pulmonary embolus was in the main pulmonary artery, three were in lobar arteries, three in segmental arteries, and three in subsegmental arteries. Patients over the age of 60 years were more likely to have an embolism (9/300, 2.9%) compared with those under 60 years (1/140, 0.7%). Seven of the 10 positive examinations were carried out in patients who were known or later shown to have malignancy. Seven of the 10 emboli were reported at the time of initial reporting. Conclusion: The outpatient population has a significant incidence of unsuspected PE. PE should be actively sought when reporting examinations performed for alternative indications, particularly where cancer is a known or suspected diagnosis.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Lymphangiography and Lymphatic Embolization in the Treatment of Pulmonary Complication of Lymphatic Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Maxim

    2017-09-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs; especially those involving the central conducting lymphatic channels) are characterized by dysplastic and incompetent lymphatic channels in multiple tissues and organs. The major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with thoracic LM is deterioration of pulmonary function due to chronic chylous effusions and progressive interstitial lung disease. The etiology of these pulmonary processes is unknown, although lymphatic involvement is certain. Understanding of the changes in the lymphatic anatomy in patients with LM has been hindered by difficulty of imaging of the lymphatic system. Recently developed dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (DCMRL) allows dynamic MR imaging of the lymphatic system by injecting gadolinium contrast agent in the groin lymph nodes. Using this technique, pathological lymphatic flow from the central lymphatic system and/or retroperitoneal and mediastinal masses into lung parenchyma ("pulmonary lymphatic perfusion syndrome") has been demonstrated in patients with LM. This abnormal lymphatic perfusion overflows pulmonary parenchyma and results in deterioration of pulmonary function due to interstitial process and/or compression effect of chylous effusions. Percutaneous thoracic duct embolization or lymphatic interstitial embolization of the lymphatic masses results in cessation of the pulmonary lymphatic overflow and significant improvement in pulmonary symptoms in these patients.

  13. CT pulmonary angiography: an over-utilized imaging modality in hospitalized patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA was overemployed in the evaluation of hospitalized patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE. Methods: Data were gathered retrospectively on hospitalized patients (n=185 who had CTPA for suspected PE between June and August 2009 at our institution. Results: CTPA was done in 185 hospitalized patients to diagnose acute PE based on clinical suspicion. Of these, 30 (16.2% patients were tested positive for acute PE on CTPA. The Well's pretest probability for PE was low, moderate, and high in 77 (41.6%, 83 (44.9%, and 25 (13.5% patients, respectively. Out of the 30 PE-positive patients, pretest probability was low in 2 (6.6%, moderate in 20 (66.7%, and high in 8 (26.6% (p=0.003. Modified Well's criteria applied to all patients in our study revealed 113 (61% with low and 72 (39% with high clinical pretest probability. When modified Well's criteria was applied to 30 PE-positive patients, 10 (33.3% and 20 (66.6% were found to have low and high pretest probability, respectively (p=0.006. D-dimer assay was done in 30 (16.2% of the inpatients with suspected PE and all of them were found to have elevated levels. A lower extremity duplex ultrasound confirmed deep venous thrombosis in 17 (9.1% of the patients with suspected PE, at least 1 week prior to having CTPA. Conclusion: Understanding the recommended guidelines, evidence-based literature, and current concepts in evaluation of patients with suspected acute PE will reduce unnecessary CTPA examinations.

  14. Diagnosis of lung embolism by V / Q scintigraphy. Pt. 2. SPECT and SPECT-CT for pulmonary diagnostic in nuclear medicine; V / Q-Szintigrafie zur Diagnostik der Lungenembolie. T. 2. SPECT und SPECT-CT in der nuklearmedizinischen Lungendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Bern (Switzerland). Inselspital

    2008-12-15

    Imaging of the pulmonary ventilation and perfusion by using SPECT proved to be a useful development of this examination. At first this article gives a brief overview of the technical aspects followed by a discussion of clinical questions regarding pulmonary embolism, preoperative assessment of postoperative lung function as well as radioaerosol deposition and clearance. (orig.)

  15. Life-Threatening Contraceptive-Related Pulmonary Embolism in a 14-Year-Old Girl with Hereditary Thrombophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a case of life-threatening COC-associated pulmonary embolism in a girl heterozygous for the prothrombin G20210A mutation and with a family history of thrombotic disease, we discuss the importance of assessing not just the genotype but also the phenotype when considering initiation of COCs...... found heterozygote for the prothrombin G20210A mutation, and 9 months before admission she had initiated use of second-generation COCs. CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary thrombophilia and a family history of early-onset venous thromboembolism (VTE) each pose an increased risk of VTE and should be considered...

  16. [Pulmonary arterio-venous fistula treated by embolization with steel coils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M; Takayama, K; Aizawa, H; Inoue, H; Hashiguchi, N; Murakami, J; Hasuo, K; Hara, N

    1996-05-01

    A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation and treatment of severe dyspnea on exertion which had persisted for a few years. He presented with cyanosis and markedly clubbed fingers, and laboratory data disclosed hypoxemia, polycythemia, and liver dysfunction. A chest X-ray film showed increased vascular markings in both lower lung fields. Arterial blood gas analysis showed severe hypoxemia, with a PaO2 of 46 Torr and a PaCO2 of 31 Torr while the patient was breathing room air. The PaO2 increased only slightly with inhalation of 100% oxygen, which suggested the presence of a large R-L shunt. The hepatopulmonary syndrome was diagnosed. Angiography of the pulmonary artery revealed a large pulmonary arterio-venous fistula with markedly dilated arteries in both lower lobes. Transarterial embolization was done three times with a total of 62 metal coils. There were no complications. Embolization reduced the shunt from 56% to 31%, increased the PaO2, and relieved the dyspnea. Pulmonary artery embolization can be useful in treating pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas associated with the hepatopulmonary syndrome.

  17. Myocardial infarction, symptomatic third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism caused by thalidomide: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyu; Yang, Jing; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shuyang

    2015-12-18

    Thalidomide has been reported to cause numerous thromboembolic events. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are more common. It can also cause bradycardia and even total atrioventricular block. Rarely, it causes coronary artery spasm and even myocardial infarction. But almost simultaneous onset of myocardial infarction, third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism in one patient has not been reported so far. A 53-year old man presented because of chest pain, nausea and then syncope for several minutes. Previous medical history included neurodermitis for which thalidomide was given and hypercholesterolemia with simvastatin taking. The patient didn't exhibit any other established risk factors for coronary artery disease. Electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm with third degree atrioventricular block and complete right bundle branch block, and precordial leads ST segment elevation. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome was suspected, but further coronary angiography demonstrated no flow-limiting lesions in coronary arteries, and temporary pacemaker was implanted. After admission, low SpO2 and elevated D-dimer level was mentioned. Further computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed pulmonary embolism. Thalidomide was thought to be the cause of hypercoagulability and coronary spasm, so it was ceased immediately. Therapeutic low molecule weight heparin was initiated and then switched to warfarin with appropriate INR, and nifedipine was described for coronary spasm. The patient's symptoms completely relived and SpO2 recovered, and atrioventricular block had disappeared during hospitalization with pacemaker removed. This is the very first case in which myocardial infarction, third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism almost simultaneously developed. We should be ware that anti-thrombotic prophylaxis, which needs further investigation for optimal drug and dosage, may be beneficial in thalidomide therapy. And it is also

  18. Utilization of Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Massive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasrija, Chetan; Kronfli, Anthony; George, Praveen; Raithel, Maxwell; Boulos, Francesca; Herr, Daniel L; Gammie, James S; Pham, Si M; Griffith, Bartley P; Kon, Zachary N

    2018-02-01

    The management of massive pulmonary embolism remains challenging, with a considerable mortality rate. Although veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for massive pulmonary embolism has been reported, its use as salvage therapy has been associated with poor outcomes. We reviewed our experience utilizing an aggressive, protocolized approach of VA-ECMO to triage, optimize, and treat these patients. All patients with a massive pulmonary embolism who were placed on VA-ECMO, as an initial intervention determined by protocol, were retrospectively reviewed. ECMO support was continued until organ optimization was achieved or neurologic status was determined. At that time, if the thrombus burden resolved, decannulation was performed. If substantial clot burden was still present with evidence of right ventricular (RV) strain, operative therapy was undertaken. Twenty patients were identified. Before cannulation, all patients had an RV-to-left ventricular ratio greater than 1.0 and severe RV dysfunction. The median duration of ECMO support was 5.1 days, with significant improvement in end-organ function. Ultimately, 40% received anticoagulation alone, 5% underwent catheter-directed therapy, and 55% underwent surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Care was withdrawn in 1 patient with a prolonged pre-cannulation cardiac arrest after confirmation of neurologic death. In-hospital and 90-day survival was 95%. At discharge, 18 of 19 patients had normal RV function, and 1 patient, who received catheter-directed therapy, had mild dysfunction. VA-ECMO appears to be an effective tool to optimize end-organ function as a bridge to recovery or intervention, with excellent outcomes. This approach may allow clinicians to better triage patients with massive pulmonary embolism to the appropriate therapy on the basis of recovery of RV function, residual thrombus burden, operative risk, and neurologic status. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor and the risk of pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Dawood

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Our observations suggest that the plasma HGF level may be a useful biological marker of pulmonary ischemia, and a valuable tool for early diagnosis of PE. Clarification of the mechanisms, characteristics, and biological significance of HGF elevation is important for clinical use in diagnosing and treating pulmonary ischemia. The use of both d-dimer and HGF increases the predictive power of both tests when used together. The clinical significance of the role of HGF in PE opens a new therapeutic area in treating acute ischemic pulmonary disease that would be able to prolong the time frame for the application of reperfusion–thrombolytic therapy.

  20. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Embolized Using a Micro Vascular Plug System: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Jahn, Christine, E-mail: christine.jahn@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Canuet, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.canuet@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service Service de Pneumologie, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2017-02-15

    AIMTo report our preliminary experience using a Micro Vascular Plug (MVP) deployed through a 2.8Fr micro-catheter for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT).Materials and MethodsFour consecutive female patients (mean age 38.0 years; range 25–55 years) with PAVMs diagnosed on echocardiogram/bubble test and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) underwent MVP embolization. One patient was symptomatic with recent transient ischaemic attack. Follow-up was undertaken at 1-month post-procedure with CECT to assess PAVMs permeability and MVP positioning and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-procedure, with echocardiography/bubble test and standard neurological history, to confirm absence of right-to-left shunts and recurrent symptoms.ResultsEight PAVMs were treated in 4 patients over 5 interventional sessions (mean 1.6 PAVMs per session). All PAVMs were simple, with mean feeding artery diameter of 4.25 mm. Eight 6.5 mm MVPs were deployed in total (one per lesion). Technical success was 100%. Mean procedural time and patient dose per session were 70 min (range 40–70 min) and 53418 mGy.cm{sup 2} (range 6113–101628 mGy.cm{sup 2}), respectively. No signs of reperfusion neither of MPV migration were noted at 1-month CECT follow-up. At early follow-up (mean 3.75 months; range 1–12 months), clinical success was 100% with no evidence of recurrent right-to-left shunt, and no neurological symptoms. No immediate or late complications were observed.ConclusionsMVP embolization of PAVMs appears technically feasible, safe, and effective at early follow-up. Further prospective studies are required to confirm long-term safety and efficacy of this promising technique.

