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Sample records for assessing phytochemical intake

  1. Assessing phytochemical intake in a group of Mexican women Estimación de la ingesta de fitoestrógenos en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas

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    Marcia V Galvan-Portillo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the content of selected phytochemicals (PHYs in Mexican foods and evaluate the reliability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in assessing PHYs intake among Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Values for PHYs content were obtained from four different data sets. PHYs intake was assessed in 50 women of reproductive age enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. Values were obtained from a FFQ administered twice, one year apart in order to evaluate its reliability. Selected PHYs included flavonol (FOL, flavones (FES, flavanol (FAL, secoisolariciresinol (SE, matairesinol (MA, lariciresinol (LA, pinoresinol (PI, cynamic acid (CA and coumestrol (CU. RESULTS: Daily PHYs intake ranged from 1.3 µg ± 0.9 for MA to 116.3 ± 43.8 mg for CA. The adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from 0.17 for FAL to 0.47 for LA. Pinto beans, oranges, hot sauce, broccoli, apples and onions were the main sources of the selected PHYs daily intake. DISCUSSION: The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the consumption of PHYs in the Mexican diet, and would help evaluate their potential health impact.OBJETIVO: Crear una base de datos con el contenido de nueve fitoestrógenos (FIT presentes en alimentos mexicanos y calcular su ingestión y reproducibilidad en 50 mujeres participantes en un estudio de cohorte en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los FIT seleccionados incluyeron flavonol (FOL, flavones (FES, flavanol (FAL, secoisolariciresinol (SE, matairesinol (MA, lariciresinol (LA, pinoresinol (PI, ácido cinámico (CA y coumestrol (CU. El contenido de estos compuestos se obtuvo de cuatro diferentes fuentes de datos. La ingestión diaria se estimó a través de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, aplicado en dos oportunidades con una diferencia de un año a cada participante. La reproducibilidad en el reporte de cada FIT se estimó mediante coeficientes de correlación intraclase ajustados por residuales de energ

  2. Metabolomics for measuring phytochemicals, and assessing human and animal responses to phytochemicals, in food science.

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    McGhie, Tony K; Rowan, Daryl D

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics, comprehensive metabolite analysis, is finding increasing application as a tool to measure and enable the manipulation of the phytochemical content of foods, to identify the measures of dietary intake, and to understand human and animal responses to phytochemicals in the diet. Recent applications of metabolomics directed toward understanding the role of phytochemicals in food and nutrition are reviewed.

  3. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping

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    Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. Dissemination By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health

  4. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

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    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  5. Assessment of pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Thespesia populnea (L.) root

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    Patil PS; Venkatanarayanan R; Argade PD; Shinde PR

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To Assessment of pharmacognostic and phytochemical parameters of root of Thespesiapopulnea (L.) soland. Methods: Macroscopical, miscroscopical, physico-chemical evaluation, florescence analysis, behavior of root powder and preliminary phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimation of phytoconstituents were determined of various extracts of T. populnea.Results: microscopic study shows the general characteristic of root with presence of periderm, cortex, xylem and phloem region, abundant starch grains. Physico-chemical investigation shows the total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash values were 10.59依0.02 % w/w, 1.02依0.03 % w/w, 2.72依0.03 % w/w and 8.56依0.02 % w/w respectively. However, the aqueous soluble, alcohol soluble extractives and moisture content were found to be 14.23依0.46 % w/w, 10.54依0.23% w/w and 4.60依0.01% w/w respectively. The preliminary phytochemical assessment revealed the presence of glycosides, steroid/triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds saponins, carbohydrates and proteins. Total phenolic and flavonoids content of root was 0.271%and 0.344% respectively. Behavior of root powder with various chemicals confirmed the presence of phytoconstituents. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic and phytochemical assessment of T. populnea may helpful towards founding for quality, purity and sample identification and standardization.

