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Sample records for assessing phytochemical intake

  1. Assessing phytochemical intake in a group of Mexican women Estimación de la ingesta de fitoestrógenos en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas

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    Marcia V Galvan-Portillo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the content of selected phytochemicals (PHYs in Mexican foods and evaluate the reliability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in assessing PHYs intake among Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Values for PHYs content were obtained from four different data sets. PHYs intake was assessed in 50 women of reproductive age enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. Values were obtained from a FFQ administered twice, one year apart in order to evaluate its reliability. Selected PHYs included flavonol (FOL, flavones (FES, flavanol (FAL, secoisolariciresinol (SE, matairesinol (MA, lariciresinol (LA, pinoresinol (PI, cynamic acid (CA and coumestrol (CU. RESULTS: Daily PHYs intake ranged from 1.3 µg ± 0.9 for MA to 116.3 ± 43.8 mg for CA. The adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from 0.17 for FAL to 0.47 for LA. Pinto beans, oranges, hot sauce, broccoli, apples and onions were the main sources of the selected PHYs daily intake. DISCUSSION: The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the consumption of PHYs in the Mexican diet, and would help evaluate their potential health impact.OBJETIVO: Crear una base de datos con el contenido de nueve fitoestrógenos (FIT presentes en alimentos mexicanos y calcular su ingestión y reproducibilidad en 50 mujeres participantes en un estudio de cohorte en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los FIT seleccionados incluyeron flavonol (FOL, flavones (FES, flavanol (FAL, secoisolariciresinol (SE, matairesinol (MA, lariciresinol (LA, pinoresinol (PI, ácido cinámico (CA y coumestrol (CU. El contenido de estos compuestos se obtuvo de cuatro diferentes fuentes de datos. La ingestión diaria se estimó a través de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, aplicado en dos oportunidades con una diferencia de un año a cada participante. La reproducibilidad en el reporte de cada FIT se estimó mediante coeficientes de correlación intraclase ajustados por residuales de energ

  2. Phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the phytochemical and bioethanol content of Cymbopogon schoenanthus was assessed under three different pH. The phytochemical screening and proximate analysis was carried out according to standard qualitative and quantitative methods. Where alkaloids, balsam, flavonoids, glycosides, saponin, ...

  3. phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    In this research, the phytochemical and bioethanol content of Cymbopogon schoenanthus was assessed under three different pH. ... of the bioethanol produced shows the presence of Ethyl alcohol (bioethanol) in all the treatments at different pH. ... food security, water use efficiency of the biomass, land use efficiency etc. To.

  4. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three medicinal plants - Abutilon mauritianum, Bacopa monnifera and Datura stramonium were assessed for phytochemical components and antimicrobial activity. The results revealed that all the three plant extracts contained saponins, tannins and alkaloids. Only Datura stramonium contained glycosides. The plants exert ...

  5. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping.

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    Probst, Yasmine C; Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-02-15

    Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health conditions. This is useful to public health

  6. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping

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    Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. Dissemination By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health

  7. Risk of human ovarian cancer is related to dietary intake of selected nutrients, phytochemicals and food groups.

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    McCann, Susan E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Marshall, James R; Graham, Saxon

    2003-06-01

    Intakes of specific nutrients and food groups have been shown previously to be related to ovarian cancer risk, but no studies, to our knowledge, have emphasized the effect of phytochemical intakes on this cancer. We conducted a case-control study of diet and ovarian cancer in western New York involving 124 primary, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer cases and 696 population-based controls, frequency matched to cases on age and county of residence. Diet was assessed with a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient and phytochemical intakes were calculated from published food composition data. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for risk of ovarian cancer with each nutrient, phytochemical and food group were estimated with unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, total months menstruating, difficulty becoming pregnant, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status and energy intake. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, reduced risks were observed for women in the highest quintile of intake of dietary fiber (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.20-0.94), total carotenoids (OR 0.33, 95% CI, 0.16-0.68), stigmasterol (OR 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.87), total lignans (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.21-0.85), vegetables (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.23-0.97) and poultry (OR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.22-0.92). These results support a protective effect on ovarian cancer of phytoestrogen intakes, and our results support the hypothesis that a plant-based diet may be important in reducing risks of hormone-related neoplasms.

  8. Laboratory Assessment of Bio-efficacies of Phytochemical Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the bio-efficacies of phytochemical extracts from peels, pulp and seeds of citrus fruits species on adult Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus under laboratory conditions. The assessment established the most potent extract(s) that could be adopted in sustainable control of malaria vectors.

  9. In vitro assessment of antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro assessment of antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of extracts from the leaves of Ocimum Gratissimum (linn). ... micro elements and constituents revealed that the leaves contain significant amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper, nitrogen, and manganese.

  10. An Assessment of the Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical and nutrient composition of the pulverized dried root of Cissus quadrangularis (an edible Nigerian vegetable) were determined. Phytochemical tests on the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides with the absence of cyanogenic glycosides. Proximate analysis ...

  11. Balanced intakes of natural triglycerides for optimum nutrition: an evolutionary and phytochemical perspective.

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    Broadhurst, C L

    1997-09-01

    Natural whole foods contain fats as structural components, and have a balance of polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and saturated fat. Since we are still a Paleolithic species, adapted to eating only wild foods, it is difficult to justify the consumption of anything other than an overall balance of triglyceride/phospholipid types in an evolutionary sense. No natural fats are intrinsically good or bad--it is the proportions that matter. Variety is recommended in dietary lipid structure, degree of saturation, and chain length. Pathological n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fat imbalance, obesity, and progressive glucose intolerance are consequences of adopting cereal grain based diets by both humans and livestock. Food processing and refining amplify these problems. Excessive concerns regarding polyunsaturated fat peroxidation in vivo are not warranted when trigylcerides are balanced and normal diets are consumed. Numerous phytochemicals present in unrefined oils, fruits, vegetables, and herbs afford significant protection from lipid peroxidation and chronic disease.

  12. Phytochemical, trace metals assessment and antimicrobial efficacy of Barleria cristata

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    S. Baskar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plants contains various secondary metabolites which have shown significant pharmacological activity. In the present paper, we analysed the phytochemical, trace metal and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Barleria cristata.  The significance of high antimicrobial activity due to their presence of secondary metabolites in this herb. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponin, tannins and amino acid. The antimicrobial activity of B.cristata ethanol extract was examined with six various pathogenic microorganisms such as gram positive, gram negative and fungal strains using the disk diffusion test. The two tested concentrations such as 0.60 and 1.20 mg/disc produce zone of inhibition on Muller Hinton Agar (MHA and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA plates for bacteria and fungi, respectively. In this study, higher (1.20 mg concentration got greater sensitivity than lower (0.60 mg concentration against all strains. The trace metal analyses of the plants were also carried out. The mean concentration of trace metals such as cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn were 0.05, BDL, 0.07, 0.88, BDL, 0.23 and 0.24 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it is signified that B.cristata plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

  13. Phytochemical intake and relationship to past health history in Japanese women.

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    Melby, Melissa K; Murashima, Megumi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2004-01-01

    We calculated functional food factor (FFF) intakes using a new database and examined their relationship to health conditions commonly affecting Japanese women in midlife. One-day DRs were collected weekly for 6 months from 67 Japanese women, aged 45-55 yr, living in Kyoto prefecture, Japan. Macro- and micronutrient and FFF intake were calculated from the resulting 1528 DRs. Factor analysis and logistic regression were performed to identify relationships between FFFs and past health history. Fourteen of 17 FFF factors, as well as age, BMI and menopausal status, exhibited both positive and negative correlations with past history of hypertension, diabetes, allergy, migraine, and menopausal syndrome.

  14. Phytochemical assessments of Astragalus hamosus pods (Iklil-ul-Malik

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    Azadeh Hamedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Authentication and quality control of herbs in herbal markets is an important challenge for practitioners and food and drug organizations. Rapid and simple pharmacognostic evaluations are beneficial to overcome this problem. On the other hand, there is a mist about the scientific names of some of these herbs even in scientific literatures. Iklil-ul-Malik or Astragalus hamosus L. (Papilionaceae is one of these medicinal plants.Pharmacognostic (macroscopic, microscopic and phytochemical properties of Iklil-ul-Malik pods were investigated. Different ash and extractive values were determined. The HPTLC finger prints of the herbs’ fractions were prepared, using different reagents and mobile phases. The fatty acids, steroids, alkene and terpenoids of the pods were investigated by GC-MS analysis. Soluble fatty acid and soluble sugar content were determined by spectroscopic methods. Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash were determined to be 75.00±11.83, 8.33±2.89 and 40.00±5.00 mg/g respectively. The extractive values for n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions were 0.77%, 0.16% and 0.49% (w/w. Free amino acid and soluble sugar contents were respectively 3.33±0.001 and 8.83±0.004 (w/w %. Polyphenols, triterpenes, glycosides and glycolipids were detected in different fractions. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (48.64%, linolenic acids (25.35%, lauric acid (8.12% and stearic acid (6.38%. By presenting the pharmacognostic values and HPTLC fingerprints in this manuscript, the herb can be authenticated.

  15. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

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    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  16. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

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    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  17. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

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    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  18. Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, and antifungal assessment of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum.

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    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Perviz, Samreen

    2016-05-01

    The current study was designed to assess the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum (PA) and its various subsequent solvent fractions using agar well diffusion, agar tube dilution, and microdilution methods. Phytochemical analysis showed positive for different chemical groups and also contained marked quantity of saponin and flavonoid contents. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against various tested pathogenic bacteria. The only susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) measured ranged from 11-50 µg/ml. The sensitive Gram-negative bacteria were Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri The estimated MICs were in the range of 2-7 µg/ml and 8-50 µg/ml for S. typhi and S. flexeneri, respectively. However, the antifungal activity of the plant was limited to Microsporum canis and their MICs ranged from 60 to 250 µg/ml. Our study confirmed significant antibacterial potential of the plant and substantiated its folk use in dysentery and pyrexia of multiple origins. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

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    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  20. Phytochemicals (image)

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    Plants provide many beneficial nutrients (phytochemicals) which may protect against cancer. Isothiocyanates (found in broccoli, cauliflower and brussel sprouts) may suppress tumor growth and hormone production. Flavonoids ( ...

  1. Assessment of the differences in the physical, chemical and phytochemical properties of four strawberry cultivars using principal component analysis.

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    Šamec, Dunja; Maretić, Marina; Lugarić, Ivana; Mešić, Aleksandar; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Duralija, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide established strawberry cultivar 'Albion' and three recently introduced cultivars in Europe: 'Monterey', 'Capri', and 'Murano', grown hydroponically, were studied to ascertain the influence of cultivar and harvesting date on the physical, chemical, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of their fruits. Interrelationships of investigated parameters and these cultivars were investigated by the statistical approach of principal component analysis (PCA). Results indicated that cultivar had a more significant effect on the analyzed parameters than harvesting date. Thus grouping of the variables in a PCA plot indicated that each cultivar has specific characteristics important for consumer or industrial use. Cultivar 'Monterey' was the richest in phytochemical contents and consequently in antioxidant activity, 'Albion' showed the highest contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity content and ascorbic acid, 'Capri' had the highest value of firmness, while 'Murano' had lighter color in comparison to others. Potential use of these cultivars has been assessed according to these important measured attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of dietary intake of children with chronic kidney disease.

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    Hui, Wun Fung; Betoko, Aisha; Savant, Jonathan D; Abraham, Alison G; Greenbaum, Larry A; Warady, Bradley; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Furth, Susan L

    2017-03-01

    Our aim was to characterize the nutrient intake of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) relative to recommended intake levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in The North American Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study. Nutrient intake was analyzed to estimate the daily consumption levels of various nutrients and compared with national guidelines for intake. There were 658 FFQs available for analysis; 69.9 % of respondents were boys, with a median age [Interquartile range (IQR)] of 11 years (8-15). Median daily sodium, potassium, and phosphorus intake was 3089 mg (2294-4243), 2384 mg (1804-3076), and 1206 mg (894-1612) respectively. Sodium and phosphorus consumptions were higher than recommended in all age groups. Caloric intake decreased with dropping glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p = 0.003). The median daily caloric intakes were 1307 kcal in male children 2-3 years old, 1875 kcal in children 4-8 years old, 1923 kcal in those 9-13 years old, and 2427 kcal in those 14-18 years old. Respective levels for girls were 1467 kcal, 1736 kcal, 1803 kcal, and 2281 kcal. Median protein intake exceeded recommended levels in all age groups, particularly among younger participants. Younger children were more likely than older children to exceed the recommended intakes for phosphorus (p < 0.001) and the age-specific recommended caloric intake (p < 0.001). Macronutrient distribution (carbohydrate:fat:protein) was consistent with recommendation. Children in the CKiD cohort consumed more sodium, phosphorus, protein, and calories than recommended. The gap between actual consumption and recommendations indicates a need for improved nutritional counseling and monitoring.

  3. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential of Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb.

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    Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Haq, Ihsan Ul

    2016-08-01

    Boerhavia procumbens is traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including jaundice and gonorrhea, is a refrigerant, and exhibits anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical classes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract (BPME) and different fractions (n-hexane (BPHE), ethyl acetate (BPEE), n-butanol (BPBE), and residual aqueous fraction (BPAE)) of B. procumbens against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of B. procumbens, 42 Sprague Dawley male rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into seven groups. Group I received distilled water and group II was treated with diclofenac potassium (10 mg/kg) body weight (bw) orally. Groups III, IV, V, VI, and VII were administered BPME, BPHE, BPEE, BPBE, and BPAE (200 mg/kg bw) orally, 1 h before the treatment with carrageenan (10 mg/kg bw) in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects of B. procumbens were determined by estimating the inhibition of edema at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd hour after carrageenan injection. Qualitative analysis of methanol extract indicated the composition of diverse classes, namely, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones. Quantitative determination illustrated that BPBE and BPEE possessed the highest concentration of total phenolic (60.45 ± 2.1 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram sample) and total flavonoid content (68.05 ± 2.3 mg rutin equivalent per gram sample), respectively. A dose-dependent response for antioxidant activity was exhibited by all the samples. The sample with the highest aptitude for antioxidant activity was the BPBE for 2,2-azobis,3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was significantly (p antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and accredit the local use of B. procumbens in various disorders.

  4. Metabolomics of cancer cell cultures to assess the effects of dietary phytochemicals.

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    Brasili, Elisa; Filho, Valdir Cechinel

    2017-05-03

    Cancer is a multi-factorial disease and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary phytochemicals have been used for the treatment of cancer throughout history due to their safety, low toxicity, and general availability. Several studies have been performed to elucidate the effects of dietary phytochemicals on cancer metabolism, and many molecular targets of phytochemicals have been discovered. In spite of remarkable progress, their effects on cancer metabolism have not yet been fully clarified. Recent developments in metabolomics allowed to probe much further the metabolism of cancer, highlighting altered metabolic pathways and offering a new powerful tool to investigate cancer disease. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic alterations of cancer cells and the potentiality of phytochemicals as promising modulators of cancer metabolism. We will focus on the application of nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics on breast and hepatocellular cancer cell lines to evaluate the impact of curcumin and resveratrol on cancer metabolome with the aim to demonstrate the premise of this approach to provide useful information for a better understanding of impact of diet components on cancer disease.

  5. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes.

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    Hotz, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of dietary zinc intakes is an important component of evaluating the risk of zinc deficiency in populations, and for designing appropriate food-based interventions, including fortification, to improve zinc intakes. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes can describe the relative magnitude of the risk of zinc deficiency in the population and identify subpopulations at elevated risk. As a cornerstone to evaluating the adequacy of population zinc intakes globally, a set of internationally appropriate dietary reference intakes must be defined. The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO/FAO/IAEA) and the Food and Nutrition Board/US Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) have presented estimated average requirements (EAR) for dietary zinc intake, and, more recently, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) presented a revised set of recommendations for international use. A prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes greater than 25% is considered to represent an elevated risk of population zinc deficiency. As the requirement estimates are derived from smaller, clinical studies and, for children, most components of the estimates are extrapolated from data for adults, it was desirable to evaluate their internal validity. The estimated physiological requirements for adult men and women appear to adequately predict zinc status as determined by biochemical indicators of status and/or zinc balance. With the use of data from available studies, the reported prevalence of low serum zinc concentration and the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes predict similar levels of risk of zinc deficiency, particularly among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conformity between these two indicators is less consistent for children, suggesting that further data and/or direct studies of zinc requirements among children are needed.

  6. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

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    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  7. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

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    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  8. Plant science and human nutrition: challenges in assessing health-promoting properties of phytochemicals.

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    Traka, Maria H; Mithen, Richard F

    2011-07-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants.

  9. Assessment of the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a bloom forming microalgae Euglena tuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Deb, Shampa; Panja, Sourav; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Rout, Jayashree; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-04

    Unstable generation of free radicals in the body are responsible for many degenerative diseases. A bloom forming algae Euglena tuba growing abundantly in the aquatic habitats of Cachar district in the state of Assam in North-East India was analysed for its phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging potentials. Based on the ability of the extract in ABTS•+ radical cation inhibition and Fe3+ reducing power, the obtained results revealed the prominent antioxidant activity of the algae, with high correlation coefficient of its TEAC values to the respective phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract had shown its scavenging activity for different free radicals and 41.89 ± 0.41 μg/ml, 5.83 ± 0.07 μg/ml, 278.46 ± 15.02 μg/ml and 223.25 ± 4.19 μg/ml were determined as the IC50 values for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid respectively, which are lower than that of the corresponding reference standards. The phytochemical analysis also revealed that the phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and carbohydrates are present in adequate amount in the extract which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. The results showed that 70% methanol extract of the algae possesses excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

  10. Assessment of the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a bloom forming microalgae Euglena tuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unstable generation of free radicals in the body are responsible for many degenerative diseases. A bloom forming algae Euglena tuba growing abundantly in the aquatic habitats of Cachar district in the state of Assam in North-East India was analysed for its phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging potentials. RESULTS: Based on the ability of the extract in ABTS•+ radical cation inhibition and Fe3+ reducing power, the obtained results revealed the prominent antioxidant activity of the algae, with high correlation coefficient of its TEAC values to the respective phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract had shown its scavenging activity for different free radicals and 41.89 ± 0.41 µg/ml, 5.83 ± 0.07 µg/ml, 278.46 ± 15.02 µg/ml and 223.25 ± 4.19 µg/ml were determined as the IC50 values for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid respectively, which are lower than that of the corresponding reference standards. The phytochemical analysis also revealed that the phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and carbohydrates are present in adequate amount in the extract which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that 70% methanol extract of the algae possesses excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

  11. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  12. Assessment of phytochemicals, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extract and fractions from Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umbreen; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Jan, Shumaila; Bokhari, Jasia; Shah, Naseer Ali

    2013-07-10

    In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of conditions like diabetes, cancer, fever, asthma, toothache, stomach troubles and kidney disorders. This study evaluated the crude methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) and its derived fractions for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the classes of phytochemical. Dried powder of whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOM) and the resultant was fractionated to give n-hexane fraction (FOH), chloroform fraction (FOC), ethyl acetate fraction (FOE), n-butanol fraction (FOB) and residual aqueous fraction (FOA). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Also the extract and fractions were assayed for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities using agar well diffusion technique, agar tube dilution method and brine shrimps lethality test, respectively. The results obtained for phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins and alkaloids in all the tested extract and fractions while anthraquinones were not detected. The results showed that all the bacterial strains tested in this study were susceptible to at least one of the fractions tested. However, FOE and FOB were the best antibacterial fractions and showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial strains. The results showed that Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium while Bordetella bronchiseptica and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible against various fractions. Maximum percent inhibition for growth was recorded for the fungus Aspergillus flavus with FOE whereas growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani was inhibited by FOM and its all derived fractions. Minimum LC50 (24.07 mg/L) for brine shrimp assay was recorded for FOE followed by LC50 of FOC (26.1 mg/L) and FOB (30.05 mg/L) whereas maximum LC50 was exhibited by FOH (1533 mg

  13. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and pharmacological studies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the presence of phytochemical metabolites, while the antimicrobial effect was tested on standard organisms‟ isolates of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571, Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6750. Twenty four hourly daily measurements of food intake, water intake and urinary output of ...

  14. Phytochemical Compositions and In vitro Assessments of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potentials of Fractions from Ehretia cymosa Thonn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundajo, Akintayo; Ashafa, Anofi Tom

    2017-10-01

    Ehretia cymosa Thonn. is a popular medicinal plant used in different parts of West Africa for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The current study investigates bioactive constituents and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of fractions from extract of E. cymosa. Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out using standard procedures. Antidiabetic potential was assessed by evaluating the inhibitory effects of the fractions on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, while bioactive constituent's identification was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The phytochemistry tests of the fractions revealed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, terpene, alkaloid, and cardiac glycosides. Methanol fraction shows higher phenolic (27.44 mg gallic acid/g) and flavonoid (235.31 mg quercetin/g) contents, while ethyl acetate fraction revealed higher proanthocyanidins (28.31 mg catechin/g). Methanol fraction displayed higher (P fractions displayed higher inhibition (P fraction also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in competitive and noncompetitive modes, respectively. The GC-MS chromatogram of the methanol fraction revealed 24 compounds, which include phytol (1.78%), stearic acid (1.02%), and 2-hexadecyloxirane (34.18%), which are known antidiabetic and antioxidant agents. The results indicate E. cymosa leaves as source of active phytochemicals with therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetes. E. cymosa fractions possess antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Hence, it is a source of active phytochemicals with therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetesThe high flavonoid, phenolic, and proanthocyanidin contents of fractions from E. cymosa also contribute to its antioxidant and antidiabetic propertiesMethanol fraction of E. cymosa displayed better antidiabetic activities compared to acarbose as revealed by their half maximal

  15. Assessment of alcohol intake: Retrospective measures versus a smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Antoinette; Pan, Jason; Bruns, Loren Richard; Sinnott, Richard O; Hester, Robert

    2017-11-03

    Research investigating problem drinking often relies on retrospective measures to assess alcohol consumption behaviour. Limitations associated with such instruments can, however, distort actual consumption levels and patterns. We developed the smartphone application (app), CNLab-A, to assess alcohol intake behaviour in real-time. Healthy individuals (N=671, M age 23.12) completed demographic questions plus the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and a 21-day Timeline Followback before using CNLab-A for 21days. The app asked participants to record alcohol consumption details in real time. We compared data reported via retrospective measures with that captured using CNLab-A. On average, participants submitted data on 20.27days using CNLab-A. Compared to Timeline Followback, a significantly greater percentage of drinking days (24.79% vs. 26.44%) and significantly higher total intake (20.30 vs. 24.26 standard drinks) was recorded via the app. CNLab-A captured a substantially greater number of high intake occasions at all levels from 8 or more drinks than Timeline Followback. Additionally, relative to the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, a significantly faster rate of consumption was recorded via the app. CNLab-A provided more nuanced information regarding quantity and pattern of alcohol intake than the retrospective measures. In particular, it revealed higher levels of drinking than retrospective reporting. This will have implications for how particular at-risk alcohol consumption patterns are identified in future and might enable a more sophisticated exploration of the causes and consequences of drinking behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  17. Experimental assessment of toxic phytochemicals in Jatropha curcas: oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Naik, S N; Khan, M Ashhar I; Sahoo, P K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed is a rich source of oil; however, it can not be utilised for nutritional purposes due to presence of toxic and anti-nutritive compounds. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the toxic phytochemicals present in Indian J. curcas (oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol). The amount of phorbol esters is greater in solvent extracted oil (2.8 g kg⁻¹) than in expeller oil (2.1 g kg⁻¹). Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the purified compound from an active extract of oil confirmed the presence of phorbol esters. Similarly, the phorbol esters content is greater in solvent extracted cake (1.1 g kg⁻¹) than in cake after being expelled (0.8 g kg⁻¹). The phytate and trypsin inhibitory activity of the cake was found to be 98 g kg⁻¹ and 8347 TIU g⁻¹ of cake, respectively. Identification of curcin was achieved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the concentration of curcin was 0.95 g L⁻¹ of crude concentrate obtained from cake. Higher amounts of phorbol esters are present in oil than cake but bio-diesel and glycerol are free of phorbol esters. The other anti-nutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates and curcin are present in cake, so the cake should be detoxified before being used for animal feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Identification and assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals from kiwi fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Mastellone, Claudio; Scognamiglio, Monica; Monaco, Pietro

    2009-05-27

    The kiwi fruit is the edible berry of a cultivar group of the woody vine of several Actinidia species. The most common commercially available, green-fleshed kiwi fruit is the cultivar 'Hayward', which belongs to the Actinidia deliciosa species. An antioxidative screening of kiwi fruit components (peel and pulp) crude extracts was carried out using specific assay media characterized for the presence of highly reactive species such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(•-). The Mo(VI) reducing power of the samples was also determined. The phenol and flavonoid contents were quantified. Phytochemical analysis of kiwi peel crude extracts led to the isolation of vitamin E, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, as well as α- and δ-tocopherol, 7 sterols, the triterpene ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 11 flavonoids. Chemical fractionation of pulp crude extracts led to the isolation of two caffeic acid glucosyl derivatives and two coumarin glucosydes, besides the three vitamin E, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and its Δ(7) isomer, campesterol, chlorogenic acid, and some flavone and flavanol molecules. All of the compounds were tested for their radical scavenging and antioxidant capabilities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH and anion superoxide radical and to reduce a Mo(VI) salt.

  19. Phytochemical and biological assessments on Lipidium meyenii (maca) and Epimidium sagittatum (horny goat weed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Mahmood; Mehjabeen, -; Noorjahan, -; Muhammad, Shafi; Siddiqui, Faheem Ahmed; Baig, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Lipidium meyenii (maca, LM) and Epimidium sagittatum (horny goat weed, ES) have been investigated due to their involvement in fertilization. Both of the drugs showed good results before, during and after fertilization in male and female mice. The results revealed that the crude extract of Lipidium meyenii caused a significant decrease in the no. of writhes at 300 and 500mg/kg (p<0.05) as compare to control, Epimidium sagittatum and standard drug. The gross behavioral, open field, exploratory behaviour, forced swimming test for stress, diuretic activity, chronic toxicity with the effect on reproduction of both male and female and change in body weight were also studied. The phytochemical study showed the presence of tannin, alkaloid, carbohydrate, rich protein and absence of sterol in LM, whereas ES shows presence of sterol and less protein. LS improve in muscle activity and exploratory behaviours without any toxic effects on mice and their pups. It does not have diuretic effect for first two hour but act normally after initial phase of drug therapy. Epimidium sagittatum has dual action that is at low dose it has slight stimulation action and at high dose little depressive effect. ES also has some diuretic effect. Overall these results suggest that LM is highly effective remedy for treatment of impotency and reduces stress and depression, because of dual effect ES not only suggested as an anxiolytic medicine but also effective in female hormonal disorder.

  20. [Adjustment for energy intake in the assessment of dietary risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Thiébaut, Anne,; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Com-Nougué, Catherine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Bénichou, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between health status and nutritional factors raise the issue of adjusting for energy intake. Indeed, as most nutrients are highly correlated with energy intake which can itself be associated with disease risk, energy intake needs to be adjusted for upon assessing the effect of a specific nutrient. To avoid problems of estimation and interpretation incurred by the use of the standard method which rests on directly adjusting for energy intake, se...

  1. Phytochemical analysis and differential in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of root extracts of Inula racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shikha; Gupta, Damodar

    2017-05-01

    The root of Inula racemosa is known for its antifungal, hypolipdemic and antimicrobial properties in traditional Indian Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine. The biological efficacy of Inula species is mainly due to the presence sesquiterpene lactone (Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone), which are reported to be inducers of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. The investigation of properties and efficacy of root extracts of I. racemosa and their comparison was done with a view to find most efficacious extract for use at cellular level (both normal and transformed). In the present study different extracts of root of I. racemosa (aqueous, ethanolic, and 50% aqueous-ethanolic) were prepared and compared for their antioxidant potential, reducing capacity, polyphenol content and flavonoid content. Our investigations suggested that the aqueous extract possess highest antioxidant capacity and reducing potential. The polyphenol content was found to be highest in aqueous extract in comparison with other two extracts. However, all the three extracts showed less flavonoid content. Further, the preliminary phytochemical screening of all the extracts revealed the presence of terpenoids, phytosterols and glycosides. The TLC profile of ethanolic and 50% aqueous-ethanolic extracts showed the presence of alantolactone while aqueous extracts did not exhibit its strong presence. This warrants the need of more stringent techniques for characterization of aqueous extract in future. The in vitro cell based toxicity assays revealed that the aqueous extract was less toxic to kidneys cells while ethanolic extract was toxic to cells even at low concentrations. Hence, the current investigations showed better efficacy of the aqueous extract with respect to other extracts and found to be promising for its future application at in vitro levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. REAL INTAKE AND PROVISION WITH VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN OSTEOPOROSIS: ASSESSMENT BY MEASURING INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Khodyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  To assess the providing an organism with vitamins (А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium in osteoporosis patients by measuring their intake and plasma concentrations. Materials and methods: 108 pairs “osteoporosis patient – healthy volunteer” aged 64.29±9.73 years were formed using a “case-control” method. Real intake of vitamins and calcium was studied defining the frequency of food taking for a month using questionnaire method. Daily intake of vitamins А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium was calculated based on the analysis of the frequency of food taking. Among the basic group, using randomized method, 60% of osteoporosis patients were selected who underwent definition of plasma levels of vitamins А, В2, С, and Е. The same study was performed in 60 control volunteers. Results: Correlation of the intake of vitamins A, C, and β-carotene with their plasma levels wasn’t noted. It may reveal an increased need in these nutrients in osteoporosis. According to the calcium intake, every osteoporosis patient can be attributed to a population category with deep insufficiency of calcium intake (less than 500 mg a day. Conclusion: The data obtained need further investigation and, first of all, in clinical and biochemical fields (enzymatic non-provision for calcium uptake, clinical manifestations of insufficient provision with nutrients. Solution of these problems would enable regulation of food intake concerning calcium uptake in osteoporosis.

  3. Assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadigan, C M; Anderson, E J; Miller, K K; Hubbard, J L; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A; Grinspoon, S K

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of diet history compared to observed food intake in the nutritional assessment of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy age-matched controls. One-month diet history was compared to 1-day observed food intake in 30 women with AN and 28 control subjects. Reported intake by diet history was similar to observed intake for macronutrient composition and fat intake for patients with AN. Reported energy intake was higher than observed intake (1,602 +/- 200 kcal vs. 1,289 +/- 150 kcal, p Micronutrient intake by diet history was highly correlated with observed intake in patients with AN. More than one half of the patients with AN failed to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D, calcium, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, magnesium, and copper when assessed by diet history. In contrast to patients with AN, diet history did not correlate with observed intake of energy, macronutrients, or most micronutrients among the controls. Diet history is an accurate tool to assess fat intake and macronutrient composition in patients with AN and demonstrates significant micronutrient deficiencies in this population. The agreement between total energy intake and predicted energy expenditure supports the overall utility of the diet history in the nutritional assessment of patients with AN. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Comparing methods for assessing beverage intake among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Eaton, Danice K; Park, Sohyun; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    To compare 7 beverage intake survey questions against criterion data from 24-hour dietary recall interviews (24HrDRIs) among adolescents. Data were available from 610 US high school students completing a survey and ≥3 24HrDRIs. Analyses compared mean intake (times/day) calculated from the survey to intake (servings/day) from the 24HrDRIs. Proportions of students reporting intake of ≥1 times/day were compared to the 24HrDRI results. Survey data significantly correlated with 24HrDRI data (all corrected r: 0.26-0.49). Survey results differed from 24HrDRI results on reported intake of 5 beverages. Intake from these beverage questions should be reported in times/day, which is related to, but not a proxy for, servings/day. These questions are useful for population-level surveillance of beverage intake and monitoring trends over time.

  5. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  6. Association between high consumption of phytochemical-rich foods and anthropometric measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnauba, Renata A; Chaves, Daniela F S; Baptistella, Ana Beatriz; Paschoal, Valéria; Naves, Andreia; Buehler, Anna Maria

    2017-03-01

    Phytochemical-rich foods consumption may be a valid nutritional strategy to reduce the risk of weight gain and obesity. The phytochemical index (PI) is a simple and nonspecific method to evaluate the phytochemical intake, defined as the percentage of dietary calories derived from foods rich in phytochemicals. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to evaluate whether high consumption of phytochemical-rich foods evaluated by the PI is associated with lower values of anthropometric measurements. The available literature suggests that the PI seems to be inversely associated with body weight and waist circumference. Analyzing the longitudinal changes in anthropometric variables, individuals with high intake of phytochemicals gained less weight and fat mass when compared to those with lower PI. Our findings suggest that higher PI is associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference and adiposity. Whether the results are a reflex of a lower calorie intake or the anti-obesity properties of phytochemicals remains to be elucidated.