  1. [Clinical analysis of pulmonary embolism in a child with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-yan; Jin, Wei-jing; Zhang, Hai-lin; Li, Chang-chong

    2012-02-01

    To explore the essential points for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Retrospective analysis of the clinical and laboratory data of a pediatric case who developed pulmonary embolism after mycoplasma pneumonia was performed for the key points for diagnosis. A-six-year old boy was admitted with chief complaint of fever and cough for half a month, combined with chest pain and mild labored breath. Vital signs were stable. Breathing movement of the left side weakened and there was left lower lobe percussion dullness. Breath sound was found weakened in the left lung, and a few fine crackles were audible. The results of laboratory tests were as follows: mycoplasma antibody (IgM) 1:128, cold agglutinin test 1:1024, blood D dimer 14.81 mg/L; anticardiolipin antibody was positive; plasma protein C activity was 60% (normal range 70% - 130%). Pulmonary artery computed tomographic angiography revealed a mass opaque shadow in left lower lobe, the branch of left lower bronchial artery was partially obstructed. Echocardiography showed tricuspid valve mild regurgitation, estimated pulmonary pressure was 5.1 kPa. Single-photon emission computed tomography indicated that radioactivity distribution was apparently sparse in the dorsal segment, anterior basal segment, outer basal segment and inferior lingular segment of the left lung. The preliminary diagnosis on admission was mycoplasma pneumonia with pleural effusion, pulmonary embolism. Intravenous erythromycin combined with meropenem were administered. Anticoagulation therapy was initiated with low molecular weight heparin and then oral warfarin tablets. Pleural effusion disappeared soon, D dimer descended to 0.38 mg/L, and pulmonary artery pressure declined. After 3-month follow-up, anti-cardiolipin antibody was negative, plasma protein C activity recovered, and lung lesions were absorbed. When mycoplasma pneumonia is accompanied by chest pain or dyspnea and there are bloody pleural effusion

  2. A novel echocardiographic predictor of in-hospital mortality and mid-term haemodynamic improvement after pulmonary endarterectomy for chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardziyenka, Maxim; Reesink, Herre J; Bouma, Berto J; de Bruin-Bon, H A C M Rianne; Campian, Maria E; Tanck, Michael W T; van den Brink, Renée B A; Kloek, Jaap J; Tan, Hanno L; Bresser, Paul

    2007-04-01

    To study whether pre-operative assessment, using echocardiography, of the timing of a particular feature in the pulmonary flow (pulmonary flow systolic notch) may predict in-hospital mortality and mid-term haemodynamic improvement after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Fifty-eight of 61 consecutive CTEPH patients (aged 53 +/- 14 years; 36 women) who underwent PEA between June 2002 and June 2005 were studied. Clinical, haemodynamic, and echocardiographic variables were assessed pre-operatively and at 3 months post-PEA. Timing of the notch was expressed as notch ratio (NR). Pre-operatively, seven patients had no notch, 33 had NR 1.0. NR was associated with in-hospital mortality (P 40 mmHg) at 3 months post-PEA (P = 0.01). Receiver operator characteristic analysis established NR = 1.0 as optimal cutoff to distinguish patients at risk of such unfavourable outcomes, with NR > 1.0 conferring higher risk. NR is related with in-hospital mortality and residual pulmonary hypertension after PEA. NR > 1.0 is associated with a higher risk of such unfavourable outcomes. NR may be considered a determinant of eligibility for PEA.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of MR perfusion imaging using blood pool contrast agent in subjects without pulmonary diseases and in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansch, Andreas; Hinneburg, Uta [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Gera (Germany); Kohlmann, Peter; Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Klinikum Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany); Malich, Ansgar [Suedharzkrankenhaus Nordhausen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nordhausen (Germany); Wolf, Gunter [University Hospital Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Gera (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the feasibility of time-resolved parallel three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using a blood pool contrast agent. Quantitative perfusion analysis was performed using novel software to assess pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in a quantitative manner. The evaluation of lung perfusion in the normal subjects showed an increase of PBF, PBV ventrally to dorsally (gravitational direction), and the highest values at the upper lobe, with a decrease to the middle and lower lobe (isogravitational direction). MTT showed no relevant changes in either the gravitational or isogravitational directions. In comparison with normally perfused lung areas (in diseased patients), the pulmonary embolism (PE) regions showed a significantly lower mean PBF (20 {+-} 0.6 ml/100 ml/min, normal region 94 {+-} 1 ml/100 ml/min; P < 0.001), mean PBV (2 {+-} 0.1 ml/100 ml, normal region 9.8 {+-} 0.1 ml/100 ml; P < 0.001) and mean MTT (3.8 {+-} 0.1 s; normal region 6.3 {+-} 0.1; P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using time-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to determine normal range and regional variation of pulmonary perfusion and perfusion deficits in patients with PE. (orig.)

  4. [Extremly high frequency of infantil pulmonary thrombo-embolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, K

    1977-11-01

    Among 5 875 children with a lifetime between 24 hours to 14 years, autopsiated during period 1951-1970, were found 115 cases of naked eye pulmonary thrombo-embolism. 96 cases occurred in children with a lifetime between 24 hours and 4 years. This extremly high frequency is caused by an unusually high number of thrombosis in renal veins and craneal sinuses, following severe diarrhetic diseases with deshydratation and haemoconcentration. Severity and frequency of this enterocolitis of different aetiology, affecting especially children of poor people, are favoured by the climatic, sanitarious and socio-economical conditions of Valencia. Surprisingly, literature do not mention comparables observations about infantil pulmonary thrombo-embolism, observed in territories of similar structure.

  5. Cardiac metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Sonaz; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Cardiac metastasis is known as a rare complication of head and neck malignancy. Patient concerns: We present a 58-year-old woman patient with a history of tongue carcinoma who was admitted in emergency department for sudden chest pain. Imaging work-up by computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) diagnosed a cardiac metastasis complicated by intraventricular thrombus and pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis: Cardiac metastasis from tongue carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism. Interventions: After undergoing 2 cycles of palliative chemotherapy, the patient declined any further treatment. Outcomes: Patient died 3 months after the diagnosis of cardiac metastasis. Lessons: Cardiac metastasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with a history of head and neck malignancy who present non-specific cardiac symptoms. PMID:28700484

  6. Cardiac metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Sonaz; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac metastasis is known as a rare complication of head and neck malignancy. We present a 58-year-old woman patient with a history of tongue carcinoma who was admitted in emergency department for sudden chest pain. Imaging work-up by computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) diagnosed a cardiac metastasis complicated by intraventricular thrombus and pulmonary embolism. Cardiac metastasis from tongue carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism. After undergoing 2 cycles of palliative chemotherapy, the patient declined any further treatment. Patient died 3 months after the diagnosis of cardiac metastasis. Cardiac metastasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with a history of head and neck malignancy who present non-specific cardiac symptoms.

  7. Massive pleural effusion and associated pulmonary embolism in a case of Gefitinib responsive lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE and venous thrombosis is a common complication in lung cancer patients with a high misdiagnosis rate and high mortality. However, when an undiagnosed lung cancer patient presents as PE, cancer as a cause may not always be explored. We present a case of a young male patient presenting with venous thromboembolism causing massive pleural effusion, leading to the diagnosis of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation positive adenocarcinoma, showing good response to gefitinib therapy.

  8. Treatment options in massive pulmonary embolism during pregnancy; a case-report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Raa, G Doreen; Ribbert, Lucie S M; Snijder, Repke J; Biesma, Douwe H

    2009-05-01

    Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), streptokinase or urokinase is considered as high-risk treatment in pregnancy. However, several reports have described the successful use of systemic thrombolysis in pregnant patients with massive pulmonary embolism and haemodynamic instability. We describe a 34-year old, pregnant female, who presented at 25 weeks of gestation with an acute collapse with reduced consciousness and shortness of breath caused by massive pulmonary embolism. Because of significant haemodynamic instability, increased right ventricular pressure and no improvement after intravenous heparin, thrombolytic therapy was administered. The response to thrombolytic therapy was excellent. No severe haemorrhagic complications were observed. Anticoagulant therapy with LMWH was continued until delivery. A healthy child was born at term. In English literature, 13 patients received thrombolysis during pregnancy because of pulmonary embolism. No maternal deaths, four non-fatal maternal major bleeding complications, 30.8%;95%CI(9.1-61.4), two fetal deaths, 15.4%;95%CI(1.9-45.5), and five preterm deliveries, 38.5%;95%CI(13.9-68.4), were observed. Surgical embolectomy and catheter embolectomy or catheter thrombolysis has only been performed in 12 patients. The number of reports on thrombolytic therapy, surgical embolectomy and catheter embolectomy or thrombolysis for massive pulmonary embolism during pregnancy are limited. We suggest an international registry for pregnant patients undergoing thrombolysis or embolectomy to gain more information about these treatment options. Nevertheless, complication rates of thrombolytic therapy are acceptable in the light of the underlying disease, and in the meantime, current data do not justify withholding pregnant women from thrombolytic therapy in case of life-threatening PE.

  9. Large patent ductus arteriosus in an adult complicated by pulmonary endarteritis and embolic lung abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufan Bahrami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patent ductus arteriosus in the adult is an extremely rare clinical phenomenon. We report the case of a 34-year old man who developed pulmonary endarteritis and subsequent embolic lung abscess secondary to a large patent ductus arteriosus. This brief report also provides an overview of the natural history, potential complications, optimal therapy, and diagnostic dilemmas associated with this persistent congenital cardiac defect in adults.

  10. Nutritional management of a patient with obesity and pulmonary embolism: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fonte, Maria Luisa; Fietchner, Lauren; Manuelli, Matteo; Cena, Hellas

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this case report is to discuss the issue of nutritional therapy in patients taking warfarin. Patients are often prescribed vitamin K free diets without nutritional counseling, leading to possible health consequences. Case presentation A 52-year-old woman with obesity and hypertension was prescribed a low calorie diet by her family doctor in an effort to promote weight loss. After a pulmonary embolism, she was placed on anticoagulant therapy and on hospital discharge she ...