  6. Phytochemical assessments of Astragalus hamosus pods (Iklil-ul-Malik

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    Azadeh Hamedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Authentication and quality control of herbs in herbal markets is an important challenge for practitioners and food and drug organizations. Rapid and simple pharmacognostic evaluations are beneficial to overcome this problem. On the other hand, there is a mist about the scientific names of some of these herbs even in scientific literatures. Iklil-ul-Malik or Astragalus hamosus L. (Papilionaceae is one of these medicinal plants.Pharmacognostic (macroscopic, microscopic and phytochemical properties of Iklil-ul-Malik pods were investigated. Different ash and extractive values were determined. The HPTLC finger prints of the herbs’ fractions were prepared, using different reagents and mobile phases. The fatty acids, steroids, alkene and terpenoids of the pods were investigated by GC-MS analysis. Soluble fatty acid and soluble sugar content were determined by spectroscopic methods. Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash were determined to be 75.00±11.83, 8.33±2.89 and 40.00±5.00 mg/g respectively. The extractive values for n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions were 0.77%, 0.16% and 0.49% (w/w. Free amino acid and soluble sugar contents were respectively 3.33±0.001 and 8.83±0.004 (w/w %. Polyphenols, triterpenes, glycosides and glycolipids were detected in different fractions. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (48.64%, linolenic acids (25.35%, lauric acid (8.12% and stearic acid (6.38%. By presenting the pharmacognostic values and HPTLC fingerprints in this manuscript, the herb can be authenticated.

  7. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

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    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  8. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

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    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  9. Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, and antifungal assessment of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum.

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    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Perviz, Samreen

    2016-05-01

    The current study was designed to assess the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum (PA) and its various subsequent solvent fractions using agar well diffusion, agar tube dilution, and microdilution methods. Phytochemical analysis showed positive for different chemical groups and also contained marked quantity of saponin and flavonoid contents. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against various tested pathogenic bacteria. The only susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) measured ranged from 11-50 µg/ml. The sensitive Gram-negative bacteria were Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri The estimated MICs were in the range of 2-7 µg/ml and 8-50 µg/ml for S. typhi and S. flexeneri, respectively. However, the antifungal activity of the plant was limited to Microsporum canis and their MICs ranged from 60 to 250 µg/ml. Our study confirmed significant antibacterial potential of the plant and substantiated its folk use in dysentery and pyrexia of multiple origins.

  10. Short communication: in vitro assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of peel of Citrus sinensis.

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    Mehmood, Basharat; Dar, Kamran Khurshid; Ali, Shaukat; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Nayyer, Abdul Qayyum; Ghous, Tahseen; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial effect of Citrus sinensis peel extracts was evaluated against several pathogenic bacteria associated with human and fish infections viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcesnces, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium and Serratia odorifera. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl ether solvents were used for extraction. In vitro antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well and agar disc diffusion methods. It was found that ethanol extract showed highly significant inhibition of E. coli and K. pneumonia (12.6±0.94 mm and 11.6±1.2 mm) whereas methanol extract of C. sinensis also showed high zone of inhibition of S. odorifera (10.0±2.16 mm). The potential activity of active extracts was assessed and also compared with standard antibiotics through activity index formulation. The order of antioxidant activity through ABTS·+ and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was ethanol>methanol>chloroform>diethyl ether. Phytochemical screening of all solvents had determined the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and flavonoids. It was also found that Chloroform/Methanol (5:5) and Butanol/Ethanol/Water (4:1:2.2) solvent systems showed significant separation of active phytochemical constituents. These findings reveal the potential use of C. sinensis peel to treat infectious diseases, which are being caused by microorganisms.