  7. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of whole-grain phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Ville Mikael; Hanhineva, Kati

    2017-05-24

    Whole grains are a rich source of several classes of phytochemicals, such as alkylresorcinols, benzoxazinoids, flavonoids, lignans, and phytosterols. A high intake of whole grains has been linked to a reduced risk of some major noncommunicable diseases, and it has been postulated that a complex mixture of phytochemicals works in synergy to generate beneficial health effects. Mass spectrometry, especially when coupled with liquid chromatography, is a widely used method for the analysis of phytochemicals owing to its high sensitivity and dynamic range. In this review, the current knowledge of the mass spectral properties of the most important classes of phytochemicals found in cereals of common wheat, barley, oats, and rye is discussed.

  8. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytochemical screening, and assessment of ameliorating effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea on drug induced hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Mbuh, Awah Francis; Emmanuel, Mounmbegna Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical screening of stem bark and leaves of Gmelina arborea; and effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea stembark on hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats was assessed in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the air-dried leaf, oven-dried leaf, air-dried stembark and oven-dried stembark samples. Sixty five (65) wister albino rats, (50.7-117.5 g) were divided into thirteen groups of five animals each. Three groups serve as Controls and were administered Cisplatin (5mg/kg b.w; i.p), Paracetamol (200mg/kg b.w; i.p) and Normal saline (0.002 ml/kg b.w; oral). Other groups were administered, either, cisplatin and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); Paracetamol and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); extracts alone; or drugs and combination of extracts. Animals were starved, 24 hours prior to sacrifice and sacrificed on the 9th day after commencement of treatment. Phytochemical screening results show the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, and carbohydrate. Saponin and carbohydrate were shown to be much higher in concentration than other phytochemicals. The percentage composition of cyanogenic glycoside and phytate were highest in air-dried stembark and oven-dried leaf samples, respectively. All the Gmelina arborea extracts and extract mixture administered to both paracetamol and cisplatin treated animals, significantly, lowers both the activities of the SGOT and SGPT, and the levels of serum creatinine and urea. When administered alone, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts show little or no sign of toxicity. Thus Gmelina arborea extracts may have ameliorating effect on hepatic and renal insufficiency caused by paracetamol and cisplatin respectively, and any inherent toxicity may be reduced or eliminated through adequate heat treatment.

  10. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  11. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    extract show the presence of amino acids, protein and glycosides while methanol and water extracts ... forests for fuel wood production and in front of .... Phytochemical Screening of Albizia lebbeck Aqueous Leaf Extract. Extracts. Phytochemicals. Petroleum ether. Methanol. Water. Alkaloids. _. +. _. Glycosides. +. _. _.

  12. The potential role of phytochemicals in wholegrain cereals for the prevention of type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Diets high in wholegrains are associated with a 20-30% reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D. In this review we compare the content and bioavailability of phytochemicals in wheat, barley, rice, rye and oat varieties and critically evaluate the evidence for wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions increasing plasma phytochemical concentrations and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. Phytochemical content varies considerably within and among the major cereal varieties. Differences in genetics and agro-climatic conditions explain much of the variation. For a number of the major phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavanoids, their content in grains may be high but because these compounds are tightly bound to the cell wall matrix, their bioavailability is often limited. Clinical trials show that postprandial plasma phenolic concentrations are increased after consumption of wholegrain wheat or wheat bran however the magnitude of the response is usually modest and transient. Whether this is sufficient to bolster antioxidant defences and translates into improved health outcomes is still uncertain. Increased phytochemical bioavailability may be achieved through bio-processing of grains but the improvements so far are small and have not yet led to changes in clinical or physiological markers associated with reduced risk of T2D. Furthermore, the effect of wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions on biomarkers of oxidative stress or strengthening antioxidant defence in healthy individuals is generally small or nonexistent, whereas biomarkers of systemic inflammation tend to be reduced in people consuming high intakes of wholegrains. Future dietary

  13. The potential role of phytochemicals in wholegrain cereals for the prevention of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Bird, Anthony R

    2013-05-16

    Diets high in wholegrains are associated with a 20-30% reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D. In this review we compare the content and bioavailability of phytochemicals in wheat, barley, rice, rye and oat varieties and critically evaluate the evidence for wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions increasing plasma phytochemical concentrations and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. Phytochemical content varies considerably within and among the major cereal varieties. Differences in genetics and agro-climatic conditions explain much of the variation. For a number of the major phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavanoids, their content in grains may be high but because these compounds are tightly bound to the cell wall matrix, their bioavailability is often limited. Clinical trials show that postprandial plasma phenolic concentrations are increased after consumption of wholegrain wheat or wheat bran however the magnitude of the response is usually modest and transient. Whether this is sufficient to bolster antioxidant defences and translates into improved health outcomes is still uncertain. Increased phytochemical bioavailability may be achieved through bio-processing of grains but the improvements so far are small and have not yet led to changes in clinical or physiological markers associated with reduced risk of T2D. Furthermore, the effect of wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions on biomarkers of oxidative stress or strengthening antioxidant defence in healthy individuals is generally small or nonexistent, whereas biomarkers of systemic inflammation tend to be reduced in people consuming high intakes of wholegrains. Future dietary

  14. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessmen...

  15. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  16. Assessing caffeine intake in the United Kingdom diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitt, Emily; Pell, David; Cole, Darren

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine occurs naturally in the leaves and seeds of many plants and is artificially added to some beverages. Consumption of caffeine has been linked to both positive and adverse health outcomes. We incorporated estimates of caffeine content (mg/100g or ml) of foods and drinks, taken from the published literature, to provide a preliminary estimate of caffeine intake for the UK population, based on data collected in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-10. Among consumers mean total caffeine intakes of adult men 19+ y were significantly greater than intakes by boys 4-10y and 11-18y (pcaffeine intakes in excess of 300mg/d. The addition of caffeine to UK food composition databases will allow more detailed study of the health effects of caffeine consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Adjustment for energy intake in the assessment of dietary risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, A; Kesse, E; Com-Nougué, C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Bénichou, J

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between health status and nutritional factors raise the issue of adjusting for energy intake. Indeed, as most nutrients are highly correlated with energy intake which can itself be associated with disease risk, energy intake needs to be adjusted for upon assessing the effect of a specific nutrient. To avoid problems of estimation and interpretation incurred by the use of the standard method which rests on directly adjusting for energy intake, several other methods have been suggested. Namely, the density method uses the ratio of nutrient intake over total energy intake, the residual method relies on the residuals from the regression of nutrient intake on total energy intake, and the partition method fits energy from the nutrient and energy from other sources. These methods yield estimates of different effects but do not allow direct estimation of specific nutrient effects. Estimated effects combine specific and generic energy effects of nutrients and reflect effects of adding or substituting one nutrient for another. We review and apply these methods to the assessment of the association between protein intake and colorectal adenoma occurrence in the E3N-EPIC cohort. This example illustrates how considering findings from all of these methods rather than one single method can lead to a more in-depth understanding of such associations and provide useful guidance for nutritional recommendations.

  18. Comparative assessment of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixue; Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-04-15

    Phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of berry extracts were evaluated and compared in four subspecies of Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.). Among the subspecies, Hippophaë rhamnoides L. subsp. sinensis exhibited highest total phenolics content (38.7±1.3mgGA equiv./g DW) and corresponding total antioxidant activity. Whereas maximum cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were determined in Hippophaë rhamnoides L. subsp. yunnanensis. Total antioxidant activity was significantly associated to total phenolics, isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside. The cellular antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of phytochemicals were fairly correlated to phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycones. Lower median effective dose (EC 50 ) of individual compounds against human liver cancer HepG2 cells proliferation studies confirmed the better correlation between antiproliferative activity of Sea buckthorn extracts and flavonoid aglycones, including isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  20. An assessment of the dietary fiber intake of selected students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recognized that adequate intake of dietary fiber tends to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study was carried out to assess the adequacy of dietary fiber intake of 12 male and 12 female volunteer undergraduates of Ibadan University.

  1. Assessment of flavonoid and fatty acid intake by chemical analysis of biomarkers and the duplicate diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Dietary intake is important to investigate the relationship between diet and the occurrence of disease. However, it is difficult to assess the intake of nutrients such as flavonoids, minor fatty acids and plant sterols because the data on these nutrients in food composition tables are insufficient

  2. Assessing Intake of Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents: its Relationship with Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Laura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the study is to evaluate fluid intake during adolescence and correlate it with weight status. Material and methods. We assessed fluid intake using a validated questionnaire in a group of 106 adolescent students (22 boys - 20.8%, aged 15-19 years. Weight status was evaluated with the BMI-for-age values,using growth normograms. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of water intake between sexes (p>0.05. Water intake at least 3 times a day was declared by 72.16% of normal weight students and in 66% of overweight and obese, the difference being statistically significant (p=0.003. Boys consumed larger amounts of water (p=0.042 than girls. Intake of 100% natural fruit juice was significantly higher in boys compared to girls (p=0.002. A significantly higher percentage of normal weight adolescents consumed≤500 mL/day non-carbonated (p=0.004 and carbonated (p<0.001 sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the overweight or obese, who consumed ≥500 mL/day. Conclusions. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of fluid intake among adolescents is a mandatory step in the assessment of calorie and nutritional intake. Promoting low-calorie fluid intake in this age group, along with the principles of healthy eating, could contribute to achieving an optimal weight status.

  3. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key Words: Heavy Metals, leafy vegetable, daily intake of metals, health risk index, target hazard quotient. (THQ), zinc, lead .... Family. Parts used/ consumed. 1. Telferia occidentalis. Fluted pumpkin. Ugu. Cucurbitaceae ..... Characterization and functional properties. .... Science and Total Environment, 350: 28–37. Zhou, H ...

  4. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  5. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, toxicity and phytochemical assessment of extracts from Acmella uliginosa, a leafy-vegetable consumed in Bénin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagnika, Latifou; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid O; Adjileye, Rafatou A A; Laleye, Anatole; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2016-01-27

    Acmella uliginosa (Asteraceae) is a flowering plant whose leaves are consumed as a vegetable in Benin. They are also traditionally used as an antibiotic in the treatment of infectious diseases. To evaluate the therapeutic potential and toxicity effect of this leafy-vegetable, the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant activities and, toxicity and phytochemical constituents were investigated. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of Acmella uliginosa were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against six bacterial and six fungi strains. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated by microdilution method and agar diffusion method respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay and phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures. Finally, oral acute toxicity at a dose of 2000 mg/kg was done according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline n° 423. The antibacterial activity was broad spectrum, inhibiting both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.625 to 5 mg/ml. The antifungal evaluation show that all the extracts inhibited mycelial growth and sporulation of fungi with percentages of inhibition ranging from 9.39 to 75.67% and 22.04 to 99.77%, respectively. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the effect on reducing free radicals increased in a dose dependent manner. The percentage of inhibition of DPPH ranged from 0.94 to 73.07%. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of coumarin, flavonoid, naphtoquinone, anthracene derivative, saponin, lignan, triterpene and tannin. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts showed the best biological activities; they were also shown as the best extraction solvents of phytochemicals. In the acute toxicity evaluation, all animals were physically active and no deaths of rats were observed during the test. However, the aqueous extract promoted biochemical

  6. Telephone versus in-person intake assessment for bereavement intervention : Does efficiency come at a cost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newsom, Catherine; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Birrell, John; Wilson, Stewart

    Standardized, evidence-based risk assessment is an important component in providing effective bereavement care. E-health intake assessments have been offered alongside or instead of in-person assessments, although evidence concerning the equivalence of assessment results is lacking. This article

  7. Telephone versus in-person intake assessment for bereavement intervention : Does efficiency come at a cost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newsom, Catherine; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Birrell, John; Wilson, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Standardized, evidence-based risk assessment is an important component in providing effective bereavement care. E-health intake assessments have been offered alongside or instead of in-person assessments, although evidence concerning the equivalence of assessment results is lacking. This article

  8. [Assessment of food intake in rural area school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrei, L L; Albu, Adriana; Albu, M; Dănilă, Lorena; Foia, Iolanda

    2003-01-01

    Children food intake is influenced by family nutritional habits and economic status. According to the results of our survey, only 54.8% of the children have taken their breakfast, although all of them recognize the importance of this meal. 9.6% of the children are not using fresh fruits and vegetables in their diets, even if these are the main sources of vitamin C. Regarding the milk consumption, most of the children use this food item once (35.5%) or twice (19.4%) a day and only 16.1% occasionally. Although most of the children (93.5%) know that excessive salt intake represents a risk factor for their health, 87.1% have preferences for salted and spiced foods. Under the influence of advertising, certain changes in the nutritional habits have been noticed; instead of traditional snacks, children are more attracted to fast-food type snacks.

  9. Plant Science and Human Nutrition: Challenges in Assessing Health-Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H.; Mithen, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants. PMID:21803940

  10. A longitudinal assessment of alcohol intake and incident depression: the SUN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies assessing the long-term association between alcohol intake and depression are scarce. The type of beverage may also be important. Therefore we aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of alcohol intake on incident depression in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We assessed 13,619 university graduates (mean age: 38 years, 42% men) participating in a Spanish prospective epidemiological cohort (the SUN Project), initially free of depression. They were recruited between 1999–2008 and biennially followed-up during 2001–2010. At baseline, a 136-item validated food–frequency questionnaire was used to assess alcohol intake. Wine was the preferred beverage. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed over 82,926 person-years. Results Only among women, an U-shaped relationship between total alcohol intake and depression risk was found (P=0.01). Moderate alcohol intake (5–15 g/day) was associated with lower risk (Hazard Ratio: 0.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.43-0.89). No association was apparent for higher intakes of alcohol or for any specific type of alcoholic beverage. Conclusions Moderate alcohol intake might protect against depression among women. Further confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:23134690

  11. A longitudinal assessment of alcohol intake and incident depression: the SUN project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Alfredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal studies assessing the long-term association between alcohol intake and depression are scarce. The type of beverage may also be important. Therefore we aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of alcohol intake on incident depression in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We assessed 13,619 university graduates (mean age: 38 years, 42% men participating in a Spanish prospective epidemiological cohort (the SUN Project, initially free of depression. They were recruited between 1999–2008 and biennially followed-up during 2001–2010. At baseline, a 136-item validated food–frequency questionnaire was used to assess alcohol intake. Wine was the preferred beverage. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed over 82,926 person-years. Results Only among women, an U-shaped relationship between total alcohol intake and depression risk was found (P=0.01. Moderate alcohol intake (5–15 g/day was associated with lower risk (Hazard Ratio: 0.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.43-0.89. No association was apparent for higher intakes of alcohol or for any specific type of alcoholic beverage. Conclusions Moderate alcohol intake might protect against depression among women. Further confirmatory studies are needed.

  12. Needs assessment for patients food intake monitoring among Indonesian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, D; Shahar, S; Abdul Manaf, Z; Susetyowati, S

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to provide a needs assessment related to the current practice of food intake monitoring for hospitalized adult patients among healthcare professionals and obtain feedback for the development of a new dietary assessment tool. Continuous effort has been made to identify patients at high risk of malnutrition, but monitoring and documentation of nutritional intake are relative less emphasized upon. A needs assessment through a cross-sectional study design was carried out at six hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was filled out by 111 respondents recruited from three different professions (nurses, dietitians and serving assistants) in the wards. Seventy per cent of the respondents perceived that the current dietary assessment tool used to record patients' food intake was simple; however, the disadvantage of this tool was its tedious process of computing nutritional values of food consumed. Furthermore, more than half respondents encountered problems in conducting food intake record of patients, primarily due to limited number of human resources, followed by time constraints and perception that such dietary assessment as not part of their job scope. This study has revealed important information in developing a simple, valid and reliable dietary assessment tool for monitoring food intake of hospitalized patients to be applied by interdisciplinary hospital professionals. Awareness of the important on monitoring nutrient intake of patients should be emphasized among healthcare professionals. The current dietary assessment tool requires modification due to lengthy time taken to complete the task and poor accuracy in intake estimation. Hospitals should provide protocols and guidelines of cooperation among interdisciplinary professionals, including nurses, which includes a simple dietary assessment tool to assist nutritional management of hospitalized patients. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Arti; Trieu, Kathy; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Sukhu, Arleen; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Snowdon, Wendy; Ma, Gary; Rogers, Kris; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-12-12

    Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: -1.4 g/day, 95% CI -3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.

  14. Longevity extension by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Anna; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Svistkova, Veronika; Lutchman, Vicky; Medkour, Younes; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2015-04-13

    Phytochemicals are structurally diverse secondary metabolites synthesized by plants and also by non-pathogenic endophytic microorganisms living within plants. Phytochemicals help plants to survive environmental stresses, protect plants from microbial infections and environmental pollutants, provide them with a defense from herbivorous organisms and attract natural predators of such organisms, as well as lure pollinators and other symbiotes of these plants. In addition, many phytochemicals can extend longevity in heterotrophic organisms across phyla via evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In this review, we discuss such mechanisms. We outline how structurally diverse phytochemicals modulate a complex network of signaling pathways that orchestrate a distinct set of longevity-defining cellular processes. This review also reflects on how the release of phytochemicals by plants into a natural ecosystem may create selective forces that drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in heterotrophic organisms inhabiting this ecosystem. We outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in this vibrant and rapidly evolving field.

  15. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Du, Songming; Tang, Zhenchuang; Zheng, Mengqi; Yan, Ruixia; Zhu, Yitang; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status. PMID:28492493

  16. An assessment of the nutritional intake of soccer referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Reñón, Cristian; Collado, Pilar S

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the eating habits and attitudes of a group of soccer referees and linesmen. A nutritional study was undertaken of thirty-five soccer referees (aged between 18 and 50) refereeing at different levels, from the Spanish national third division down to the provincial second division. Through the use of a 3-day food diary and 24-hour recall, this study analyzed the intake and distribution of macro- and micro-nutrients and of dietary fiber consumed on different types of day (normal, training, and match days). There were no significant differences in calorie intake related to the three types of day (normal, training, and match days). This was true both of overall amounts (2371.1 kcal, 2479.7 kcal, and 2368.4 kcal, respectively) and amounts per unit of body weight (32.4 kcal/kg, 33.9 kcal/kg, and 32.4 kcal/kg, respectively). In respect of macro-nutrient intake, more specifically carbohydrates, the subjects consumed a diet with an insufficient amount of carbohydrates: 279 g, as against the 371 g (REC1) or 540 g (REC2) recommended according to physical activity levels. Slight increases were observed on game days, but were not statistically significant. Consideration of micro-nutrients showed that the quantities of three vitamins (B6, B12, and C) consumed were above the recommended amounts. However, this was not an issue, since the figures related to water-soluble vitamins. Finally, the amounts of minerals (Ca, Mg, and Fe) and fiber consumed were close to recommended values, regardless of the type of day being considered. This study found that the group of referees investigated consumed a diet that did not have sufficient calories from carbohydrates, in view of their occupation. This poor nutritional status might interfere with the development of their sporting performance and ultimately increase the risk of injury. This implies a need to design and implement a diet and to introduce educational programs on nutrition for these

  17. Phytochemicals in nutrition and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meskin, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xv CHAPTER 1 Evidence-Based Herbalism EDZARD ERNST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 2 Phytochemical...

  18. Validation of Traditional Therapeutic Claims through Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Assessment: A Study on Mahakaal (Trichosanthes tricuspidata L. From Similipal Biosphere Reserve Forest, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Tripathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve forest is situated in the district Mayurbhanj, Odisha, enriched with the different types of vegetations along with aboriginals. These aboriginals have unique skills in using traditional therapeutic medicines. They use wild plant and their parts in traditional herbal formulations to cure different diseases. Trichosanthes tricuspidata, locally known as Mahakaal is very common to be used as herbal medicine. Fruits of Mahakaal have sound traditional therapeutic values, they have been used against asthma, skin infections, muscular pain and killing the head lice. Phytochemical screening of fruit extracts revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds such as Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, Terpenoids etc which indicate its sound pharmacological properties. Antibacterial assessment of fruit extracts also showed excellent activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extracts showed highest zone of inhibition (1.51 cm against Streptococcus pyogenes caused skin infections. The experimental works validate the traditional therapeutic claims.

  19. Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinna, Karuthan; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2013-07-26

    We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease.

  20. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG, pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001 and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001. The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R2 explained by PLS (partial least squares model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers—24-h urine volume and osmolality—were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.

  1. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  2. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-02-27

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (-73 kcal/day for tablet app and -108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  3. [Dietary intake and risk assessment of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Liu, Zhaoping; Zhang, Lei; Song, Yan; Zhou, Pingping; Yong, Ling; Sui, Haixia

    2015-09-01

    To study DINP concentration level in the main food, evaluate DINP dietary intake level in Chinese population and its potential health risks. Based on the deterministic assessment model, using concentration level of 25 kinds of food in 2011 - 2013 and Chinese national nutrition and health survey data in 2002, to calculate dietary intake of DINP in Chinese population. The average DINP concentration level in 24 kinds of foods was 0. 24 mg/kg, and the maximum value was 9. 55 mg/kg. In whole population, average dietary intake of DINP was 4. 39 µg/kg bw per day, only 2. 93% of TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in children aged 2 to 6 years old was highest, with an average of 8. 91 µg/kg bw per day, 5. 94% of the TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in children aged 7 to 12 years old was lower than 2 to 6 years old children, with an average of 6.53 µg/kg bw per day, 4. 35% of TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in high consumer(P97. 5) in all population was 8. 35 µg/kg bw per day, 5. 57% of the TDI. The range of dietary intake of DINP in high consumer (P97. 5) in each group (grouping by gender and age) was from 13. 84 to 5.44 µg/kg bw per day, which were all lower than the TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in different populations is considerably below the TDI and any health risk that would be expected to occur at this intake level is negligible.

  4. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idehen, Emmanuel; Tang, Yao; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate. These phytochemicals exhibit strong antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cholesterol lowering abilities, which are potentially useful in lowering the risk of certain diseases. Therefore, the high concentration of phytochemicals in barley may be largely responsible for its health benefits. This paper reviews available information regarding barley phytochemicals and their potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The two-stroke poppet valve engine. Part 1: Intake and exhaust ports flow experimental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamili Zahidi, M.; Razali Hanipah, M.; Ramasamy, D.; Noor, M. M.; Kadirgama, K.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    A two-stroke poppet valve engine is developed to overcome the common problems in conventional two-stroke engine designs. However, replacing piston control port with poppet valve will resulted different flow behaviour. This paper is looking at experimental assessment on a two-stroke poppet valve engine configuration to investigate the port flow performance. The aims are to evaluate the intake and exhaust coefficient of discharge and assess the twostroke capability of the cylinder head. The results has shown comparable coefficient of discharge values as production engine for the intake while the exhaust has higher values which is favourable for the two-stroke cycle operation.

  6. [Comparison of the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake among university sport and sedentary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo Mendonça, Roberto Carlos; Sospedra, Isabel; Sanchis, Ignacio; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2012-06-16

    The study of the somatotype and food intake among university students is important to carry out internal policies about the improvement of health and prevention of diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake of university sport and sedentary students. The sample were 1,299 university students (420 males and 879 females) from University of Valencia, during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, who were evaluated for several anthropometric parameters, the somatotype and the nutritional and food intakes with a 7 day dietary diary. The somatotype was Endo-Mesomorph, Meso-Endomorph, Balanced Endomorph and Meso-Endomorph for sport and sedentary males, and sports and sedentary females, respectively. All groups had a high and low percentage of total calories in comparison with proteins plus lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively, as established in the nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Low vitamin intakes, including E (in the sport males), A, D and E, folate and biotine (in the sedentary males) and A, D, E, folate and biotine (in the sport and sedentary females) were observed. All groups had a high intake of sodium and a deficit of potassium, calcium, iodine and magnesium. On the other hand, cereal groups were the most important in the energy dairy intake. Disequilibrium in macronutrients and micronutrients reflects the importance of developing food policies among University people to improve this situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics and Health Benefits of Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    In food science the term 'phytochemicals' includes a variety of plant ingredients with different structures that are capable of health-promoting effects. Phytonutrients are natural substances but are not called nutrients in the traditional sense, since they are synthesized by plants neither in energy metabolism nor in anabolic or catabolic metabolism, but only in specific cell types. They differ from primary plant compounds in that they are not essential to the plant. Phytonutrients perform important tasks in the secondary metabolism of plants as repellents to pests and sunlight as well as growth regulators. They occur only in low concentrations and usually have a pharmacological effect. Since antiquity, these effects have been used in naturopathy in the form of medicinal herbs, spices, teas, and foods. With the development of highly sensitive analytical methods, a variety of these substances could be identified. These phytochemicals may have health benefits or adverse health effects, depending on the dosage. In the past, these effects were studied in cell and tissue cultures as well as in animal models. Meanwhile there are numerous epidemiological data that point to the extensive health potential of phytochemicals in humans. A high dietary intake of phytochemicals with vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, and whole grain is associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  9. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems, and the internal mechanisms of potential fouling compounds removal within subsurface intake systems. A new method was developed to assess the feasibility of using different subsurface intake systems in coastal areas and was applied to Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia. The methodology demonstrated that five specific coastal environments could support well intake systems use for small-capacity SWRO plants, whereas large-capacity SWRO facilities could use seabed gallery intake systems. It was also found that seabed intake system could run with no operational constraints based on the high evaporation rates and associated diurnal salinity changes along the coast line. Performance of well intake systems in several SWRO facilities along the Red Sea coast showed that the concentrations of organic compounds were reduced in the feed water, similar or better than traditional pretreatment methodologies. Nearly all algae, up to 99% of bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of TEP were removed during transport through the aquifer. These organics cause membrane biofouling and using well intakes showed a 50-75% lower need to clean the SWRO membranes compared to conventional open-ocean intakes. An assessment of the effectiveness of seabed gallery intake systems was conducted through a long-term bench-scale column experiment. The simulation of the active layer (upper 1 m) showed that it is highly effective at producing feed water quality improvements and acts totally different compared to slow sand filtration systems treating freshwater. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred and treatment was not limited to the top 10 cm, but throughout the full column thickness. Algae and

  10. [Nutrients and energy intake assessment in the critically ill patient on enteral nutritional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilés, J; Lobo, G; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Rodríguez, M; Aguayo, E; Cobo, M A; Moreno-Torres, R; Aranda, A; Llopis, J; Sánchez, C; Planells, E

    2005-01-01

    The critically ill patient is especially susceptible to malnutrition due to his/her hypermetabolic state that leads to an increase in the nutritional requirementes, which many times are not compensated with the administered enteral formulas. The assessment of nutritional intake is essential in this kind of patients to know to what level their energetic and nutritional requirements are fulfilled, improving and monitoring in the most individualized possible way to indicated clinical and nutritional therapu. This is a retrospective study in which all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Virgen de las Nieves Hospital were studied from January to December of 2003, aged more than 18 years, and on enteral nutrition. A total of 90 patients (52 men and 38 women) were studied, 81% of which were older than 50 years, and 57% had hospital stays longer than 8 days, with a 21% mortality rate. Intake was assessed from time of admission and throughout the whole hospitalization period. Energetic requirements were calculated according to the modified Long's formula and micronutrients intakes were compared to existing general recommendations for the Spanish, European and American populations, and to vitaminic requirements in critically ill patients. Percentages of mean energy and nutrients intakes in relation to theoretical calculated requirements for both genders are presented in figure 1. Mean energy intake was 1,326 cal in men and 917 cal in women. With regards to micronutrients intake, the values found for proteins, falts, and carbohydrates were lower than 50% of the requirements for both genders. The percentage of adequacy as referred to requirements for vitamins and minerals intake is shown in figure 2. Reference recommendations used correspond to sufficient intakes to cover the healthy individual requirements, therefore, the values obtained in our study show and adequacy greater than 75%, with the exception of particular elements such as vitamin A and magnesium

  11. Performance of Short Food Questions to Assess Aspects of the Dietary Intake of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487. Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001 measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001 but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075. The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children.

  12. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GLOBOX : A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for

  14. Validation of the Photography Method for Nutritional Intake Assessment in Hospitalized Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacelli, F; Sartini, M; Bassoli, V; Becchetti, D; Biagini, A L; Nencioni, A; Cea, M; Borghi, R; Torre, F; Odetti, P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the photographic indirect method as an accurate and specific tool to assess nutritional intake in a cohort of elderly hospitalized patients. this is a prospective observational study. hospital (geriatric acute ward and transitional care of IRCCSS AUO San Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy). 255 consecutive elderly hospitalized patients. assessment of malnutrition by: Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and abbreviated Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CIRS; Barthel index, SPMSE). The direct method (Gold standard): food dish weight (before lunch) and residual (after lunch) food dish weight and estimation of the percentage of eaten food and of residual food for each dish. The percentages of food intake and residual food were calculated according to the following formula: intake %= initial weight of the dishes- residual food weight)/ initial weight dish x100. The unit of variable was the percentage. The indirect photographic method with extrapolation of the lunch food intake by photographic method confronting initial meal and residual meal (25% quartile food dish estimation). The results showed a significant correlation between the direct method (weighing residual food) and the indirect photographic method(n=255; r=0.9735; ptherapeutic interventions.

  15. Development, validation and implementation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Collins, A.; Lucey, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. Methods National...

  16. Quality of life, dietary intake and nutritional status assessment in hospital admitted cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabal, J; Leyes, P; Forga, M T; Hervás, S

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and quantitative food intakes of non-terminal admitted cancer patients receiving oral feeding. As well as to evaluate what kind of relation exists between the quality of life, and the nutritional status and current intake. Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy Service ward at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona. Fifty admitted patients in the Service ward. There was a follow-up of the dietary intake during 3 working days through direct observation, as well as an assessment of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, a record of symptomatology related data, and a QoL assessment through the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Our data show that 32.6% of the patients did not reach 25 kcal/kg/day, and 23.3% did not even fulfill 1 g protein/kg/day. Concerning QoL, mean score for global health status and overall QoL for all patients was 46.2. Compared to the general population, there were important deficits among cancer patients regarding physical, role and social functioning. The most pronounced differences in the symptom scales were for fatigue, and in single items for appetite loss and constipation. A low protein intake was associated to a poorer perception on physical functioning (p = 0.01), and fatigue was close to significance (p = 0.058). No significant differences were found regarding caloric intake and QoL. A significant percentage of patients who received exclusive oral feeding did not cover a minimum acceptable quantity of their protein-energy requirements. Our results point-out that poor food intakes can affect QoL by themselves.

  17. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Åsa; Larsson, Christel

    2015-11-03

    There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (Pmobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (Pmobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents' EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app about physical activity could accurately rank the participants' TEE.

  18. Causality assessment of liver injury after chronic oral amiodarone intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Lucía; Moreu, Rocío; Peiró, Ana M; Pascual, Sonia; Francés, Rubén; Such, José; Horga, José F; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Zapater, Pedro

    2009-04-01

    The number of patients receiving amiodarone will increase in future years. As clinically significant hepatotoxicity associated with oral amiodarone is infrequent and difficult to predict, a new Bayesian-developed model is proposed to help in the causality assessment of amiodarone-induced liver injury. Incidence of abnormal liver enzymes in patients receiving amiodarone was obtained from placebo controlled clinical trials. Published case reports of amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity were identified through a literature search. Maximum number of expected hepatotoxicity cases in amiodarone and placebo-treated patients was calculated using Poisson distribution. The calculated odds ratio was used as a Prior Odds (PrO) to subsequent quantification, using a Bayesian-approach, of individual amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity likelihood. PrO of amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity was 0.48. Thirty nine amiodarone-associated hepatotoxicity case reports were retrieved. Half of published case reports developed an irreversible damage. The amiodarone Bayesian model combining information about latency period and period of remission, together with analytical parameters properly defines the toxicity profile shown in published case reports. The analytical pattern defined by this model is different from the one expected if liver injury in published cases was caused by other etiologies. A method based on a Bayesian-approach, which links information from clinical trials with clinical hepatotoxicity profile from published case reports can be a useful tool for amiodarone-induced liver injury causality assessment. At present, this method is limited due to scarcity and quality of available data. Further efforts are needed to improve model ability in order to identify amiodarone-induced liver injury.