  11. Pulmonary embolism in patients with transvenous cardiac implantable electronic device leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noheria, Amit; Ponamgi, Shiva P; Desimone, Christopher V; Vaidya, Vaibhav R; Aakre, Christopher A; Ebrille, Elisa; Hu, Tiffany; Hodge, David O; Slusser, Joshua P; Ammash, Naser M; Bruce, Charles J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Friedman, Paul A; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are commonly associated with transvenous lead-related thrombi that can cause pulmonary embolism (PE). We retrospectively evaluated all patients with transvenous CIED leads implanted at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1 January 2000, and 25 October 2010. Pulmonary embolism outcomes during follow-up were screened using diagnosis codes and confirmed with imaging study reports. Of 5646 CIED patients (age 67.3 ± 16.3 years, 64% men, mean follow-up 4.69 years) 88 developed PE (1.6%), incidence 3.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.68-4.07] per 1000 person-years [men: 3.04 (95% CI 2.29-3.96) per 1000 person-years; women: 3.81 (95% CI 2.72-5.20) per 1000 person-years]. Other than transvenous CIED lead(s), 84% had another established risk factor for PE such as deep vein thrombosis (28%), recent surgery (27%), malignancy (25%), or prior history of venous thromboembolism (15%). At the time of PE, 22% had been hospitalized for ≥ 48 h, and 59% had been hospitalized in the preceding 30 days. Pulmonary embolism occurred in 22% despite being on systemic anticoagulation therapy. Out of 88 patients with PE, 45 subsequently died, mortality rate 93 (95% CI 67-123) per 1000 person-years (hazard ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7, P < 0.0001). Though lead-related thrombus is commonly seen in patients with transvenous CIED leads, clinical PE occurs with a low incidence. It is possible that embolism of lead thrombus is uncommon or emboli are too small to cause consequential pulmonary infarction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Severe pulmonary embolism and acute lower limb ischemia complicating peripartum cardiomyopathy successfully treated by streptokinase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, N V; Kaboré, E; Seghda, A; Kagambèga, L J; Kaboré, H P; Millogo, G R C; Kologo, K J; Kambiré, Y; Bama, A; Toguyeni, B J Y; Samadoulougou, A K; Zabsonré, P

    2016-02-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a cardiac disease at high thromboembolism potential. The authors report a case of peripartum cardiomyopathy admitted for congestive heart failure. Echocardiography found a dilated cardiomyopathy with severely impaired left ventricular systolic function and biventricular thrombi. During hospitalization his condition was complicated by severe bilateral pulmonary embolism and left lower limb arterial acute thrombosis. The treatment consisted of thrombolysis with streptokinase associated with dobutamine (in addition to the conventional treatment of heart failure and bromocriptine). The outcome was favorable, marked by pulmonary and lower limb arterial unblocking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Massive Ischemic Stroke Due to Pulmonary Barotrauma and Cerebral Artery Air Embolism During Commercial Air Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi Zarabi, Sara; Parotto, Matteo; Katznelson, Rita; Downar, James

    2017-06-13

    BACKGROUND Air embolism into the systemic arterial circulation secondary to pulmonary barotrauma has rarely been reported. Herein, we report the clinical course of an extremely rare presentation of cerebral air embolism likely due to ruptured pulmonary bullae during commercial air travel. CASE REPORT A 65-year-old man suddenly became unconscious during an airplane descent. Upon landing, he was immediately transferred to the nearest emergency department where he was intubated for airway protection. His head CT angiogram showed multiple air pockets in the right parietal lobe suspicious for multiple air emboli. His chest CT scan showed multiple large bullae in the left upper and lower lobes as well as diffusely emphysematous lung tissue. After initial stabilization, he underwent emergent hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) in the multiplace chamber at 2.8 atmospheres. The patient tolerated HBOT well with no complications. However, his neurologic status deteriorated in the following 24 hours due to progression of his cerebral edema and mass effects. The patient's clinical status was discussed with his family and the decision was made to withdraw life-sustaining measures. He died shortly after withdrawal of life support. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of very large bullae in the lungs bilaterally. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous cerebral air embolism is a possible complication of ruptured pulmonary bullae during air travel. HBOT is well-tolerated and may be used with caution even in the presence of emphysematous bullae.

  14. An unusual case of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after arthroscopic meniscus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao-Hua; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Shi-Gui

    2018-01-17

    Although thrombosis complication is rare after arthroscopic meniscus surgery, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism can be fatal. The associated risk factors and whether anticoagulant prevention after arthroscopic knee surgery is necessary have not reach consensus. Here we present a case of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after a common arthroscopic meniscectomy. The patient had no risk factors except ipsilateral leg varicose veins. She present swell at knee and calf from postoperative 3 weeks, and developed dyspnea, palpitation, and nausea on 33th day, pulmonary embolism was confirmed with CT angiography at emergency department. After thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy were administered, the patient improved well and discharged. And the intravenous ultrasound confirmed thrombosis of popliteal vein and small saphenous vein. Who don't have common risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Despite the low incidence of thromboembolic complications after simple arthroscopy surgery, its life-threatening and devastating property make clinicians rethink the necessity of thromboprophylaxis and importance of preoperative relative risk factors screening.

  15. Right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism: NT-proBNP vs. troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Marilena; Orgaz-Molina, Jacinto; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Guirado-Torrecillas, Leticia; García-Pérez, Bartolomé

    2017-04-21

    Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) is a parameter of severity in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Echocardiographic assessment is not always possible in accident and emergency, hence the need to predict the presence of RV dysfunction using easily measurable parameters. To analyse the value of NT-proBNP and troponin T as markers of RV dysfunction in patients with acute PE. Secondarily, to assess the relationship between RV failure and clinical parameters related to PE. Analytical, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study comparing the values NT-proBNP, troponin T and presenting symptoms of PE among patients with and without RV dysfunction. One hundred seventy-two patients (52 with RV failure,120 without) were included. All symptoms occurred with similar frequency between the 2groups except dyspnea and syncope (more common in the group with RV failure). Both NT-proBNP and troponin T had significantly higher values in the group of patients with RV dysfunction. However, in the multivariate analysis, NT-proBNP had a higher explanatory value for RV failure than troponin T. NT-proBNP is a diagnostic parameter of RV dysfunction with higher sensitivity in the context of acute PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Interventions to Reduce the Overuse of Imaging for Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblois, Simon; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Toporowicz, Kevin; Chen, Zhongyi; Lepanto, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Imaging use in the diagnostic workup of pulmonary embolism (PE) has increased markedly in the last 2 decades. Low PE prevalence and diagnostic yields suggest a significant problem of overuse. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence associated with the interventions aimed at reducing the overuse of imaging in the diagnostic workup of PE in the emergency department and hospital wards. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and EBM Reviews from 1998 to March 28, 2017. Experimental and observational studies were included. The types of interventions, their efficacy and safety, the impact on healthcare costs, the facilitators, and barriers to their implementation were assessed. Seventeen studies were included assessing clinical decision support (CDS), educational interventions, performance and feedback reports (PFRs), and institutional policy. CDS impact was most comprehensively documented. It was associated with a reduction in imaging use, ranging from 8.3% to 25.4%, and an increase in diagnostic yield, ranging from 3.4% to 4.4%. The combined implementation of a CDS and PFR resulted in a modest but significant increase in the adherence to guidelines. Few studies appraised the safety of interventions. There was a lack of evidence concerning economic aspects, facilitators, and barriers. A combined implementation of an electronic CDS and PFRs is more effective than purely educational or policy interventions, although evidence is limited. Future studies of high-methodological quality would strengthen the evidence concerning their efficacy, safety, facilitators, and barriers.

  17. Anuria due to acute bilateral renal vein occlusion after thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinos, Epaminondas; Douka, Evangelia; Daniil, Zoi; Konstantinidis, Kosmas; Markaki, Vassiliki; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2005-05-11

    Severe hemorrhage is the more frequent complication of thrombolysis, with intracranial bleeding the most critical one. We report a 73-year-old woman with major pulmonary embolism (PE), yet haemodynamically stable, in whom thrombolysis resulted in severe complications with acute renal failure (ARF) due to bilateral renal vein occlusion, quite unexpected; this complication has never been reported, as yet. We believe that disrupture of peripheral vein clots by thrombolysis led to migration of thrombi particles upwards to the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral renal vein occlusion. However, the large thrombus straddled to the bifurcation of the main pulmonary trunk and extending to the right pulmonary artery, as visualized by transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), was not affected by thrombolysis. Finally, endogenous fibrinolytic activity, under low molecular weight heparin, resulted in a slow dissolution of the pulmonary thrombus and restoration of kidney function.

  18. Mechanisms underlying gas exchange alterations in an experimental model of pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H.T. Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the ventilation/perfusion ratio that contributes to hypoxemia in pulmonary embolism by analyzing blood gases and volumetric capnography in a model of experimental acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolization with autologous blood clots was induced in seven pigs weighing 24.00 ± 0.6 kg, anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Significant changes occurred from baseline to 20 min after embolization, such as reduction in oxygen partial pressures in arterial blood (from 87.71 ± 8.64 to 39.14 ± 6.77 mmHg and alveolar air (from 92.97 ± 2.14 to 63.91 ± 8.27 mmHg. The effective alveolar ventilation exhibited a significant reduction (from 199.62 ± 42.01 to 84.34 ± 44.13 consistent with the fall in alveolar gas volume that effectively participated in gas exchange. The relation between the alveolar ventilation that effectively participated in gas exchange and cardiac output (V Aeff/Q ratio also presented a significant reduction after embolization (from 0.96 ± 0.34 to 0.33 ± 0.17 fraction. The carbon dioxide partial pressure increased significantly in arterial blood (from 37.51 ± 1.71 to 60.76 ± 6.62 mmHg, but decreased significantly in exhaled air at the end of the respiratory cycle (from 35.57 ± 1.22 to 23.15 ± 8.24 mmHg. Exhaled air at the end of the respiratory cycle returned to baseline values 40 min after embolism. The arterial to alveolar carbon dioxide gradient increased significantly (from 1.94 ± 1.36 to 37.61 ± 12.79 mmHg, as also did the calculated alveolar (from 56.38 ± 22.47 to 178.09 ± 37.46 mL and physiological (from 0.37 ± 0.05 to 0.75 ± 0.10 fraction dead spaces. Based on our data, we conclude that the severe arterial hypoxemia observed in this experimental model may be attributed to the reduction of the V Aeff/Q ratio. We were also able to demonstrate that V Aeff/Q progressively improves after embolization, a fact attributed to the alveolar ventilation redistribution

  19. Contrast-enhanced pulmonary MRA for the primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: current state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Donald G; Schiebler, Mark L; Repplinger, Michael D; François, Christopher J; Grist, Thomas M; Reeder, Scott B; Nagle, Scott K

    2017-06-01

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is currently considered the imaging standard of care for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Recent advances in contrast-enhanced pulmonary MR angiography (MRA) techniques have led to increased use of this modality for the detection of PE in the proper clinical setting. This review is intended to provide an introduction to the state-of-the-art techniques used in pulmonary MRA for the detection of PE and to discuss possible future directions for this modality. This review discusses the following issues pertinent to MRA for the diagnosis of PE: (1) the diagnostic efficacy and clinical effectiveness for pulmonary MRA relative to CTPA, (2) the different pulmonary MRA techniques used for the detection of PE, (3) guidance for building a clinical service at their institution using MRA and (4) future directions of PE MRA. Our principal aim was to show how pulmonary MRA can be used as a safe, effective modality for the diagnosis of clinically significant PE, particularly for those patients where there are concerns about ionizing radiation or contraindications/allergies to the iodinated contrast material.