  11. Estradiol valerate and alcohol intake: dose-response assessments

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    Quirarte, Gina L; Reid, Larry D; de la Teja, I Sofía Ledesma; Reid, Meta L; Sánchez, Marco A; Díaz-Trujillo, Arnulfo; Aguilar-Vazquez, Azucena; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2007-01-01

    Background An injection of estradiol valerate (EV) provides estradiol for a prolonged period. Recent research indicates that a single 2.0 mg injection of EV modifies a female rat's appetite for alcoholic beverages. This research extends the initial research by assessing 8 doses of EV (from .001 to 2.0 mg/female rat), as well assessing the effects of 2.0 mg EV in females with ovariectomies. Results With the administration of EV, there was a dose-related loss of bodyweight reaching the maximum loss, when it occurred, at about 4 days after injections. Subsequently, rats returned to gaining weight regularly. Of the doses tested, only the 2.0 mg dose produced a consistent increase in intake of ethanol during the time previous research indicated that the rats would show enhanced intakes. There was, however, a dose-related trend for smaller doses to enhance intakes. Rats with ovariectomies showed a similar pattern of effects, to intact rats, with the 2 mg dose. After extensive histories of intake of alcohol, both placebo and EV-treated females had estradiol levels below the average measured in females without a history of alcohol-intake. Conclusion The data support the conclusion that pharmacological doses of estradiol can produce enduring changes that are manifest as an enhanced appetite for alcoholic beverages. The effect can occur among females without ovaries. PMID:17335585

  12. [Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess lipid and phytochemical intake].

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    Perovic, Nilda R; Defago, Maria D; Aguinaldo, Anabel; Joekes, Silvia; Actis, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: estudios epidemiológicos sugieren que el consumo de ciertos alimentos puede reducir el riesgo de enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Objetivo: analizar la validez y reproducibilidad de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo alimentario (FFQ) destinado a evaluar la ingesta de lípidos y fitoquímicos. Material y métodos: el FFQ fue administrado a 45 personas de ambos sexos, con edades entre 20 y 72 años de edad, residentes en Córdoba, Argentina. Incluyó 257 preguntas referidas a los alimentos, su frecuencia de consumo y tamaño de la porción. Se consideró la estacionalidad para el consumo de frutas y verduras. El cuestionario se aplicó en dos períodos diferentes (FFQ1 y FFQ2) con un intervalo de seis meses y se acompañó por un recordatorio de 24 horas (24HDR) utilizado en tres periodos de tiempo. Se realizó la estimación de: ingesta promedio FFQ1-FFQ2 y 24HDR-FFQ2, diferencia de medias, desviación absoluta de diferencias de medias, prueba de los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon y test de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: los coeficientes de correlación para FFQ1-FFQ2 variaron de 0,52 para el ácido graso eicosapentanoico 20:5 n3 (EPA) a 0,89 para ácido graso butírico 4:0 (p<0,05). Para 24HDR-FFQ2, los valores de correlación oscilaron entre 0,19 para licopeno y 0,93 para el EPA (p <0,05). Conclusión: el análisis realizado mostró una validez aceptable y reproducibilidad del FFQ, permitiendo así que sea utilizado en investigaciones sobre ingesta de lípidos y fitoquímicos y el riesgo de ENT.

  13. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

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    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  14. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

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    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  15. Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.

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    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-26

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  16. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

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    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  17. Preliminary assessment of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties of Pistacia integerrima fruit.

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    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Nazir, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Present study was focused on the evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties in hydrophilic and lipophilic solvents extracts of Pistacia integerrima fruit, collected from Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Standard analytical methods were followed to estimate the proximate composition of nutrients, trace metals and phytochemical contents including phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and ascorbic acid. The free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and acetone extracts were carried out against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferrous ion chelation, ferric ion reduction, and phosphomolybdenium complex assay. Comparatively highest value of cultural importance index was determined for Margalla hills than other study sites. Crude fibers contents (33.65%) were found highest among nutrients, while in minerals utmost level was measured for K (947.3 mg/kg, FW), followed by Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Acetone extract exhibited highest total phenolics contents (113.7 mg GAE/100g, FW) and antioxidant potential for ferric ion reduction (107.3 μM GAE/100g, FW), phosphomolybdenum complex assay (99.32 μM AAE/100g, FW) and DPPH radical scavenging (91.89%). Fruit of P. integerrima was found an excellent source of nutrients, minerals and antioxidants. Crude extracts exhibited noteworthy potential against free radicals and could be of immense significance in the prevention of different diseases related to free radicals. Present data could be an effectual tool for propagation programs intended to enhance the antioxidant and other phytochemical components in foods.