  19. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Greece-Crete indicates a new commercial source of hesperidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaze, Firas I; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Niopas, Ioannis; Georgarakis, Manolis; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    The flavonoid content of several methanolic extract fractions of Navel orange peel (flavedo and albedo of Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Crete (Greece) was first analysed phytochemically and then assessed for its antioxidant activity in vitro. The chemical structures of the constituents fractionated were originally determined by comparing their retention times and the obtained UV spectral data with the available bibliographic data and further verified by detailed LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis. The main flavonoid groups found within the fractions examined were polymethoxylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavones, C-glycosylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavonols, O-glycosylated flavanones and phenolic acids along with their ester derivatives. In addition, the quantitative HPLC analysis confirmed that hesperidin is the major flavonoid glycoside found in the orange peel. Interestingly enough, its quantity at 48 mg/g of dry peel permits the commercial use of orange peel as a source for the production of hesperidin. The antioxidant activity of the orange peel methanolic extract fractions was evaluated by applying two complementary methodologies, DPPH(*) assay and the Co(II)/EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence approach. Overall, the results have shown that orange peel methanolic extracts possess moderate antioxidant activity as compared with the activity seen in tests where the corresponding aglycones, diosmetin and hesperetin were assessed in different ratios. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Longevity Extension by Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are structurally diverse secondary metabolites synthesized by plants and also by non-pathogenic endophytic microorganisms living within plants. Phytochemicals help plants to survive environmental stresses, protect plants from microbial infections and environmental pollutants, provide them with a defense from herbivorous organisms and attract natural predators of such organisms, as well as lure pollinators and other symbiotes of these plants. In addition, many phytochemicals can extend longevity in heterotrophic organisms across phyla via evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In this review, we discuss such mechanisms. We outline how structurally diverse phytochemicals modulate a complex network of signaling pathways that orchestrate a distinct set of longevity-defining cellular processes. This review also reflects on how the release of phytochemicals by plants into a natural ecosystem may create selective forces that drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in heterotrophic organisms inhabiting this ecosystem. We outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in this vibrant and rapidly evolving field.

  1. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  2. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Andretta, Aline; de Miranda, Renata Costa; Nehring, Jéssica; Dos Santos Paiva, Eduardo; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and the analyzed items were total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E) and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium). The software used was Avanutri Online(®). To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and pain threshold were used. 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group, there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Women with FM showed a lower qualitative and quantitative intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  4. Assessing Initial Validity and Reliability of a Beverage Intake Questionnaire in Hispanic Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Davy, Brenda; Hedrick, Valisa; Ferris, Ann M; Anderson, Michael P; Wakefield, Dorothy

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years. Cross-sectional. The modified quantitative 12-beverage category questionnaire assessed consumption of water, fruit juice, sweetened juice drinks, whole milk, reduced-fat milk, low-fat milk, flavored milk, carbonated sweetened drinks, diet carbonated drinks, sweet tea, tea with or without artificial sweetener, and sport drinks consumed during the past month. Hispanic mothers (n=109) recruited from day-care centers provided one 4-day food intake record (FIR) and completed two BEVQ-PS surveys during a 2-week period for their preschool-aged child. Data collection was conducted through one-on-one interviews in Spanish. Validity was assessed by comparing amounts (in grams) and energy intake (in kilocalories) for each beverage category between the first BEVQ-PS and the mean of the FIRs using paired t tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Criteria for validity were nonsignificant mean differences in grams and kilocalories from the first BEVQ-PS and mean of the FIRs beverage categories, and significant correlation coefficients between beverage categories. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing grams and kilocalories for each beverage category in the first BEVQ-PS with those from the second BEVQ-PS using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The criterion for reliability was a significant correlation coefficient between beverage categories. Significance was set at Pchildren. Additional modifications should be evaluated to assess total beverage intake. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  5. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Keng-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis P H; Huang, Hui-Ying; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Ling, Min-Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS). We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. This suggests that regulatory actions must be continued and that consumers should be advised to be aware of processed foods with relatively high contamination to avoid excessive exposure.

  6. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Wen Lien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS. We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. This suggests that regulatory actions must be continued and that consumers should be advised to be aware of processed foods with relatively high contamination to avoid excessive exposure.

  7. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  8. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  9. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity assessment revealed that the tested fungal strains are more susceptible to petroleum ether extract followed by methanol, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extract. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, glycosides, gums and mucilages, sterols and steroids. This is ...

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  11. Analysis of preliminary phytochemical screening of Typhonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceae) is a medicinal herb which is endowed with curative properties against a variety of illness including injuries, oedema, coughs, pulmonary ailments, bleeding and cancer. In order to assess its phytochemical components, an experiment was conducted on one to six month old ex vitro and in ...

  12. Phytochemical components of sodom apple ( Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical components of Calotropis procera Leaf Juice (CPLJ) and Calotropis procera Stem Juice (CPSJ) and to assess the biochemical characteristics of calotropain in them. CPLJ contained significantly (p<0.05) higher saponin, tannin, alkaloids, oxalate, phytate and ...

  13. The role of phytochemicals as micronutrients in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2014-11-01

    Intake of dietary phytochemicals has frequently been associated with health benefits. Noninfectious diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes are major causes of death, whereas dementia cases are also increasing to 'epidemic' proportion. This review will focus on recent progress on mechanisms underlying the potential role of dietary phytochemicals in CVD, diabetes, cancer and dementia, with consideration of the latest clinical data. The association of tea (Camellia sinensis), particularly catechins, with reported mechanistic effects for CVD, diabetes, cancer and cognition contributes to our understanding of the suggested benefits of tea consumption on health from limited and inconclusive clinical trial and epidemiological data. Resveratrol, which occurs in grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wine, and curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), are also emerging as potentially relevant to health, particularly for CVD and dementia, with some promising data also concluded for curcumin in cancer. Other phytochemicals mechanistically relevant for health include anthocyanins, isoflavones and glucosinolates, which are also discussed. Evidence for the role of phytochemicals in health and disease is growing, but associations between phytochemicals and disease need to be more firmly understood and established from more robust clinical data using preparations that have been phytochemically characterized.

  14. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake: a systematic review on vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Sánchez, Patricia; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Pfrimer, Karina; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2009-12-01

    The EURRECA Network of Excellence is working towards the development of aligned micronutrient recommendations across Europe. The purpose of the present study was to define how to identify dietary intake validation studies in adults pertaining to vitamins. After establishing a search strategy, we conducted a MEDLINE and EMBASE literature review. A scoring system was developed to rate the quality of each validation study according to sample size, statistical methods, data collection procedure, seasonality and vitamin supplement use. This produced a quality index with possible scores obtained ranging from 0.5 to 7. Five thousand four-hundred and seventy-six papers were identified. The numbers meeting the inclusion criteria were: for vitamin A, 76; vitamin C, 108; vitamin D, 21; vitamin E, 75; folic acid, 47; vitamin B12, 19; vitamin B6, 21; thiamine, 49; riboflavin, 49; and niacin, 32. The most frequently used method to ascertain dietary intake was the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), whereas dietary records (DR) and 24-h recalls were the most used reference methods. The correlation coefficients (CC) between vitamin intakes estimated by FFQ and the reference method were weighted according to the study's quality index and ranged from 0.41 to 0.53 when the reference method was the DR and from 0.43 to 0.67 when the reference was 24-h recalls. A minority of studies (n 33) used biomarkers for validation and in these the CC ranged from 0.26 to 0.38. The FFQ is an acceptable method of assessing vitamin intake. The present review provides new insights regarding the characteristics that assessment methods for dietary intake should fulfil.

  15. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  16. Dietary anthocyanin-rich Haskap phytochemicals inhibit postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Azusa; Okazaki, Yukako; Nakamoto, Aika; Watanabe, Sanae; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Tagashira, Yukari; Kagii, Atsuko; Nakagawara, Shunji; Higuchi, Ohki; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) fruit contains some bioactive phenolic phytochemicals, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy3-glc) and chlorogenic acid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of anthocyanin-rich phenolic phytochemical (containing 13.2% anthocyanin) purified from a Haskap fruit (named Haskap phytochemical) on postprandial serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The Haskap phytochemical (containing cy 3-glc at 300 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally to rats fasted for 24 h and 30 min later, a corn oil emulsion was administered to these rats. After the administration, serum triglyceride concentration was measured. An increase in serum triglyceride concentration and the AUC significantly lowered in the Haskap phytochemical-administered group than in the saline-administered group. To evaluate the effect of serum glucose levels, the Haskap phytochemical was orally administered to rats fasted for 24 h and sucrose solution (2 g/kg of body weight) was administered to these rats after 30 min. After the administration, blood glucose level was measured. The Haskap phytochemical significantly reduced the increase in blood glucose levels and AUC in the Haskap phytochemical-administered group than in the saline-administered group. Furthermore, to investigate the long-term effects of Haskap phytochemical intake, high-fat diet (HF diet) with 1.5% or 3.0% Haskap phytochemical was administered to rats for four weeks. The investigation of chronological changes in the serum components of the rats fed HF diets in addition to the administration of Haskap phytochemical showed that the increase in serum triglyceride concentrations, total cholesterol concentrations and blood glucose were significantly suppressed compared to the HF diet-fed control (HF-control). These results suggest that the decrease in postprandial blood lipids and blood glucose by short or long-term Haskap phytochemical ingestion is due to anthocyanin and other polyphenols

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Plants are the natural producers of medicinal agents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolics. These phytocompounds alone or in combination act as a therapeutic agent in various disease complications. Various chemical reagents are used to determine the major phytochemicals present in plant parts. Protocols involved in screening of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, fixed oils, and fats are shown in this chapter.

  18. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Pawłowska, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the application of diet supplements in pregnant women, as well as the intake of vitamins and minerals with pharmaceuticals. Sixty women in age 19 - 40 years coming from the Mazowsze district were examined. The information about applying supplements was obtained using questionnaire method. The intake of vitamin and mineral supplements before and during pregnancy was declared on the level of 55% and 98.3% respectively. The average intake of vitamin D (157%), folic acid (128%), vitamin B2 (125%), vitamin C (121%), iron (120%), iodine and zinc (113%) from supplements was above recommended values. The average intake of vitamin B1, B12 and B6 from supplements was about 95-105% of RDA. The lowest average consumption was noted for vitamin A (60%) as well as calcium and magnesium (10-12% of recommended value). Pregnant women who have lived in country consumed less vitamins and minerals from supplements, however differences were statistically significant in case vitamin A, E, magnesium, cooper, iodine and manganese.

  19. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food intake in Mexican adolescent and adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez; Ivonne Ramírez-Silva; Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez; Alejandra Jiménez-Aguilar; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Juan A Rivera-Dommarco

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the validity of a 140-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), in Mexican adolescents and adults. Materials and methods. Dietary intakes using a SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs),in nonconsecutive days during the same week were measured from 178 adolescents and 230 adults participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Validity was evaluated using correlation coefficients (CC), deattenuated CC, linear regression models...

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md. Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  1. A new mobile phone-based tool for assessing energy and certain food intakes in young children: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Hanna; Bonn, Stephanie E; Bergström, Anna; Bälter, Katarina; Bälter, Olle; Delisle, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Löf, Marie

    2015-04-24

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for foods showed similar patterns. The mean

  2. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING THE PRE-DIALYSIS ASSESSMENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor nutrition status at the start of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Timely management of patients with ESKD pre-dialysis including providing nutrition intervention is important. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline nutritional status and dietary intake of patients attending the pre-dialysis assessment clinic. Of the 210 patient assessed, 60.5% were male; mean age was 65.7±13.6 years and mean GFR was 17.0±4.2 ml/min. 17.1% were underweight (BMI26 kg/m2. 39.5% were rated as malnourished (SGA score B&C and 18.5% were overweight/obese and malnourished. 26.7% had MAMC 10% less than 50th percentile of the standard. Mean energy and protein intakes were 23.4±6.9 kcal/kg IBW/d and 1.16±0.43 g/kg IBW/d with 65.5% and 15.6% did not meet the recommended intake of energy and protein respectively. 48% of patients experienced symptoms (e.g. poor appetite and nausea affecting dietary intake while 15.7% of patients self-imposed dietary restriction inappropriately due to misconception of nutrition requirements in ESKD. 41.4% and 85.2% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables of 2 and 5 serves per day respectively based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient intake (prevalence % below the Recommended Daily Intake (DRI levels were: VitB1 (36.5%, VitB2 (43.5%, Niacin (3.9%, VitC (202%, VitE (41.0%, folate (83.2%, VitA (50.5%, Mg (94.5%, Fe (36.1%, Zn (70.8% and dietary fibre (83.3%. In conclusion, patients attended the current pre-dialysis assessment clinic presented with parameters indicative of poor nutritional health. This clinic may provide an opportunity to optimise nutritional status of ESKD patients before dialysis is required.

  3. The Health Potential of Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals: Notable Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2016-05-18

    Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of five to eight portions (400-600 g) daily of fruits and vegetables to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, poor cognitive performance, and other diet-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies. Much of their potential for disease prevention is thought to be provided by phytochemicals, among which the preventive activity of antioxidants is most well documented. Since numerous meta-studies published indicate variable and often contradictory results about the impact of isolated phytochemicals on health, their consumption as supplements must be carried out with care, because doses may exceed the recommended nutritional intake. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that whole fruit and vegetable intake is more important in providing health benefits than that of only one of their constituent, because of additive and synergistic effects. This review describes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of some selected fruits and vegetables. Importantly, since some phytochemicals regulate the same genes and pathways targeted by drugs, diets rich in fruits and vegetables in combination with medical therapies are being considered as novel approaches to treatment. Therefore, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetable might be a promising tool for the prevention and/or amelioration of a wide range of diseases.

  4. A minimum of six days of diet recording is needed to assess usual vitamin K intake among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Nancy; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Ferland, Guylaine

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of vitamin K in health, especially in aging populations. Knowledge of inter- and intra-individual variability of dietary vitamin K intake could be useful to accurately assess usual intake and rank participants in epidemiological studies. Our objectives were to: 1) estimate the variance components of vitamin K intake; 2) investigate whether day of the week, season, and energy intake are factors related to intra-individual variance; and 3) calculate the requisite number of days to achieve desired degrees of accuracy for estimating individual vitamin K intake, ranking individuals and estimating regression coefficient. Vitamin K intake was assessed in 939 older adults (67-84 y) enrolled in the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging study using 2 sets of 3 nonconsecutive multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls (24HR) collected 6 mo apart. Each set included 2 weekdays and one weekend day. Intra- to inter-individual variance ratios for vitamin K intake were 3.2 (95% CI = 2.6-3.9) overall, 2.6 (95% CI = 2.1-3.5) for men, and 3.7 (95% CI = 2.9-5.0) for women. Day of the week (weekdays) and season (May to October) were positively and significantly associated with vitamin K intake but explained a negligible part of intra-individual variation (<1%). Adjusting for energy intake explained <7% of variance and did not affect the variance ratio. Six to 13 24HR are required to properly rank individuals according to their usual vitamin K intake and limit attenuation of the regression coefficient. These results should be considered in studies planning to assess vitamin K intakes in older adults.

  5. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  6. Correlation between serum phospholipid fatty acids and dietary intakes assessed a few years earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, Anne C M; Rotival, Maxime; Gauthier, Estelle; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Joulin, Virginie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chajès, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids has been shown to reflect dietary intakes in the previous weeks or months. However, how serum phospholipids relate to fatty acid intakes over a few years has hardly been examined. We designed a cross-sectional study within the E3N cohort, the French component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in which female participants completed a 208-item diet history questionnaire in 1993-1995 and provided blood samples in 1995-1998. The study included 1,114 women who were free of cancer at the time of blood collection. Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition was assessed by capillary gas chromatography. Partial Spearman correlations adjusted for age and body mass index showed weak to moderate, although statistically significant, positive associations between dietary and serum oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. Moreover, serum oleic acid was directly associated with olive oil, linoleic acid with sunflower oil, pentadecanoic acid with dairy products, long-chain n-3 fatty acids with fatty fish, and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids with manufactured foods. In conclusion, serum phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, oleic, trans-monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are suitable biomarkers for usual dietary intakes, although the association may weaken as the time lag between dietary assessment and blood collection increases.

  7. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  8. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements during breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gorzel, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of supplements intake during breast-feeding was aim of the work. Seventy three women were examined in age 19-42 years coming from the Lublin province. The information about applying supplements during breast-feeding was obtained using questionnaire method. Achieved results served for calculations of taking vitamins and minerals coming from supplements. During breast-feeding 48% women accepted supplements. Average intakes of vitamin B2 (113%), B6 (120%), folic acid (144%) and vitamin D (166%) from supplements were above 100% recommended values. The highest average consumption was noted for iron (229% of recommended value), however the lowest on level 10-35% recommendations for vitamin A (33%), calcium (11%), selenium (12%) and magnesium (20%). Nearly 100% of the norm realization was obtained in case of the vitamin C (93%), E (102%), PP (105%), B1 (107%) and zinc (99%).

  9. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread...... is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults...... months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0...

  10. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  11. An assessment of Walk-over-Weighing to estimate short-term individual forage intake in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Golini, P de Oliveira; Hassoun, P; Bocquier, F; Hazard, D; González, L A; Ingham, A B; Bishop-Hurley, G J; Greenwood, P L

    2017-10-26

    The main limitation for determining feed efficiency of freely grazing ruminants is measurement of daily individual feed intake. This paper describes an investigation that assessed a method for estimating intake of forage based on changes in BW of ewes. A total of 24 dry and non-pregnant Romane ewes (12 hoggets, HOG; mean±SD 51.8±2.8 kg BW; body condition score (BCS) 2.6±0.2; and 12 adults, ADU; 60.4±8.5 kg BW; BCS 2.7±0.8) were selected for the study and moved from their rangeland system to a confined pen with controlled conditions and equipped with individual automatic feeders. The experiment lasted for 28 days (21 days adaptation and 7 days feed intake measurement). Ewes were fed hay and trained to use the electronic feeders (one feeding station per ewe) in which actual daily intake (H intake24) was measured. The pens were designed to maximize movement of trained ewes through an automated Walk-over-Weighing device, by using water and mineral salts as attractants. Total individual intake of hay measured in the automatic feeder at each meal (H intake) was compared with indirect estimates of feed intake determined using differences in the BW of the ewes (∆BW) before and 1 h following morning and afternoon feeding at fixed times. The BW, BCS, H intake, H intake24, as well as plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and insulin profiles were determined. The BW was higher in ADU v. HOG but BCS was not affected by parity. The H intake24 was affected by day of experiment as a consequence of reduced availability and intake of water on one day. Plasma glucose, NEFA and insulin were not affected by parity or day of experiment. The H Intake was and ∆BW tended to be higher in the morning in HOG, whereas H intake was and ∆BW tended to be higher in ADU at the afternoon meal. Irrespective of parity or feeding time, there was very strong correlation (r 2=0.93) between H intake and ∆BW. This relationship confirms that our indirect method of estimating

  12. Evolution of resistance to single and combined floral phytochemicals by a bumble bee parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Young, E C; Sadd, B M; Adler, L S

    2017-02-01

    Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defence against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multicompound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over 6 weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure. Resistance of C. bombi increased under single and combined phytochemical exposure, without any associated costs of reduced growth under phytochemical-free conditions. After 6 weeks' exposure, phytochemical concentrations that initially inhibited growth by > 50%, and exceeded concentrations in floral nectar, had minimal effects on evolved parasite lines. Unexpectedly, the phytochemical combination did not impede resistance evolution compared to single compounds. These results demonstrate that repeated phytochemical exposure, which could occur in homogeneous floral landscapes or with therapeutic phytochemical treatment of managed hives, can cause rapid evolution of resistance in pollinator parasites. We discuss possible explanations for submaximal phytochemical resistance in natural populations. Evolved resistance could diminish the antiparasitic value of phytochemical ingestion, weakening an important natural defence against infection. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pinformation about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child's feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%). The dietary intake of children does not correspond to WHO recommendations. It is recommended on the one hand to conduct country wide assessment of dietary intake of children and adolescent and on the other hand to implement nutrition education programs.

  14. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytochemical diversity drives plant–insect community diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lora A.; Dyer, Lee A.; Forister, Matthew L.; Smilanich, Angela M.; Dodson, Craig D.; Leonard, Michael D.; Jeffrey, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    What are the ecological causes and consequences of variation in phytochemical diversity within and between plant taxa? Despite decades of natural products discovery by organic chemists and research by chemical ecologists, our understanding of phytochemically mediated ecological processes in natural communities has been restricted to studies of either broad classes of compounds or a small number of well-characterized molecules. Until now, no studies have assessed the ecological causes or consequences of rigorously quantified phytochemical diversity across taxa in natural systems. Consequently, hypotheses that attempt to explain variation in phytochemical diversity among plants remain largely untested. We use spectral data from crude plant extracts to characterize phytochemical diversity in a suite of co-occurring plants in the tropical genus Piper (Piperaceae). In combination with 20 years of data focused on Piper-associated insects, we find that phytochemical diversity has a direct and positive effect on the diversity of herbivores but also reduces overall herbivore damage. Elevated chemical diversity is associated with more specialized assemblages of herbivores, and the cascading positive effect of phytochemistry on herbivore enemies is stronger as herbivore diet breadth narrows. These results are consistent with traditional hypotheses that predict positive associations between plant chemical diversity, insect herbivore diversity, and trophic specialization. It is clear from these results that high phytochemical diversity not only enhances the diversity of plant-associated insects but also contributes to the ecological predominance of specialized insect herbivores. PMID:26283384

  16. Phytochemical diversity drives plant-insect community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lora A; Dyer, Lee A; Forister, Matthew L; Smilanich, Angela M; Dodson, Craig D; Leonard, Michael D; Jeffrey, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    What are the ecological causes and consequences of variation in phytochemical diversity within and between plant taxa? Despite decades of natural products discovery by organic chemists and research by chemical ecologists, our understanding of phytochemically mediated ecological processes in natural communities has been restricted to studies of either broad classes of compounds or a small number of well-characterized molecules. Until now, no studies have assessed the ecological causes or consequences of rigorously quantified phytochemical diversity across taxa in natural systems. Consequently, hypotheses that attempt to explain variation in phytochemical diversity among plants remain largely untested. We use spectral data from crude plant extracts to characterize phytochemical diversity in a suite of co-occurring plants in the tropical genus Piper (Piperaceae). In combination with 20 years of data focused on Piper-associated insects, we find that phytochemical diversity has a direct and positive effect on the diversity of herbivores but also reduces overall herbivore damage. Elevated chemical diversity is associated with more specialized assemblages of herbivores, and the cascading positive effect of phytochemistry on herbivore enemies is stronger as herbivore diet breadth narrows. These results are consistent with traditional hypotheses that predict positive associations between plant chemical diversity, insect herbivore diversity, and trophic specialization. It is clear from these results that high phytochemical diversity not only enhances the diversity of plant-associated insects but also contributes to the ecological predominance of specialized insect herbivores.

  17. Safety assessment of 16 sweeteners for the Korean population using dietary intake monitoring and poundage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MeeKyung; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Hwang, Myungsil; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2017-09-01

    A sweetener is a food additive that imparts a sweet taste to food products. Sweeteners have been increasingly used in Korea since the approval of sodium saccharin and d-sorbitol in 1962. Unlike food contaminants, humans are exposed to food additives only through the consumption of processed food products. For exposure assessments of sweeteners, the dietary intakes of food products containing acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin-Na, and sucralose were determined, and the resulting calculated estimated daily intake (EDI) values were compared directly with each additive's ADI. The poundage method was used to calculate the daily intake per capita for 12 additional sweeteners, such as lactitol, for which appropriate analytical methods for food products do not exist. The risk, as evaluated by comparing the EDI with the ADI, was determined to be 2.9% for acesulfame-K, 0.8% for aspartame, 3.6% for saccharin-Na, 4.3% for steviol glycosides, and 2.1% for sucralose. No hazardous effect was predicted for the other 11 sweeteners, including lactitol.

  18. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food intake in Mexican adolescent and adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the validity of a 140-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ, in Mexican adolescents and adults. Materials and methods. Dietary intakes using a SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs,in nonconsecutive days during the same week were measured from 178 adolescents and 230 adults participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Validity was evaluated using correlation coefficients (CC, deattenuated CC, linear regression models, cross-classification analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. Results. In adults, deattenuated correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs ranged from 0.30 for folate to 0.61 for saturated fat. In addition, 63% adults and 62% adolescents were classified in the same and adjacent quartile of nutrient intake when comparing data from SFFQ and 24DRs. Conclusions. The SFFQ had moderate validity for energy, macronutrients and micronutrients. It also had good validity to rank individuals according to their dietary intake of different nutrients.

  19. Phytochemicals in nutrition and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meskin, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JOHN T. ARNASON, SHANNON E. BINNS, and BERNARD R. BAUM 9 CHAPTER 3 Phytochemicals in the Vaccinium Family: Bilberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  20. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiningsari D

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dwi Budiningsari,1,2 Suzana Shahar,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,1 Susetyowati Susetyowati2 1Dietetic Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Health Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Background/objectives: Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT.Subjects and methods: A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge, animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish, and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh, with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test.Results: There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05, protein (r=0.843, P<0.05, carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05, and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05. Nutrient intakes as assessed using

  1. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Keng-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Huang, Hui-Ying; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Ling, Min-Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS). We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine...

  2. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  3. Dietary phytochemical index and the risk of breast cancer: a case control study in a population of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Karimi, Zeinab; Houshiar-rad, Anahita; Mirzayi, Hamid-Reza; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index in relation to the risk of breast cancer in women. This case-control study was conducted on 100 incident breast cancer cases and 175 healthy controls. Data regarding socio-demographic factors, medical history, medications, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary data were obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a energy-adjusted dietary phytochemical index (PI) was calculated. The odds ratios of breast cancer were assessed across energy- adjusted PI quartile categories. The mean age of participants was 46.2±8.9 and 45.9±9.4 years in cases and controls, respectively. The mean PI across quartile categories was 13.9±2.6, 21.1±1.8, 26.7±2.1, 41.6±10.2 in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the risk of breast cancer in the forth quartile of dietary PI was significantly decreased (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.01-0.84). Higher intake of phytochemical-rich foods is associated with lower risk of breast cancer.

  4. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pdietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pdietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  5. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar's test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source protein; 0.735 for non-animal source protein). Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.91 and 0.96 among respondents. There were no differences in energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake estimated among health care staff (P=0.967; P=0.951; P=0.888; P=0.847, respectively). In conclusion, PDAT provides a valid estimation of macronutrient consumption among

  6. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; W Nazaroff, William

    Small-scale, distributed electricity generation (DG) technologies have been promoted for their many benefits as compared to the traditional paradigm of large, centralized power plants. To evaluate the implications for human inhalation exposure resulting from a shift toward DG, we combined Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based inhalation exposure assessment of existing and hypothetical power-generation facilities in California. Twenty-five existing central stations (CSs) were analyzed and compared with hypothetical DG technologies deployed in the downtown areas of the 11 most populous cities in California. The intake fraction (iF) for primary pollutants was computed for populations living within 100 km of each source, using meteorological conditions typical of the long-term observational record and population, lifetime-average breathing rates. The iF (a dimensionless term representing the proportion of pollutant mass emitted by a source that is eventually inhaled) concisely expresses the source-to-intake relationship, is independent of the emissions characteristics of the plants assessed, and normalizes for the large scale differences between the two paradigms of electricity generation. The median iF for nonreactive primary pollutants emitted from the 25 CSs is 0.8 per million compared to 16 per million for the 11 DG units. The difference is partly attributable to the closer proximity of DG sources to densely populated areas as compared to typical CS facilities. In addition, the short stacks of DG sources emphasize near-source population exposure more than traditional CSs, and increase exposures during periods of low wind speed, low mixing height and stable atmospheric conditions. Strategies that could reduce the potential increase in air pollutant intake from DG include maximally utilizing waste heat in combined heat and power operations, increasing the release height of DG effluents and deploying DG technologies that do not emit air pollutants.

  7. Phytochemical profiling of anti-inflammatory Lavandula extracts via RP-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS and -MS/MS: Assessment of their qualitative and quantitative differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, María Del Mar; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Gálvez, Julio; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-11-23

    As for other aromatic plants, there are many analytical methods for the determination of volatile compounds in lavender essential oils. Alternatively, in this study RP-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS was used for the profiling of the phytochemical constituents of hydromethanolic extracts of L. stoechas and L. dentata, which were obtained by pressurized liquid extraction. The spectrometric data revealed complex profiles constituted of a wide range of polar and semi-polar phytochemicals, mainly, phenolic compounds (68). Most phenolic compounds (55) have not been previously reported in Lavandula; such is the case of caffeic acid-based oligomers. Moreover, the analytical method was validated for the determination of phenolic compounds. Our findings showed both qualitative and quantitative differences between the extracts. In this sense, while hydroxycinnamic acids made up the largest class in both extracts, flavones were the most abundant class, accounting for 10.44 g (L. dentata) and 4.85 g (L. stoechas) per 100 g of dry extract. In conclusion, this analytical method provided essential information about the phytochemical composition of the studied medicinal plants, revealing novel constituents that were probably hidden for others. In addition, these results may help to understand the anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  9. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were comp...

  10. Assessment of Sodium and Potassium Intake by 24 h Urinary Excretion in a Healthy Mexican Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Rivera Mancía, Susana; Cartas Rosado, Raúl; Madero, Magdalena; Infante Vázquez, Oscar; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A high dietary sodium intake and a low potassium intake are associated with adverse cardiovascular health. Data on these nutrients consumption in Mexico is limited. The aim of this study was to assess sodium and potassium intake by 24 h urinary excretion in a clinically healthy Mexican population. We additionally explored their association with blood pressure. 711 clinically healthy participants aged 20-50 years old recruited in the Tlalpan 2020 cohort from September 2014-December 2015, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. All participants provided a 24 h urine sample and underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure evaluations. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio with blood pressure. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) urinary sodium and potassium in the overall population was 3150.1 (3054.2-3246.0) mg/d and 1909.5 (1859.3-1959.6) mg/d, respectively. Overall, only 121 (17%) met the WHO recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/d) and 16 (2.3%) met the goal for potassium intake (≥3510 mg/d). Urinary sodium (β coefficient 1.3, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.8, p <0.001) and potassium (β coefficient 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2, p <0.001) were found to be associated with systolic blood pressure in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis. Sodium intake was higher and potassium intake was lower than the WHO recommendations in this healthy Mexican population. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with blood pressure at the mean levels of intake observed in this population, after adjusting for key variables. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  12. Application and interpretation of multiple statistical tests to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Martani J; Steyn, Nelia P; Charlton, Karen E; Senekal, Marjanne

    2015-04-22

    Several statistical tests are currently applied to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods. However, they provide information on different facets of validity. There is also no consensus on types and combinations of tests that should be applied to reflect acceptable validity for intakes. We aimed to 1) conduct a review to identify the tests and interpretation criteria used where dietary assessment methods was validated against a reference method and 2) illustrate the value of and challenges that arise in interpretation of outcomes of multiple statistical tests in assessment of validity using a test data set. An in-depth literature review was undertaken to identify the range of statistical tests used in the validation of quantitative food frequency questionnaires (QFFQs). Four databases were accessed to search for statistical methods and interpretation criteria used in papers focusing on relative validity. The identified tests and interpretation criteria were applied to a data set obtained using a QFFQ and four repeated 24-hour recalls from 47 adults (18-65 years) residing in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. 102 studies were screened and 60 were included. Six statistical tests were identified; five with one set of interpretation criteria and one with two sets of criteria, resulting in seven possible validity interpretation outcomes. Twenty-one different combinations of these tests were identified, with the majority including three or less tests. Coefficient of correlation was the most commonly used (as a single test or in combination with one or more tests). Results of our application and interpretation of multiple statistical tests to assess validity of energy, macronutrients and selected micronutrients estimates illustrate that for most of the nutrients considered, some outcomes support validity, while others do not. One to three statistical tests may not be sufficient to provide comprehensive insights into various facets of validity. Results of our

  13. Assessment of dietary intake of fumonisin B₁ in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, K; Rosim, R E; Neeff, D V; Rottinghaus, G E; Oliveira, C A F

    2014-07-15

    In this study, fumonisin B1 (FB1) consumption was assessed through determination of FB1 in corn meal, corn flour, corn flakes, polenta, canned corn and popcorn collected from homes of residents of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil, and using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) filled out by the residents. One hundred and twenty samples were collected from 39 residents on four separate occasions. FB1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using a validated method that uses SAX column clean-up. The highest levels of FB1 were found in corn meal at a mean concentration of 474.6 μg kg(-1). However, none of the samples tested for FB1 had levels above the tolerance limit established in Brazil. The mean probable daily intake (PDIM) of FB1 was 63.3 ng kg(-1)body weight day(-1), which is approximately 3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) recommended for fumonisins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electronic nutritional intake assessment in patients with urolithiasis: A decision impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avory M. Heningburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a physician’s impression of a urinary stone patient’s dietary intake and whether it was dependent on the medium through which the nutritional data were obtained. Furthermore, we sought to determine if using an electronic food frequency questionnaire (FFQ impacted dietary recommendations for these patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six patients attended the Stone Clinic over a period of 6 weeks. Seventy-five gave consent for enrollment in our study. Patients completed an office-based interview with a fellowship-trained endourologist, and a FFQ administered on an iPad. The FFQ assessed intake of various dietary components related to stone development, such as oxalate and calcium. The urologists were blinded to the identity of patients’ FFQ results. Based on the office-based interview and the FFQ results, the urologists provided separate assessments of the impact of nutrition and hydration on the patient’s stone disease (nutrition impact score and hydration impact score, respectively and treatment recommendations. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to compare pre-FFQ data to post-FFQ data. Results: Higher FFQ scores for sodium (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; p=0.02 and fluids (OR, 1.03, p=0.04 were associated with a higher nutritional impact score. None of the FFQ parameters impacted hydration impact score. A higher FFQ score for oxalate (OR, 1.07; p=0.02 was associated with the addition of at least one treatment recommendation. Conclusions: Information derived from a FFQ can yield a significant impact on a physician’s assessment of stone risks and decision for management of stone disease.