  20. Parenchymal and pleural abnormalities in children with and without pulmonary embolism at MDCT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology and Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David; Diperna, Stephanie; D' Almeida Bastos, Maria; Strauss, Keith J. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boiselle, Phillip M. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Prior studies in adults suggest that a wedge-shaped peripheral consolidation may be predictive of pulmonary embolism (PE). In contrast, a previous study in children provided no evidence of an association between this finding and PE, but it was limited by a small sample size and was not specifically designed to answer this question. To compare the frequencies of parenchymal and pleural abnormalities in children with and without PE at multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The study population included 22 consecutive pediatric patients (11 males, 11 females; mean age 13.2{+-}5.8 years; range 4 months to 18 years) with PE diagnosed by CTPA from July 2004 to January 2009 and identified using our hospital database. The comparison group included 22 randomly selected pediatric patients (10 males, 12 females; mean age 15.2{+-}3.3 years; range 5.6 to 18 years) who underwent CTPA studies without evidence of PE during the same study period. All CTPA studies were reviewed by consensus by two pediatric radiologists for the presence of parenchymal and pleural abnormalities including: wedge-shaped peripheral consolidation, other forms of consolidation, atelectasis, linear opacity, ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation pattern, nodule, mass, focal patchy increased attenuation, and pleural effusion. Differences in frequencies of parenchymal and pleural abnormalities between the two groups were analyzed by logistic regression to determine odds ratios for association with PE. The two groups were also compared with respect to risk factors for PE. Wedge-shaped peripheral consolidation was seen in eight children (36%) with PE and in two children (9%) without PE [odds ratio = 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2 to 30, p = 0.03]. There were no significant differences in the frequency of other findings between the groups (all p-values > 0.10). Prior history of neoplasm was the only independent risk factor significantly associated with the presence of PE (p

  1. Performance of Low-Dose Perfusion Scintigraphy and CT Pulmonary Angiography for Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jean-Ju; Haramati, Linda B; Natenzon, Anna; Ma, Hong; Tropper, Pamela; Bader, Anna S; Freeman, Leonard M; Bernstein, Peter S; Moadel, Renee M

    2018-01-01

    The symptoms of normal pregnancy overlap those of pulmonary embolism (PE). Limited literature suggests that low-dose perfusion scanning (LDQ), which yields lower maternal-fetal radiation exposure than CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), performs well in excluding PE in pregnant patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of sequential pregnant women who underwent imaging for PE with LDQ or CTPA between 2008 and 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. Our practice recommends LDQ for patients with negative results on chest radiographs. Patients were categorized according to initial imaging modality, and a subgroup analysis was performed in patients with asthma. The primary outcome was the negative predictive value (NPV) of imaging determined by VTE diagnosis within 90 days. Of 322 pregnant women (mean age, 27.3 ± 6.3 years), initial imaging was positive for PE in 2.7% (6 of 225) of LDQs and 4.1% (4 of 97) of CTPAs, negative in 88.0% (198 of 225) of LDQs and 86.6% (84 of 97) of CTPAs, and indeterminate/nondiagnostic in 9.3% (21 of 225) of LDQs and 9.3% (9 of 97) of CTPAs (P = .79). Ten patients (3.1%) were treated for PE. The NPV was 100% for LDQ and 97.5% for CTPA. Subgroup analysis of patients with asthma (23.9% of this population) revealed a high likelihood of a negative study in the LDQ and CTPA groups (74.1% and 87.0%, respectively) and 100% NPV for both modalities. PE is an uncommon diagnosis in pregnancy. LDQ and CTPA perform well, with less maternal-fetal radiation exposure with LDQ. Therefore, when available, LDQ is a reasonable first-choice modality for suspected PE in pregnant women with a negative result on chest radiograph. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is stand-alone D-dimer testing safe to rule out acute pulmonary embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, N; van der Hulle, T; Büller, H R; Klok, F A; Huisman, M V; Galipienzo, J; Di Nisio, M

    2017-02-01

    Essentials A stand-alone D-dimer below 750 μg/L has been proposed to rule out acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This was a post-hoc analysis on data from 6 studies comprising 7268 patients with suspected PE. The negative predictive value of a D-dimer pulmonary embolism (PE), without additional imaging, but this approach needs validation. Objectives To evaluate stand-alone D-dimer testing at a positivity threshold of 750 μg L-1 to rule out PE. Methods Individual data from 7268 patients with suspected PE previously enrolled in six prospective management studies were used. Patients were assessed by the Wells rule followed by quantitative D-dimer testing in those with a 'PE unlikely' score. Patients were classified post hoc as having a negative (< 750 μg L-1 ) or positive (≥ 750 μg L-1 ) D-dimer. Using a one-stage meta-analytic approach, the negative predictive value (NPV) of stand-alone D-dimer testing was evaluated overall and in different risk subgroups. Results The pooled incidence of PE was 23% (range, 13-42%). Overall, 44% of patients had a D-dimer < 750 μg L-1 , of whom 2.8% were diagnosed with PE at baseline or during 3-month follow-up (NPV, 97.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 94.9-98.5). The NPV was highest in patients with a low probability of PE according to the Wells rule (99.2%; 95% CI, 98.6-99.5%) and lowest in those with a high probability of PE (79.3%; 95% CI, 53.0-92.8%). The NPVs in patients with active cancer, patients with previous venous thromboembolism and inpatients were 96.2% (95% CI, 85.6-99.1%), 94.7% (95% CI, 88.6-97.6%) and 92.7% (95% CI, 79.3-97.7%), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that stand-alone D-dimer testing at a positivity threshold of 750 μg L-1 is not safe to rule out acute PE. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Limitations of pulmonary embolism ICD-10 codes in emergency department administrative data: let the buyer beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burles, Kristin; Innes, Grant; Senior, Kevin; Lang, Eddy; McRae, Andrew

    2017-06-08

    Administrative data is a useful tool for research and quality improvement; however, validity of research findings based on these data depends on their reliability. Diagnoses assigned by physicians are subsequently converted by nosologists to ICD-10 codes (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision). Several groups have reported ICD-9 coding errors in inpatient data that have implications for research, quality improvement, and policymaking, but few have assessed ICD-10 code validity in ambulatory care databases. Our objective was to evaluate pulmonary embolism (PE) ICD-10 code accuracy in our large, integrated hospital system, and the validity of using these codes for operational and health services research using ED ambulatory care databases. Ambulatory care data for patients (age ≥ 18 years) with a PE ICD-10 code (I26.0 and I26.9) were obtained from the records of four urban EDs between July 2013 to January 2015. PE diagnoses were confirmed by reviewing medical records and imaging reports. In cases where chart diagnosis and ICD-10 code were discrepant, chart review was considered correct. Physicians' written discharge diagnoses were also searched using 'pulmonary embolism' and 'PE', and patients who were diagnosed with PE but not coded as PE were identified. Coding discrepancies were quantified and described. One thousand, four hundred and fifty-three ED patients had a PE ICD-10 code. Of these, 257 (17.7%) were false positive, with an incorrectly assigned PE code. Among the 257 false positives, 193 cases had ambiguous ED diagnoses such as 'rule out PE' or 'query PE', while 64 cases should have had non-PE codes. An additional 117 patients (8.90%) with a PE discharge diagnosis were incorrectly assigned a non-PE ICD-10 code (false negative group). The sensitivity of PE ICD-10 codes in this dataset was 91.1% (95%CI, 89.4-92.6) with a specificity of 99.9% (95%CI, 99.9-99.9). The positive and negative predictive

  4. Postoperative right atrial and pulmonary embolism after prolonged spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, H J; Yuan, H B; Lio, J T; Din, C K; Neu, S H; Lui, P W; Lee, T Y

    1999-12-01

    Perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism can proceed rapidly with grave prognosis, in which immediate or accurate diagnosis and management is not easy. According to the literatures, patients receiving spinal surgery are at relatively lower risk of developing thromboembolism. We would like to present a case of postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism which developed after a prolonged lumbar spinal surgery. Tachycardia and unstable hemodynamics were noted postoperatively. Pulmonary and right atrial thrombi were disclosed by transesophageal echocardiography. Although cardiotomy and thrombectomy were immediately performed, the patient finally died 3 days after the operation. The pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the surgical patients, the risk factors which predispose a patient to VTE, diagnosis, and treatment as well as the prophylactic measures of VTE are herein reviewed and discussed.

  5. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries using a flow-directed balloon catheter in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooij, W.J.J. van; Heeten, G.J. den (St. Elisabethziekenhuis Tilburg, Dept. of Radiology (Netherlands))

    1992-04-01

    Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of the pulmonary vessels was performed in 70 patients suspected of acute pulmonary embolism. A flow-directed Swan-Ganz pulmonary angiography catheter was used. The spatial resolution of the equipment used was 3.3 lp/mm for DSA and 6.0 lp/mm for conventional pulmonary angiography (CPA). Image quality of the angiograms was assessed by determining the highest visible branching division of the main pulmonary artery. The mean visible branching division for IA-DSA was 4.71 (range 3-7). In 10 patients where IA-DSA and CPA were performed during the same procedure there was no difference in visualization of peripheral arteries (mean 4.70 visible or for both modalities). IA-DSA makes the procedure rapid, saves on films and contrast material and allows good visualization of areas where exposure is difficult. The spatial resolution of state-of-the-art equipment permits sufficient definition of subsegmental vessels. The use of the flow-directed balloon catheter makes the examination easy to perform and minimizes the risk of catheter induced cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.).

  6. Acute Pulmonary Embolism and Paradoxical Embolism in Patients with Patent Foramen Ovale: To Close or Not to Close... That is the Question!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zuin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the treatment of patent foramen ovale (PFO after acute pulmonary embolism (PE remains matter of speculation. Absence of both randomized trials and recommendations in current international guidelines complicate the decisions making in such patients. In the present manuscript we discuss about the reasons for which PFO should be closed after acute PE.

  7. Diagnosing pulmonary embolisms: the clinician's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Alcaraz, A; Martínez, A López; Solano, F J Sotos

    Pulmonary thromboembolism is common and potentially severe. To ensure the correct approach to the diagnostic workup of pulmonary thromboembolism, it is essential to know the basic concepts governing the use of the different tests available. The diagnostic approach to pulmonary thromboembolism is an example of the application of the conditional probabilities of Bayes' theorem in daily practice. To interpret the available diagnostic tests correctly, it is necessary to analyze different concepts that are fundamental for decision making. Thus, it is necessary to know what the likelihood ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and decision thresholds mean. Whether to determine the D-dimer concentration or to do CT angiography or other imaging tests depends on their capacity to modify the pretest probability of having the disease to a posttest probability that is higher or lower than the thresholds for action. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic sequence of thromboembolic pulmonary disease, analyzing the main diagnostic tools (clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging tests), placing special emphasis on the principles that govern evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting in-hospital death during acute presentation with pulmonary embolism to facilitate early discharge and outpatient management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett K Lau

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism continues to be a significant cause of death. The aim was to derive and validate a risk prediction model for in-hospital death after acute pulmonary embolism to identify low risk patients suitable for outpatient management.A confirmed acute pulmonary embolism database of 1,426 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary-center (2000-2012 was analyzed, with odd and even years as derivation and validation cohorts respectively. Risk stratification for in-hospital death was performed using multivariable logistic-regression modelling. Models were compared using receiver-operating characteristic-curve and decision curve analyses.In-hospital mortality was 3.6% in the derivation cohort (n = 693. Adding day-1 sodium and bicarbonate to simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI significantly increased the C-statistic for predicting in-hospital death (0.71 to 0.86, P = 0.001. The validation cohort yielded similar results (n = 733, C-statistic 0.85. The new model was associated with a net reclassification improvement of 0.613, and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.067. The new model also increased the C-statistic for predicting 30-day mortality compared to sPESI alone (0.74 to 0.83, P = 0.002. Decision curve analysis demonstrated superior clinical benefit with the use of the new model to guide admission for pulmonary embolism, resulting in 43 fewer admissions per 100 presentations based on a risk threshold for admission of 2%.A risk model incorporating sodium, bicarbonate, and the sPESI provides accurate risk prediction of acute in-hospital mortality after pulmonary embolism. Our novel model identifies patients with pulmonary embolism who are at low risk and who may be suitable for outpatient management.

  9. Predicting in-hospital death during acute presentation with pulmonary embolism to facilitate early discharge and outpatient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jerrett K; Chow, Vincent; Brown, Alex; Kritharides, Leonard; Ng, Austin C C

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism continues to be a significant cause of death. The aim was to derive and validate a risk prediction model for in-hospital death after acute pulmonary embolism to identify low risk patients suitable for outpatient management. A confirmed acute pulmonary embolism database of 1,426 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary-center (2000-2012) was analyzed, with odd and even years as derivation and validation cohorts respectively. Risk stratification for in-hospital death was performed using multivariable logistic-regression modelling. Models were compared using receiver-operating characteristic-curve and decision curve analyses. In-hospital mortality was 3.6% in the derivation cohort (n = 693). Adding day-1 sodium and bicarbonate to simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) significantly increased the C-statistic for predicting in-hospital death (0.71 to 0.86, P = 0.001). The validation cohort yielded similar results (n = 733, C-statistic 0.85). The new model was associated with a net reclassification improvement of 0.613, and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.067. The new model also increased the C-statistic for predicting 30-day mortality compared to sPESI alone (0.74 to 0.83, P = 0.002). Decision curve analysis demonstrated superior clinical benefit with the use of the new model to guide admission for pulmonary embolism, resulting in 43 fewer admissions per 100 presentations based on a risk threshold for admission of 2%. A risk model incorporating sodium, bicarbonate, and the sPESI provides accurate risk prediction of acute in-hospital mortality after pulmonary embolism. Our novel model identifies patients with pulmonary embolism who are at low risk and who may be suitable for outpatient management.