  18. Plant science and human nutrition: challenges in assessing health-promoting properties of phytochemicals.

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    Traka, Maria H; Mithen, Richard F

    2011-07-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CERBERA MANGHAS L. LEAVES

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    Hossain Md. Anwar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituents as well as the antioxidant and analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of the Cerbera manghas L. leaves (Family: Apocynaceae. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Cerbera manghas leaves indicated the presence of carbohydrate (reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids & glycosides. The extract exhibited significant (P<0.01 analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing of white albino mice at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract inhibited 30.65% writhing in mice and it is comparable to the activity of the standard analgesic drug Diclofenac sodium (79.03% P<0.001 at the dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The extract showed the antioxidant property by the presence of strong yellow spot on a purple background on the TLC plate and in the free radical scavenging activity study (DPPH assay the extract showed significant antioxidant activity ( IC50 ~ 269.15µg/ml which is comparable to standard (Ascorbic Acid, IC50 ~14.45 μg/ml. The findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of Cerbera manghas leaves possess antioxidant and analgesic activities.

  20. Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin

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    V. Di Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the "dragon′s blood tree" and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 μg/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923.

  1. Assessment of pyridoxine and folate intake in migraine patients

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    Omid Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Migraine patients had lower dietary intake of folate, compared with non-migraine group subjects. There was no significant association between folate and pyridoxine intake with the frequency of migraine attacks. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  2. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

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    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  3. Identification and assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals from kiwi fruits.

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    Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Mastellone, Claudio; Scognamiglio, Monica; Monaco, Pietro

    2009-05-27

    The kiwi fruit is the edible berry of a cultivar group of the woody vine of several Actinidia species. The most common commercially available, green-fleshed kiwi fruit is the cultivar 'Hayward', which belongs to the Actinidia deliciosa species. An antioxidative screening of kiwi fruit components (peel and pulp) crude extracts was carried out using specific assay media characterized for the presence of highly reactive species such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(•-). The Mo(VI) reducing power of the samples was also determined. The phenol and flavonoid contents were quantified. Phytochemical analysis of kiwi peel crude extracts led to the isolation of vitamin E, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, as well as α- and δ-tocopherol, 7 sterols, the triterpene ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 11 flavonoids. Chemical fractionation of pulp crude extracts led to the isolation of two caffeic acid glucosyl derivatives and two coumarin glucosydes, besides the three vitamin E, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and its Δ(7) isomer, campesterol, chlorogenic acid, and some flavone and flavanol molecules. All of the compounds were tested for their radical scavenging and antioxidant capabilities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH and anion superoxide radical and to reduce a Mo(VI) salt.

  4. Assessment of Antimalarial Activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Phytochemical Screening of Some Yemeni Medicinal Plants

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    Mohammed A. Alshawsh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III according to World Health Organization (WHO 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values less than 4 µg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 µg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC50 values more than 30 µg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides.

  5. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  6. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  7. Dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kistemaker, C.

    1999-01-01

    Food chemical risk management needs, among other things, assessment of exposure. For dietary intake food consumption surveys are the data source to be used. One complicating factor in the usage of these data is the dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment. Central to th

  8. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista; Aline Andretta; Renata Costa de Miranda; Jéssica Nehring; Eduardo dos Santos Paiva; Maria Eliana Madalozzo Schieferdecker

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and ana...