  16. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute...... Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals....

  17. AGARD WG13 aerodynamics of high speed air intakes: Assessment of CFD results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, N. C.; Benson, T. J.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.

    1992-09-01

    A brief review of the work accomplished by the numerical subgroup of AGARD Working Group 13 on the aerodynamics of high speed air intakes is presented. This work comprised the selection of test cases for which experimental data were available. The test cases were chosen to range in complexity from normal-shock/boundary-layer interaction to full forebody-inlet combinations. Computations for these test cases were solicited from a large number of organizations and individual researchers within the NATO countries. The computation methods reached from Euler solvers (with and without boundary layer corrections) to full Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes. The group compared these results with the test data available for each test case. A short overview of the CFD methods employed, a description of the test cases selected, and some of the comparisons between CFD solutions and test data are presented. The conclusions and recommendations drawn from this assessment are given.

  18. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Vuholm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design: In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001, and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42 and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99. Conclusion: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day, adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  19. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL REVIEW OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL REVIEW OF. ALLIUM SPECIES (SWEET GARLIC) AND TULBAGHIA SPECIES (WILD. GARLIC) FROM SOUTHERN AFRICA. SL Lyantagaye. Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences,. University of Dar es Salaam, ...

  20. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Flores Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP. The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches, meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables.

  1. Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

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    Mirmiran Parvin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC, body adiposity index (BAI among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend . Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend . There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend . Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.

  2. Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation.

  3. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  4. Validation of Simplified Tools for Assessment of Sodium Intake in Iranian Population: Rationale, Design and Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Abdollahi, Zahra; Salehi, Forouzan; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-09-01

    The 24-hour urine sodium excretion is considered the gold standard method to estimate salt intake. However, since this method is not easy to perform, this study developed two instruments, including a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one spot urine sodium excretion, to assess sodium intake. These two methods were then compared with 24-h urine sodium excretion and twelve 24-h recalls during a year. This study was performed on 219 healthy subjects aged ≥ 6 years in 2014-2015. The FFQ was completed twice, at baseline and one year thereafter, to examine the reproducibility of the FFQ. The validity of three spot urine sodium excretions in the morning, afternoon, and evening and FFQ for the assessment of sodium intake were compared against the 24-h urine sodium excretion method. Moreover, the validity of FFQ was examined against 24-h dietary recalls for the assessment of total sodium consumption and contribution of food groups to sodium intake. The content validity of the FFQ was estimated by an expert panel including 10 nutritionists. Based on their nutrients, the final food items were categorized into 11 groups including: 1) dairy products, 2) fruits, 3) vegetables, 4) meat and egg, 5) grains and legumes, 6) mixed dishes, prepared foods, and restaurant foods, 8) nuts and seeds, 8) oils and fats, 9) sauces and desserts, 10) drinks, and 11) others. Spot urine and a specific FFQ comprising 136 items were used to develop a method for the assessment of sodium intake and contribution of foods to its intake among the Iranian population. This method can be used in large-scale population studies at the national level.

  5. The phytochemical and physico-chemical properties of the seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and physico-chemical properties of the seed and seed oil of Perseagratissima and Chrysoplylumalbidum, were assessed by standard methods. Phytochemical analyses of Perseagratissima lipid extract showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroid and peroxides. Equally, the analyses of ...

  6. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  7. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several

  8. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is... literature was undertaken to identify the potential adverse health effects for which further research might...

  9. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI.

  10. Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2002-08-01

    To compare iodine intakes estimated from weighed dietary records with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets in a group of vegans. Cross-sectional study. London and the south-east of England. Thirty-three vegans consuming their habitual diet were recruited through the UK Vegan Society; 26 subjects (11 males, 15 females), age 21-84 y, completed the study. Iodine intakes were estimated from 4 day weighed dietary records and compared with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of concurrent 4 day duplicate diets. There was wide variation in iodine intakes. Mean daily iodine intake in males was significantly lower (Pvegan consumption, in food composition tables and the variability in iodine content of seaweed. The use of current food tables to estimate iodine intake in vegans is limited. It is not always practical to determine iodine intake using the duplicate portion technique, therefore more reliable information on iodine content of foods, incorporating the variation within foods, is needed.

  11. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA MAURICIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the validity we compared results obtained by the FFQs with those obtained by four 4-day 24-hour recalls at three month intervals. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using regression analysis and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of log-e and calorie-adjusted nutrient scores. Results. Mean values for intake of most nutrients assessed by the two food frequency questionnaires were similar. However, means for the 24-hr recall were significantly lower. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes, assessed by questionnaires, administered one year apart, ranged from 0.38 for cholesterol to 0.54 for crude fiber. Correlation coefficients between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, measured by diet recalls, and the first FFQ ranged from 0.12 for polyunsaturated fatty acids to 0.67 for saturated fatty acids. Regression coefficients between 24-hr recall and FFQ,s were all significant were significant for all nutrients, except for polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, vitamin E and Zinc. Conclusions. These data indicate that this semi-quantitative FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful estimate by which to categorize individuals by level of past nutrient intake. However, its application outside Mexico City or in different age and gender populations will require additional modifications and validation efforts.

  12. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design: Cr...... to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI....... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible...

  13. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Lisbeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OHD in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OHD and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Shakhaoat; Hossain, Md Alamgir; Rahman, Md Abdur; Islam, Md Mainul; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Adyel, Tanveer Mehedi

    2013-02-21

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady's finger and brinjal). Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Hazard risk index (HRI) for ethion (10.12) and carbaryl (1.09) was found in lady's finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  16. Phytochemical screening and antiproliferative effects of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Phytochemical screening. Thin layer chromatographic profile (TLC) of methanol crude extract and antiproliferative studies were carried out in this research. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, anthraquinone, steroid, triterpenes, saponin, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloid.

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  18. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P

    2017-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both

  19. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scientific journals were considered in order to assess the effect of cooking on different phytochemical classes. Changes in phytochemicals upon cooking may result from two opposite phenomena: (1) thermal degradation, which reduces their concentration, and (2) a matrix softening effect, which increases the extractability of phytochemicals, resulting in a higher concentration with respect to the raw material. The final effect of cooking on phytochemical concentration depends on the processing parameters, the structure of food matrix, and the chemical nature of the specific compound. Looking at the different cooking procedures it can be concluded that steaming will ensure better preservation/extraction yield of phenols and glucosinolates than do other cooking methods: steamed tissues are not in direct contact with the cooking material (water or oil) so leaching of soluble compounds into water is minimised and, at the same time, thermal degradation is limited. Carotenoids showed a different behaviour; a positive effect on extraction and the solubilisation of carotenes were reported after severe processing. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  1. Dietary phytochemical PEITC restricts tumor development via modulation of epigenetic writers and erasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Jung Eun; Sun, Yang; Lim, Sai Kiang; Tam, James P.; Dekker, Matthijs; Chen, Hong; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intake of bioactive phytochemicals including the cruciferous vegetable derivative phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce risk of human cancers, but possible epigenetic mechanisms of these effects are yet unknown. We therefore sought to identify the molecular basis of PEITC-mediated

  2. Phytochemicals in Food and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-29

    The International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF2015) was held from June 26 to 29, 2015, in Shanghai, China. It is for the first time that a Phytochemical Society of Europe conference took place in China, which provided an opportunity for 270 scientists from 48 countries to communicate their up-to-date knowledge on phytochemicals. ISPMF2015 comprised exciting and various programs with 16 sessions, including 12 plenary lectures, 20 invited talks, 55 short oral presentations, and more than 130 posters. With the help of Prof. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a special issue of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition containing 11 reviews from scientists was presented in this conference. In this special issue, bioactive flavonoids and polysaccharides for human health received significant attention.

  3. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, W J

    1997-10-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, nonnutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of chronic disease such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension as well as other medical conditions. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and pectin, contains a host of active phytochemicals. The phytochemicals in grains reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  4. Dietary Intake Assessment and Biochemical Characteristics of Blood and Urine in Patients with Chronic Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found ...

  5. Phytochemical screening of different extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids distribution in n-hexane and aqueous-methanolicextract of kalanchoelaciniata was assessed and compared. The present study was carried out to study the phytochemical constituents of Kalanchoe laciniata. Aqueous-methanol and n-hexane were the solvents used for the extraction of the plant. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on both of these extracts, indicated that n-hexane extract constitutes tannins, terpenoids on the other hand aqueous-methanolic extract contains saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides  and anthraquinones. 

  6. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  7. Testing computational toxicology models with phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Arvidson, Kirk B; Busta, Emily; Minnier, Barbara L; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Benz, R Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Computational toxicology employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling is an evidence-based predictive method being evaluated by regulatory agencies for risk assessment and scientific decision support for toxicological endpoints of interest such as rodent carcinogenicity. Computational toxicology is being tested for its usefulness to support the safety assessment of drug-related substances (e.g. active pharmaceutical ingredients, metabolites, impurities), indirect food additives, and other applied uses of value for protecting public health including safety assessment of environmental chemicals. The specific use of QSAR as a chemoinformatic tool for estimating the rodent carcinogenic potential of phytochemicals present in botanicals, herbs, and natural dietary sources is investigated here by an external validation study, which is the most stringent scientific method of measuring predictive performance. The external validation statistics for predicting rodent carcinogenicity of 43 phytochemicals, using two computational software programs evaluated at the FDA, are discussed. One software program showed very good performance for predicting non-carcinogens (high specificity), but both exhibited poor performance in predicting carcinogens (sensitivity), which is consistent with the design of the models. When predictions were considered in combination with each other rather than based on any one software, the performance for sensitivity was enhanced, However, Chi-square values indicated that the overall predictive performance decreases when using the two computational programs with this particular data set. This study suggests that complementary multiple computational toxicology software need to be carefully selected to improve global QSAR predictions for this complex toxicological endpoint.

  8. Effects of phytochemicals on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kyuichi; Kato, Yuri; Sakano, Taiken; Baba, Nobuyuki; Hagiwara, Kota; Tamura, Akira; Baba, Seigo; Natsume, Midori; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to improve the condition of not only the human gastrointestinal tract but also the entire body. We found that quercetin enhances the anti-inflammatory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, which is abundant in human intestines. Here, we assessed whether certain phytochemicals could enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of B. adolescentis. Bifidobacteria were anaerobically cultured with phytochemicals for 3 h, and the anti-inflammatory activity of the supernatants was estimated by testing their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 macrophages. Of the 55 phytochemicals tested, phloretin, (+)-taxifolin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate as well as quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside were similar to quercetin in promoting NO suppression by B. adolescentis. In addition, the phytochemicals excluding quercetin increased the concentrations of lactic and acetic acids in the co-culture supernatants. These results suggest that some phytochemicals may activate the anti-inflammatory function of B. adolescentis.

  9. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  10. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  11. Phytochemical profile of some green leafy vegetables in South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of eight common green leafy vegetables (GLV) in the raw and cooked forms as natural source of phytochemicals was assessed. The vegetables studied were the common ones found in southeast Nigeria and they included Ugu, Nchanwu, Okazi, Utazi, Oha, Nturukpa, Ahihara, and Onugbo. The vegetables ...

  12. Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARSHYMARGGIE

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen species Cladonia digitata. P. Dzomba, E. Togarepi and C. Musekiwa. Faculty of Science Education, Chemistry Department; P Bag 1020 Bindura, Zimbabwe. Accepted 22 March, 2012. Antioxidant activity assessment was performed using ...

  13. Phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potentials of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based dietary components and additives are known to protect cells from deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proximate, phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract of defatted Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) leaves were assessed using in vitro systems such as, 1,1 ...

  14. Effects of salinity and drought on the phytochemical production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate Jatropha curcas plants grown from stem cuttings which was exposed to simulated drought and salinity separately to assess the effects of such abiotic factors on the phytochemical production levelin this plant. Investigation, based on the qualitative analysis, showed the presence of ...

  15. Phytochemical and toxicological studies of Mucuna pruriens leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the phytochemical, acute toxicity, sub-acute toxicity and blood chemistry of the aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens. Powdered leaf of Mucuna pruriens was extracted by maceration. 24 albino mice used for acute toxicity were administered between 1-8 g/kg body weight of the extract while the control ...

  16. Phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potentials of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Plant-based dietary components and additives are known to protect cells from deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proximate, phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract of defatted Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) leaves were assessed using in vitro systems such as,.

  17. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-15

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60 min, +150 min, +240 min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60 min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results.

  18. Thin Slice Ratings of Client Characteristics in Intake Assessments: Predicting Symptom Change and Dropout in Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sasso, Katherine E.; Strunk, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Thin slice ratings of personality have been shown to predict a number of outcomes, but have yet to be examined in the context of psychotherapy. In a sample of 66 clients participating in cognitive therapy for depression, we examined the predictive utility of thin slice rated pre-treatment client traits. On the basis of short video clip excerpts (i.e., thin slices) of intake assessments, trained observers rated clients on personality characteristics and specific personality disorder (PD) trait...

  19. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  1. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In recent years, the problem of multiple drug resistance is growing and the outlook for the use ... The plant leaves and twigs were air-dried for two weeks. They were pulverized into powder with a mechanical blender and sieved with 0.50mm mesh. ... Phytochemical Analysis: The extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides were tested ...

  3. Comparative Phytochemical screening and Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characterization was carried out to determine the saponification value, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide value and acid value of the oil. The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloid, carbohydrate, saponins, glycosides were present in the sample obtained from Romi New ...

  4. Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zava Theodore T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japanese iodine intake from edible seaweeds is amongst the highest in the world. Predicting the type and amount of seaweed the Japanese consume is difficult due to day-to-day meal variation and dietary differences between generations and regions. In addition, iodine content varies considerably between seaweed species, with cooking and/or processing having an influence on iodine content. Due to all these factors, researchers frequently overestimate, or underestimate, Japanese iodine intake from seaweeds, which results in misleading and potentially dangerous diet and supplementation recommendations for people aiming to achieve the same health benefits seen by the Japanese. By combining information from dietary records, food surveys, urine iodine analysis (both spot and 24-hour samples and seaweed iodine content, we estimate that the Japanese iodine intake--largely from seaweeds--averages 1,000-3,000 μg/day (1-3 mg/day.

  5. Relative validity and reproducibility of a parent-administered semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing food intake in Danish children aged 3-9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Andersen, Tine; Perez-Cueto Eulert, Federico Jose Armando; Toft, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) applied in the evaluation of a community intervention study, SoL-Bornholm, for estimating food intakes. DESIGN: The reference measure was a 4 d estimated food record. The SFFQ was completed two times...... with the food records, especially for vegetables. For most intakes, the mean difference increased with increasing intake. Gross misclassification was on average higher for energy and nutrients (17 %) than for foods (8 %). Spearman correlation coefficients were significant for twelve out of fourteen intakes......, ranging from 0·29 to 0·63 for foods and from 0·12 to 0·48 for energy and nutrients. Comparing the repeated SFFQ administrations, the intakes of the first SFFQ were slightly higher than those of the second SFFQ. Gross misclassification was low for most intakes; on average 6 % for foods and 8 % for energy...

  6. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...

  7. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans.We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010. The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI and fatty liver index (FLI. BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD.The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001. Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values.High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  8. Assessment of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities of Cajanus cajan L. seeds cultivated in Egypt and its phytochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Emad M; Matloub, Azza A; Aboutabl, Mona E; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A; Mohamed, Samy M

    2016-08-01

    Cajanus cajan L. (Fabaceae), a food crop, is widely used in traditional medicine. The phytochemical composition of C. cajan seeds and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities were studied. Unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The n-butanol fraction was chromatographed on polyamide column. The anti-inflammatory activity of hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema at 1, 2, and 3 h. The serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulin G levels were detected by ELISA. The hexane extract antinociceptive activity was determined by adopting the writhing test in mice. DPPH radical scavenging, total reduction capability, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of butanol fraction were evaluated. Twenty-one unsaponifiable compounds (mainly phytol, 2,6-di-(t-butyl)-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-one, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol), as well as 12 fatty acids (primarily 9,12-octadecadienoic and palmitic acids) were identified in hexane extract of C. cajan seeds. n-BuOH fraction contains quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, and isorhamnetin. For the first time, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside is isolated from C. cajan plant. The hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation by 85 and 95%, respectively, 3 h post-carrageenan challenge. This was accompanied by an 11 and 20%, 8 and 13%, respectively, decrease of TNF-α and IL-6, as well as significant decrease in IgG serum levels. Moreover, hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) decreased the number of writhings by 61 and 83%, respectively. The butanol fraction showed DPPH radical scavenging (inhibitory concentration (IC50) value: 9.07 μg/ml).

  9. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A.; Van De Meent, Dik

    2005-01-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393

  10. Assessment of the dietary intake of propylene glycol in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, EunA; Lee, Gun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kang, TaeSeok

    2016-08-01

    An improved method for the analysis of propylene glycol (PG) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), with confirmation by GC-MS, was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The PG concentrations in 1073 products available in Korean markets were determined. PG was detected in 74.1% of the samples, in a concentration range from the limit of detection (n.d., 0.39 μg ml(-1)) to 12,819.9 mg kg(-1). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2013 reported the mean intake levels of PG from all sources by the general population and consumers were 26.3 mg day(-1) (0.52 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 34.3 mg day(-1) (0.67 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The 95th percentile intake levels of the general population and consumers were 123.6 mg day(-1) (2.39 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 146.3 mg day(-1) (2.86 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. In all groups of the general population, breads were the main contributors to the total PG intake. These reports provide a current perspective on the daily intake of PG in the Korean population.

  11. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  12. Dietary intake assessment and biochemical characteristics of blood and urine in patients with chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found in age, height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure between the two groups. Daily energy intakes were 1900.6 kcal for the chronic gastritis patient group, and 1931.8 kcal for the normal control group without significant difference. No significant difference was found between the two groups in all nutrient intakes except for cholesterol. The chronic gastritis patients consumed lower amount of sugars and sweeteners but greater amount of starchy food groups such as potatoes and legumes than subjects of control group consumed. Also the chronic gastritis patients showed higher serum triglyceride concentration than the normal subjects. These results indicate that the dietary pattern of chronic gastritis patients may have relation to a change in the serum lipid level; however, more systematic research with a larger samples size is required.

  13. Comprehensive estimate of the theoretical maximum daily intake of pesticide residues for chronic dietary risk assessment in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Darío A; Signorini, Marcelo L; Michlig, Nicolás; Repetti, María R; Sigrist, Mirna E; Beldomenico, Horacio R

    2017-04-03

    A chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues was conducted for four age groups of the Argentinian population following the procedure recommended by the WHO. The National Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (NTMDI) for 308 pesticides was calculated for the first time, using the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) from several Argentinean regulations and food consumption data from a comprehensive National Nutrition and Health Survey. The risk was estimated by comparing the TMDI with the Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) identified by various sources. Furthermore, for each of the compounds with a TMDI >65% of the ADI, a probabilistic analysis was conducted to quantify the probability of exceeding the ADI. In this study 27, 22, 10, and 6 active ingredients (a.i.) were estimated to exceed the 100% of the ADI for the different population groups: 6-23 month-old children, 2-5 year-old children, pregnant women, and 10-49 year-old women, respectively. Some of these ADI-exceeding compounds (carbofuran, diazinon, dichlorvos, dimethoate, oxydemeton-methyl and methyl bromide) were found in all four of these groups. Milk, apples, potatoes, and tomatoes were the foods that contributed most to the intake of these pesticides. The study is of primary importance for the improvement of risk assessment, regulations, and monitoring activities.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TWO FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS GLUTEN INTAKE IN CHILDREN UP TO 36 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Escobar, Paula; Calvo Lerma, Joaquim; Hervas Marin, David; Donat Aliaga, Ester; Masip Simó, Etna; Polo Miquel, Begoña; Ribes Koninckx, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    precise information on gluten consumption is crucial for specifically studying the impact of gluten introduction and gluten intake in celiac disease development. Our aim was to develop and validate tools (food frequency questionnaires, FFQs) for the assessment of gluten consumption in Spanish children aged 7-36 months. a total of 342 children, who attended primary healthcare centers for routine health surveys or La Fe Hospital for minor health problems as well as healthy children (recruited in nurseries and primary schools) participated in this survey. We have developed two different FFQs (one for 7-12 months and other for 13-36 months). For validation, results from two FFQs were compared with results of 2-day food records and also with the gold standard 7-day records. The mean gluten intake obtained by the 2DR vs. FFQ and the 7DR vs. FFQ, were compared using the Bland Altman plot method and also Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. we found a good agreement between our FFQs and the 2DR and 7DR according to the results of both the Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. our two new FFQs are therefore the only validated questionnaires available to determine gluten consumption in Spanish children. They are user-friendly and offer excellent instruments to assess gluten intake in children up to 36 months of age. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of food composition tables and direct chemical analysis for the assessment of macronutrient intake in a military community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, G; Bernini Carri, E; Gatti, G; Severi, S; Poli, M; Ferrari, F; Battistini, N

    1999-01-01

    Food composition tables (FCT) were validated against chemical analysis (CA) to assess energy, carbohydrate, lipid, protein and fibre content of the food consumed by Italian Army cadets. The absolute difference between FCT and CA in 2 separate weeks was < or = 0.7% for energy, < or = 4.1% for carbohydrates, < or = 2.9% for lipids, < or = 6.2% for proteins and < or = 31.6% for fibre. It is concluded that FCT can be used to assess energy, carbohydrate, lipid and protein but not fibre intake in this military community.

  16. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  17. Dietary phytochemicals in the protection against oxysterol-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Alegría, Amparo; Attanzio, Alessandro; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria A

    2017-10-01

    The intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many chronic diseases. These foods contain phytochemicals that often possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity and show anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Many factors can be included in the etiopathogenesis of all of these multifactorial diseases that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and/or cell death processes, oxysterols, i.e. cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) as well as phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), among others. These oxidized lipids result from either spontaneous and/or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol/phytosterols on the steroid nucleus or on the side chain and their critical roles in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases has become increasingly evident. In this context, many studies investigated the potential of dietary phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids and vitamins C and E, among others) to protect against oxysterol toxicity in various cell models mimicking pathophysiological conditions. This review, summarizing the mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive effect of phytochemicals against the injury by oxysterols may constitute a step forward to consider the importance of preventive strategies on a nutritional point of view to decrease the burden of many age-related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Gan, Ren-You; Li, Sha; Zhou, Yue; Li, An-Na; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-11-27

    Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species) in the human body is responsible for the pathogenesis of some diseases. The scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress of organisms. It has been reported that intake of vegetables and fruits is inversely associated with the risk of many chronic diseases, and antioxidant phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are considered to be responsible for these health benefits. Antioxidant phytochemicals can be found in many foods and medicinal plants, and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. They often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes recent progress on the health benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals, and discusses their potential mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  19. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  20. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2017-10-10

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  1. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  2. Dietary intake in Black British adults; an observational assessment of nutritional composition and the role of traditional foods in UK Caribbean and West African diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goff, Louise M; Timbers, Louise; Style, Hannah; Knight, Annemarie

    ... differences according to ethnicity and duration of residence. Observational study. Dietary intake was assessed using multiple, standardised triple-pass 24 h recalls and analysed using a nutritional composition database...

  3. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the nutrition and physical activity assessment study (NPAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-12-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study that includes 450 postmenopausal women ages 60 to 91 years. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), four-day food records (4DFR), and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR, and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF = 0.57), followed by FFQ (AF = 0.48) and 4DFR (AF = 0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5%-6% for absolute sugars and 7%-18% for sugars density). Adding participants' characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16%-18% for absolute sugars and 29%-40% for sugars density). None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intakes in New Zealand adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Jyh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size, 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9 ± 0.8 years completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1 ± 0.9 years completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70. The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%, but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%. The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the

  5. Assessment of energy and macronutrient intake in young men: a comparison of 4-day food record and 24-hour dietary recall

    OpenAIRE

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Bressan, Josefina; Hills, Andrew Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the quantitative agreement between a 4-day food record and a 24-hour dietary recall in young men. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy men aged 18-25 years had their food intake estimated by 4-day food record within one week following 24-hour dietary recall in a cross-sectional study. Resting metabolic rate was assessed by indirect calorimetry and Energy Expenditure was estimated by physical activity records completed simultaneously with food intake records. The...

  6. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day......The differences in residue pattern between Italy and South Africa, the main exporters of table grapes to the Danish market, were investigated. The results showed no major differences with respect to the number of samples with residues, with residues being found in 54-78% of the samples. Exceedances...... of the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study the possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates a significant effect of rinsing was found (20-49% reduction of residues). However...

  7. Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of Σ DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods.

  8. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A; van de Meent, Dik

    2005-12-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393 substances, including neutral organics, dissociating organics and inorganics, emitted to 7 different emission compartments. The human population intake fraction is on average 10(-5)-10(-8) for organics and 10(-3)-10(-4) for inorganics, depending on the emission compartment considered. Chemical-specific human population intake fractions can be 1-2.7 orders of magnitude higher or lower compared to the typical estimates. For inorganics, the human population intake fractions highly depend on the assumption that exposure via food products can be modelled with constant bioconcentration factors. The environmental fate factor is on average 10(-11)-10(-18) days m(-3) for organics and 10(-10)-10(-12) days m(-3) for inorganics, depending on the receiving environment and the emission compartment considered. Chemical-specific environmental fate factors can be 1-8 orders of magnitude higher or lower compared to the typical estimates. The largest differences between the new and old version of USES-LCA are found for emissions to air and soil. This is caused by a significant change in the structure of the air and soil compartments in the new version of USES-LCA, i.e. the distinction between rural and urban air, including rain-no rain conditions and including soil depth dependent intermedia transport.

  9. Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake – two case studies: folate and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Pfeiffer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time.The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary, and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism.Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys.

  10. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, W; Baert, K; Mestdagh, F; Vercammen, J; Daenens, P; De Meulenaer, B; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Huyghebaert, A

    2010-09-01

    The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 microg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) (P97.5 = 1.6 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), the main contributors to the average intake being chips (23%), coffee (19%), biscuits (13%), and bread (12%). Additionally, the impact of a number of AA mitigation scenarios was evaluated (German minimization concept, scenarios for mitigation from the literature, signal values), which is an important issue for public health as well as for policy-makers. Specific actions in cooperation with the food industry to reduce the AA content of foods seems to be a more efficient strategy than mere implementation of signal values. Considering that an important share of the AA intake is due to prepared meals, the catering industry as well as consumers need to be better informed on the various possibilities for keeping the AA content of meals as low as possible.

  11. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  12. Reliability and Validity of Food Frequency Questions to Assess Beverage and Food Group Intakes among Low-Income 2- to 4-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2016-06-01

    Fruits, vegetables, sweetened foods, and beverages have been found to have positive and negative associations with obesity in early childhood, yet no rapid assessment tools are available to measure intake of these foods among preschoolers. This study examines the test-retest reliability and validity of a 10-item Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire designed to assess fruits, vegetables, and sweetened foods and beverages intake among 2- to 4-year-old children. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire was developed for use in periodic phone surveys conducted with low-income families with preschool-aged children. Seventy primary caregivers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed two Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaires within a 2-week period for test-retest reliability. Participants also completed three 24-hour recalls to allow assessment of validity. Intraclass correlations were used to examine test-retest reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression analyses were used to examine validity of the Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire compared with three 24-hour recalls. Intraclass correlations between Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire administrations ranged from 0.48 for sweetened drinks to 0.87 for regular sodas. Intraclass correlations for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.56, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.15 to 0.59 for beverages, with 0.46 for sugar-sweetened beverages. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.30, 0.33, and 0.30, respectively. Although observation of the Bland-Altman plots and linear regression analyses showed a slight upward trend in mean differences, with increasing mean intake for five beverage groups, at least 90% of data plots fell within the limits of agreement for all food/beverage groups. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire

  13. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  14. Development of a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary intake of multiethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit; Shai, Iris; Vardi, Hillel; Brener-Azrad, Ayelet; Fraser, Drora

    2003-01-01

    The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is one of the most commonly used methods in epidemiological studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. The purpose of this study is to develop a general FFQ for the Israeli population and present the procedures undertaken to select foods to be included in a questionnaire for a multiethnic population. Random population cluster sampling was done using voter registration lists of the Negev Jewish population, aged 35 years and over, which were divided into three groups based on where they were born, namely: Israel, Asia Africa and Europe-America. Participants were interviewed for their dietary intake using 24 hour recalls. Foods eaten by our subjects were aggregated into conceptually similar food groups and entered in stepwise regression models to predict variation in nutrient intake. Separate models were created for each origin group. It was found that the dietary intake was significantly lower for energy and vitamin E among European-American born subjects and significantly lower for calcium intake among Asian-African born subjects. Differences between ethnic groups were seen in the list of foods, which explained the between-person variability for energy and zinc. For most nutrients, fewer items were needed to explain the between-person variation in the group of people born in Israel. The final list of foods included 126 items and explained over 90% of the between-person variability in selected nutrients for all three groups. The newly developed FFQ for the Negev population includes 126 items that are sufficient to rank the nutritional exposure of people over 35 years old from the three origin groups in Israel.

  15. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Intakes in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population Using 24-h Dietary Recalls and Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Clare; Ho, Jolene Chien Yee; Tay, Zoey; Rebello, Salome A; Lu, Yonghai; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-09-25

    The assessment of diets in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings is challenging. A semi-quantitative 163-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed for the adult Singapore population, and this study aimed to assess its reproducibility and relative validity against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DR) and biomarkers. The FFQ was administered twice within a six-month interval in 161 adults (59 Chinese, 46 Malay, and 56 Indian). Fasting plasma, overnight urine, and 24 h DR were collected after one month and five months. Intra-class correlation coefficients between the two FFQ were above 0.70 for most foods and nutrients. The median correlation coefficient between energy-adjusted deattenuated FFQ and 24 h DR nutrient intakes was 0.40 for FFQ1 and 0.39 for FFQ2, highest for calcium and iron, and lowest for energy and carbohydrates. Significant associations were observed between urinary isoflavones and soy protein intake (r = 0.46), serum carotenoids and fruit and vegetable intake (r = 0.34), plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) and fish/seafood intake (r = 0.36), and plasma odd chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and dairy fat intake (r = 0.25). Associations between plasma EPA + DHA and fish/seafood intake were consistent across ethnic groups (r = 0.28-0.49), while differences were observed for other associations. FFQ assessment of dietary intakes in modern cosmopolitan populations remains feasible for the purpose of ranking individuals' dietary exposures in epidemiological studies.

  16. Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. antibacterial properties and preliminary phytochemical analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ISSN 2006 - 6996. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sources of ... agar diffusion method of Garrod, et al., (1981) and ... positive reference standard to determine the.