  10. Odontogenic orbital cellulitis associated with cavernous sinus thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, D; Reposi, S; Nocerino, E; Pece, A

    2017-06-20

    This case illustrates the importance of prompt assessment and treatment of orbital cellulitis. In fact the ocular signs and symptoms may be associated with systemic complications which should be investigated and identified as soon as possible to avoid a poor prognosis. A 46-year-old white woman presented to our emergency room with proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and conjunctival chemosis of her left eye. An ophthalmologist, having diagnosed orbital cellulitis in her left eye, suspected a cavernous sinus thrombosis. Hematochemical and radiological examinations confirmed the cavernous sinus thrombosis and also showed septic pulmonary embolism. A blood culture indicated Streptococcus constellatus, which is a member of the Peptostreptococcus family, a saprophyte of the oral mucosa that can be pathogenic in immunocompromised persons. The odontogenic origin was then confirmed by dental radiography which showed a maxillary abscess. Her eye signs regressed after antibiotic and anticoagulant therapy. This complex case shows the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for the management of orbital cellulitis, for the prompt diagnosis and treatment of eye injuries and possible complications, so as to avoid serious and permanent sequelae.

  11. Risk-Adapted Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Recent Evidence, New Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käberich, Anja; Wärntges, Simone; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function) and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury) for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE. PMID:25386356

  12. Referral Patterns and Diagnostic Yield of Lung Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannier, Erik; Zuckier, Lionel S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study is to assess referral patterns and the yield of ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in patients referred for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent V/Q studies between April 1, 2008, and March 31, 2010. Patients were subdivided into 4 groups based on their referral source: emergency department (ED), hospital inpatient ward, outpatient thrombosis clinic, and all other outpatient sources. Results. A total of 1008 patients underwent V/Q scintigraphy to exclude acute PE. The number of ED, inpatient, thrombosis clinic, and outpatient studies was 43 (4.3%), 288 (28.6%), 351 (34.8%), and 326 (32.3%). Proportion of patients with contrast contraindication varied significantly among the different groups. Of the 1,008 studies, 331 (32.8%) were interpreted as normal, 408 (40.5%) as low, 158 (15.7%) as intermediate, and 111 (11.0%) as high probability for PE. 68 (6.7%) patients underwent CTPA within 2 weeks following V/Q. Conclusion. The rate of nondiagnostic studies is lower than that reported in previously published data, with a relatively low rate of intermediate probability studies. Only a small fraction of patients undergoing a V/Q scan will require a CTPA. PMID:28491475

  13. Weight-based contrast administration in the computerized tomography evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Lisa; Zamfirova, Ina; Sulo, Suela; Baral, Pesach

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Compare individualized contrast protocol, or weight-based protocol, to standard methodology in evaluating acute pulmonary embolism. Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing computed tomography angiography with standard contrast protocol (n = 50) or individualized protocol (n = 50). Computerized tomography images were assessed for vascular enhancement and image quality. Demographics were comparable, however, more patients in the individualized group were admitted to intensive care unit (48% vs 16%, P = 0.004). Vascular enhancement and image quality were also comparable, although individualized protocol had significantly fewer contrast and motion artifact limitations (28% vs 48%, P = 0.039). Fifteen percent decrease in intravenous contrast volume was identified in individualized group with no compromise in image quality. Individualized contrast protocol provided comparable vascular enhancement and image quality to the standard, yet with fewer limitations and lower intravenous contrast volume. Catheter-gauge flow rate restrictions resulting in inconsistent technologist exam execution were identified, supporting the need for further investigation of this regimen. PMID:28151887

  14. Incidence of acute pulmonary embolism, related comorbidities and survival; analysis of a Swedish national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese; Söderberg, Stefan

    2017-06-14

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in Sweden and any regional differences. To assess short- and long-term survival analysis after an episode of PE, before and after excluding patients with known malignancies, and to determine the most common comorbidities prior to the PE event. All in-hospital patients, including children, diagnosed with acute PE in 2005 were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Registry (NPR) and incidence rates were calculated. All registered comorbidities from 1998 until the index events were collected and survival up to 4 years after the event were calculated and compared to matched controls. There were 5793 patients of all ages diagnosed with acute PE in 2005 resulting in a national incidence of 0.6/1000/year. The mean age was 70 years and 52% were women. The most frequent comorbidities were cardiac-, vascular-, infectious- and gastrointestinal diseases, injuries and malignancies. The mortality rates were more than doubled in patients with recent PE compared to that in a matched control group (49.1% vs 21.9%), and the excess mortality remained after exclusion of deaths occurring within one year and after exclusion of patients with any malignancy prior to the event. PE is associated with high age as well as with multiple comorbidities, and with an increased short- and long-term mortality. This study highlights the importance of a proper follow-up after an acute PE.

  15. Risk-Adapted Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Recent Evidence, New Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Käberich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE. Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE.

  16. Importance of Wells score and Geneva score for the evaluation of patients suspected of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruettner, Joachim; Walter, Thomas; Lang, Siegfried; Meyer, Michael; Apfaltrer, Paul; Henzler, Thomas; Viergutz, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology guidelines for pulmonary embolism (PE) published in 2008 and updated in 2014 recommend a risk stratification including risk scores like Wells and the Geneva score. The utility and practicability of these scores are controversially discussed. Recently, in a trauma cohort and in spinal surgery patients, no correlation between Wells Score and PE diagnosis was found. The aim of the study was the evaluation of Wells and Geneva scores in patients presenting with chest pain, dyspnoea or syncope in an emergency department. We retrospectively examined 326 patients suspected of PE, including assessment, according to Wells and Geneva scores. PE was detected in 13.5 %. The average Wells score was 1.0, the average Geneva score 3.9. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed for both scores a high significant area under the curve (Wells score 0.68; Geneva score 0.64). The association between the scores and the diagnosis of PE was calculated with logistic regression analysis and showed high significant odds ratios (OR) for both scores (Wells score 1.38; Geneva score 1.24). There was no significant difference between the area under the curve (AUC) of Wells score and Geneva score. The utility of Wells and Geneva scores for the evaluation of patients suspected of PE in an emergency patient cohort. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stubblefield

    Full Text Available We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE.Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG and turbidimetry (A405.Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec. Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  18. Safety of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for pulmonary embolism diagnosis

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    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Palard, Xavier; Robin, Philippe; Abgral, Ronan; Querellou, Solene; Salaun, Pierre-Yves [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Brest (France); Universite de Brest, Brest (France); CHRU de la Cavale Blanche, Service de medecine nucleaire, Brest (France); Delluc, Aurelien; Couturaud, Francis [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Brest (France); Universite de Brest, Brest (France); CHRU de la Cavale Blanche, Departement de medecine interne et de pneumologie, Brest (France); Le Gal, Gregoire [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Brest (France); University of Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); CHRU de la Cavale Blanche, Departement de medecine interne et de pneumologie, Brest (France); Universite de Brest, Brest (France)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this management outcome study was to assess the safety of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) using for interpretation the criteria proposed in the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for V/Q scintigraphy. A total of 393 patients with clinically suspected PE referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Brest University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2013, with either a high clinical probability or a low or intermediate clinical probability but positive D-dimer, were retrospectively analysed. V/Q SPECT were interpreted by the attending nuclear medicine physician using a diagnostic cut-off of one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches. The final diagnostic conclusion was established by the physician responsible for patient care, based on clinical symptoms, laboratory test, V/Q SPECT and other imaging procedures performed. Patients in whom PE was deemed absent were not treated with anticoagulants and were followed up for 3 months. Of the 393 patients, the prevalence of PE was 28 %. V/Q SPECT was positive for PE in 110 patients (28 %) and negative in 283 patients (72 %). Of the 110 patients with a positive V/Q SPECT, 78 (71 %) had at least one additional imaging test (computed tomography pulmonary angiography or ultrasound) and the diagnosis of PE was eventually excluded in one patient. Of the 283 patients with a negative V/Q SPECT, 74 (26 %) patients had another test. The diagnosis of PE was finally retained in one patient and excluded in 282 patients. The 3-month thromboembolic risk in the patients not treated with anticoagulants was 1/262: 0.38 % (95 % confidence interval 0.07-2.13). A diagnostic management including V/Q SPECT interpreted with a diagnostic cut-off of ''one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches'' appears safe to exclude PE. (orig.)

  19. [The diagnostic values of Wells score and modified Geneva score for pretesting acute pulmonary embolism: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan-ping; Li, Yan-yan; Chen, Jin; Zheng, Guang; Ma, Xin; Peng, Xiao-xia; Yang, Yuan-hua

    2012-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic predictive value of Wells score and modified Geneva score for acute pulmonary embolism by prospective case series and to explore a more suitable scoring system for Chinese population. All the patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) and received CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were enrolled consecutively in Fuxing Hospital, Capital Medical University, China, from June 2009 to August 2011. Before CTPA test or on condition that test results were unknown, clinical scoring was assessed prospectively by the Wells score and the modified Geneva score. The probability of PE in each patient was assessed and the patients were divided into low, moderate and high probability groups according to the clinical scores. The result of CTPA was used as the diagnostic gold standard for PE. Diagnostic accuracy in each group was analyzed. The predictive accuracy of both scores was compared by AUC(ROC) curve. A total of 139 patients met our enrollment criteria and 117 eligible patients entered our study at last. PE was diagnosed in 47 patients by CTPA with an overall prevalence of 40.2%.Prevalence of PE in the low, moderate and high pretest probability groups assessed by the Wells score and by the simplified modified Geneva score were 7.1% (3/42), 42.9% (21/49), 88.5% (23/26) and 10.0% (3/30), 48.1% (37/77), 7/10, respectively. AUC(ROC) curves for the Wells score and the simplified modified Geneva score were 0.872 (95%CI 0.810 - 0.933) and 0.734 (95%CI 0.643 - 0.825) respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.005). The Wells score is more accurate for clinical predicting acute PE than the modified Geneva score.