  9. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  10. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  11. Phytochemical screening, and assessment of ameliorating effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea on drug induced hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Mbuh, Awah Francis; Emmanuel, Mounmbegna Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical screening of stem bark and leaves of Gmelina arborea; and effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea stembark on hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats was assessed in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the air-dried leaf, oven-dried leaf, air-dried stembark and oven-dried stembark samples. Sixty five (65) wister albino rats, (50.7-117.5 g) were divided into thirteen groups of five animals each. Three groups serve as Controls and were administered Cisplatin (5mg/kg b.w; i.p), Paracetamol (200mg/kg b.w; i.p) and Normal saline (0.002 ml/kg b.w; oral). Other groups were administered, either, cisplatin and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); Paracetamol and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); extracts alone; or drugs and combination of extracts. Animals were starved, 24 hours prior to sacrifice and sacrificed on the 9th day after commencement of treatment. Phytochemical screening results show the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, and carbohydrate. Saponin and carbohydrate were shown to be much higher in concentration than other phytochemicals. The percentage composition of cyanogenic glycoside and phytate were highest in air-dried stembark and oven-dried leaf samples, respectively. All the Gmelina arborea extracts and extract mixture administered to both paracetamol and cisplatin treated animals, significantly, lowers both the activities of the SGOT and SGPT, and the levels of serum creatinine and urea. When administered alone, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts show little or no sign of toxicity. Thus Gmelina arborea extracts may have ameliorating effect on hepatic and renal insufficiency caused by paracetamol and cisplatin respectively, and any inherent toxicity may be reduced or eliminated through adequate heat treatment.

  12. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  13. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Dietary Cadmium Intake: Do Current Guidelines Indicate How Much is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Vesey, David A.; Gobe, Glenda C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium (Cd), a food-chain contaminant, is a significant health hazard. The kidney is one of the primary sites of injury after chronic Cd exposure. Kidney-based risk assessment establishes the urinary Cd threshold at 5.24 μg/g creatinine, and tolerable dietary intake of Cd at 62 μg/day per 70-kg person. However, cohort studies show that dietary Cd intake below a threshold limit and that tolerable levels may increase the risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Objective: We evaluated if the current tolerable dietary Cd intake guideline and urinary Cd threshold limit provide sufficient health protection. Discussion: Staple foods constitute 40–60% of total dietary Cd intake by average consumers. Diets high in shellfish, crustaceans, mollusks, spinach, and offal add to dietary Cd sources. Modeling studies predict the current tolerable dietary intake corresponding to urinary Cd of 0.70–1.85 μg/g creatinine in men and 0.95–3.07 μg/g creatinine in women. Urinary Cd levels of protection from this pervasive toxic metal. Citation: Satarug S, Vesey DA, Gobe GC. 2017. Health risk assessment of dietary cadmium intake: do current guidelines indicate how much is safe? Environ Health Perspect 125:284–288; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP108 PMID:28248635

  15. Plant Science and Human Nutrition: Challenges in Assessing Health-Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H.; Mithen, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants. PMID:21803940

  16. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  17. [Assessment of fruit and vegetable intake among the 50-year-old population of Wroclaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Misiewicz, Dominika; Rózańska, Dorota; Kowalisko, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Intake of fruit and vegetable among 50-year-old population of Wroclaw and the impact of education level on the consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed. The study group was 50-year-old, 1520 inhabitants of Wroclaw (879 women and 641 men), who participated in 2008 in the Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention Program organized by the Health Division of the Municipal Office in Wroclaw. To assess fruit and vegetable intake Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used. The mean daily intake of vegetables and fruit was 289,4 g for women and 209,1 g for men. Women consumed significantly more vegetables, fruits, and the amounts of fruits and vegetables compared with men. The impact of educational level on fruit and vegetable consumption in the study group was found.

  18. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  19. Performance of Short Food Questions to Assess Aspects of the Dietary Intake of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487. Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001 measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001 but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075. The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children.

  20. Impact of pesticide resistance on toxicity and tolerance of hostplant phytochemicals in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For some polyphagous insects adaptation to phytochemically novel plants confers enhanced resistance to insecticides, but whether insecticide resistance enhances tolerance to novel phytochemicals has not been assessed. We used Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm), an economically important ...