  18. Comparison of food consumption and nutrient intake assessed with three dietary assessment methods: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßburg, Andrea; Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Krems, Carolin; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-11-30

    Comparison of food consumption, nutrient intake and underreporting of diet history interviews, 24-h recalls and weighed food records to gain further insight into specific strength and limitations of each method and to support the choice of the adequate dietary assessment method. For 677 participants (14-80 years) of the German National Nutrition Survey II confidence intervals for food consumption and nutrient intake were calculated on basis of bootstrapping samples, Cohen's d for the relevance of differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients for the degree of agreement of dietary assessment methods. Low energy reporters were identified with Goldberg cut-offs. In 7 of 18 food groups diet history interviews showed higher consumption means than 24-h recalls and weighed food records. Especially mean values of food groups perceived as socially desirable, such as fruit and vegetables, were highest for diet history interviews. For "raw" and "cooked vegetables", the diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 144 and 109 g/day in comparison with 68 and 70 g/day in 24-h recalls and 76 and 75 g/day in weighed food records, respectively. For "fruit", diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 256 g/day in comparison with 164 g/day in 24-h recalls and 147 g/day in weighed food records. No major differences regarding underreporting of energy intake were found between dietary assessment methods. With regard to estimating food consumption and nutrient intake, 24-h recalls and weighed food records showed smaller differences and better agreement than pairwise comparisons with diet history interviews.

  19. Energy intake in short bowel syndrome: assessment by 24-h dietary recalls compared with the doubly labelled water method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Priscila G; Das, Sai Krupa; Pfrimer, Karina; Suen, Vivian M M; Sérgio Marchini, Júlio; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) represents a serious intestinal absorption disorder, and patients may be prone to severe malnutrition. Dietetic therapy is critically important both for immediate prognosis and successful long-term rehabilitation. To maintain energy balance, an accurate assessment of energy intake is required. Our objective was to compare energy intake (EI) assessed by 24-h dietary recalls (EIrecall), a standard clinical assessment, with the total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labelled water (TEEdlw) method in SBS patients and matched controls. A total of twenty-two participants (eleven each in the SBS and control groups (CG), six female and five male) were evaluated; CG were matched to SBS patients on the basis of age, BMI and sex. TEE was measured by DLW and compared with EI determined by four 24-h dietary recalls using the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Bland-Altman plots and paired Student's t test were used to compare EIrecall with TEEdlw (Penergy needs in SBS patients and affect nutritional status in the long term.

  20. Model of personalised risk assessment of phytoestrogen intake based on 11 SNP in ESR1 and ESR2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Zidek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens can induce biological responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action or production of endogenous hormones, and because of their structural similarity with estradiol they have the ability to cause estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects. Risk assessment of phytoestrogens intake may therefore provide important information useful in the adjustment of nutrients composition, as one of nutrigenomics approaches. Proper risk assessment is an essential part of good nutrient composition. The current risk assessment procedures does use an additive effect of genes, but the accumulation of relevant factors do not count with the distribution of risk in the European population. A combination of approaches based on genetic score, along with the use of the data bases like 1000 genomes and dbSNP is a powerful tool for population risk modelling that would provide reasonable results without needs of as testing a representative number of individual genetic profiles.

  1. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  2. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniecka, Anna; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika; Piotrowska, Ewa; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. To evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls' diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  3. Assessment of time interval between tramadol intake and seizure and second drug-induced attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetic drug which is prescribed in moderate and severe pain. Tramadol overdose can induce severe complications such as consciousness impairment and convulsions. This study was done to determine the convulsions incidence after tramadol use until one week after hospital discharge. Methods: This prospective study was done in tramadol overdose patients without uncontrolled epilepsy and head injury history. All cases admitted in Loghman and Rasol Akram Hospitals, Tehran, Iran from 1, April 2011 to 1, April 2012 were included and observed for at least 12 hours. Time interval between tramadol intake and first seizure were record. Then, patients with second drug-induced seizure were recognized and log time between the first and second seizure was analyzed. The patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU if clinical worsening status observed. One week after hospital discharge, telephone follow-up was conducted. Results: A total of 150 patients with a history of tramadol induced seizures (141 men, 9 women, age: 23.23±5.94 years were enrolled in this study. Convulsion was seen in 104 patients (69.3%. In 8 out of 104 patients (7.6% two or more convulsion was seen. Time interval between tramadol use and the onset of the first and second seizure were 0.93±0.17 and 2.5±0.75 hours, respectively. Tramadol induced seizures are more likely to occur in males and patients with a history of drug abuse. Finally, one hundred forty nine patients (99.3% were discharged with good condition and the only one patient died from tramadol overdose. Conclusion: The results of the study showed tramadol induced seizure most frequently occurred within the first 4 hours of tramadol intake. The chance of experiencing a second seizure exists in the susceptible population. Thus, 4 hours after drug intake is the best time for patients to be hospital discharged.

  4. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    OpenAIRE

    Agu, Kingsley C.; Okolie, Paulinus N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different ...

  5. Research progress on chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals on colorectal cancer and their mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Teng-Fei; Wang, Min; Qing, Ying; Lin, Ying-Min; Wu, Dong

    2016-08-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a type of cancer with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide and has become a global health problem. The conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimen for CRC not only has a low cure rate but also causes side effects. Many studies have shown that adequate intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet may have a protective effect on CRC occurrence, possibly due to the special biological protective effect of the phytochemicals in these foods. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that phytochemicals play strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer roles by regulating specific signaling pathways and molecular markers to inhibit the occurrence and development of CRC. This review summarizes the progress on CRC prevention using the phytochemicals sulforaphane, curcumin and resveratrol, and elaborates on the specific underlying mechanisms. Thus, we believe that phytochemicals might provide a novel therapeutic approach for CRC prevention, but future clinical studies are needed to confirm the specific preventive effect of phytochemicals on cancer.

  6. Risk assessment of patulin intake through apple-based food by infants and preschool children in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torović, Ljilja; Dimitrov, Nina; Assunção, Ricardo; Alvito, Paula

    2017-11-01

    This study reports for the first time in Serbia the occurrence of patulin in apple-based food and the risk assessment associated with patulin intake by infants and preschool children. In total, 214 samples of infant fruit juices (48), infant purée (66), and juices for children (small package with straw, 100) were collected over 3 years (2013-15) and analysed using HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Patulin was found in 43.8% of infant juices and 16.7% of infant purée, with all values below the legal limit of 10 μg kg-1 (maximum 8.3 and 7.7 μg kg-1, respectively). The proportion of contaminated samples among fruit juices for children was 43.0%, with the highest patulin concentration at 30.2 μg kg-1, not exceeding the maximum allowed level of 50 μg kg-1. Risk assessment of patulin intake by Serbian infants and preschool children, conducted by deterministic and probabilistic approaches, revealed a hazard quotient well below 1, indicating a tolerable exposure level and no health concern.

  7. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories

  8. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  9. Assessing Energy Intake in Daily Life: Signal-Contingent Smartphone Application Versus Event-Contingent Paper and Pencil Estimated Diet Diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Wouters

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigating between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants such as emotions and stress presents challenges because both vary from moment to moment throughout the day. A smartphone application (app, was developed to map momentary between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants in the context of daily life. The aim of this study was to compare energy intake reported with the signal-contingent app and reported with an event-contingent paper and pencil diet diary. Methods: In a counterbalanced, cross-sectional design, adults (N = 46 from the general population reported between-meal snack intake during four consecutive days with the app and four consecutive days with a paper and pencil diet diary. A 10-day interval was applied between the two reporting periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare both instruments on reported momentary and daily energy intake from snacks.  Results: Results showed no significant difference (B = 11.84, p = .14 in momentary energy intake from snacks between the two instruments. However, a significant difference (B = –105.89, p < .01 was found on energy intake from total daily snack consumption. Conclusions: As at momentary level both instruments were comparable in assessing energy intake, research purposes will largely determine the sampling procedure of choice. When momentary associations across time are the interest of study, a signal-contingent sampling procedure may be a suitable method. Since the compared instruments differed on two main features (i.e. the sampling procedure and the device used it is difficult to disentangle which instrument was the most accurate in assessing daily energy intake.

  10. Aplicação das Dietary Reference Intakes na avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes para indivíduos Application of Dietary Reference Intakes for assessment of individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do estado nutricional é uma das práticas clínicas fundamentais para tomar-se a decisão quanto ao diagnóstico nutricional de um indivíduo e à conduta dietética a ser-lhe prescrita. A adequação da ingestão de nutrientes é um dos componentes da avaliação nutricional e é feita a partir de valores de referência que se constituem em estimativas das necessidades fisiológicas desses nutrientes e metas de ingestão dos mesmos. Colocam-se hoje à disposição dos profissionais um novo conjunto de valores de referência que constituem um avanço importante no modo de interpretar a adequação dietética: as Dietary Reference Intakes. Este artigo aborda os métodos propostos para avaliação da adequação da ingestão de nutriente às necessidades do indivíduo, utilizando os novos valores de referências.The nutritional status assessment is one of the fundamental clinical approaches in making a decision about nutritional diagnosis and dietetic behavior, in order to prescribe an adequate diet therapy. The evaluation of nutrient intakes is a component of the nutritional assessment and it is made from estimates of nutrient physiological needs and goals for good nutrition, known as reference values. A new group of reference values is recently available for health professionals: the Dietary Reference Intakes, which represent an important progress in the field of dietary assessment interpretation. This paper discusses the proposed methods for the individual nutrient intake assessment, using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

  11. Phytochemical and antioxidant evaluation of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera, a plant with a wide range of medicinal, nutritional and economic benefits was examined for phytochemicals and evaluated for antioxidant activities. Phytochemical tests, total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined using standard procedures. Antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts and ...

  12. phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dealer

    ABSTRACT. The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the ...

  13. Nutritional composition, phytochemicals and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and phytochemical compositions and microbiological quality of seeds of the legume Mucuna pruriens (MP) grown in northeastern Brazil. MP flour and extract were produced and evaluated for proximate, mineral, and phytochemical compositions, fatty acid profile, and ...

  14. Phytochemicals and selected mineral constituents of Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris pods was screened for its phytochemical constituents. Selected mineral elements were also determined. Standard procedures were adopted for the phytochemical screening. Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for mineral analysis. Alkaloids ...

  15. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  16. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical properties and the antibacterial potency of rosselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) leaf extracts were evaluated using the cold maceration method, agar diffusion method and qualitative phytochemical analysis respectively. The methanolic extract was tested against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and ...

  17. Comparative phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves and bark of Carica papaya (Pawpaw) were subjected to solvent extraction using both water and methanol. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the extracts was performed followed by antimicrobial studies against some bacteria using the agar-well diffusion method. The phytochemical analysis showed that ...

  18. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  19. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the leaves, stem bark and roots of Acacia nilotica were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins and sterols in the leaves stem barks and ...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ficus Exasperata Root Bark. ... of tannin and anthraquinone. The results of the study provide scientific basis for developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future. Keywords: Ficus exasperata, antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis ...

  1. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial efficacy of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant sample was extracted using methanol and water. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of ... The higher antimicrobial activity in methanolic extract than aqueous extracts could be attributed to the degree of polarity of the extraction solvent. Key words: Alternanthera nodiflora, Phytochemicals, ...

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present review discusses extensively the available knowledge on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. The review does not include other parts of these plants. Literature evidence has been analyzed to identify responsible phytochemicals and their wide range of pharmacological activities ...

  3. Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of plants as enhancers of memory activity. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of seven plants on acetylcholinesterase and its phytochemical contents. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect by the seven plants and their phytochemical contents each, ...

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of Croton zambesicus Muell Arg. was subjected to preliminary Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests. The Phytochemical tests were conducted using standard methods of analysis and the extract revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides and steroids. Antimicrobial effects of ...

  5. evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of the different plant parts of .... subjected to standard reagent-based phytochemical ..... extraction Internationale Pharmacienceutica. Siciencia. 1(1). Trease, G.E. and Evans W.C. (1985). Introduction and. General Murethods. In: Pharmacognosy.

  6. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Azadiracta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed that both stem bark and leaf extracts contain alkaloid, tannin, anthraquinone, flavonoid, phenols and terpenoid. The extracts of the plant demonstrated antibacterial activity due to presence of phytochemical constituents hence, the application of the decoction of leaf and stem bark ...

  7. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, acute oral toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (S. nigrum) Methods: Phytochemicals from the ethanol berry extract were screened by standard methods. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per Organisation for ...

  9. Physicochemical Properties and Phytochemical Components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific gravity was 1.020 while the acidity increased from 0.20 to 0.22% as the levels of spices increased. The phytochemical compounds identified in the products include alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and phlobatannins. The quantitative phytochemical contents showed 0.1 ìg/ml ...

  10. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the plant.

  11. Original Research Article Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemicals and some other constituents of the powdered leaves of Psidium guajava Linn and to evaluate the tolerability profile of the leaves because of their profound medicinal and non-medicinal uses. Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a ...

  12. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  13. NUTRITIVE VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nutritive Value and Phytochemical Composition of Solanum incanum. NUTRITIVE VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ... The nutritional contents of vegetables which are eaten in variety of ways vary considerably. Solanum .... revealed that heat treatment reduces crude protein, lipid and crude fibre, indicating that processing ...

  14. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  15. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening and antianaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the phytochemical screening and anti-anaemic effect of Aloe barbadensis leaves was investigated in nutritionally stressed rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening test of the plant revealed that it contained tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, saponins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. Sets of male albino ...

  16. Accessing the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... composition of Panicum maximum and Newbouldia laevis. Phytochemical screening of Newbouldia laevis was also carried out. Newbouldia laevis had higher crude fibre, ether extract and crude protein compared to Panicim maximum. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Tannin, Alkaloids, Flavonoids ...

  17. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Poulsen, Sanne; Andersen, Lotte Ernst

    2010-01-01

    of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals...... the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD) were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%), energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g), and energy......-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ). The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal...

  18. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  19. Process of formulating USDA's Expanded Flavonoid Database for the Assessment of Dietary intakes: a new tool for epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Seema A; Haytowitz, David B; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley I; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2015-08-14

    The scientific community continues to be interested in potential links between flavonoid intakes and beneficial health effects associated with certain chronic diseases such as CVD, some cancers and type 2 diabetes. Three separate flavonoid databases (Flavonoids, Isoflavones and Proanthocyanidins) developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service since 1999 with frequent updates have been used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes, and investigate their health effects. However, each of these databases contains only a limited number of foods. The USDA has constructed a new Expanded Flavonoids Database for approximately 2900 commonly consumed foods, using analytical values from their existing flavonoid databases (Flavonoid Release 3.1 and Isoflavone Release 2.0) as the foundation to calculate values for all the twenty-nine flavonoid compounds included in these two databases. Thus, the new database provides full flavonoid profiles for twenty-nine predominant dietary flavonoid compounds for every food in the database. Original analytical values in Flavonoid Release 3.1 and Isoflavone Release 2.0 for corresponding foods were retained in the newly constructed database. Proanthocyanidins are not included in the expanded database. The process of formulating the new database includes various calculation techniques. This article describes the process of populating values for the twenty-nine flavonoid compounds for every food in the dataset, along with challenges encountered and resolutions suggested. The new expanded flavonoid database released on the Nutrient Data Laboratory's website would provide uniformity in estimations of flavonoid content in foods and will be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies to assess dietary intakes.

  20. Cancer Chemoprevention by Phytochemicals: Nature's Healing Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Haseeb; Azim, Shafquat; Ahmad, Aamir; Khan, Mohammad Aslam; Patel, Girijesh Kumar; Singh, Seema; Singh, Ajay Pratap

    2017-03-03

    Phytochemicals are an important part of traditional medicine and have been investigated in detail for possible inclusion in modern medicine as well. These compounds often serve as the backbone for the synthesis of novel therapeutic agents. For many years, phytochemicals have demonstrated encouraging activity against various human cancer models in pre-clinical assays. Here, we discuss select phytochemicals-curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, plumbagin and honokiol-in the context of their reported effects on the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress, which play a key role in tumorigenesis. We also discuss the emerging evidence on modulation of tumor microenvironment by these phytochemicals which can possibly define their cancer-specific action. Finally, we provide recent updates on how low bioavailability, a major concern with phytochemicals, is being circumvented and the general efficacy being improved, by synthesis of novel chemical analogs and nanoformulations.

  1. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  2. The inverse effect of meal intake on controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness as assessed by transient elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchatasettakul, Kanittha; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Promson, Kwannapa; Sringam, Pranee; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee

    2017-04-13

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by transient elastography (TE, Fibroscan®) have been used for steatosis and fibrosis assessment. We evaluated the effect of meal intake on CAP and LS values. Forty patients who had had a liver biopsy within the previous month were recruited. The biopsy was graded for fibrosis (F) and steatosis (S) stagings. TE was performed after overnight fasting (baseline values) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min following the intake of a standard commercial formula meal, and every 30 min until LS and CAP values returned to baseline. The effect of meal intake on CAP and LS values was analyzed with a multilevel mixed model approach. The mean age was 53.1 ± 11.2 years old. The mean (SD) BMI was 25.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). F0, F1, F2, F3 and F4 fibrosis stages were found in 17 (42.5%), 9 (22.5%), 4 (10.0%), 8 (20.0%) and 2 (5.0%), respectively. S0, S1, S2 and S3 steatosis stages were seen in 22 (55.0%), 11 (27.5%), 4 (10.0%) and 3 (7.5%), respectively. The mean (SD) CAP and median (IQR) LS values at baseline were 249.7 ± 58.1 dB/m and 11.9 (6-18.1) kPa. A significant decrease in CAP values was observed in all patients 15 to 120 min after meals, with the CAP peak value at 60 min and the mean post-meal delta reduction of 18.1 dB/min. CAP values declined after meals at early fibrosis stages and across all stages of steatosis. A significant increase in LS values after meal intake was observed within 15 to 120 min, with the LS peak value at 15 min and the mean post-meal delta increase of 2.4 kPa. Post-meal CAP and LS values returned to baseline within 150 min following meals. Following a meal, patients' CAP values declined with the peak value at 60 min, contrasting with the rising of LS values with the peak value at 15 min. The post-meal CAP and LS values returned to baseline by 150 min. A fasting period of more than 150 min after a meal is recommended for patients undergoing TE.

  3. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions.

  4. Specialized food composition dataset for vitamin D content in foods based on European standards: Application to dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milešević, Jelena; Samaniego, Lourdes; Kiely, Mairead; Glibetić, Maria; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2018-02-01

    A review of national nutrition surveys from 2000 to date, demonstrated high prevalence of vitamin D intakes below the EFSA Adequate Intake (AI) (d vitamin D) in adults across Europe. Dietary assessment and modelling are required to monitor efficacy and safety of ongoing strategic vitamin D fortification. To support these studies, a specialized vitamin D food composition dataset, based on EuroFIR standards, was compiled. The FoodEXplorer™ tool was used to retrieve well documented analytical data for vitamin D and arrange the data into two datasets - European (8 European countries, 981 data values) and US (1836 data values). Data were classified, using the LanguaL™, FoodEX2 and ODIN classification systems and ranked according to quality criteria. Significant differences in the content, quality of data values, missing data on vitamin D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and documentation of analytical methods were observed. The dataset is available through the EuroFIR platform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer-based assessments of expected satiety predict behavioural measures of portion-size selection and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Hinton, Elanor C; Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-01

    Previously, expected satiety (ES) has been measured using software and two-dimensional pictures presented on a computer screen. In this context, ES is an excellent predictor of self-selected portions, when quantified using similar images and similar software. In the present study we sought to establish the veracity of ES as a predictor of behaviours associated with real foods. Participants (N=30) used computer software to assess their ES and ideal portion of three familiar foods. A real bowl of one food (pasta and sauce) was then presented and participants self-selected an ideal portion size. They then consumed the portion ad libitum. Additional measures of appetite, expected and actual liking, novelty, and reward, were also taken. Importantly, our screen-based measures of expected satiety and ideal portion size were both significantly related to intake (p.05). In addition, consistent with previous studies, the majority (90%) of participants engaged in plate cleaning. Of these, 29.6% consumed more when prompted by the experimenter. Together, these findings further validate the use of screen-based measures to explore determinants of portion-size selection and energy intake in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of text messaging and paper-and-pencil for ecological momentary assessment of food craving and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T; Giuliani, Nicole R; Pruitt, Alicia K

    2014-10-01

    Electronic devices such as mobile phones are quickly becoming a popular way to gather participant reports of everyday thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, including food cravings and intake. Electronic devices offer a number of advantages over alternative methods such as paper-and-pencil (PNP) assessment including automated prompts, on-the-fly data transmission, and participant familiarity with and ownership of the devices. However, only a handful of studies have systematically compared compliance between electronic and PNP methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and none have examined eating specifically. Existing comparisons generally find greater compliance for electronic devices than PNP, but there is variability in the results across studies that may be accounted for by differences across research domains. Here, we compared the two EMA methods in an unexamined domain - eating - in terms of response rate and response latency, and their sensitivity to individual difference variables such as body mass index (BMI). Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to report on their food craving, food intake, and hunger four times each day for 2 weeks using either a PNP diary (N = 19) or text messaging (TXT; N = 25). Response rates were higher for TXT than PNP (96% vs. 70%) and latencies were faster (29 min vs. 79 min), and response rate and latency were less influenced by BMI in the TXT condition than in the PNP condition. These results support the feasibility of using text messaging for EMA in the eating domain, and more broadly highlight the ways that research domain-specific considerations (e.g., the importance of response latency in measuring short-lived food craving) interact with assessment modality during EMA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2014-05-01

    Concern has recently been expressed about Pb levels in Pb-shot game meat. Our aim was to determine the consumption of game birds in a representative sample population in the UK, and in children and women of childbearing age in particular. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Data from 4 d diet diaries from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS; 2008-2010) were extracted to analyse data on game bird consumption in the sample population, in women of childbearing age (15-45 years old) and in children ≤6 years old. Home-based study in representative areas of the UK. Participants in the NDNS (2008-2010; n 2126, age 1·5 to >65 years). Fifty-eight participants (2·7 %) reported eating game birds. The mean intake was 19·5 (sd 18·1) g/d (median 15·6, range 1·3-92·9 g/d). In women of childbearing age (15-45 years), 11/383 (2·9 %) reported eating game birds, with a mean intake of 22·4 (sd 25·8) g/d (median 15·6, range 2·0-92·9 g/d). In children aged ≤6 years old, 3/342 (0·9 %) were reported as eating game birds, with a mean intake of 6·8 (sd 9·7) g/d (median 2·4, range 1·3-23·2 g/d). The prevalence of consumption of game birds by women of childbearing age and children ≤6 years old was relatively low and intakes were small. However, any exposure to Pb in these two groups is undesirable. As are uncertainties about the ability of the diet diary method to capture the consumption of food items that are infrequently consumed, alternative methods of capturing these data should be used in future studies.

  8. Assessment of dietary intake of 10 intense sweeteners by the Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Mistura, Lorenza; Goscinny, Séverine; Janvier, Steven; Cuypers, Koenraad; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Van Loco, Joris; Turrini, Aida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the consumption of foods containing intense sweeteners present on the Italian food market and to investigate whether the Italian general population (aged >3-65+) was at risk for exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 10 intense sweeteners. A food label survey was performed in Rome (Italy), using market share data to identify the brands more representative of the market. A sample of 326 foods (table-top sweeteners included), beverages and food supplements containing intense sweeteners was collected and analyzed in order to establish the concentration levels. Intense sweeteners were only found in foods belonging to 8 sugar-free food categories out of 37 regulated. The dietary exposure was estimated using the tiered approach. Food consumption data from the last Italian national survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06) were combined with Maximum Levels at Tier 2, and with the actual concentration of sweeteners in the collected food products at Tier 3. The estimated exposure among consumers of sweeteners in Italy was well below the ADIs, in both tiers; non-alcoholic beverages, table-top sweeteners and food supplements were main contributors to exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Furan in commercial baby foods from the Spanish market: estimation of daily intake and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M Soubhi; Santos, F Javier; Puignou, Lluis; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of furan in commercial baby food samples from the Spanish market was evaluated using an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 76 baby food samples including infant formula, baby cereals, fruit in cans and/or jars, vegetables, meat, and fish, were surveyed for furan content. The lowest concentration of this compound was found in infant formula (baby food containing fish showed the highest concentrations (19-84 ng g -1 ). Following recommendation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the effect on furan content was evaluated of consumer home preparation of foods, heating and handling. Furan concentrations were reduced by up to 35% when samples were heated in a dish using microwave oven and by up to 53% when a hot water bath was used. Finally, we estimated the furan intake from baby food consumption (0.002-1.18 µg kg -1 body weight day -1 ) and we calculated the margin of exposure (MOE) from samples as purchased and also after home preparation of the food. For infant formula and cereal baby foods, the MOEs (26,278-412,776) indicated no infant health concern or priority, while for meat and fish-based baby foods the values pointed to a potential public health risk, even considering the furan losses during preparation at home.

  10. Mycotoxins in wheat flour and intake assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zhou, Jingyang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Fengjia

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the occurrence and contamination levels of eight mycotoxins were investigated in wheat flour samples (n = 359) from Shandong Province of China. Samples were determined using a multi-mycotoxin method based on isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol (DON) (97.2%), nivalenol (40.4%) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (33.4%), and mean contamination levels in positive samples were 86.7, 3.55 and 3.34 µg kg(-1), respectively. The obtained data were further used to estimate the daily intake of the local population, and indicated that wheat flour consumption contributes little to DON exposure. However, with the aim to keep the contamination levels under control and to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Shandong Province, more sample data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in the future.

  11. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  12. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  13. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial potentials of Borreria sps (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-Ying Wong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Successive hexane, acetone, ethanol and methanolic whole plant extracts of the Borreria sps were investigated for phytochemical screening and assessed for antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis of Borreria sps extracts revealed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Among them, Borreria laevicaulis hexane extracts were found to be most effective showing the largest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (22.15 mm and Candida albicans (25.65 mm. Further studies indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentration of B. laevicaulis hexane extracts was found to be 62.5 μg/ml against S. aureus and 250 μg/ml against C. albicans and the zone of inhibitions was significantly higher than nystatin (positive control. Together, we provide new insights of the B. laevicaulis as a potential candidate for antimicrobial drug discovery using in vitro studies that might be useful to treat human infectious diseases and antibiotic resistant pathogens.

  14. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  15. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  16. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, pnutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with nutritional risk had more pronounced nutritional deficiencies. Despite a too low energy value of foods among individuals with correct nutrition, their anthropometric parameters paradoxically showed the presence of excessive fatty tissue. The most frequent

  17. Assessment of glycemic load and intake of carbohydrates in the diet of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Dorota; Kawicka, Anna; Konikowska, Klaudia; Salomon, Agnieszka; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Szuba, Andrzej; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    Glycemic Load (GL) is one of the indicators that can be used to assess the nutritional value of the diet. The results of numerous studies have shown that high glycemic index and/or high GL diets were associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary GL, intake of food products which are source of carbohydrates and contribution of particular carbohydrates in students' diets. The study group consisted of 140 female students from Wroclaw (Poland) aged 21±1.6 years. The dietary assessment was performed using food frequency-questionnaire. The GL of daily food ration (DFR) was considered low for values 120 g. The mean GL of the diets was 120.7±42 g. DFR of 12.1% of the students had low GL, 46.6% - medium, and 39.3% - high. Diets in the 4th quartile of GL were characterized by the highest energy value, total carbohydrate, sucrose, starch and fiber content and energy contribution from carbohydrates when compared with lower quartiles. Higher percentage of energy from protein and fats in the diets was related with lower dietary GL. The highest correlation coefficient between GL and weight of the consumed food was observed for sweets (r=0.67), cereal products (r=0.52), juices and sweetened beverages (r=0.50), vegetables (r=0.45) and fruits (r=0.44). In the study, cereal products, fruits, sweets, vegetables and juices and sweetened beverages consumed by the female subjects constituted respectively 26.6%, 12.8%, 11.4%, 9.1% and 8.8% of the total dietary GL. Lower dietary GL in the female students participating in the study can be achieved by limiting the intake of sweets and sweet beverages as well as consuming cereal products with a low GI. glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, students, diet.

  18. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of some Nigerian herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enegide Chinedu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbs basically, are plants or plant parts employed due to their scent, medicinal properties or flavor. Herbal medicines have longed been used in the management and treatment of various ailments even before the arrival of modern medicine. Herbal medicines are still being used today, as it has even gained a new momentum in the field of medicine. Phytochemicals are responsible for eliciting definite physiological effects of various herbs in the body. In Nigeria, various plants are being used traditionally in the treatment of divers ailments. Some of these plants include Tapinanthus bangwensis, Tamarindus indica, Ocimum gratissimum, Allium sativum, Kigelia africana, Azadirachta indica, Solanum virginianum, Myrianthus serratus and Vernonia amygdalina. Though there have been claims of success in their traditional usage, it is however important to carry-out phytochemical assessment on them. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of the ethanolic extract of these plants. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted, and the plant extracts were screened for the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrate, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones using the standard methods. Result: The experimental result revealed the presence of the various bioactive phytochemicals in the different plant extracts investigated. These phytochemicals were however present in different proportions in the various plant extracts. Conclusion: The experimental result vindicates the usage of these plants traditionally for medicinal purposes.

  19. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew M; Heritier, Fabrice; Childs, Bennett G; Bostwick, J Michael; Dziadzko, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Pain in cancer therapy is a common condition and there is a need for new options in therapeutic management. While phytochemicals have been proposed as one pain management solution, knowledge of their utility is limited. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the biomedical literature for the use of phytochemicals for management of cancer therapy pain in human subjects. Of an initial database search of 1,603 abstracts, 32 full-text articles were eligible for further assessment. Only 7 of these articles met all inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The average relative risk of phytochemical versus control was 1.03 [95% CI 0.59 to 2.06]. In other words (although not statistically significant), patients treated with phytochemicals were slightly more likely than patients treated with control to obtain successful management of pain in cancer therapy. We identified a lack of quality research literature on this subject and thus were unable to demonstrate a clear therapeutic benefit for either general or specific use of phytochemicals in the management of cancer pain. This lack of data is especially apparent for psychotropic phytochemicals, such as the Cannabis plant (marijuana). Additional implications of our findings are also explored.

  20. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in cancer therapy is a common condition and there is a need for new options in therapeutic management. While phytochemicals have been proposed as one pain management solution, knowledge of their utility is limited. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the biomedical literature for the use of phytochemicals for management of cancer therapy pain in human subjects. Of an initial database search of 1,603 abstracts, 32 full-text articles were eligible for further assessment. Only 7 of these articles met all inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The average relative risk of phytochemical versus control was 1.03 [95% CI 0.59 to 2.06]. In other words (although not statistically significant, patients treated with phytochemicals were slightly more likely than patients treated with control to obtain successful management of pain in cancer therapy. We identified a lack of quality research literature on this subject and thus were unable to demonstrate a clear therapeutic benefit for either general or specific use of phytochemicals in the management of cancer pain. This lack of data is especially apparent for psychotropic phytochemicals, such as the Cannabis plant (marijuana. Additional implications of our findings are also explored.

  1. [Assessment of stimulant use especially caffeine intake in selected group of the breastfeeding women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch, Aleksandra; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Zdanowski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the negative impact of stimulants, including alcohol, nicotine and excessive consumption of caffeine on the baby and his mother, a very important is to stop or to restrict their use, especially during pregnancy and lactation. Purpose of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, tobacco smoke exposure and caffeine consumption in breastfeeding women from Masovian Province. The survey was conducted from September 2010 till March 2011. The study group consisted of 102 breastfeeding women aged 19-38 years. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke was obtained by questionnaire interview. The results about caffeine intake were obtained using 3-day dietary records method and food frequency questionnaire method. Source of information about the caffeine content in products were the published literature, in the case of energy drinks the manufacturer's label. Among all women surveyed (n = 102), up 17% of respondents declared alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking of 6% and 15% of passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The average caffeine consumption in a group called "caffeine consumers" (n = 94) was 127.4 +/- 76.0 mg/person/day for 3-day dietary records method and 163.4 +/- 100.6 mg/person/day for the food frequency questionnaire method. The correlation coefficient between the used methods was r = 0.71 (p caffeine, regardless of the method of data collection were: black tea, which provided about 60% of caffeine and ground coffee (about 20%) and instant coffee (about 13%). Despite general knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking cigarette/tobacco smoke exposure and the consumption of alcohol and foods high in caffeine, some respondents did not halt the use of these stimulants during lactation, indicating a need for an education in this field.