  20. [Nursing care of pulmonary embolism in out-of-hospital emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Martínez, Aurora; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is one of the most severe venous thromboembolic diseases, both in mortality and the high number of associated complications and their impact on quality of life. The early hours are critical and proper management during this period can determine future sequels. Therefore, in the outpatient setting, nurses must have adequate knowledge and tools to act quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we present a case of a 77 year-old male in his home that after being discharged from a knee replacement surgery starts with symptoms compatible with pulmonary thromboembolism. A Nursing Care Process is performed, according to the functional patterns of Margory Gordon and a care plan is developed based on NNN taxonomy (NANDA, NOC, NIC). As main nursing diagnosis 'ineffective breathing pattern' is selected and as possible potential complication of the pulmonary embolism the 'pulmonary infarction' is chosen. The results obtained after conducting the care plan are satisfactory, improving the signs and symptoms presented by the patient, hence why we believe it is useful for nurses when facing similar clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A case of Multiple Unilateral Pulmonary arteriovenous Malformation Relapse: Efficacy of embolization treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiello Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous Malformations (PAVMs are a rare vascular alteration characterized by abnormal communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins resulting in an extracardiac right-to-left (R-L shunt. The majority of PAVMs are associated with an autosomal dominant vascular disorder also known as Osler-Weber- Rendu Syndrome. PAVMs appearance can be both single and multiple. Clinical manifestations include hypoxemia, dyspnea cyanosis, hemoptysis and cerebrovascular ischemic events or abscesses. We report a case of an 18 year old female with severe respiratory failure caused by a relapse of multiple unilateral pulmonary arterovenous fistula. Symptoms at admission include dyspnea, cyanosis and clubbing. The patient underwent pulmonary angio-TC scan, brain CT and echocardiography. The thoracic angio-CT scan showed the presence of PAVMs of RUL and RLL; a marked increase of right bronchial artery caliber and its branches with an aneurismatic dilatation was also observed. The patient underwent percutaneous transcatheter embolization using Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV; a relevant clinical and functional improvement was subsequently recorded. Embolization is effective in the treatment of relapsing PAVMS.

  2. Surgical embolectomy for high-risk acute pulmonary embolism is standard therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Daisuke; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Yamada, Muneaki; Shimada, Naohiro; Takahashi, Aya; Kaki, Nobuaki

    2017-08-01

    Acute massive pulmonary embolism (AMPE) is a life-threatening condition that often induces rapid haemodynamic deterioration. The mortality of surgical embolectomy is still poor in patients with preoperative cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). We analysed the outcome of surgical pulmonary embolectomy for haemodynamically unstable patients. Thirty-one patients underwent surgical embolectomy for haemodynamically unstable AMPE. The indications for surgical embolectomy were (i) Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) and simplified PESI scores were 158 ± 51 and 2.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The hospital mortality rate was 12.9% (n = 4). Two patients died of hypoxia. Multiorgan failure occurred by sepsis and by right ventricular failure in 1 patient each. No hospital deaths occurred in patients with preoperative PCPS (n = 9). The mean follow-up period was 47.7 ± 35.9 months (range, 3 - 134 months) and the 5-year survival rate was 83.2 ± 6.9%. Postoperative pulmonary artery pressure significantly decreased from 52.7 to 25.8 mmHg. Surgical embolectomy for high-risk AMPE patients has an excellent operative mortality and long-term outcome. Preoperative PCPS may lead to an immediate stable haemodynamic state and improve surgical embolectomy results, especially in high-risk patients (e.g. those with preoperative CPA). Surgical embolectomy for AMPE is an established operation and considered as the first-line therapy.

  3. Impact of Thrombolytic Therapy on the Long-Term Outcome of Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinides, Stavros V; Vicaut, Eric; Danays, Thierry; Becattini, Cecilia; Bertoletti, Laurent; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bouvaist, Helene; Couturaud, Francis; Dellas, Claudia; Duerschmied, Daniel; Empen, Klaus; Ferrari, Emile; Galiè, Nazzareno; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Kozak, Matija; Kupatt, Christian; Lang, Irene M; Lankeit, Mareike; Meneveau, Nicolas; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Rugolotto, Matteo; Salvi, Aldo; Sanchez, Olivier; Schellong, Sebastian; Sobkowicz, Bozena; Meyer, Guy

    2017-03-28

    The long-term effect of thrombolytic treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) is unknown. This study investigated the long-term prognosis of patients with intermediate-risk PE and the effect of thrombolytic treatment on the persistence of symptoms or the development of late complications. The PEITHO (Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis) trial was a randomized (1:1) comparison of thrombolysis with tenecteplase versus placebo in normotensive patients with acute PE, right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on imaging, and a positive cardiac troponin test result. Both treatment arms received standard anticoagulation. Long-term follow-up was included in the third protocol amendment; 28 sites randomizing 709 of the 1,006 patients participated. Long-term (median 37.8 months) survival was assessed in 353 of 359 (98.3%) patients in the thrombolysis arm and in 343 of 350 (98.0%) in the placebo arm. Overall mortality rates were 20.3% and 18.0%, respectively (p = 0.43). Between day 30 and long-term follow-up, 65 deaths occurred in the thrombolysis arm and 53 occurred in the placebo arm. At follow-up examination of survivors, persistent dyspnea (mostly mild) or functional limitation was reported by 36.0% versus 30.1% of the patients (p = 0.23). Echocardiography (performed in 144 and 146 patients randomized to thrombolysis and placebo, respectively) did not reveal significant differences in residual pulmonary hypertension or RV dysfunction. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) was confirmed in 4 (2.1%) versus 6 (3.2%) cases (p = 0.79). Approximately 33% of patients report some degree of persistent functional limitation after intermediate-risk PE, but CTEPH is infrequent. Thrombolytic treatment did not affect long-term mortality rates, and it did not appear to reduce residual dyspnea or RV dysfunction in these patients. (Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis study [PEITHO]; NCT00639743). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. [A statement the Polish Cardiac Society Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation on screening for CTEPH patients after acute pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurzyna, Marcin; Kopeć, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Piotr; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kamiński, Karol; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Mularek-Kubzdela, Tatiana; Mroczek, Ewa; Biederman, Andrzej; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Torbicki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Both pharmacological and invasive treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is now available in Poland and the awareness of the disease among physicians is growing. Thus, the Polish Cardiac Society's Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation in cooperation with independent experts in this field, have launched the statement on algorithm to guide a CTEPH diagnosis in patients with previous acute pulmonary embolism (APE). In Poland, every year this disease affects about 250 patients. CTEPH should be suspected in individuals after APE with dyspnea, despite at least 3 months period of effective anticoagulation, particularly when specified risk factors are present. Echocardiography is a main screening tool. The authors suggest that a diagnostic process of patients with significant clinical suspicion of CTEPH and right ventricle overload in echocardiography should be performed in reference centres. The document contains a list of Polish centres diagnosing patients with suspected CTEPH. Pulmonary scintigraphy is a safe and highly sensitive screening test for CTEPH. Multi-detector computed tomography with precise detection of thromboembolic residues in pulmonary circulation is important for planning of pulmonary endarterectomy. Right heart catheterisation definitely confirms the presence of pulmonary hypertension and direct pulmonary angiography allows for identification of lesions suitable for thromboendarterectomy or pulmonary balloon angioplasty. In this document a diagnostic algorithm in patients with suspected CTEPH is also proposed. With individualised sequential diagnostic strategy each patient can be finally qualified for a particular mode of therapy by dedicated CTEPH Heart Team. Moreover the document contains short information for the primary care physician about the management of patients after APE.

  5. [Pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer: foundations of the EPIPHANY study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Carme; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Plasencia, Juana M; Calvo-Temprano, David; Sánchez, Marcelo; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Beato, Carmen; Biosca, Mercè; Vicente, Vicente; Otero, Remedios

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Having cancer is an independent risk factor for death in the general series of patients with PE and is included as a variable in the prognostic scales of acute symptomatic PE. This fact limits the discriminatory power of these general scales for patients with cancer and has prompted the development of specific prognostic tools: POMPE-C and a scale derived from the RIETE registry. Whether the increased risk of death by PE in patients with cancer is due to complications related to the neoplasm or to a greater severity of the thromboembolic episode in this population has not been well studied. Moreover, the introduction of computed multidetector tomography in recent years has led to a growing diagnosis of incidental PE, which currently represents up to half of pulmonary embolisms in patients with cancer. The EPIPHANY study attempts to further the understanding of the characteristics of pulmonary embolisms in patients with cancer by including incidental and symptomatic events. Its primary objectives are a) to understand the clinical and epidemiological patterns of pulmonary embolism associated with cancer and b) to develop and validate a specific prognosis model for PE in this population. The registry includes variables of interest to oncology (cancer type and extent, oncospecific treatments, patient's functional condition, cancer progression), radiological variables (thrombotic burden, signs of ventricular overload and other findings), location of treatment (hospital or outpatient), acute complications and causes of death in patients with PE associated with cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Fondaparinux vs warfarin for the treatment of unsuspected pulmonary embolism in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Rocca, Aldo; Bianco, Tommaso; Milone, Marco; Sivero, Luigi; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Amato, Maurizio; Danzi, Michele; Aprea, Giovanni; Gallelli, Luca; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In cancer patients, the chest computer tomography (CT) can be used to identify asymptomatic pulmonary embolism (APE). In most cases, these patients are treated with anticoagulant drugs for at least 3 months. The American College of Physicians recommend treatment of these patients as patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism. In this study, we evaluated and compared the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux vs warfarin in the prevention of unsuspected pulmonary embolism in patients with active cancer. A prospective and parallel group study was performed on 64 cancer patients (29 males and 35 females) with APE. A multidetector CT angiography with high spatial and temporal resolution and quality of arterial opacification was used to make the diagnosis. Lung scintigraphy was reserved to selected patients only. Patients were randomized to either the warfarin (Group A) or the fondaparinux (Group B) for 90 days. The first end point of efficacy was the persistence, reduction, or disappearance of thrombosis after 90 days. The second end point was the reappearance of thrombosis after 1 year. The first end point of safety was the development of major bleeding. We enrolled 32 patients into each treatment group. We reached the first end point of efficacy and safety in Group B which showed that fondaparinux was able to induce the disappearance of thrombotic pulmonary with a lower incidence of major bleeding events compared with warfarin. No difference in the secondary end point was recorded. We suggest that the treatment of cancer patients with APE can be oriented with the administration of a standard dose of fondaparinux until the next CT lung control (3 months). However, the lack of a randomized clinical trial, including a larger patient cohort, does not allow formulation of final recommendations in these patients. A broader study would be desirable, involving a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up period.

  7. Effort Thrombosis Presenting as Pulmonary Embolism in a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D.; Anz, Adam W.; Dugger, Keith; Sakryd, Gary A.; Noonan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Effort thrombosis, or Paget-Schroetter’s syndrome, is a rare subset of thoracic outlet syndrome in which deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity occurs as the result of repetitive overhead motion. It is occasionally associated with pulmonary embolism. This case of effort thrombosis and pulmonary embolus was in a 25-year-old major league professional baseball pitcher, in which the only presenting complaints involved dizziness and shortness of breath without complaints involving the upper extremity—usually, a hallmark of most cases of this condition. The patient successfully returned to play for 5 subsequent seasons at the major league level after multimodal treatment that included surgery for thoracic outlet syndrome. Objective: Though rare, effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of throwing athletes with traditional extremity-focused symptoms and in cases involving pulmonary or thoracic complaints. Rapid diagnosis is a critical component of successful treatment. PMID:23015912

  8. Congenital anomalous/aberrant systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula: Closure with vascular plugs & coil embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jariwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl with failure to thrive, who, on clinical and diagnostic evaluation [echocardiography & CT angiography] to rule out congenital heart disease, revealed a rare vascular anomaly called systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula. In our case, there was dual abnormal supply to the entire left lung as1 anomalous supply by normal systemic artery [internal mammary artery]2 and an aberrant feeder vessel from the abdominal aorta. Left Lung had normal bronchial connections and normal pulmonary vasculature. The fistula drained through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium leading to ‘left–left shunt’. Percutaneous intervention in two stages was performed using Amplatzer vascular plugs and coil embolization to close them successfully. The patient gained significant weight in follow up with other normal developmental and mental milestones.