  1. Validation of Traditional Therapeutic Claims through Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Assessment: A Study on Mahakaal (Trichosanthes tricuspidata L. From Similipal Biosphere Reserve Forest, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Tripathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve forest is situated in the district Mayurbhanj, Odisha, enriched with the different types of vegetations along with aboriginals. These aboriginals have unique skills in using traditional therapeutic medicines. They use wild plant and their parts in traditional herbal formulations to cure different diseases. Trichosanthes tricuspidata, locally known as Mahakaal is very common to be used as herbal medicine. Fruits of Mahakaal have sound traditional therapeutic values, they have been used against asthma, skin infections, muscular pain and killing the head lice. Phytochemical screening of fruit extracts revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds such as Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, Terpenoids etc which indicate its sound pharmacological properties. Antibacterial assessment of fruit extracts also showed excellent activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extracts showed highest zone of inhibition (1.51 cm against Streptococcus pyogenes caused skin infections. The experimental works validate the traditional therapeutic claims.

  2. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess folate intake of Dutch elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Durga, J.; Verhoef, P.; Boonstra, A.; Brants, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Folate is required for 1-carbon metabolism and deficiency in folate leads to megaloblastic anemia. Low levels of folate have been associated with increased risk of vascular disease. To investigate whether RDA of folate are met, habitual folate intake needs to be assessed reliably. We developed a FFQ

  3. Development, validation and implementation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Collins, A.; Lucey, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. Methods National...... food consumption survey data obtained from Irish adults (18–64 years) were used to identify foods that contribute 95% of vitamin D intake. A winter-based validation study was carried out for the resulting FFQ in 120 females, including 98 women [mean (SD) 65.0 (7.3) years] and 22 girls [12.2 (0.8) years......], using a 14-day diet history (DH) as a comparator. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed. Validity coefficients were calculated using the method of triads. Cross-classification and Bland–Altman analysis were also performed. Results Median (interquartile range) vitamin D intakes (including...

  4. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  5. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  6. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  7. Phytochemicals and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem all over the world. Phytochemicals are potential agents to inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes, stimulate lipolysis, and induce apoptosis of existing adipocytes, thereby reducing the amount of adipose tissue. Flavonoids and stilbenoids represent the most researched groups of phytochemicals with regards to their effect on adipogenesis, but there are also a number of in vitro and in vivo studies with phenolic acids, alkaloids, and vitamins, as well as other plant compounds. Although phytochemicals like epigallocatechin-3-gallate, genistein, and resveratrol reduce lipid accumulation and induce adipocyte apoptosis in vitro and reduce body weight and adipose tissues mass in animal models of diet-induced obesity, well-conducted clinical trials are lacking. Pharmacological doses are often used in vitro and when applied in physiological doses in animals or humans, the phytochemicals are often ineffective in affecting adipogenesis. However, by combining several phytochemicals or using them as templates for synthesizing new drugs, there is a large potential in targeting adipogenesis using phytochemicals.

  8. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women part

  9. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.

  10. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING THE PRE-DIALYSIS ASSESSMENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor nutrition status at the start of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Timely management of patients with ESKD pre-dialysis including providing nutrition intervention is important. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline nutritional status and dietary intake of patients attending the pre-dialysis assessment clinic. Of the 210 patient assessed, 60.5% were male; mean age was 65.7±13.6 years and mean GFR was 17.0±4.2 ml/min. 17.1% were underweight (BMI26 kg/m2. 39.5% were rated as malnourished (SGA score B&C and 18.5% were overweight/obese and malnourished. 26.7% had MAMC 10% less than 50th percentile of the standard. Mean energy and protein intakes were 23.4±6.9 kcal/kg IBW/d and 1.16±0.43 g/kg IBW/d with 65.5% and 15.6% did not meet the recommended intake of energy and protein respectively. 48% of patients experienced symptoms (e.g. poor appetite and nausea affecting dietary intake while 15.7% of patients self-imposed dietary restriction inappropriately due to misconception of nutrition requirements in ESKD. 41.4% and 85.2% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables of 2 and 5 serves per day respectively based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient intake (prevalence % below the Recommended Daily Intake (DRI levels were: VitB1 (36.5%, VitB2 (43.5%, Niacin (3.9%, VitC (202%, VitE (41.0%, folate (83.2%, VitA (50.5%, Mg (94.5%, Fe (36.1%, Zn (70.8% and dietary fibre (83.3%. In conclusion, patients attended the current pre-dialysis assessment clinic presented with parameters indicative of poor nutritional health. This clinic may provide an opportunity to optimise nutritional status of ESKD patients before dialysis is required.