  2. Phytochemicals in the Fight Against Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kristoffer T; Zhu, Ziwen; Fang, Yujiang

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemicals are chemical compounds from fruits, vegetables, or grains and they have been used to treat various diseases for thousands of years. More than one million people in the United States get cancer each year. Although recent advances in medicine have improved the outcomes for cancer patients, there is still a need for novel approaches in the fight against cancer. One such approach that has shown promise in recent years is the use of phytochemicals alone or as synergistic agents. In this review, we will discuss the use of phytochemicals as therapeutic agents against cancer with an emphasis on apple extract.

  3. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  4. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

  5. Development and validation of two food portion photograph books to assess dietary intake among adults and children in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amougou, Norbert; Cohen, Emmanuel; Mbala, Marie L; Grosdidier, Basile; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2016-03-14

    Owing to nutritional transition in Cameroon, one in two adults is overweight and one in five is obese, and 8·1% of children are overweight and 2·1% are obese. Given this phenomenon, dietary intake assessment is needed to establish appropriate preventive nutrition-sensitive strategies. Our aim was to develop and test the validity of two food portion photograph books (FPPB) to be used as visual aids for adults and children taking part in a 24-h dietary recall. To design FPPB, interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with women to obtain consensus on the local categorisation of foods. For each cooked and weighed food, three photographs of the average small, medium and large serving portion sizes were taken, and four intermediary portion sizes were calculated. To validate the FPPB, a sample of adults (361) and children (224) were asked, at meal times, to self-serve a food portion prepared in the household and the portion sizes were weighed; 24 h after the measurement, the same subjects were shown the appropriate FPPB and were asked to indicate the food and the portion they consumed. In adults, of the 821 portions tested, 77% were accurately estimated, whereas in children 74% of the 556 portions tested were accurately estimated. For both groups, the small- and medium-sized portions were frequently selected and accurately estimated (>70%). Our findings suggest that the adult and children's FPPB can be used in Cameroon to estimate food portion sizes, and thus nutritional intake in the frame of the 24-h dietary recall.

  6. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, R.; Braesco, V.; Holst, B.; Maiani, G.; Ovesen, L.; Scotter, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Berg, R. van den; Verhagen, H.; Williamson, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this review many examples are given of the complexities involved in using some biomarkers in relation to assessing the effects of dietary exposure, when there is frequently a need to determine changes following long-term low level exposure to dietary components. These range from understanding why

  7. Phytochemical profiling as a solution to palliate disinfectant limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, J; Gomes, I; Borges, A; Bastos, M M S M; Maillard, J-Y; Borges, F; Simões, M

    2016-10-01

    The indiscriminate use of biocides for general disinfection has contributed to the increased incidence of antimicrobial tolerant microorganisms. This study aims to assess the potential of seven phytochemicals (tyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamaldehyde, coumaric acid, cinnamic acid and eugenol) in the control of planktonic and sessile cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol showed antimicrobial properties, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 3-5 and 5-12 mM and minimum bactericidal concentrations of 10-12 and 10-14 mM against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Cinnamic acid was able to completely control adhered bacteria with effects comparable to peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite and it was more effective than hydrogen peroxide (all at 10 mM). This phytochemical caused significant changes in bacterial membrane hydrophilicity. The observed effectiveness of phytochemicals makes them interesting alternatives and/or complementary products to commonly used biocidal products. Cinnamic acid is of particular interest for the control of sessile cells.

  8. Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Terminalia avicennioides crude extract against selected bacteria from diarrhoeic patients. F.M. Musa, J.B. Ameh, S.A. Ado, O.S. Olonitola ...

  9. 44 Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Screening of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    concentrations, while the aqueous extract were susceptible on five organism namely Corynebacteria,. Streptococcus pyogene, Proteus specie, Neiserra gonorrhoeae, and Treponema palladium. Key words: Asparagus flagellaris, phytochemical, ethanol extract, aqueous extract and antibacterial screening. Introduction.

  10. Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... intestinal worms, venereal diseases, edema, hemoorrhoids, purgative, emmenogogue and vermifuge.The plant is reported to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids and phytosterols. This review was aimed at describing the medicinal uses, pharmacological and phytochemical components ...

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum molle and Pericopsis laxiflora. Kossi-Kuma Agbalevon Koevi, Vinsoun Millogo, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou, Abdou Sarr, Georges Anicet Ouedraogo, Emmanuel Bassene ...

  12. Role of phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hua; Niu, Yin-Bo; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Chang-Xu; Fan, Lei; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2015-08-21

    Although the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been declining in recent decades, it remains a major public health issue as a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity worldwide. Prevention is one milestone for this disease. Extensive study has demonstrated that a diet containing fruits, vegetables, and spices has the potential to prevent CRC. The specific constituents in the dietary foods which are responsible for preventing CRC and the possible mechanisms have also been investigated extensively. Various phytochemicals have been identified in fruits, vegetables, and spices which exhibit chemopreventive potential. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals including curcumin, polysaccharides (apple polysaccharides and mushroom glucans), saponins (Paris saponins, ginsenosides and soy saponins), resveratrol, and quercetin on CRC and the mechanisms are discussed. This review proposes the need for more clinical evidence for the effects of phytochemicals against CRC in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these phytochemicals might be therapeutic candidates in the campaign against CRC.

  13. Proximate and Phytochemical composition and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Indigenous landraces of Omani fenugreek seeds are a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, and many important bioactive components, which were found to be significantly correlatedwith its antioxidant properties. Keywords: Omani fenugreek, landraces, phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties.

  14. Protein Kinase A Modulation by Dietary Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Fagervoll, Anne Marthe

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. Plants contain phytochemicals, which are believed to account for some of the positive effects through interactions with protein kinases. The present work is a screening of dietary phytochemicals for their ability to modulate the activity of the intracellular protein kinase A (PKA) using a novel PKA-sensitive luciferase. Som...

  15. Phytochemical analysis and effects on ingestive behaviour of a Caralluma fimbriata extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalone, Annabella; Di Sotto, Antonella; Mammola, Caterina Loredana; Heyn, Rosemarie; Miglietta, Selenia; Mariani, Paola; Sciubba, Fabio; Passarelli, Francesca; Nativio, Paola; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    Caralluma fimbriata Wall. is currently used as a "natural slimming" food supplement, likely due to its content in pregnane glycosides. In the present study, a commercially available Caralluma fimbriata extract (Slimaluma ® ; CFE, 100 mg/kg) has been evaluated for its ability to affect the ingestive behaviour in female rats, also with reference to the modulation of the brain neuropeptides NPY and ORX.The interference of CFE with α-amylase and lipase enzymes has been investigated in vitro, as possible peripheral mechanism of action. Also, the chemical composition of CFE has been assessed by NMR and spectrophotometric analysis. Results from in vivo study showed that CFE induced effects neither on blood parameters, nor on liver and gut histomorphology. Interestingly, a reduction in body weight gain with an increase in water intake and hypothalamic levels of NPY and ORX peptides were found. Phytochemical analysis, showed CFE contained about 12% of pregnane glycosides and 1.3% of polyphenols. Present results suggest possible effects of C. fimbriata on ingestive behaviour, likely mediated by central and peripheral mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytochemicals Approach for Developing Cancer Immunotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals or their derived compounds are being increasingly recognized as potentially potent complementary treatments for cancer. Among them, some phytochemicals are being actively evaluated for use as adjuvants in anticancer therapies. For instance, shikonin and hypericin were found to induce immunogenic cell death of specific cancer cells, and this effect was able to further activate the recognition activity of tumor cells by the host immune system. On the other hand, some derivatives of phytochemicals, such as dihydrobenzofuran lignan (Q2-3 have been found to induce the secretion of an endogenous anticancer factor, namely IL-25, from non-malignant cells. These findings suggest that phytochemicals or their derivatives confer a spectrum of different pharmacological activities, which contrasts with the current cytotoxic anticancer drugs commonly used in clinics. In this review, we have collected together pertinent information from recent studies about the biochemical and cellular mechanisms through which specific phytochemicals regulate target immune systems in defined tumor microenvironments. We have further highlighted the potential application of these immunotherapeutic modifiers in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This knowledge provides useful technological support and know how for future applications of phytochemicals in cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Dietary intake of lycopene is associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkondjock, André; Ghadirian, Parviz; Johnson, Kenneth C; Krewski, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Although fruits and vegetables have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer, the role of phytochemicals in these food groups has received little attention to date. In this study, we investigated the possible association between dietary carotenoids and pancreatic cancer risk. A case-control study of 462 histologically confirmed pancreatic cancer cases and 4721 population-based controls in 8 Canadian provinces took place between 1994 and 1997. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered FFQ. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between specific and total carotenoid intakes and the risk of pancreatic cancer. All tests of statistical significance were 2-sided. After adjustment for age, province, BMI, smoking, educational attainment, dietary folate, and total energy intake, lycopene, provided mainly by tomatoes, was associated with a 31% reduction in pancreatic cancer risk among men [odds ratio (OR) = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.46-0.96; P = 0.026 for trend] when comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of intake. Both beta-carotene (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99; P = 0.016 for trend) and total carotenoids (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34-1.00; P = 0.02 for trend) were associated with a significantly reduced risk among those who never smoked. The results of this study suggest that a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato-based products with high lycopene content may help reduce pancreatic cancer risk.

  18. Thin slice ratings of client characteristics in intake assessments: predicting symptom change and dropout in cognitive therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Katherine E; Strunk, Daniel R

    2013-08-01

    Thin slice ratings of personality have been shown to predict a number of outcomes, but have yet to be examined in the context of psychotherapy. In a sample of 66 clients participating in cognitive therapy for depression, we examined the predictive utility of thin slice rated pre-treatment client traits. On the basis of short video clip excerpts (i.e., thin slices) of intake assessments, trained observers rated clients on personality characteristics and specific personality disorder (PD) traits. Clients' therapy interest and neuroticism predicted lower odds of dropout. Ratings of extraversion predicted greater symptom change across treatment; ratings of clients' Avoidant and Schizoid PD traits predicted less marked symptom improvement. Ratings of agreeableness and likeability also predicted greater symptom change, but these relations were only significant in one of two analytic approaches used. Evidence for the predictive validity of thin slice ratings was generally stronger than that observed for self-reported PD traits and PD status. Moreover, these self-report and diagnostic assessments failed to account for the thin slice-outcome relations identified. Findings support the clinical utility of quick, thin slice impressions of clients, as these ratings could be used to identify clients with a high risk of dropout or poor treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Phytochemicals against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and Their Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Monte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can be resistant to multiple antibiotics and we are fast approaching a time when antibiotics will not work on some bacterial infections. New antimicrobial compounds are urgently necessary. Plants are considered the greatest source to obtain new antimicrobials. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of four phytochemicals—7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, salicylic acid (SA and saponin (SP—against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, either as planktonic cells or as biofilms. These bacteria are commonly found in hospital-acquired infections. Some aspects on the phytochemicals mode of action, including surface charge, hydrophobicity, motility and quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI were investigated. In addition, the phytochemicals were combined with three antibiotics in order to assess any synergistic effect. 7-HC and I3C were the most effective phytochemicals against E. coli and S. aureus. Both phytochemicals affected the motility and quorum-sensing (QS activity, which means that they can play an important role in the interference of cell-cell interactions and in biofilm formation and control. However, total biofilm removal was not achieved with any of the selected phytochemicals. Dual combinations between tetracycline (TET, erythromycin (ERY and ciprofloxacin (CIP and I3C produced synergistic effects against S. aureus resistant strains. The overall results demonstrates the potential of phytochemicals to control the growth of E. coli and S. aureus in both planktonic and biofilm states. In addition, the phytochemicals demonstrated the potential to act synergistically with antibiotics, contributing to the recycling of old antibiotics that were once considered ineffective due to resistance problems.

  1. Individually assessed creep food consumption by suckled piglets: influence on post-weaning food intake characteristics and indicators of gut structure and hind-gut fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Schellingerhout, A.B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Schrama, J.W.; Hartog, den L.A.; Everts, H.; Beynen, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Individual food intake characteristics and indicators of gut physiology of group-housed weanling pigs were measured in relation to pre-weaning consumption of creep food. Additionally, the effects of creep food consumption on pre-weaning body weight and gain were assessed. A total of 48 litters was

  2. Monitoring dietary intake and physical activity electronically: Feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mobile-based ecological momentary assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spook, J.E.; Paulussen, T.; Kok, G.; Empelen, P. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment

  3. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  4. Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act Increases Phytochemicals in Menus and Curriculum Furthers Identification of Phytochemical-Rich Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, D; Hershberger, S; Gaetke, L

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether providing the Fruits and Vegetables (F/V) required by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) increased phytochemical/antioxidant content of school lunches. Additionally, the ability of adolescents to apply their nutritional knowledge following participation in a nutrition-focused science-based curriculum was assessed. Changes in antioxidant/phytochemical content from F/V offered in school lunch menus were analyzed Pre-and Post-HHFKA. Food logs completed by 717 youth aged 10-18 were analyzed for correctly identifying "fighting foods". Significant increases in antioxidant/phytochemical content resulted following implementation of HHFKA (P<0.05). Seventy-five percent [0, 100] of the time students accurately identified "fighting foods" in their one-day in-school food log (n=468). Creatively incorporating nutrition education into core curriculum, when paired with a supportive built environment that increases F/V access (HHFKA), generates a multilevel intervention promoting F/V consumption among school-aged youth.

  5. Comparison of estimated energy intake using Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-determined energy expenditure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Biltoft-Jensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet project carried out a school meal study to assess the impact of a New Nordic Diet (NND. The random controlled trial involved 834 children aged 8–11 in nine local authority schools in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children to collect data from the children. Objective: To compare the energy intake (EI of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy expenditure (TEE as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design: Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore an accelerometer for two periods of seven consecutive days: at baseline, when they ate their usual packed lunches and at intervention when they were served the NND. EI was estimated using WebDASC, and TEE was calculated from accelerometer-derived activity energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and diet-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results: Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods of collecting dietary data and proved both effective and acceptable with children aged 8–11, even with perhaps less familiar foods of the NND. Conclusions: WebDASC is a useful method that provided a reasonably accurate measure of EI at group level when compared to TEE derived from accelerometer-determined physical activity in children. WebDASC will benefit future research in this area.

  6. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    why the biomarker might be valuable and how best it can be measured, to the pitfalls which can occur in the interpretation of data. Analytical technique is considered in relation to folate and selenium, and flavonoid and carotenoid species are used to illustrate how the metabolism of a compound may...... alter the validity or adequacy of a marker. Vitamin A is discussed in relation to the difficulties which can arise when there are several biomarkers that may be available to assess exposure to one nutrient. Vitamin B-12 is discussed in relation to the dietary choices made by individuals. Possible...

  7. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  8. Validation of the assessment of folate and vitamin B12 intake in women of reproductive age: the method of triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Stegers, M.P.G.; Lindemans, J.; Ursem, N.T.C.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To validate the folate and vitamin B12 intakes estimated by a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to be used in a case-control study on the association between maternal dietary intake and the risk of having a child with a congenital heart defect. Design and subjects: The FFQ was

  9. Assessment of protein intake during pregnancy using a food frequency questionnaire and the effect on postpartum body weight variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade de; Kac, Gilberto; Sichieri, Rosely

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protein intake during pregnancy on postpartum weight variation. This was a prospective cohort study with 421 women interviewed at 15 days (baseline) and 2, 6, and 9 months postpartum. Data on diet were obtained using the food frequency questionnaire, focusing on the second and third trimesters. Protein intake was considered adequate when women consumed ≥ 1.2g of protein per kg body weight, and inadequate when weight loss of 0.409kg/month (±0.12) (p Women with adequate protein intake during pregnancy lost an additional 0.094kg/month (±0.04) during postpartum (p = 0.03) when compared to women with inadequate intake. The model was adjusted for energy, % body fat, stature, age, schooling, skin color, and smoking. Recommended protein intake during pregnancy favored postpartum weight reduction.

  10. An assessment of biochemical, phytochemical and antinutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were determined using flame photometer while elemental composition was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results of the proximate analysis showed that it contained 10.28% protein, 65.40% moisture, 1.27% ash, 1.58% crude fibre, 21.47% carbohydrate while fat was not detected; 34.59 ...

  11. Perception v. actual intakes of junk food and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australian young adults: assessed using the mobile food record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Panizza, Chloe E; Delp, Edward J; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Kerr, Deborah A

    2017-09-01

    To determine perception v. actual intakes of energy-dense nutrient-poor 'junk food' (JF) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in young adults, using the mobile food record (mFR). Before-and-after eating images using a 4 d mFR were assessed for standardised 600 kJ (143 kcal) servings of JF and SSB (excluding diet drinks). Participants reported their concern about the health aspects of their diet, perceptions and intentions regarding JF and SSB. Perth, Western Australia. Adults (n 246) aged 18-30 years. The mean (sd) intake of JF+SSB was 3·7 (2·0) servings/d. Women thinking about drinking less SSB consumed more SSB servings/d (1·5 (1·2)) than men (0·7 (0·5); PPPPPyoung adults are to changing their intake, particularly given the lack of attention paid to the health aspects of their diet.

  12. Application of Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry To Determine Urinary Concentrations of Five Commonly Used Low-Calorie Sweeteners: A Novel Biomarker Approach for Assessing Recent Intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Caomhan; Dowey, Le Roy C; Strain, J J; Verhagen, Hans; McClean, Stephen; Gallagher, Alison M

    2017-06-07

    Although the use of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) is widespread, methods of assessing consumption within free-living populations have inherent limitations. Five commonly consumed LCSs, namely, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and steviol glycosides, are excreted via the urine, and therefore a urinary biomarker approach may provide more objective LCS intake data. A LC-ESI-MS/MS method of simultaneously determining acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and the excretory metabolite of steviol glycosides, steviol glucuronide, in human urine was developed and validated. Linearity was observed over a concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9969 to 0.9997. Accuracy ranged from 92 to 104%, and intrabatch and interday precisions were within acceptable limits with %CV below 8% for all compounds. A double-blind, randomized crossover dose-response study was conducted to assess the usefulness of urinary LCS excretions (from both fasting spot and a full 24-h urine collection) for investigating recent intakes. Both modes of sampling were useful for distinguishing between the three short-term intakes of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamates, and steviol glycosides (p < 0.001), whereas for sucralose, urinary concentrations were useful for distinguishing between low (0.1% ADI) and high doses (10% ADI) only (p < 0.001). In summary, this biomarker approach may be useful for assessing intakes of five commonly consumed LCSs.

  13. Dietary intake in Black British adults; an observational assessment of nutritional composition and the role of traditional foods in UK Caribbean and West African diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Louise M; Timbers, Louise; Style, Hannah; Knight, Annemarie

    2015-08-01

    Acculturation to the UK diet may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases in Black British communities. The present study aimed to assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to dietary intake in a group of UK-residing Caribbean and West African adults and to explore differences according to ethnicity and duration of residence. Observational study. Dietary intake was assessed using multiple, standardised triple-pass 24 h recalls and analysed using a nutritional composition database. Associations between sociodemographic variables and duration of residence with dietary intake were assessed using ANCOVA. London, UK, October 2011-December 2012. UK adults of Caribbean (n 50) or West African (n 83) ancestry, aged 18-75 years. The Caribbean participants were older and more likely to be born in the UK. After adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity, those who had been resident in the UK for the longest duration had significantly higher intakes of energy (Ptraditional cultural foods compared with the Caribbean diet, which was more reliant on 'Westernised' foods such as sugar-sweetened beverages. These results are novel in demonstrating dietary acculturation in UK adults of Caribbean and West African ancestry. We have provided detailed data regarding the role of traditional foods, presenting dietary information that may guide in individualising care for patients from these communities and improve the cultural sensitivity of public health strategies.

  14. Neurohormetic phytochemicals: An evolutionary-bioenergetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by 'neurohormetic phytochemicals' (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  15. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  16. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of wheat grown in Tianjin sewage irrigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Zuwei; Wang, Jun; Guo, Jinting; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The possible health risks from heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) contamination to the local population through the food chain were evaluated in Tianjin, China, a city with a long history of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, and 54.5 and 18.25% soil samples accumulated Cd and Zn in concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain decreased in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd, and transfer factors for the six heavy metals showed the trend as Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni. The risk assessment for the six heavy metals through wheat consumption suggests that concentrations of Cr and Cd in some wheat samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, no target hazard quotient value of any individual element was greater than one, which means they are within the safe interval. However, 36.4 and 63.6% hazard index values for adults and children were greater than one, respectively. The health risk due to the added effects of heavy metals was significant for children and adults, and more attention should be paid tothe potential added threat fromheavy metals to the health of children via dietary intake of wheat in Tianjin.

  17. Cultural differences in assessing dietary intake and providing relevant dietary information to British African-Caribbean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Cruickshank, J K

    2001-12-01

    Diet can play a key role in the management of disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, conditions highly prevalent in the British African Caribbean population. In this paper, information not previously available is provided on the dietary habits and foods consumed by a British African-Caribbean population representative of the local community. Food frequency questionnaires were obtained from 255 randomly selected subjects in Manchester (78% of Jamaican origin), the nutrient intake results of which are available elsewhere. Here, suggestions are given to ensure that complete and valid dietary assessments (by diet history) are obtained, and the need for the approach to be somewhat different to that used in the White European population, highlighted with examples. Suggestions have also been listed for methods of dietary modification for obesity, diabetes and hypertension, taking into account differences in cultural understanding and food practices. People of Caribbean origin are not from just one territory: food habits and cultural context play an important role in every island, with clear differences between each which persist in first and later generations in Britain. In this paper, we attempt to integrate experience of learning from patients themselves during consultations and from participants in this study, with direct quantitative data on types of foods and their frequency in the local African-Caribbean diet.

  18. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Marc; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 ...

  19. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  20. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9-84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1-98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  2. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the

  3. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  4. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-05-16

    Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

  5. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  6. Phytochemicals as Inhibitors of Candida Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Candida biofilm and associated infections is a serious threat to the large population of immunocompromised patients. Biofilm growth on prosthetic devices or host tissue shows reduced sensitivity to antifungal agents and persists as a reservoir of infective cells. Options for successful treatment of biofilm associated Candida infections are restricted because most of the available antifungal drugs fail to eradicate biofilms. Various plant actives are known to possess interesting antifungal properties. To explore and review the potential of phytochemicals as a novel strategy against Candida biofilms is the intent of present article. Thorough literature search is performed to identify Candida biofilm inhibitors of plant origin. An account of efficacy of selected phytochemicals is presented taking into consideration their biofilm inhibitory concentrations. This review discusses biofilm formation by Candida species, their involvement in human infections, and associated drug resistance. It gives insight into the biofilm inhibitory potential of various phytochemicals. Based on the available reports including the work done in our laboratory, several plant extracts, essential oils and phytomolecules have been identified as excellent inhibitors of biofilms of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NACS). Selected phytochemicals which exhibit activities at low concentrations without displaying toxicity to host are potential therapeutic agents against biofilm associated Candida infections. In vivo testing in animal models and clinical trials in humans are required to be taken up seriously to propose few of the phytochemicals as candidate drug molecules.

  7. Phytochemicals from plants to combat cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, H R; ShriShriMal, N; Das, D K

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, the use of synthetic chemicals as drugs has been effective in the treatment of most diseases. Moreover, from ancient to modern history, many traditional plant based medicines are playing an important role in health care. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, aromatic plants, leaves, flowers and roots which act as a defense system to combat against diseases. The phytochemicals from natural products cover a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organosulphur compounds and vitamins. A number of bioactive compounds generally obtained from terrestrial plants such as isoflavones, diosgenin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, sulforaphane, tocotrienols and carotenoids are proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and aid in cardioprotection which is the leading cause of death globally. The cardioprotective effects of the various phytochemicals are perhaps due to their antioxidative, antihypercholesteroemic, antiangiogenic, anti-ischemic, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti inflammatory activities that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The multi-faceted role of the phytochemicals is mediated by its structure-function relationship and can be considered as leads for cardiovascular drug design in future. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on selected phytochemicals as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in cardioprotection.

  8. Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Scrophularia, which comprises ca. 200 medicinally important herbaceous flowering plants . Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species afforded two iridoid glycosides, scropolioside D (1 and scrophuloside B 4 (2, and two phenylalkanoid glycosides, salidroside (3 and verbascoside (4. S tructures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Free-radical-scavenging activity, potential antimalarial property, and contact toxicity as well as general toxicity of the extract and fractions were assessed.

  9. A cross-sectional study assessing dietary intake and physical activity in Canadian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease vs healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Hannah E; Arendt, Bianca M; Noureldin, Seham A; Therapondos, George; Guindi, Maha; Allard, Johane P

    2014-08-01

    Poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to compare diet and physical activity of patients with NAFLD and healthy controls with current recommendations. This was a cross-sectional study. Seventy-four patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (33 simple steatosis and 41 steatohepatitis [NASH]) and 27 healthy controls participated between 2003 and 2011. Food records and activity logs were completed for 7 days. Results were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes and Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. Plasma vitamin C was measured to assess food record accuracy. Intake/activity for each participant was compared with the recommendations and proportion of subjects not meeting the requirements was calculated. Groups were compared by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test or z-test with Bonferroni adjustment. More patients with NASH (58.5%) were obese compared with patients with simple steatosis (24.2%) and healthy controls (7.4%; Pfat was as follows: simple steatosis: 27.3%; NASH: 46.3%; healthy controls: 63.0% (simple steatosis vs health controls; Pfat: simple steatosis: 42.4%; NASH: 70.7%; healthy controls: 63.0% (simple steatosis vs. NASH; P80% of subjects did not consume enough linoleic or linolenic acid, vitamin D, and vitamin E, and >60% exceeded the upper intake level for sodium. Only 53.1% of patients with simple steatosis and 53.8% of patients with NASH, but 84.6% of healthy controls, met recommendations for physical activity (P=0.020). Plasma vitamin C was normal, similar among groups, and correlated with vitamin C intakes. All participants followed a similar Western diet with high fat and sodium intakes and suboptimal micronutrient intakes. However, physical activity was lower in NAFLD compared with healthy controls and was associated with higher body mass index and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diverse Phytochemicals and Bioactivities in the Ancient Fruit and Modern Functional Food Pomegranate (Punica granatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Having served as a symbolic fruit since ancient times, pomegranate (Punica granatum has also gained considerable recognition as a functional food in the modern era. A large body of literature has linked pomegranate polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins (ATs and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs, to the health-promoting activities of pomegranate juice and fruit extracts. However, it remains unclear as to how, and to what extent, the numerous phytochemicals in pomegranate may interact and exert cooperative activities in humans. In this review, we examine the structural and analytical information of the diverse phytochemicals that have been identified in different pomegranate tissues, to establish a knowledge base for characterization of metabolite profiles, discovery of novel phytochemicals, and investigation of phytochemical interactions in pomegranate. We also assess recent findings on the function and molecular mechanism of ATs as well as urolithins, the intestinal microbial derivatives of pomegranate HTs, on human nutrition and health. A better understanding of the structural diversity of pomegranate phytochemicals as well as their bioconversions and bioactivities in humans will facilitate the interrogation of their synergistic/antagonistic interactions and accelerate their applications in dietary-based cancer chemoprevention and treatment in the future.

  11. New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tartrazine An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Héraud, Fanny; Bemrah, Nawel; Gauchard, Françoise; Lorino, Tristan; Lambré, Claude; Frémy, Jean Marc; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the JECFA in 1964, many new studies have been conducted, some of which have incriminated tartrazine in food intolerance reactions. The aims of this work are to update the hazard characterization and to revaluate the safety of tartrazine. Our bibliographical review of animal studies confirms the initial hazard assessment conducted by the JECFA, and accordingly the ADI established at 7.5mg/kg bw. From our data, in France, the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile. It may therefore be concluded that from a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not represent a risk for the consumer. It appears more difficult to show a clear relationship between ingestion of tartrazine and the development of intolerance reactions in patients. These reactions primarily occur in patients who also suffer from recurrent urticaria or asthma. The link between tartrazine consumption and these reactions is often overestimated, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is estimated to be less than 0.12% in the general population. Generally, the population at risk is aware of the importance of food labelling, with the view of avoiding consumption of tartrazine. However, it has to be mentioned that products such as ice creams, desserts, cakes and fine bakery are often sold loose without any labelling.

  12. Phytochemicals: Potential in Management of Climacteric Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bansal, Seema; Sachdeva, Anand Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Menopause jeopardizes the integrity of brain and makes it vulnerable to various diseases, both of psychiatric and degenerative nature. Exogenous estrogen supplementation confers neuroprotection but the results of Women's Health Initiative (WHI), Million Women Study (MWS) and incidence of endometrial cancer, breast cancer and venous thromboembolism reported with estrogen use have engendered doubts over its clinical translation for postmenopausal neurological disorders. Scientific community and general public have started recognizing the protective potential of phytochemicals in climacteric medicine. These phytochemicals are plant-derived, non-steroidal bioactive estrogenic compounds. Emerging preclinical studies have suggested that these phytochemicals display potential benefits in mitigating postmenopausal depression, anxiety, cerebral ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, the aim of present review is: a) to give an overview of neuroprotective action of estrogen, b) to address the chemical and pharmacological features of various classes of phytoestrogens, and c) to present preclinical and clinical evidence of effect of phytoestrogens on climacteric neurobiology with their possible mechanisms of action.

  13. Phytochemical and comparative antidiabetic studies of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts of Viscum album from four different plant hosts were carried out using standard procedures. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that the different leaf extracts vary in their phytochemical constituents depending on the plant host.

  14. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  15. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of hypoglycemic properties of the root extract of Uveria chamae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emordi Jonathan Emeka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties and preliminary phytochemical screening of Uveria chamae. The hypoglycaemic properties of Uveria chamae was assessed on normoglycaemic rat that received single dose of the extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight and blood glucose levels estimated at 2, 4, and 6 hours (single dose study. The hypoglycaemic property of the extract was also evaluated in normoglycemic rats by oral glucose tolerance test. Phytochemical screening of the extract for the presence of secondary metabolites was performed with standard methods. The extract showed a significant (p<0.05 reduction in blood glucose levels at 2h and 6h compared to control. The oral glucose tolerance test result also showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels . The study showed that the extract, Uveria chamae has hypoglycaemic properties which may be accounted for by the presence of the phytochemicals.