  9. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI and MR angiography of pulmonary embolism in pigs after a single injection of a blood pool MR contrast agent

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    Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Radiology, Innovative Cancer Diagnostic and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Bock, Michael [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Innovative Cancer Diagnostic and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pigs using a single injection of the blood pool contrast Gadomer. PE was induced in five domestic pigs by injection of autologous blood thrombi. Contrast-enhanced first-pass 3D perfusion MRI (TE/TR/FA: 1.0 ms/2.2 ms/40 ; voxel size: 1.3 x 2.5 x 4.0 mm{sup 3}; TA: 1.8 s per data set) and high-resolution 3D MRA (TE/TR/FA: 1.4 ms/3.4 ms/40 ; voxel size: 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.6 mm{sup 3}) was performed during and after a single injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of Gadomer. Image data were compared to pre-embolism Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and post-embolism thin-section multislice CT (n=2). SNR measurements were performed in the pulmonary arteries and lung. One animal died after induction of PE. In all other animals, perfusion MRI and MRA could be acquired after a single injection of Gadomer. At perfusion MRI, PE could be detected by typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects. While the visualization of central PE at MRA correlated well with the CT, peripheral PE were only visualized by CT. Gadomer achieved a higher peak SNR of the lungs compared to Gd-DTPA (21{+-}8 vs. 13{+-}3). Contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MRA of PE can be combined using a single injection of the blood pool contrast agent Gadomer. (orig.)

  10. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with multislice spiral CT; Diagnostik der Lungenembolie mit der Mehrschicht-Spiral-CT

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    Schoepf, U.J.; Kessler, M.A.; Rieger, C.; Boehme, E.; Becker, C.R.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Schaller, S.; Ohnesorge, B.M.; Niethammer, M. [Siemens Medizinische Technik, Forchheim (Germany). Computertomographie

    2001-03-01

    In recent years CT has been established as the method of choice for the diagnosis of central pulmonary embolism to the level of the segmental arteries. The key advantage of CT over competing modalities is the reliable detection of relevant alternative or additional disease causing the patient's symptoms. Although the clinical relevance of isolated peripheral emboli remains unclear, the alleged poor sensitivity of CT for the detection of such small clots has to date prevented the acceptance of CT as the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. With the advent of multislice CT we can now cover the entire chest of a patient with 1-mm slices within one breath-hold. In comparison with thicker sections the detection rate of subsegmental embolic can be significantly increased with 1-mm sections. In addition the interobserver correlation which can be achieved with 1-mm sections by far exceeds the reproducibility of competing modalities. Meanwhile use of multislice CT for a combined diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis with the same modality appears to be clinically accepted. In the vast majority of patients who receive a combined thoracic and venous multislice CT examination the scan either confirms the suspected diagnosis or reveals relevant alternative or additional disease. The therapeutic regimen is usually chosen based on the functional effect of embolic vascular occlusion. With the advent of fast CT scanning techniques, also functional parameters of lung perfusion can be non-invasively assessed by CT imaging. These advantages let multislice CT appear as an attractive modality for a non-invasive, fast, accurate and comprehensive diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, its causes, effects and differential diagnoses. (orig.) [German] Die Computertomographie ist mittlerweile als die Methode der Wahl fuer die Diagnostik der zentralen Lungenembolie bis zur Ebene der Segmentarterien etabliert. Der entscheidende Vorteil der CT gegenueber

  11. Life-saving systemic thrombolysis in a patient with massive pulmonary embolism and a recent hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinor, Wendy; Turlington, Jeremy; Raza, Syed; Roberts, Charlotte S; Malhotra, Rajiv; Jovin, Ion S; Abbate, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism is associated with mortality rates exceeding 50%. Current practice guidelines include the immediate administration of thrombolytic therapy in the absence of contraindications. However, thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism is said to be absolutely contraindicated in the presence of recent hemorrhagic stroke and other conditions. The current contraindications to thrombolytic therapy have been extrapolated from data on acute coronary syndrome and are not specific for venous thromboembolic disease. Some investigators have proposed that the current contraindications be viewed as relative, rather than absolute, in cases of high-risk pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman in whom massive pulmonary embolism led to cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity. Eight weeks earlier, she had sustained a hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident-a classic absolute contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. Despite this practice guideline, we administered tissue plasminogen activator systemically in order to save the patient's life. This therapy did not evoke intracranial bleeding, and the patient was eventually discharged from the hospital. Until guidelines specific to venous thromboembolic disease are developed, we think that the current contraindications to thrombolysis should be considered on an individual basis in patients who are at high risk of death from massive pulmonary embolism.

  12. QR in V1--an ECG sign associated with right ventricular strain and adverse clinical outcome in pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Nils; Walpoth, Nazan; Wustmann, Kerstin; Noveanu, Markus; Gertsch, Marc

    2003-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that Qr in V(1)is a predictor of pulmonary embolism, right ventricular strain, and adverse clinical outcome. ECG's from 151 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were blindly interpreted by two observers. Echocardiography, troponin I, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels were obtained in 75 patients with pulmonary embolism. Qr in V(1)(14 vs 0 in controls; p or =1 mV (15 vs 1 in controls; p=0.0002) were more frequently present in patients with pulmonary embolism. Sensitivity and specificity of Qr in V(1)and T wave inversion in V(2)for predicting right ventricular dysfunction were 31/97% and 45/94%, respectively. Three of five patients who died in-hospital and 11 of 20 patients with a complicated course, presented with Qr in V(1). After adjustment for right ventricular strain including ECG, echocardiography, pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I levels, Qr in V(1)(OR 8.7, 95%CI 1.4-56.7; p=0.02) remained an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Among the ECG signs seen in patients with acute pulmonary embolism, Qr in V(1)is closely related to the presence of right ventricular dysfunction, and is an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome.

  13. Risk management in acute pulmonary embolism: correlation between right heart dysfunction, pulmonary clots distribution, biomarkers and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Right heart dysfunction (RHD is related to adverse outcomes in acute pulmonary embolism (PE. AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the relation between RHD, pulmonary clots distribution and biomarkers and prognosis of patients with PE. METHODS We analysed echocardiographic data of 70 patients with diagnosis of PE confirmed by pulmonary computer tomography, hCT. We considered the enddiastolic right/left ventricles ratio > 1 as index of RHD; echocardiographic data were compared with clots distribution in pulmonary vascular tree such as hCT findings and biomarkers. For each patient we calculated the shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure ratio, shock defined as ratio ≥ 1. RESULTS Hospital mortality was 8.5%. Mean age of dead patients was significantly higher compared to alive (85.67 vs 71.57 years, p < 0.05. 41% of patients revealed unilateral PE, 59% had bilateral. In 10% of patients main pulmonary artery was interested by clot, 48% of patients had involved one of the main branches, 90% had involved at least one of the lobar branches, 59% one of segmental branches of pulmonary arteries. 52% of patients had RHD. Mortality in RHD patients was 14.8% vs 8% in no RHD, p < 0.05. Mean values of troponin I and D-dimer were significantly higher in RHD patients. Shock index was ≥ 1 in 37.5% of RHD and 20% in no RHD. RHD patients showed significantly higher involvement of main pulmonary artery and its branches and higher bilateral involvement. CONCLUSIONS RHD is related to proximal and bilateral pulmonary clots distribution and troponin I and D-dimer values and poorer prognosis.

  14. Prognostic value of the Geneva prediction rule in patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoletti, Laurent; Le Gal, Grégoire; Aujesky, Drahomir; Sanchez, Olivier; Roy, Pierre-Marie; Verschuren, Franck; Bounameaux, Henri; Perrier, Arnaud; Righini, Marc

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) and prognostic stratification are two widely recommended steps in the management of patients with suspected PE. Some items of the Geneva prediction rule may have a prognostic value. We analyzed whether the initial probability assessed by the Geneva rule was associated with the outcome of patients with PE. In a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter trial including 1,693 patients with suspected PE, the all-cause death or readmission rates during the 3-month follow-up of patients with confirmed PE were analyzed. PE probability group was prospectively assessed by the revised Geneva score (RGS). Similar analyses were made with the a posteriori-calculated simplified Geneva score (SGS). PE was confirmed in 357 patients and 21 (5.9%) died during the 3-month follow-up. The mortality rate differed significantly with the initial RGS group, as with the SGS group. For the RGS, the mortality increased from 0% (95% Confidence Interval: [0-5.4%]) in the low-probability group to 14.3% (95% CI: [6.3-28.2%]) in the high-probability group, and for the SGS, from 0% (95% CI: [0-5.4%] to 17.9% (95% CI: [7.4-36%]). Readmission occurred in 58 out of the 352 patients with complete information on readmission (16.5%). No significant change of readmission rate was found among the RGS or SGS groups. Returning to the initial PE probability evaluation may help clinicians predict 3-month mortality in patients with confirmed PE. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00117169). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative pulmonary embolism in a three year old with Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hudcova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Hudcova1, Monica Kleinman2, Daniel Talmor11Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Massive pulmonary embolism (PE in a small child is a rare event and unified guidelines for its treatment are missing. Timely diagnosis and management of massive pulmonary embolism is of crucial importance for a good outcome. We describe a unique management of PE causing oxygenation failure using a combination of catheter extraction technique, and regional thrombolysis on top of systemic heparin administration and inferior vena cava filter placement. Pulmonary hypertension was treated with inhaled nitric oxide. We believe that catheter extraction technique and regional thrombolysis is an option to consider provided that resources and expertise are available. Preoperative placement of an inferior vena cava filter should be contemplated in such high risk situations.Keywords: embolectomy, regional thrombolysis, inferior vena cava filter, inhaled nitric oxide

  16. Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography

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    Kaul, David [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Grupp, Ulrich; Kahn, Johannes; Wiener, Edzard; Hamm, Bernd; Streitparth, Florian [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ghadjar, Pirus [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  17. Noise-optimized monoenergetic post-processing improves visualization of incidental pulmonary embolism in cancer patients undergoing single-pass dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jakob; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bongers, Malte; Schabel, Christoph; Mangold, Stefanie; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian; Othman, Ahmed E

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate noise-optimized monoenergetic postprocessing of dual-energy CT (DE-CT) on image quality in patients with incidental pulmonary embolism in single-pass portal-venous phase CT (CTpv). 20 Consecutive patients with incidental pulmonary embolism in contrast-enhanced oncological follow-up DE-CTpv examination were included in this study. Images were acquired with a 3rd generation DE-CT system in DE mode (100/Sn150 kV) and activated tube current modulation 90 s after contrast agent administration. Subsequently, virtual monoenergetic images (MEI+) were reconstructed at five different keV levels (40, 55, 70, 85, 100) and compared to the standard linearly blended (M_0.8) CTpv images. Image quality was assessed qualitatively (vascular contrast and detectability of embolism, image noise, iodine influx artifact; two independent readers; 5-point Likert scale; 5 = excellent) and quantitatively by calculating signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Highest vessel contrast and highest detectability of embolism were observed in MEI+ at 40 keV (4.7 ± 0.4) and 55 keV (4.2 ± 0.6) with significant differences as compared to CTpv (3.6 ± 0.5) and high keV reconstructions (70, 85, 100; p ≤ 0.01). Image noise significantly increased at 40 keV MEI+ compared to all other MEI+ reconstructions and CTpv (p pulmonary embolism in patients with portal-venous phase CT scans by substantially increasing CNR and SNR.

  18. Evaluation of the biphasic calcium composite (BCC), a novel bone cement, in a minipig model of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Ye, Jichao; Wang, Peng; Gao, Liangbin; Jiang, Jianming; Wang, Suwei; Shen, Huiyong

    2016-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, which is used as a filler material in vertebroplasty, is one of the major sources of pulmonary embolism in patients who have undergone vertebroplasty. In the present study, we established and evaluated two animal models of pulmonary embolism by injecting PMMA or biphasic calcium composite (BCC) bone cement with a negative surface charge. A total of 12 adults and healthy Wuzhishan minipigs were randomly divided into two groups, the PMMA and BBC groups, which received injection of PMMA bone cement and BBC bone cement with a negative surface charge in the circulation system through the pulmonary trunk, respectively, to construct animal models of pulmonary embolism. The hemodynamics, arterial blood gas, and plasma coagulation were compared between these two groups. In addition, morphological changes of the lung were examined using three-dimensional computed tomography. The results showed that both PMMA and BCC injections induced pulmonary embolisms in minipigs. Compared to the PMMA group, the BCC group exhibited significantly lower levels of arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, blood oxygen pressure, blood carbon dioxide pressure, blood bicarbonate, base excess, antithrombin III and D-dimer. In conclusion, BCC bone cement with a negative surface charge is a promising filler material for vertebroplasty.

  19. Yield of computed tomography pulmonary angiogram in the emergency department in cancer patients suspected to have pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Pierre; Mukadam, Zubin; Kammari, Chetan; Banavasi, Harsha; Soubani, Ayman O

    2016-12-01

    The use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the emergency department (ED) for patients suspected to have pulmonary embolism (PE) has been steadily rising in the last 2decades. However, there are limited studies that specifically address the use of CTPA in the ED for cancer patients suspected to have PE. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of positive PE by CTPA in the ED in cancer patients and the variables that are associated with positive results. A retrospective review of electronic medical records for 208 consecutive patients with cancer who presented to the ED and received a CTPA for suspected PE over a 12-month period. The review included demographics, type and status of cancer, presenting symptoms, CTPA results, calculation of Wells Score, management based on CT findings, and outcome of patients. Among the 208 patients who met the inclusion criteria during our study period (mean age 57±13.37years, 73% women, 59% African American, and 32% Caucasians), 5.7% were diagnosed with PE. One hundred and eighty-two (83.7%) had a Wells Score ⩽4, of which 2.2% were found to have to have PE, 22 (16.3%) patients had a Wells Score >4, of which 36.4% were found to have PE (p4 was 66.7% and 92.9%, respectively, with an odds ratio of 27 (95% CI 6.6-113.6). Receiver operator characteristics area under the curve for Wells Score was 0.868. Age, race, sex, malignancy type, stage, status, clinical presentation, D-dimer, and a previous history of venous thromboembolism were not found to have statistically significant predictive values. The yield of CTPA to rule out PE in patients with cancer presenting in the ED is low. Following a validated decision-making protocol such as Wells Criteria may significantly decrease the number of CTPA used in the ED. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the unstructured clinician gestalt, the wells score, and the revised Geneva score to estimate pretest probability for suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Andrea; Verschuren, Franck; Meyer, Guy; Quentin-Georget, Sybille; Soulie, Caroline; Thys, Frédéric; Roy, Pierre-Marie

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of clinical probability (as low, moderate, or high) with clinical decision rules has become a cornerstone of diagnostic strategy for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, but little is known about the use of physician gestalt assessment of clinical probability. We evaluate the performance of gestalt assessment for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective observational cohort of consecutive suspected pulmonary embolism patients in emergency departments. Accuracy of gestalt assessment was compared with the Wells score and the revised Geneva score by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves. Agreement between the 3 methods was determined by κ test. The study population was 1,038 patients, with a pulmonary embolism prevalence of 31.3%. AUC differed significantly between the 3 methods and was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.84) for gestalt assessment, 0.71 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.75) for Wells, and 0.66 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.70) for the revised Geneva score. The proportion of patients categorized as having low clinical probability was statistically higher with gestalt than with revised Geneva score (43% versus 26%; 95% CI for the difference of 17%=13% to 21%). Proportion of patients categorized as having high clinical probability was higher with gestalt than with Wells (24% versus 7%; 95% CI for the difference of 17%=14% to 20%) or revised Geneva score (24% versus 10%; 95% CI for the difference of 15%=13% to 21%). Pulmonary embolism prevalence was significantly lower with gestalt versus clinical decision rules in low clinical probability (7.6% for gestalt versus 13.0% for revised Geneva score and 12.6% for Wells score) and non-high clinical probability groups (18.3% for gestalt versus 29.3% for Wells and 27.4% for revised Geneva score) and was significantly higher with gestalt versus Wells score in high clinical probability groups (72.1% versus 58.1%). Agreement

  1. Benefit of early discharge among patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Wells, Phil; Peacock, W Frank; Coleman, Craig I; Fermann, Gregory J; Schein, Jeff; Crivera, Concetta

    2017-01-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend early discharge of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (LRPE). This study measured the overall impact of early discharge of LRPE patients on clinical outcomes and costs in the Veterans Health Administration population. Adult patients with ≥1 inpatient diagnosis for pulmonary embolism (PE) (index date) between 10/2011-06/2015, continuous enrollment for ≥12 months pre- and 3 months post-index date were included. PE risk stratification was performed using the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Stratification Index. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare 90-day adverse PE events (APEs) [recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleed and death], hospital-acquired complications (HACs), healthcare utilization, and costs among short (≤2 days) versus long length of stay (LOS). Net clinical benefit was defined as 1 minus the combined rate of APE and HAC. Among 6,746 PE patients, 95.4% were men, 22.0% were African American, and 1,918 had LRPE. Among LRPE patients, only 688 had a short LOS. After 1:1 PSM, there were no differences in APE, but short LOS had fewer HAC (1.5% vs 13.3%, 95% CI: 3.77-19.94) and bacterial pneumonias (5.9% vs 11.7%, 95% CI: 1.24-3.23), resulting in better net clinical benefit (86.9% vs 78.3%, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Among long LOS patients, HACs (52) exceeded APEs (14 recurrent DVT, 5 bleeds). Short LOS incurred lower inpatient ($2,164 vs $5,100, 95% CI: $646.8-$5225.0) and total costs ($9,056 vs $12,544, 95% CI: $636.6-$6337.7). LRPE patients with short LOS had better net clinical outcomes at lower costs than matched LRPE patients with long LOS.

  2. Hyponatremia and short-term prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Hong-Lin; Ni, Song-Shi

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between hyponatremia and the short-term prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Searches of MEDLINE (1966-) and ISI Databases (1965-) were performed for English language studies. Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for short-term prognosis were calculated for PE patients with or without hyponatremia. Meta-analysis was carried out following Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Eight studies with 18,616 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The mean in-hospital mortality was 12.9% in hyponatremia group, compared with 2.3% in normonatremia group. Meta-analysis showed the summary OR was 5.586 (95% CI 3.424 to 9.112). The mean 30-day mortality was 15.9% in hyponatremia group, compared with 7.4% in normonatremia group. The summary OR was 3.091 (95% CI 1.650 to 5.788). No significant publication bias was found for the meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses by only pooled the adjusted HRs showed the summary HR was 0.924 (95% CI 0.897 to 0.951), which indicted the mortality risk will be decrease to 0.924 times for per-1mmol/L sodium increase in hyponatremia patients. Our meta-analysis indicates that hyponatremia was related with poor short-term prognosis in patients with acute PE. Hyponatremia is a simple, cheap, powerful marker of mortality, which should be used routinely tested in the PE prognostic assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between computed tomography obstruction index and mortality in elderly patients with acute pulmonary embolism: A prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méan, Marie; Tritschler, Tobias; Limacher, Andreas; Breault, Stéphane; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir; Qanadli, Salah D

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has not only become the method of choice for diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE), it also allows for risk stratification of patients with PE. To date, no study has specifically examined the predictive value of CTPA findings to assess short-term prognosis in elderly patients with acute PE who are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes. We studied 291 patients aged ≥65 years with acute symptomatic PE in a prospective multicenter cohort. Outcomes were 90-day overall and PE-related mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and length of hospital stay (LOS). We examined associations of the computed tomography obstruction index (CTOI) and the right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio with mortality and VTE recurrence using survival analysis, adjusting for provoked VTE, Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), and anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. Overall, 15 patients died within 90 days. There was no association between the CTOI and 90-day overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio per 10% CTOI increase 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.21; P = 0.54), but between the CTOI and PE-related 90-day mortality (adjusted sub-hazard ratio per 10% CTOI increase 1.36; 95% CI 1.03-1.81; P = 0.03). The RV/LV diameter ratio was neither associated with overall nor PE-related 90-day mortality. The CTOI and the RV/LV diameter ratio were significantly associated with VTE recurrence and LOS. In elderly patients with acute PE, the CTOI was associated with PE-related 90-day mortality but not with overall 90-day mortality. The RV/LV diameter ratio did not predict mortality. Both measures predicted VTE recurrence and LOS. The evaluated CTPA findings do not appear to offer any advantage over the PESI in terms of mortality prediction.

  4. Simultaneous Acute Pulmonary Embolism and Isolated Septal Myocardial Infarction in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Burkhardt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here the case of a young patient with a simultaneous isolated septal myocardial infarction (MI and pulmonary embolism (PE. The aim was to describe a rare clinical entity and to explain why these two pathologies were present at the same time in a young patient.
 A review of literature was established. An interventional cardiologist, an interventional radiologist and a lung specialist were consulted. The diagnostic workup revealed only heterozygous Factor Leiden V mutation. This presentation was probably fortuitous, but worth reporting to our opinion.

  5. Successful catheter-directed thrombolysis of a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient after recent pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmouk S; Sista, Akhilesh K; Friedman, Oren A; Horowitz, James M; Port, Jeffrey L; Madoff, David C

    2015-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) after major thoracic surgery is an uncommon but life-threatening event that is challenging to manage. At present, the treatment of acute PE is either anticoagulation with or without systemic thrombolytic therapy. We report a case of a 65-year-old female with recent left pneumonectomy who developed a massive PE. The patient was successfully and safely treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis. To our knowledge, this is the first patient treated in this fashion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stratification, Imaging, and Management of Acute Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Kuo, William T; Schiebler, Mark; Madoff, David C

    2017-07-01

    While pulmonary embolism (PE) causes approximately 100 000-180 000 deaths per year in the United States, mortality is restricted to patients who have massive or submassive PEs. This state of the art review familiarizes the reader with these categories of PE. The review discusses the following topics: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, rationale for stratification, imaging, massive PE management and outcomes, submassive PE management and outcomes, and future directions. It summarizes the most up-to-date literature on imaging, systemic thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, and catheter-directed therapy for submassive and massive PE and gives representative examples that reflect modern practice. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  7. Current Status of Ventilation-Perfusion Scintigraphy for Suspected Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metter, Darlene; Tulchinsky, Mark; Freeman, Leonard M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline recent progress made in ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy imaging techniques and the interpretation systems used for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Various state-of-the-art approaches that can be selected according to the needs dictated by the medical practice environment and specific patient groups are presented. Although advances in tomographic imaging have certainly improved the sensitivity of V/Q scans for the diagnosis of PE, they may lead to overdiagnosis by revealing small and clinically insignificant PEs.

  8. New onset S wave in pulmonary embolism: revisited (something old and something new)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Pillai, Siju B; Ahmad, Sajan Z; Babu, Shifas M

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a young man who had a new onset S wave in lead 1 in his ECG with typical symptoms of acute onset of dyspoena 2 months after an episode of deep vein thrombosis, S wave disappeared 6 days after thrombolysis. We report this case as the clinical course was very typical plus we have reviewed the literature regarding diagnosis and risk stratification of pulmonary embolism for the student, or the casualty medical officer. PMID:24275333