  16. Glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of selected Pakistani potato cultivars and their dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Asghar, Ali; Yasin, Muhammad; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) are naturally occurring toxic compounds in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) that cause acute intoxication in humans after their consumption. Present research was conducted to evaluate α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions by high-performance liquid chromatography method in selected Pakistani potato cultivars. The α-solanine content varies 45.98 ± 1.63 to 2742.60 ± 92.97 mg/100 g of dry weight (DW) in peel and from 4.01 ± 0.14 to 2466.56 ± 87.21 mg/100 g of DW in flesh. Similarly, α-chaconine content varied from 4.42 ± 0.16 to 6818.40 ± 211.07 mg/100 g of DW in potato peel and from 3.94 ± 0.14 to 475.33 ± 16.81 mg/100 g DW in flesh portion. The TGA concentration varied from 177.20 ± 6.26 to 5449.90 ± 192.68 mg/100 g of DW in peel and from 3.08 ± 0.11 to 14.69 ± 0.52 mg/100 g of DW in flesh portion of all the potato cultivars tested. All the potato cultivars contained lower concentration of TGA than the limits recommended as safe, except 2 cultivars, that is FD8-3 (2539.18 ± 89.77 mg/100 g of DW) and Cardinal (506.16 ± 17.90 mg/kg). The dietary intake assessment of potato cultivars revealed that Cardinal, FD 35-36, FD 8-3, and FD 3-9 contained higher amount of TGA in whole potato, although FD 8-3 only possessed higher content of TGA (154.93 ± 7.75) in its flesh portion rendering it unfit for human consumption. Practical Application:  This paper was based on the research conducted on toxic compounds present in all possible potato cultivars in Pakistan. Actually, we quantify the toxic compounds (glycoalkaloids) of potato cultivars through HPLC and their dietary assessment. This paper revealed safety assessment and their application in food industries especially potato processing. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals: Epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena Ruiz, Raúl; Salinas Hernández, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer. A search for relevant articles was conducted in EMBASE and PubMed-NCBI through to May 2016 to identify potential interactions between the consumption or use of phytochemicals and cancer risk. The use or consumption of carotenoids, such as lycopene, alpha-carotene, and betacarotene, leads to a reduction in the risk of cancer, such as breast and prostate tumours. For breast cancer, beta-carotene even reduces the risk of recurrence. The use or consumption of soybean isoflavones has led to a reduction in the risk of lung, prostate, colon (in women only), and breast cancers, although this has depended on menopausal and oestrogen receptor status. The use or consumption of isothiocyanates and indole-3-carbinol also seems to reduce the risk of cancer, such as breast, stomach, colorectal, or prostate tumours. The adoption of a diet rich in phytochemicals is associated with a modification of cancer risk. However, the scientific data supporting its use come mainly from in vitro and in vivo studies (especially in animal models). The epidemiological evidence is inconclusive for many of these phytochemicals, so further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemicals as Adjunctive with Conventional Anticancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is defined as the abnormal proliferations of cells which could occur in any tissue and can cause life-threatening malignancies with high financial costs for both patients and health care system. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are shown to have positive role in various diseases and conditions. The aim of the present study is to summarize clinical evidences on the benefits of phytochemicals as adjuvant therapy along with conventional anticancer therapies. Electronic databases including Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library were searched with the keywords "chemotherapeutic", "anticancer", "antineoplastic" or "radiotherapy" with "plant", "extract", "herb", or "phytochemical", until July 2015. Only clinical studies were included in this review. The findings showed that positive effects of phytochemicals are due to their direct anticarcinogenic activity, induction of relief in cancer complications, as well as their protective role against side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Results obtained from current review demonstrated that numerous phytochemical agents from different chemical categories including alkaloid, benzopyran, coumarin, carotenoid, diarylheptanoid, flavonoid, indole, polysaccharide, protein, stilbene, terpene, and xanthonoid possess therapeutic effect in patients with different types of cancer. Polyphenols are the most studied components. Curcumin, ginsenosides, lycopene, homoharringtonine, aviscumine, and resveratrol are amongst the major components with remarkable volumes of clinical evidence indicating their direct anticancer activities in different types of cancer including hepatocarcinoma, prostate cancer, leukemia and lymphoma, breast and ovarian cancer, and gastrointestinal cancers. Cannabinoids, cumarin, curcumin, ginsenosides, epigallocatechin gallate, vitexin, and salidroside are phytochemicals with significant alleviative effect on synthetic chemotherapy- induced toxicities. There is lack of evidence from clinical

  19. Neurohormetic Phytochemicals: An Evolutionary - Bioenergetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by ‘neurohormetic phytochemicals’ (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  20. Age Related Assessment of Sugar and Protein Intake of Ceratitis capitata in ad libitum Conditions and Modeling Its Relation to Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos A. Kouloussis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the inquiry on the age related dietary assessment of an organism, knowledge of the distributional patterns of food intake throughout the entire life span is very important, however, age related nutritional studies often lack robust feeding quantification methods due to their limitations in obtaining short-term food-intake measurements. In this study, we developed and standardized a capillary method allowing precise life-time measurements of food consumption by individual adult medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae, under laboratory conditions. Protein or sugar solutions were offered via capillaries to individual adults for a 5 h interval daily and their consumption was measured, while individuals had lifetime ad libitum access to sugar or protein, respectively, in solid form. Daily egg production was also measured. The multivariate data-set (i.e., the age-dependent variations in the amount of sugar and protein ingestion and their relation to egg production was analyzed using event history charts and 3D interpolation models. Maximum sugar intake was recorded early in adult life; afterwards, ingestion progressively dropped. On the other hand, maximum levels of protein intake were observed at mid-ages; consumption during early and late adult ages was kept at constant levels. During the first 30 days of age, type of diet and sex significantly contributed to the observed difference in diet intake while number of laid eggs varied independently. Male and female adult longevity was differentially affected by diet: protein ingestion extended the lifespan, especially, of males. Smooth surface models revealed a significant relationship between the age dependent dietary intake and reproduction. Both sugar and protein related egg-production have a bell-shaped relationship, and the association between protein and egg-production is better described by a 3D Lorenzian function. Additionally, the proposed 3D interpolation models produced good

  1. Integrated assessment of infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants and mercury via dietary intake in a central western Mediterranean site (Menorca Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqué, Eva; Garí, Mercè; Arce, Anna; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O

    2017-07-01

    In this research the levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and mercury (Hg) in several food items from Menorca Island were presented. The dietary exposure assessment was performed in children population from the island. Finally, body burden of OCs and Hg in these infants were associated with their dietary intakes of the selected food items. The dietary exposure to persistent pollutants by children population from Menorca Island was assessed. The concentrations of 11 organochlorine pesticides, 6 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs) and 1 inorganic toxic element, Hg, were determined in 46 food samples that included fish, shellfish, meat, fruit, vegetables, cheese and eggs, which were acquired in local markets and department stores in the Menorca Island. The most contaminated food items were fish and shellfish, followed by meat and cheese products. OC levels were similar or lower than in other previous studies. However, 66% of the analysed fish and shellfish species for Hg exceeded the human consumption safety limits according to the European Union Legislation. Pollutant data from food was combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these contaminants. According to our results, fish and fruit were the main sources of OCs to the EDIs (contributing to 37% and 29%, respectively) while fish and shellfish were the main sources of Hg (76% and 17%). The estimated EDIs of OCs were well below to the reported FAO/WHO Tolerable Intakes. However, estimated weekly intake of Hg would exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake indicated by EFSA in the case that the only fish and seafood source would be from the central western Mediterranean. Direct associations between fish/shellfish consumption and hair concentrations of Hg and fish and meat consumption and 4,4'-DDT concentrations in venous serum in the Menorcan children were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  3. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-02

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  4. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Briggs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035 was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ. Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012 and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016 elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  5. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  6. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...... and absorption. Associated with the DF matrix of cereals is an array of nonnutritive constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Among them, the phenolic phytochemicals, benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans, are of importance in a nutritional-health perspective. Only a small...

  7. Reproducibility and validity of an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of urban adults in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, V; Radhika, G; Sathya, R M; Ganesan, A; Mohan, V

    2006-01-01

    We report on the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for southern India. One hundred and two adult subjects aged > or =20 years drawn from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study participated. The FFQ was developed based on local foods and habits, and was administered three times at 0, 6 and 12 month periods (called FFQ1, FFQ2 and FFQ3) to assess the reproducibility. To test the validity of the FFQ, multiple 24-h recalls collected at 2-monthly intervals for a period of 1 year and the estimated energy intake/basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) ratio were used. The 'EpiNu' in-house food and nutrient database was used to compile dietary intakes, which were analyzed for statistical analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient for all three FFQs ranged from 0.72 for carbohydrates to 0.45 for folate. The de-attenuated Pearson correlation for the energy adjusted nutrients between FFQ3 and 24-h recalls ranged from 0.73 for carbohydrates to 0.35 for calcium. Bland and Altman plots for energy intake between the two methods showed the limits of agreement ranged from 768 to -1358 calories/day (+/-2 standard deviations). Misclassification was low for most of the nutrients. Under-reporting of the energy intake (EI/BMR ratioIndia.

  8. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  9. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Neelakantan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%. The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  10. Use of sexual risk assessment and feedback at intake to promote counselor awareness of subsequent client risk behavior during early treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Sexual risk is an important, oft-neglected area in addiction treatment. This report examines computerized sexual risk assessment and client feedback at intake as means of enhancing counselor awareness of client risk behavior during early treatment, as well as any clinical impact of that counselor awareness. In 2009-2011, new clients at both opiate treatment and drug-free treatment programs endorsed in a computer-assisted assessment at intake 90-day retrospective indices for: being sexually active, having multiple partners, having sex under drug influence, and inconsistently using condoms. Clients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive or not receive a personal feedback report, and those receiving a report chose if a counselor copy was also distributed. Ninety days later, retained clients (N = 79) repeated the assessment and their counselors concurrently reported perceptions of recent client risk behavior. Based on client reports, pretreatment risk behaviors were prevalent among men and women and remained so during treatment. A general linear model revealed greater counselor awareness of subsequent client risk behavior with mutual distribution of intake feedback reports to client and counselor, and at the opiate treatment program. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that counselor awareness did not predict change in temporally stable patterns of sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Findings document that computerized intake assessment of sexual risk and mutually distributed feedback reports prompt greater counselor awareness of clients' subsequent risk behavior. Future research is needed to determine how best to prepare counselors to use such awareness to effectively prompt risk reduction in routine care.

  11. Within-country variation of salt intake assessed via urinary excretion in Japan: a multilevel analysis in all 47 prefectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Salt intake in Japan remains high; therefore, exploring within-country variation in salt intake and its cause is an important step in the establishment of salt reduction strategies. However, no nationwide evaluation of this variation has been conducted by urinalysis. We aimed to clarify whether within-country variation in salt intake exists in Japan after adjusting for individual characteristics. Healthy men (n=1027) and women (n=1046) aged 20-69 years were recruited from all 47 prefectures of Japan. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretion was estimated using three spot urine samples collected on three nonconsecutive days. The study area was categorized into 12 regions defined by the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan. Within-country variation in sodium excretion was estimated as a population (region)-level variance using a multilevel model with random intercepts, with adjustment for individual biological, socioeconomic and dietary characteristics. Estimated 24 h sodium excretion was 204.8 mmol per day in men and 155.7 mmol per day in women. Sodium excretion was high in the Northeastern region. However, population-level variance was extremely small after adjusting for individual characteristics (0.8 and 2% of overall variance in men and women, respectively) compared with individual-level variance (99.2 and 98% of overall variance in men and women, respectively). Among individual characteristics, greater body mass index, living with a spouse and high miso-soup intake were associated with high sodium excretion in both sexes. Within-country variation in salt intake in Japan was extremely small compared with individual-level variation. Salt reduction strategies for Japan should be comprehensive and should not address the small within-country differences in intake.

  12. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  13. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  14. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  15. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Musa-Veloso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S. and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI. To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+, gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3% and older female adults (11.1%. Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  16. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang

    2016-08-17

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  17. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aphania senegalensis (Sapindaceae) is commonly used in Senegalese traditional medicine to treat pain, inflammation, asthenia, bacterial and fungal infections. The aim of this study was to determine the type of phytochemical constituents present in the ethanol leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity against ...

  18. Phytochemical and cytotoxic analysis of Pharthenium hysterophosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to investigate the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic capacity of methanolic and n-hexane extract of P. hysterophorus. Quantitative analysis of P. hysterophorus showed maximum quantity of flavonoids in methanolic extract of P. hysterophorus which turned down gradually in n-hexane ...

  19. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Commiphora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts from the stem bark of Commiphora pedunculata, a plant used in Northern Nigeria for the treatment of infectious diseases, were subjected to phytochemical as well as antimicrobial screening using standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, S. typhii, E. coli and C. albicans was ...

  20. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of commiphora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. The extracts from the stem bark of Commiphora pedunculata, a plant used in Northern Nigeria for the treatment of infectious diseases, were subjected to phytochemical as well as antimicrobial screening using standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, S. typhii ...

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  2. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  3. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the fruit (edible mesocarp) of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., a popular plant from Sudan, widely employed in Sudanese folk medicine was screened for antimicrobial, antioxidant and some active phytochemical compounds. The extract showed the presence of saponin, terpenoids, phenolic ...

  4. Biological and phytochemical investigations of extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso's folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and ...

  5. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of gynandropsis gynandra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaves and stems of Gynandropsis gynandra L. (Briq.) and Buchholzia coriaceae Engl. (A. Chev.) were screened phytochemically for the presence of secondary metabolites and for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties respectively. The main secondary metabolites indicated in both plants were alkaloids, ...

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Missoun F

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... antibacterial activities of different extracts of Pistacia lentiscus on two pathogenic bacteria. ... Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus; Phytochemicals; total phenol; Flavonoids; Antibacterial activity. .... The use of methanol like solvent permits the extraction of phenolic compounds from the leaf and stem of. P. lentiscus.

  7. Phytochemical screening of rubberwood " Hevea brasiliensis " and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of rubberwood " Hevea brasiliensis " and the fuel wood impact on the organoleptic and keeping qualities of smoke- dried Nile tilapia. ... Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts were used as solvents for the extraction of the wood parts and standard procedures were employed to ...

  8. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Aqueous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Annona senegalensis possess phytochemicals with activities against Shigella flexineri a human intestinal pathogen which causes dysentery and Pseudomonas aeruginosa an opportunistic human pathogen which causes all kinds of infections including urinary tract, ...

  9. Growth, phytochemicals and antifungal activity of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of water stress on the growth, concentration of phytochemicals and antifungal potency of Bryophyllum pinnatum L. was investigated. Three weeks old seedlings were subjected to 3, 7 and 10 days water deficit regimes and a control (watered daily). Plant height, number of leaves, whole plant dry weight, net ...

  10. Growth, phytochemicals and antifungal activity of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... The impact of water stress on the growth, concentration of phytochemicals and antifungal potency of. Bryophyllum pinnatum L. was investigated. Three weeks old seedlings were subjected to 3, 7 and 10 days water deficit regimes and a control (watered daily). Plant height, number of leaves, whole plant dry.

  11. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR J.O. OLAYEMI

    1Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Accepted 15 September, 2011. Extracts of leaves, stem bark, roots and fruits of Solanum macranthum Dunal were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of ...

  12. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daphne mucronata is a shrub well known as a medicinal plant in different regions of Asia. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have revealed strong anti-cancer potential of the plant. Literature reports the evaluation of the initial bioactivity profile and extraction of the plant followed by different ...

  13. Phytochemical composition, total phenolic content and ferric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the TPC and FRAP assays were conducted at varying concentrations of the extracts using garlic and ascorbic acid as standards respectively. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and glycosides in varying proportions. The TPC is expressed as garlic ...

  14. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Medicinal plants contain bioactive compounds capable of preventing and fighting oxidative related diseases. These compounds must be screened and assayed before effective drugs are developed. Thus, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanol stem extracts of ...

  15. Analysis of preliminary phytochemical screening of Typhonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9 (11), pp. 1655-1657, 15 March, 2010. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals. Short Communication. Analysis of preliminary phytochemical screening of. Typhonium flagelliforme. Nobakht, G. M.1*, Kadir, M. A.1 and ...

  16. Determination of Phytochemical Compounds, and Tyrosinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This is the first report of the biological activities and phytochemical composition of S. ilicifolius and the results indicate the high potentials of the plant for commercial applications such as in facial whitening and anti-acne cream. Keywords: Streblus ilicifolius, Moraceae, Tyrosinase inhibition, Antimicrobial, ...

  17. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR J.O. OLAYEMI

    Key words: Solanum macranthum, Solanaceae, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening. INTRODUCTION. Solanum species (family: Solanaceae) comprises of. 1,700 species which are commonly found in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Solanum macranthum Dunal (Syn. Solanum wrightii Benth) or.

  18. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, phenolics, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Qualitatively screening for free radical scavenging compounds using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) was carried ...

  19. Analysis of preliminary phytochemical screening of Typhonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Analysis of preliminary phytochemical screening of. Typhonium flagelliforme. Nobakht, G. M.1*, Kadir, M. A.1 and Stanslas, J.2. 1Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor. Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of ...

  20. Phytochemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work evaluated the behavioral and toxicological effects and its consequences on hematological parameters and the phytochemical analysis of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies were done on Wistar albino mice and rats for 14 days and 28 days respectively. Hematological parameters of the ...

  1. Phytochemical Studies And Antimicrobial Properties Of Methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and methanolic extracts showed no activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans Phytochemical screening showed that five active ingredients namely alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and phlobatannins were present in both aqueous and methanolic solvents. KEYWORDS: Lemon ...

  2. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  3. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three medicinal plants, Erythrina excelsa, Phytolacca dodecandra and Cucumis aculeatus, collected from Siaya and Migori District in Kenya, were screened for the presence of phytochemicals. These plants have diverse compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids and flavonoids, whereby the ...

  4. Phytochemical screening and promiximate composition and onion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical constituents and proximate composition of onion (Allium cepa L. ) were investigated. The light scaly leaves on the onion bulbs were removed and the fleshy parts chopped into tiny pieces, dried in an air-circulating oven in the laboratory and ground into fine powder using a mechanical grinder.

  5. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Comparative study on antibacterial activity of Terminalia- catappa on Multiresistant strains. 5040. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and barks of Terminalia catappa on multiresistant strains. Rubens Dinzedi Mbengui1, 2, ...

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The crude methanol extracts showed growth inhibitory effects on Salmonella ...

  7. Phytochemical and biological characterization of Periploca aphyla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.R Ali Khan

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... designed to investigate the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic capacity of methanolic and n- hexane extract of P. hysterophorus. Quantitative analysis of P. hysterophorus showed maximum quantity of flavonoids in methanolic extract of P. hysterophorus which turned down gradually in n- hexane extract ...

  8. Phytochemical and biological investigations of Atriplix semibacatar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and biological investigations of Atriplix semibacatar Br. growing in Egypt. ... Abstract. The lipid content of Atriplex semibacata growing in Egypt was studied. The unsaponifiable ... The alcohol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against G-ve bacteria, moderate activity against G+ve bacteria. On the ...

  9. Phytochemicals for the Management of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Hunt, Katherine Marchiony; Diamond, Ariana; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma claims approximately 80% of skin cancer-related deaths. Its life-threatening nature is primarily due to a propensity to metastasize. The prognosis for melanoma patients with distal metastasis is bleak, with median survival of six months even with the latest available treatments. The most commonly mutated oncogenes in melanoma are BRAF and NRAS accounting approximately 60% and 20% of cases, respectively. In malignant melanoma, accumulating evidence suggests that multiple signaling pathways are constitutively activated and play an important role in cell proliferation, cell survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, metastasis and resistance to therapeutic regimens. Phytochemicals are gaining considerable attention because of their low toxicity, low cost, and public acceptance as dietary supplements. Cell culture and animals studies have elucidated several cellular and molecular mechanisms by which phytochemicals act in the prevention and treatment of metastatic melanoma. Several promising phytochemicals, such as, fisetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, curcumin, proanthocyanidins, silymarin, apigenin, capsaicin, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, and luteolin are gaining considerable attention and found in a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, roots, and herbs. In this review, we will discuss the preventive potential, therapeutic effects, bioavailability and structure activity relationship of these selected phytochemicals for the management of melanoma. PMID:26864554

  10. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on some Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening revealed that all the twenty plants tested negative for anthraquinones while only Acalypha indica gave a positive reaction for cyanogenic glycosides. However, each plant either demonstrated the presence or absence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and flavonoids.

  11. Phytochemical, pharmacological and biological profiles of Tragia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India. Results: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Cucurbita pepo (backpeel and seeds) against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were carried out using standard procedures. The extraction was achieved using percolation method with ethanol and methanol as solvents. Higher yield of the ...

  13. 44 Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Screening of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Abstract. The phytochemistry and antimicrobial effect of the stem, bark and leave of Asparagus flagellaris were studied. The phytochemical screening of the stem, bark and leaves showed appreciable amount of flavonoid and moderate amount of carbohydrate, cardiac glycoside and saponin while reducing sugar, ketones ...

  14. Antibacterial properties and preliminary phytochemical analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Tapinanthus bangwensis leaves were screened for its antibacterial and phytochemical properties on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumonia. The results showed that the extract at varying concentrations has antibacterial activity on ...

  15. Antibacterial activity and screening for phytochemical components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this present study was to determine the phytochemicals and antibacterial activity of Borreria stachydea whole plant using chloroform and methanol as the extracting solvents. The powdered sample was subjected into soxhlet extraction by hot continuous percolation. The extracts were concentrated at 40oC by ...

  16. antibacterial properties and preliminary phytochemical analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    IBDF Ministeroida Agricultura, Riode Janesio, 63pp. Edeoja, O.H., Okwu, E.D. and Mbaebie, O.B. (2005). Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 4(7):685-688. Ekhaise, F.O. and Okoruwa, P. (2001). Antibacterial activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extract on.

  17. Phytochemicals for the Management of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Hunt, Katherine Marchiony; Diamond, Ariana; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma claims approximately 80% of skin cancer-related deaths. Its life-threatening nature is primarily due to a propensity to metastasize. The prognosis for melanoma patients with distal metastasis is bleak, with median survival of six months even with the latest available treatments. The most commonly mutated oncogenes in melanoma are BRAF and NRAS accounting approximately 60% and 20% of cases, respectively. In malignant melanoma, accumulating evidence suggests that multiple signaling pathways are constitutively activated and play an important role in cell proliferation, cell survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, metastasis and resistance to therapeutic regimens. Phytochemicals are gaining considerable attention because of their low toxicity, low cost, and public acceptance as dietary supplements. Cell culture and animals studies have elucidated several cellular and molecular mechanisms by which phytochemicals act in the prevention and treatment of metastatic melanoma. Several promising phytochemicals, such as, fisetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, curcumin, proanthocyanidins, silymarin, apigenin, capsaicin, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, and luteolin are gaining considerable attention and found in a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, roots, and herbs. In this review, we will discuss the preventive potential, therapeutic effects, bioavailability and structure activity relationship of these selected phytochemicals for the management of melanoma.

  18. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Newbouldia laevis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Newbouldia laevis were subjected to ethanolic, hot, and cold aqueous extraction. Standard methods were used for both extraction and phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was done using the modified agar well diffusion method. The extracts (ethanolic, hot, and cold aqueous) ...

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    showed activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi at 500μg/disc, while ethanol and aqueous methanol fractions were active only on Salmonella typhi at concentrations of 300 – 500μg/disc. The present study revealed that the plant extracts contain phytochemicals responsible for the activity against ...

  20. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    -grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...

  1. Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have revealed strong anti-cancer potential of the plant. Literature .... BHA ± 44.0. *SEM = standard error mean taken from triplicate experiments. Literature reveals that the bioactive components from genus Daphne reside in roots, stem or leaves of the plant [21 ...

  2. Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the possible presence of anthraquinones, carbohydrates, deoxy-sugars, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. It can be concluded that pods of C. arereh may contain medicinally relevant constituents such as terpenoids and displayed strong radical scavenging activity, ...

  3. Cytotoxic Activities of Phytochemicals from Ferula Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Mojtaba Valiahdi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Ferula species are reputed in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders. There have been sporadic reports on the chemopreventive and chemosensitizing activities of some terpenoid coumarin derivatives from the genus Ferula. The present study investigated the cytotoxic activity of 11 phytochemicals (conferone, farnesiferol A, acantrifoside E, mogoltadone, diversin, galbanic acid, herniarin, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, umbelliprenin, stylosin and tschimgine from Ferula species together with a newly synthesized prenylated derivative of curcumin (gercumin II.Methods:Cytotoxic activity of phytochemicals was evaluated against ovarian carcinoma (CH1, lung cancer (A549 and melanoma (SK-MEL-28 cell lines using MTT assay.Results and conclusion:Overall, moderate cytotoxic activity was observed from the tested compounds with IC50 values in the micromolar range. The highest activity against CH1 and A549 lines was from conferone while stylosin and tschimgine were the most potent compounds against SK-MEL-28 line. In conclusion, the findings of the present investigation did not support a potent cytotoxic activity of the tested phytochemicals against CH1, A549 and SK-MEL-28 cell lines. With respect to previous reports, the beneficial impact of these phytochemicals in cancer therapy may be more attributable to their chemopreventive or chemosensitizing activity rather than direct cytotoxic effects.

  4. Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaves, stem bark, roots and fruits of Solanum macranthum Dunal were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of plant secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies respectively. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, the ...

  5. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological ... Abstract. Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum ..... PhD thesis. University of the Witwatersrand;. 2007. 8. Moeng TE. An investigation into the trade of medicinal plants by muthi shops and street vendors in the.

  6. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of acetone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of acetone extract of Cleome gynandra (L.) growing in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. ... Conclusion: C. gynandra possesses high secondary metabolites which accounts for its strong antioxidant ability thus justifying its use as natural occurring antioxidants in folkloric ...

  7. Investigation of some important phytochemical, nutritional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pytochemicals, nutritional and toxicological potentials of the ethanol extracts of the leaf and stem of Newbouldia laevis was investigated in this study. The percentage yields of N. laevis ethanol leaf and stem extracts were found to be 7.44 and 3.30% (w/w), respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed ...

  8. Potential benefits of phytochemicals against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Emma L

    2017-05-01

    Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits. The present paper will look at the more benign terpene (such as Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Salvia lavandulaefolia (sage)) and phenolic (such as resveratrol) phytochemicals; arguing that they offer a safer alternative and that, as well as demonstrating efficacy in cholinesterase inhibition, these phytochemicals are able to target other salient systems such as cerebral blood flow, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammation, inhibition of amyloid-β neurotoxicity, glucoregulation and interaction with other neurotransmitters (such as γ-aminobutyric acid) and signalling pathways (e.g. via kinase enzymes).

  9. Phytochemical Characterization And Biochemical Studies Of Cissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of cissus multistriata were collected, air-dried for two weeks and pulverized into powder; this was folowed by extraction with either chloroform or water The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamin C, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, lipids and ...

  10. Antitubercular and Phytochemical Investigation of Methanol Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article. Antitubercular and Phytochemical Investigation of. Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants Used by the. Samburu Community in Kenya. Richard M Mariita. 1. , Callistus KPO Ogol. 2.

  11. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Njogu p m

    Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae). P.M. NJOGU1*, G.N. THOITHI1, J.W. MWANGI2, F.N KAMAU1, I.O. KIBWAGE1, S.T. ..... 371-379. [6] W. Hewitt and S. Vincent, Theory and. Application of Microbiological Assay. Academic Press, London. 1989, p 80-108.

  12. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Cissampelos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and methanol – dichloromethane (1:1) extracts exhibited highest activity. These results lend credence to the use of this plant in traditional medicine in treating bacteria related diseases. Keywords: Garlic; Cissampelos mucronata; Antibacterial activity; Phytochemical screening; Alkaloids. Journal of Pharmacy and ...

  13. Boosting beneficial phytochemicals in vegetable crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants contain an astonishing diversity of biochemical pathways, which eventually result in the production and accumulation of innumerable phytochemical compounds. From an historical point of view, people have primarily selected plants on the basis of traits that are linked to the presence of

  14. Phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activities Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activities Of aqueous leaf extracts of Loranthus micranthus Linn. ... It was observed that tannins and flavonoids were highly present, alkaloids, resins, steroids and saponins were moderately present in the plant extract, while terpenes and glycosides were present in trace ...

  15. Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and manganese. The phytochemical screening of the seed showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, anthraquinones as well as cardiac glycosides while tannins, ...

  16. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  17. Intracellular distribution and biological effects of phytochemicals in a sex steroid- sensitive model of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility and its well-known oncological biomarker, namely Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), can be also used to monitor prostate epithelial human cells upon treatment with pharmaceutical drugs or natural bioactive compounds. The LNCaP human prostate cell line was previously set up as a model system to investigate chemicals affecting prostate epithelium functionality by means of a tiered approach integrating two different toxicological endpoints, cell viability (MTS) and PSA secretion assays. Here, the same approach has been used to characterize the biological effects of phytochemicals on prostate epithelium. The antiandrogenic ability of phytochemicals to inhibit DHT-induced PSA secretion has been investigated also characterizing their intracellular distribution, in the presence or absence of sex steroids. Intracellular distribution allows to verify whether and to which extent each phytochemical is able to enter the cell and to reach the nucleus, the latter being the target of the supposed transcriptional modulatory activity upon phytochemicals' binding to sex steroid receptors. Some phytochemicals, supposed to have a role in the functionality of the prostate epithelium, have been tested in a dose-dependent manner in both MTS and PSA secretion assays. In parallel, to establish the "effective concentration", in comparison to the "nominal one", the intracellular amount of each phytochemical has been assessed upon cell fractionation of LNCaP-treated cells and subsequent chromatographic measurements.

  18. A European carotenoid database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, M.E.; Carroll, Y.; Corridan, B.; Olmedilla, B.; Granado, F.; Blanco, I.; Berg, H. van den; Hininger, I.; Rousell, A.-M.; Chopra, M.; Southon, S.; Thurnham, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid database with information on α- and β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin was prepared and used to compare the carotenoid intakes in five European countries: UK, Republic of Ireland, Spain, France and The Netherlands. Eighty, age- (25-45

  19. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leyvraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes.

  20. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in Australian children aged 9-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, S; Charlton, K; Lyons-Wall, P; Meyer, B J

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in Australian children and to validate the FFQ against a 7-day food diary. The investigation comprised a cross-sectional and validation study. The study setting was two private primary schools in the in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Twenty-two Australian children, aged 9-13 years, who were not on a special diet or receiving medical care that limited their food choice in the 3 months prior to recruitment, were recruited into the study. A total of 131 items, classified according to seven food group categories, was included in the n-3 LCPUFA FFQ, as identified from published dietary surveys and a supermarket survey. Good correlations between the FFQ and the 7-day food diary were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [r = 0.691, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.83, P food diary. However, the mean EPA, DHA and total n-3 LCPUFA intakes estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the average 7-day food diary estimates (P < 0.001). A novel n-3 LCPUFA FFQ that has been developed to estimate dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes in Australian children has been shown to have relative validity. The FFQ provides a useful contribution to dietary assessment methodology in this age group; however, reproducibility remains to be demonstrated. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. An Assessment of the Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake in Young Vietnamese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Berger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Targeted fortification programs for infants and young children are an effective strategy to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, but the role of large-scale fortification of staple foods and condiments is less clear. Dietary modeling in children aged 6–60 months was undertaken, based on food consumption patterns described in the 2009 national food consumption survey, using a 24-h recall method. Consumption data showed that the median intake of a child for iron, vitamin A and zinc, as a proportion of the Vietnamese Recommended Dietary Allowance (VRDA, is respectively 16%–48%, 14%–49% and 36%–46%, (depending on the age group. Potential fortification vehicles, such as rice, fish/soy sauces and vegetable oil are consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 170 g/capita/day, 4 g/capita/day and 6 g/capita/day, respectively by over 40% of the children. Vegetable oil fortification could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 21%–24% of VRDA recommended nutrient intake, while fortified rice could support the intakes of all the other micronutrients (14%–61% for iron, 4%–11% for zinc and 33%–49% of folate requirements. Other food vehicles, such as wheat flour, which is consumed by 16% of children, could also contribute to efforts to increase micronutrient intakes, although little impact on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies can be expected if used alone. The modeling suggests that fortification of vegetable oil, rice and sauces would be an effective strategy to address micronutrient gaps and deficiencies in young children.

  2. An assessment of the impact of fortification of staples and condiments on micronutrient intake in young Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mai, Le Bach; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Panagides, Dora; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-09-01

    Targeted fortification programs for infants and young children are an effective strategy to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, but the role of large-scale fortification of staple foods and condiments is less clear. Dietary modeling in children aged 6-60 months was undertaken, based on food consumption patterns described in the 2009 national food consumption survey, using a 24-h recall method. Consumption data showed that the median intake of a child for iron, vitamin A and zinc, as a proportion of the Vietnamese Recommended Dietary Allowance (VRDA), is respectively 16%-48%, 14%-49% and 36%-46%, (depending on the age group). Potential fortification vehicles, such as rice, fish/soy sauces and vegetable oil are consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 170 g/capita/day, 4 g/capita/day and 6 g/capita/day, respectively) by over 40% of the children. Vegetable oil fortification could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 21%-24% of VRDA recommended nutrient intake, while fortified rice could support the intakes of all the other micronutrients (14%-61% for iron, 4%-11% for zinc and 33%-49% of folate requirements). Other food vehicles, such as wheat flour, which is consumed by 16% of children, could also contribute to efforts to increase micronutrient intakes, although little impact on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies can be expected if used alone. The modeling suggests that fortification of vegetable oil, rice and sauces would be an effective strategy to address micronutrient gaps and deficiencies in young children.

  3. Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status of children and adolescents residing in selected Polish orphanages based on their energy intake and physical activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kopeć, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Actions to the prevention of overweight and obesity should be first addressed to the youngest population and their parents, guardians as well as teachers. The major objectives of prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity programme should be focused on modification of nutritional habits and promotion of physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status, intake of energy and macronutrients as well as the physical activity of students from orphanages in Krakow. Study was performed in 5 orphanages located in Krakow (Poland), which were under control of Social Welfare Centre in Krakow. The study involved 153 students, 67 girls and 86 boys, aged from 7 to 20 years. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. The protein and total fat content in diets was measured by chemical analyses and carbohydrates were calculated by difference. Physical activity level of children and adolescents was assessed by questionnaire. Over 80% of boys and about 90% of girls had a normal body mass. Students have spent their free time on additional physical activity from 1h 34 min/day to 5 h 12 min/day. They also have spent their free time on sedentary activities on average 4 h/day. Daily diets of students did not met recommendations for energy, carbohydrates and fats. Intake of protein was too high and exceeded the estimated average requirement even over three times. Despite the insufficient intake of fat and carbohydrates, students generally showed a proper BMI value. This suggests that excess intake of protein was used for maturation process and was additional source of energy. Reported additional physical activity was satisfactory.

  4. Comparative validity of the ASSO-Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO-FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO-FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. The validation study compared the ASSO-FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO-FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14-17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy), completed the ASSO-FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc), kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland-Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. High cc (≥0.40) were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25-0.40) for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks) to 100% (dried fruit); for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin) to 77% (lactose). Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups' intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The ASSO-FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the assessment of dietary consumption in adolescents to adequately rank food, energy and nutrient intakes

  5. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  6. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on 'Star Ruby' grapefruit phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka R; Jayaprakasha, G K; Porat, Ron; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-01-28

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can extend the shelf life of salads, vegetables, and fruits by generating a storage environment with low O2, high CO2, and high humidity. The current study investigates the effect of modified atmosphere and humidity generated by two plastic films, microperforated bags (MIPBs) and macroperforated bags (MAPBs), on the levels of phytochemicals present in 'Star Ruby' grapefruits (Citrus paradisi, Macf.) stored for 16 weeks at 10 °C. Control fruits were stored without any packaging film. Juice samples were analyzed every 4 weeks for ascorbic acid, carotenoids, limonoids, flavonoids, and furocoumarins and assessed for quality parameters. MAP significantly reduced weight loss compared to control grapefruits. Control fruits had more β-carotene, lycopene, and furocoumarin compared with the fruits in MAP. Flavonoid content was highest in fruits stored in MAPB (P 0.05). The MAP treatments did not significantly affect ascorbic acid, limonoids, or fruit quality parameters, including total soluble solids, acidity, ripening ratio, decay and disorders, fruit taste, and off-flavors after 16 weeks of storage. These results suggest that MAP can be used to maintain the quality of 'Star Ruby' grapefruit with no detrimental effect on health-promoting phytochemicals.

  7. Mining Twitter as a First Step toward Assessing the Adequacy of Gender Identification Terms on Intake Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Amanda; Hogan, William R; Rutherford, Michael; Malin, Bradley; Xie, Mengjun; Fellbaum, Christiane; Yin, Zhijun; Fabbri, Daniel; Hanna, Josh; Bian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends that health care providers collect data on gender identity. If these data are to be useful, they should utilize terms that characterize gender identity in a manner that is 1) sensitive to transgender and gender non-binary individuals (trans* people) and 2) semantically structured to render associated data meaningful to the health care professionals. We developed a set of tools and approaches for analyzing Twitter data as a basis for generating hypotheses on language used to identify gender and discuss gender-related issues across regions and population groups. We offer sample hypotheses regarding regional variations in the usage of certain terms such as 'genderqueer', 'genderfluid', and 'neutrois' and their usefulness as terms on intake forms. While these hypotheses cannot be directly validated with Twitter data alone, our data and tools help to formulate testable hypotheses and design future studies regarding the adequacy of gender identification terms on intake forms.

  8. Assessment of Habitual Diners Nutrient Intake in a Military-Operated Garrison Dining Facility Fort Devens 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    not available at Ft. Riley. Skim milk was available at every meal at Ft. Lewis. Whole milk and buttermilk were not served in any of the dining...Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture . DHHS Publication No (PHS) 86-1255 (1986). 15. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey...Continuing Survey of Food Intakes By Individuals: Min 19-50 years. I Day, 1985. U.S. Department of Agriculture , NFCS. CSFII Report No. 85.3. (1986). 30

  9. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Steyn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process.

  10. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-08-19

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6-15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process.

  11. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  12. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-02-26

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population.

  13. Nitrate in drinking water and vegetables: intake and risk assessment in rural and urban areas of Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav

    2017-06-06

    The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk. The mean nitrate concentration of 59 drinking water samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards limit of 45 mg/L in drinking water. The rural and urban areas were found to have mean nitrate concentration in drinking water as 45.69 ± 2.08 and 22.53 ± 1.97 mg/L, respectively. The estimated daily intake of drinking water samples from 55 study sites had nitrate concentration far below the safety margin indicating serious health risk. The sanitation survey conducted in 12 households reported contaminated source with positive E. coli count in 20 samples as the major factor of health risk. The average nitrate concentration was maximum in beetroot (1349.38 mg/kg) followed by spinach (1288.75 mg/kg) and amaranthus (1007.64 mg/kg). Among the samples, four varieties of the vegetables exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) with an assumption of 0.5 kg consumption of vegetables for an average of a 60-kg individual. Therefore, irrigation of these locally grown vegetables should be monitored periodically for nitrogen accumulation by the crop above the ADI limit. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers should also be minimized in the rural areas to help protect the nitrate contamination in groundwater sources.

  14. Swallowing difficulties with medication intake assessed with a novel self-report questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis – a cross-sectional population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messerli M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Messerli,1,2 Rebecca Aschwanden,1 Michael Buslau,2 Kurt E Hersberger,1 Isabelle Arnet1 1Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2European Centre for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma, Reha Rheinfelden, Rheinfelden, Switzerland Objectives: To assess subjective swallowing difficulties (SD with medication intake and their practical consequences in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc with a novel self-report questionnaire.Design and setting: Based on a systematic literature review, we developed a self-report questionnaire and got it approved by an expert panel. Subsequently, we sent the questionnaire by post mail to SSc patients of the European Center for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma Rheinfelden, Switzerland.Participants: Patients were eligible if they were diagnosed with SSc, treated at the center, and were of age ≥18 years at the study start.Main outcome measures: Prevalence and pattern of SD with oral medication intake, including localization and intensity of complaints.Results: The questionnaire consisted of 30 items divided into five sections Complaints, Intensity, Localization, Coping strategies, and Adherence. Of the 64 SSc patients eligible in 2014, 43 (67% returned the questionnaire. Twenty patients reported SD with medication intake (prevalence 47%, either currently (11; 26% or in the past that had been overcome (9; 21%. Self-reported SD were localized mostly in the larynx (43% and esophagus (34%. They were of moderate (45% or strong to unbearable intensity (25%. Modification of the dosage form was reported in 40% of cases with SD. Adherence was poor for 20 (47% patients and was not associated with SD (p=0.148.Conclusion: Our novel self-report questionnaire is able to assess the pattern of complaints linked to medication intake, that is, localization and intensity. It may serve as a guide for health care professionals in selecting the most

  15. Validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire Assessing the Folate Intake in Women of Reproductive Age Living in a Country without Food Fortification: Application of the Method of Triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Zekovic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the external validity of the Folate Food Frequency Questionnaire (F-FFQ designed for assessing the folate intake in Serbian women of reproductive age. The F-FFQ was tested against repeated 24 h dietary recalls and correspondent nutritional biomarkers (red blood cells (RBC and serum folate concentrations using the method of triads. In a cross sectional study, 503 women aged 18–49 years completed dietary questionnaires and representative validation subsample (n = 50 provided fasting blood samples for biomarker analyses. Correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the dietary methods and three pair-wise correlations were applied for the calculation of validity coefficients. Correlation coefficients observed between F-FFQ and three 24 h recalls were r = 0.56 (p < 0.001 and r = 0.57 (p < 0.001 for total sample and validation group, respectively. Bland–Altman plot and cross-classification analyses indicated good agreement between methods. High validity coefficients were determined between the true intake (I and dietary assessment methods, F-FFQ (Q and 24 h dietary recalls (R (ρQIrbc = 0.871 and ρQIser = 0.814; ρRIrbc = 0.652 and ρRIser = 0.698, and moderate ones for biomarkers (B (ρBIrbc = 0.428 and ρBIser = 0.421. The F-FFQ is valid instrument for the assessment of dietary folate intake in women living in Serbia, a country without mandatory folic acid food fortification.

  16. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination From Intakes of Radionuclides Part I: Field Tests and Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Erdman, Michael C; Ansari, Armin

    2016-06-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in the dispersion of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure photon radiation from radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for further assessments. Computer simulations and experimental measurements are required for these instruments to be used for assessing intakes of radionuclides. Count rates from calibrated sources of Co, Cs, and Am were measured on three instruments: a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal, a thyroid probe using a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal, and a portal monitor incorporating two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators. Computer models of the instruments and of the calibration sources were constructed, using engineering drawings and other data provided by the manufacturers. Count rates on the instruments were simulated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. The computer simulations were within 16% of the measured count rates for all 20 measurements without using empirical radionuclide-dependent scaling factors, as reported by others. The weighted root-mean-square deviations (differences between measured and simulated count rates, added in quadrature and weighted by the variance of the difference) were 10.9% for the survey meter, 4.2% for the thyroid probe, and 0.9% for the portal monitor. These results validate earlier MCNPX models of these instruments that were used to develop calibration factors that enable these instruments to be used for assessing intakes and committed doses from several gamma-emitting radionuclides.

  17. Phytochemicals in the treatment of hyperpigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark AK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ashley K Clark,1 Raja K Sivamani2 1University of California, Davis School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California – Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: Treating hyperpigmentation can be challenging and an expanded arsenal is needed to aid in the improvement of topical treatments. The current gold standard treatment is hydroquinone. However, it has been associated with a number of adverse effects, including skin irritation, contact dermatitis, and exogenous ochronosis in people of darker complexion. Cosmeceuticals are topical cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids containing biologically active ingredients that may improve the appearance of skin and are increasingly popular alternatives to standard agents. Among cosmeceuticals, plant derived compounds, known as phytochemicals, have been shown to have a multitude of cellular actions for various dermatological diseases. This review examines the latest clinical studies using plant-derived compounds and their effectiveness in the management of hyperpigmentation disorders. Keywords: phytochemicals, botanical, hyperpigmentation, melasma, lentigines

  18. Hydnocarpus: an ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; Dhanabal, S P; Jadhav, Atul N; Reddy, Vishali; Muguli, Ganesh; Babu, U V; Rangesh, Paramesh

    2014-05-28

    The genus Hydnocarpus (Flacourtiaceae) includes forty species that are spread across the globe. In the Indian System of Medicine, Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken. is primarily used for treating leprosy and other skin disorders. It is known as "Chaulmoogra" and is also used to treat other indications including constipation, inflammation, blood disorders, and worm infestations. Various species of Hydnocarpus are also used in traditional medicine in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar for several skin disorders. To assess the therapeutic potential of species from the Hydnocarpus genus and to determine future avenues for research. All relevant scientific literature published up to the end of December 2013 was retrieved via a library and electronic search (SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar). Manual searches of traditional books like to ancient classics, including Vaidya Yoga Ratnavali, Siddha Materia Medica, and contemporary references including The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and The Ayurveda Formulary, were also performed. Seed oil from species of the Hydnocarpus genus is used for medicinal purposes, predominantly for various skin disorders. This oil is reported to contain a characteristic class of compounds known as cyclopentenyl fatty acids. Furthermore, seeds of this genus are reported to contain triglycerides of fatty acids, sterols, flavonoids, and flavonolignans. Hydnocarpin, a flavonolignan, is reported to potentiate antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The extracts and compounds isolated from this plant show a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including antibacterial, antileprotic, antitubercular, antipsoriatic, antirheumatic, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. The antileprotic activity is postulated to be due to the cyclopentenyl fatty acids present in the seed oil. Flavonolignans have an interesting chemical motif, and hydnocarpin and its congeners should be

  19. Phytochemical characterization of Rhodiola heterodonta dry extract

    OpenAIRE

    YUNUSKHODJAEV AKHMAD; ISKANDAROVA SHAKHISTA

    2015-01-01

    The Rhodiola heterodonta 75% ethanolic extract was dried and dry substrate chemical constituents were characterized. Identification of main phytochemicals in dry extrac carried out using Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC system equipped with triple quadrupole mass-detector 6420. The phenylethanoids rosavin, rosarin, salidroside, tyrosol, heterodontoside, viridoside and mongrhoside as a compounds stipulating pharmacological activities, on a level with epigallocatechin-gallate and rhodiocyanoside A we...

  20. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  1. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  2. Phytochemical constituents and nutritional evaluation of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the bioactive phytochemical and nutritional compositions of Hibiscus rosasinensis, Moringa oleifera and Musa paradisiaca flowers collected ... values ranging from 49.01 to 61.11, crude protein 1.90 - 3.07, crude fiber 17.27 - 29.00, ash 1.89 - 3.34, crude fat 3.36 - 5.60 and moisture content 12.37 - 13.66.

  3. FUNCTIONAL FOODS OR PHYTOCHEMICALS, CLASSIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquibol S., Nancy; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Lengua C., Laura; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Delmás, Inés; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rivera C., Dolores; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Bazán, Dora; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Aguirre M., Rosa; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Bravo A., Martha; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We described the benefits of funtional or phytochemicals foods in disease prevention and health promotion. This article is a contribution for the development of this new research area. Los alimentos funcionales o fitoquímicos tienen diversos beneficios en la prevención de enfermedades y contribuyen a reducir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Se presenta el siguiente articulo como conttibución para el desarrollo de esta nueva área de investigación.

  4. Digital food photography technology improves efficiency and feasibility of dietary intake assessments in large populations eating ad libitum in collective dining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Champagne, Catherine M; Allen, H Raymond; McGraw, Susan M; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Crombie, Aaron P

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). During this high-intensity six-week course, Soldiers complete simulated operational missions, perform various military tasks, and importantly, eating time is severely limited. Therefore, this study provided an opportunity to evaluate the utility of DFP methods for accurate assessment of energy balance in conditions where consumption of large numbers of subjects must be completed in a very short periods of time (≤20 min). NI of 131 male, enlisted Soldiers (21 ± 4 years, 178±7 cm, and 78±8 kg) enrolled in the RASP course was assessed in their garrison dining facility using DFP utilizing visual estimation of pre- and post-meal photos of participant meals concurrently with photos of weighed, standardized portions. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly-labeled water ( 2 H 2 18 O) in a sub-group of 19 volunteers. During the study, data loss (i.e., missing meal photos) was less than 5% per meal, and during the visual estimation process discrepancies in food identification averaged less than 10% per meal, while approximately a third of serving size estimations required a third party adjudication prior to finalization and calculation NI. We conclude that the use of DFP allows an adequately reliable approach for quantifying NI in real-world scenarios involving large numbers of participants who must be assessed very rapidly, and researchers must have a small footprint. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Chemical Compound, Phytochemical and Toxicity on Green Rough-backed Puffer from Cirebon District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginanjar Pratama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This aims of study was to assess yield, nutrient content and in vitro assay of extract on green rough-backed puffer from Cirebon district. The method used in this study was the proximate analysis, phytochemicals, and BSLT test of extracts on three parts of puffer fish (meat, viscera and skin. Puffer fish used measure around 10-13 cm. The yield obtained was meat 37.80%, bone 45.71%, viscera 7.25% and skin 9.23%. Protein content showed greatest potential, protein in the fish meat was 18.54% while the skin was 25.31%. Phytochemical test showed the entire extract has a positive value for alkaloids and have a negative value on the other reagents, except meat extract on molisch test. Phytochemical test results indicated that the meat of green rough-backed puffer contain tetrodotoxin, but the amount was unknown. LC50 values in meat extract was 104.3498μg/mL, extract the viscera of 105.4564μg/mL, and the skin extract was 104.9637μg/mL. These results showed that the extract of meat, viscera and skin of the puffer fish is not toxic, although there are indications of tetrodotoxin in the flesh.Keywords: extracts, phytochemical, green rough-backed puffer, nutrient content

  6. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica K; Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Lindshield, Brian L; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2004-12-01

    Mounting evidence over the past decade suggests that the consumption of fresh and processed tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The emerging hypothesis is that lycopene, the primary red carotenoid in tomatoes, may be the principle phytochemical responsible for this reduction in risk. A number of potential mechanisms by which lycopene may act have emerged, including serving as an important in vivo antioxidant, enhancing cell-to-cell communication via increasing gap junctions between cells, and modulating cell-cycle progression. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C, and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, which also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Tomatoes also contain significant quantities of potassium, as well as some vitamin A and vitamin E. Our laboratory has been interested in identifying specific components or combination of components in tomatoes that are responsible for reducing prostate cancer risk. We carried out cell culture trials to evaluate the effects of tomato carotenoids and tomato polyphenols on growth of prostate cancer cells. We also evaluated the ability of freeze-dried whole-tomato powder or lycopene alone to reduce growth of prostate tumors in rats. This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence, evaluating the relationship between prostate cancer risk and tomato consumption, and presents experimental data from this and other laboratories that support the hypothesis that whole tomato and its phytochemical components reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ACORUS CALAMUS AND LANTANA CAMARA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Mamta; Saxena Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Acorus calamus and Lantana camara is an important medicinal plants with several ethnomedicinal properties. In this study plants Acorus calamus and Lantana camara were screened for the presence of major phytochemical groups. The phytochemicals are the wide variety of compounds produced by plants manipulated wisely in the pharmacognostic drug development and treatment of the major ailments. Phytochemical screening of the plants extracts of Acorus calamus and Lantana camara showed the presence o...

  8. Comparison of estimated energy intake in children using a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-estimated energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Hjort, Mads F.; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children) to collect data from the children. Objective To compare the energy intake (EI) of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy...... expenditure (TEE) as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore......-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods...

  9. Impact of food and fluid intake on technical and biological measurement error in body composition assessment methods in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary J; Byrne, Nuala

    2017-02-01

    Two, three and four compartment (2C, 3C and 4C) models of body composition are popular methods to measure fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in athletes. However, the impact of food and fluid intake on measurement error has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate standardised (overnight fasted, rested and hydrated) v. non-standardised (afternoon and non-fasted) presentation on technical and biological error on surface anthropometry (SA), 2C, 3C and 4C models. In thirty-two athletic males, measures of SA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) were taken to establish 2C, 3C and 4C models. Tests were conducted after an overnight fast (duplicate), about 7 h later after ad libitum food and fluid intake, and repeated 24 h later before and after ingestion of a specified meal. Magnitudes of changes in the mean and typical errors of measurement were determined. Mean change scores for non-standardised presentation and post meal tests for FM were substantially large in BIS, SA, 3C and 4C models. For FFM, mean change scores for non-standardised conditions produced large changes for BIS, 3C and 4C models, small for DXA, trivial for BOD POD and SA. Models that included a total body water (TBW) value from BIS (3C and 4C) were more sensitive to TBW changes in non-standardised conditions than 2C models. Biological error is minimised in all models with standardised presentation but DXA and BOD POD are acceptable if acute food and fluid intake remains below 500 g.

  10. Dietary consumption of phytochemicals and breast cancer risk in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sanchez, Luisa; Galvan-Portillo, Marcia; Wolff, Mary S; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-06-01

    To perform an evaluation of selected phytochemicals intake and breast cancer (BC) risk in Mexican women. We conducted hospital-based case-control study. Mexico City between 1994 and 1996. A total of 141 histologically confirmed BC cases were age-matched (+/-3 years) to an equal number of hospital controls. The reproductive history of each woman was obtained by direct interview. The dietary consumption of flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, cinnamic acid, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol and coumestrol was obtained by means of a validated FFQ. Among postmenopausal women, high dietary intake of flavonols and flavones was associated with a significant reduction of BC risk (high v. low tertile: OR = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.60, P for trend = 0.004 and OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.10, 0.82, P for trend = 0.025, respectively); consumption of lignans (lariciresinol and pinoresinol) showed a similar effect, but only among premenopausal women (high v. low tertile: OR = 0.32, 95 % CI 0.10, 0.99, P for trend = 0.051 and OR = 0.19, 95 % CI 0.06, 0.62, P for trend = 0.006, respectively). Our results support a protective role of specific dietary phytochemicals in BC risk by menopausal status, independent of other reproductive factors.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition of Streptococcus Species by Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Abachi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review paper summarizes the antibacterial effects of phytochemicals of various medicinal plants against pathogenic and cariogenic streptococcal species. The information suggests that these phytochemicals have potential as alternatives to the classical antibiotics currently used for the treatment of streptococcal infections. The phytochemicals demonstrate direct bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects, such as: (i prevention of bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces of the pharynx, skin, and teeth surface; (ii inhibition of glycolytic enzymes and pH drop; (iii reduction of biofilm and plaque formation; and (iv cell surface hydrophobicity. Collectively, findings from numerous studies suggest that phytochemicals could be used as drugs for elimination of infections with minimal side effects.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition of Streptococcus Species by Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, Soheila; Lee, Song; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-02-17

    This review paper summarizes the antibacterial effects of phytochemicals of various medicinal plants against pathogenic and cariogenic streptococcal species. The information suggests that these phytochemicals have potential as alternatives to the classical antibiotics currently used for the treatment of streptococcal infections. The phytochemicals demonstrate direct bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects, such as: (i) prevention of bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces of the pharynx, skin, and teeth surface; (ii) inhibition of glycolytic enzymes and pH drop; (iii) reduction of biofilm and plaque formation; and (iv) cell surface hydrophobicity. Collectively, findings from numerous studies suggest that phytochemicals could be used as drugs for elimination of infections with minimal side effects.

  13. [Patients with hyperlipidemia: inappropriate nutritional intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Hottin, Delphine Mastin

    2004-10-23

    Gather knowledge on nutritional supplementation in patients with hyperlipidemia. In an observational study on patients with hyperlipidemia, nutritional intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary questionnaire, provided on the first visit to a lipid clinic. 291 patients (201 men and 90 women) were studied. Calorie intake and proportion of energetic nutrients revealed low carbohydrate intake, low intake of dietary fibres, and excessive lipid and saturated fatty acid intakes. Patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia had nutritional intake very similar to the daily allowances recommended in France. Men with type III hyperlipidemia had the highest calorie intake and those with type IV dyslipidemia had the highest alcohol intake. Triglycerides increased with total energy intake and with fat intake (%). Body mass index was inversely correlated to carbohydrate intake. The duration of dyslipidemia was related to low vitamin C and B9 intake. The existence of risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking or inactivity) was associated with less well-balanced diet and low protective micronutrient status. In the case of atherosclerosis, vitamin B9, C, E and beta-carotene intake was insufficient. Interactions existed between nutrient intake with correlations between fibres, vitamin B9, C and beta-carotene, suggesting that nutritional education should favour foodstuffs that provide them simultaneously. Nutritional intake in patients with hyperlipidemia is often far from that recommended and does not greatly differ from that in large non-selected populations. It can be considered as inappropriate because of the metabolic and cardiovascular risks in these patients. Adapted nutritional management is crucial.

  14. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...exhaust velocity to free stream velocity, with exhaust velocity calculated by assuming the captured air is expanded isentropicaly back to ambient ...2.1 [23] with the actual value probably determined by engine mass flow demand and therefore dependent on ambient temperature. The lowest

  16. Feasibility and Acceptability of Dietary Intake Assessment Via 24-Hour Recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire among Women with Low Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBiasse, Michele A; Bowen, Deborah J; Quatromoni, Paula A; Quinn, Emily; Quintiliani, Lisa M

    2017-10-25

    Comprehensive evaluation of dietary interventions depends on effective and efficient measurement to quantify behavior change. To date, little is known regarding which self-reported measure of dietary intake is most feasible and acceptable for use in evaluation of the effectiveness of diet intervention studies among underserved populations. This research focused on evaluating feasibility and acceptability of two self-report measures of diet. Cross-sectional. Two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls and a 110-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were administered to both English- and Spanish-speaking participants (n=36) by native English- and Spanish-speaking research assistants. On completion of both dietary assessments, participants were interviewed regarding their preference of measure. Feasibility for completion of the dietary assessment measures was determined for contacts and retention. Acceptability of the measures was determined through responses to open- and closed-ended questions. During the 5-month trial, 36 participants were enrolled; 29 completed both intake measures, and 26 completed both measures and the interview. Participants were mainly Hispanic/Latina (72%), with a mean age of 37.0 (±7.6) years. Feasibility targets were met for contacts (1.9, 1.6, 1.8 contact attempts to complete each diet assessment measure with a target of ≤2) and for retention with 89% and 91% completing two 24-hour recalls and the FFQ, respectively. Participants indicated both diet assessment methods were generally acceptable; both positive and negative comments were received for use of the FFQ. Dietary assessment with the use of 24-hour recalls or an FFQ can be feasible and acceptable among women with low socioeconomic status, although care should be taken to address cultural appropriateness in the selection of the measurement method. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  18. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...

  20. A Therapeutic Connection between Dietary Phytochemicals and ATP Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hassan, Sherif S; Azim, Sofiya

    2017-11-20

    For centuries, phytochemicals have been used to prevent and cure multiple health ailments. Phytochemicals have been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitussive, antiparasitic, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. Generally, the therapeutic use of phytochemicals is based on tradition or word of mouth with few evidence-based studies. Moreover, molecular level interactions or molecular targets for the majority of phytochemicals are unknown. In recent years, antibiotic resistance by microbes has become a major healthcare concern. As such, the use of phytochemicals with antimicrobial properties has become pertinent. Natural compounds from plants, vegetables, herbs, and spices with strong antimicrobial properties present an excellent opportunity for preventing and combating antibiotic resistant microbial infections. ATP synthase is the fundamental means of cellular energy. Inhibition of ATP synthase may deprive cells of required energy leading to cell death, and a variety of dietary phytochemicals are known to inhibit ATP synthase. Structural modifications of phytochemicals have been shown to increase the inhibitory potency and extent of inhibition. Sitedirected mutagenic analysis has elucidated the binding site(s) for some phytochemicals on ATP synthase. Amino acid variations in and around the phytochemical binding sites can result in selective binding and inhibition of microbial ATP synthase. In this review, the therapeutic connection between dietary phytochemicals and ATP synthase is summarized based on the inhibition of ATP synthase by dietary phytochemicals. Research suggests selective targeting of ATP synthase is a valuable alternative molecular level approach to combat antibiotic resistant microbial infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy), completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson’s correlation coefficients (cc), kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results High cc (≥0.40) were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40) for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks) to 100% (dried fruit); for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin) to 77% (lactose). Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson’s cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the assessment of

  2. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garden Tabacchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects: The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy, completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc, kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results: High cc (≥0.40 were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40 for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks to 100% (dried fruit; for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin to 77% (lactose. Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions: The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the

  3. Genetic assessment of residual feed intake as a feed efficiency trait in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Luan, Sheng; Lu, Xia; Luo, Kun; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Kong, Jie

    2017-08-04

    Residual feed intake (RFI) was investigated as a measure of feed efficiency in a breeding population of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp from 34 families were housed individually and feed efficiency and growth traits were recorded during two successive growth periods. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the heritability of RFI and related traits, including feed efficiency ratio (FER), average daily gain (ADG) and daily feed intake (DFI), (2) to determine the relationships between RFI and other traits, and (3) to evaluate the variation of these traits across two growth periods. Shrimp displayed large inter-individual variation in RFI, FER, ADG and DFI during each growth period. Heritability estimates of all these traits during both periods reached high values (0.577 ± 0.232 to 0.707 ± 0.252). RFI showed weak and no genetic correlations with ADG during the two growth periods between days 1 to 21 (0.135 ± 0.204) and 22 to 42 (-0.018 ± 0.128), respectively, but high positive genetic correlations with DFI (>0.8). Weak and moderate negative genetic correlations were observed between RFI and FER during the two periods (-0.126 ± 0.208 and -0.387 ± 0.183). As evidenced by the high genetic correlations between the two periods for each trait (>0.6), trait performance of the shrimp tended to be consistent across periods. For the first time, accurate measurement of individual feed efficiency on a large scale was achieved in shrimp. Although the estimated heritability reported here for RFI may be overestimated, it is a heritable trait in L. vannamei that can be improved by genetic improvement. For L. vannamei, the biggest potential advantage in using RFI as a measure of feed efficiency is that it is independent of growth rate, and thus genetic selection on RFI has the potential to improve feed efficiency and reduce feed intake, without compromising growth performance.

  4. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  5. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  6. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  7. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  8. Energy Intake from Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.; Han, Euna

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades. Purpose To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption. Methods Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003–2004 through 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants. Results In 2007–2008, 33%, 41% and 36% of children, adolescents and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18% and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean caloric intake from fast food was 191 kcal, 404 kcal, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p≤0.05), 3% and 9% from 2003–2004; and among consumers, intake was 576 kcal, 988 kcal, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p≤0.05), 2% and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics were generally not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants. Conclusions In 2007–2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake. PMID:23079172

  9. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Curcuma neilgherrensis (Wight) leaf - A folklore medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Prasad M; Ramachandran, Anju P; Chandola, Harimohan; Harisha, C R; Shukla, Vinay J

    2012-04-01

    Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight is a folk medicinal plant used in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of this herb are said to be successful in managing high blood glucose levels. This study is aimed at assessing the scientific appraisal of C. neilgherrensis in the course of pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical parameters, as these are not yet been done. Pharmacognostic study mainly covered the macroscopic and microscopic features of the leaves including powder microscopy, and revealed the presence of trichomes, spiral vessels etc. Phytochemical parameters such as pH, total ash value, water-soluble extract and MeOH extract values were assessed in the preliminary physicochemical screening. Qualitative analysis revealed the existence of certain chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and saponin glycosides. The crude extract of leaves was subjected to TLC and HPTLC for the separation of components.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial testing of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum) used traditionally for relieving toothache and cough were screened for their phytochemical constituents and in vitro antibacterial activity. Chemical and chromatographic methods were used for the phytochemical screening of the extracts. Inhibitory ...

  11. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  12. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluations of the Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the phytochemical constituents and verify the ethnomedical claim of Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Seeman ex Bureau Bignoniaceae in treating septic wounds and eye problems. Methods: Applying standard methods, the phytochemical constituents of the stem bark were examined while the ...

  13. Phytochemical, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening ...

  14. Phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bauhinia rufescens Lam, family Leguminosae – Caesalpinoideae, an economic, ornamental and medicinal plant with fruits edible to human and animals, was subjected to phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies. The phytochemical screening of the leaves, roots and stem bark showed the presence of saponins, tannins, ...

  15. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF RHEUM EMODI

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Ashfaq Ahmad; K. W. Shah; Showkat Ahmad Wani

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts of Rheum emodi followed by their TLC profiling were carried out. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of diverse groups of phytoconstituents in two different extracts (aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts). Chemical constituents also show different Rf values in two different solvent systems.

  16. A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF ABROMA AUGUSTA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Siva Rami Reddy E

    2018-01-01

    Abroma Augusta is used for some medicinal purposes in traditional medicine. The phytochemical composition of bitter gourd was investigated using standard analytical methods. Phytochemicals like tannin, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, phlobatinnins and anthraquinones were also found present/ absent. The proximate composition showed the per cent of tannin, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids and saponins. Abroma Augusta is one of the most...

  17. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemicals and some other constituents of the powdered leaves of Psidium guajava Linn and to evaluate the tolerability profile of the leaves because of their profound medicinal and non-medicinal uses. Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a ...

  18. Variability in Phytochemicals, Á-Galactosides, Sucrose Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variability in the phytochemicals, á-galactosides, the sucrose composition and the in-vitro protein digestibility of common bean varieties released from research centres were investigated. Concentrations for á- galactosides (raffinose and stachyose) and phytochemicals (lectins, saponins, phytic acid, protease inhibitors ...

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of D. edulis and F. capensis leaves were evaluated. Each plant leaves were extracted in methanol using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of the resulting extracts showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, ...

  20. QSAR of phytochemicals for the design of better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2012-10-01

    Phytochemicals have been the single most prolific source of leads for the development of new drug entities from the dawn of the drug discovery. They cover a wide range of therapeutic indications with a great diversity of chemical structures. The research fraternity still believes in exploring the phytochemicals for new drug discovery. Application of molecular biological techniques has increased the availability of novel compounds that can be conveniently isolated from natural sources. Combinatorial chemistry approaches are being applied based on phytochemical scaffolds to create screening libraries that closely resemble drug-like compounds. In silico techniques like quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), pharmacophore and virtual screening are playing crucial and rate accelerating steps for the better drug design in modern era. QSAR models of different classes of phytochemicals covering different therapeutic areas are thoroughly discussed in the review. Further, the authors have enlisted all the available phytochemical databases for the convenience of researchers working in the area. This review justifies the need to develop more QSAR models for the design of better drugs from phytochemicals. Technical drawbacks associated with phytochemical research have been lessened, and there are better opportunities to explore the biological activity of previously inaccessible sources of phytochemicals although there is still the need to reduce the time and cost involvement in such exercise. The future possibilities for the integration of ethnopharmacology with QSAR, place us at an exciting stage that will allow us to explore plant sources worldwide and design better drugs.