  11. Energy intake and expenditure assessed 'in-season' in an elite European rugby union squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg(-1) body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg(-1) body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.

  12. Longevity Extension by Phytochemicals

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    Anna Leonov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are structurally diverse secondary metabolites synthesized by plants and also by non-pathogenic endophytic microorganisms living within plants. Phytochemicals help plants to survive environmental stresses, protect plants from microbial infections and environmental pollutants, provide them with a defense from herbivorous organisms and attract natural predators of such organisms, as well as lure pollinators and other symbiotes of these plants. In addition, many phytochemicals can extend longevity in heterotrophic organisms across phyla via evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In this review, we discuss such mechanisms. We outline how structurally diverse phytochemicals modulate a complex network of signaling pathways that orchestrate a distinct set of longevity-defining cellular processes. This review also reflects on how the release of phytochemicals by plants into a natural ecosystem may create selective forces that drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in heterotrophic organisms inhabiting this ecosystem. We outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in this vibrant and rapidly evolving field.

  13. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  14. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered.

  15. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  16. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiningsari D

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dwi Budiningsari,1,2 Suzana Shahar,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,1 Susetyowati Susetyowati2 1Dietetic Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Health Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Background/objectives: Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT.Subjects and methods: A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge, animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish, and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh, with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test.Results: There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05, protein (r=0.843, P<0.05, carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05, and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05. Nutrient intakes as assessed using

  17. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  18. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

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    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Plants are the natural producers of medicinal agents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolics. These phytocompounds alone or in combination act as a therapeutic agent in various disease complications. Various chemical reagents are used to determine the major phytochemicals present in plant parts. Protocols involved in screening of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, fixed oils, and fats are shown in this chapter.

  20. The Health Potential of Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals: Notable Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2016-05-18

    Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of five to eight portions (400-600 g) daily of fruits and vegetables to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, poor cognitive performance, and other diet-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies. Much of their potential for disease prevention is thought to be provided by phytochemicals, among which the preventive activity of antioxidants is most well documented. Since numerous meta-studies published indicate variable and often contradictory results about the impact of isolated phytochemicals on health, their consumption as supplements must be carried out with care, because doses may exceed the recommended nutritional intake. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that whole fruit and vegetable intake is more important in providing health benefits than that of only one of their constituent, because of additive and synergistic effects. This review describes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of some selected fruits and vegetables. Importantly, since some phytochemicals regulate the same genes and pathways targeted by drugs, diets rich in fruits and vegetables in combination with medical therapies are being considered as novel approaches to treatment. Therefore, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetable might be a promising tool for the prevention and/or amelioration of a wide range of diseases.

  1. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). Subjects and methods A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. Results There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source protein; 0.735 for non-animal source protein). Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.91 and 0.96 among respondents. There were no differences in energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake estimated among health care staff (P=0.967; P=0.951; P=0.888; P=0.847, respectively). Conclusion In conclusion, PDAT provides

  2. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings.

  3. Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Phani Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is a major health problem in the 21st century, and many neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer′s Disease dementia, cerebrovascular impairment, seizure disorders, head injury and Parkinsonism, can be severly functionally debilitating in nature. In course of time, a number of neurotransmitters and signaling molecules have been identified which have been considered as therapeutic targets. Conventional as well newer molecules have been tried against these targets. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants play a vital role in maintaining the brain′s chemical balance by influencing the function of receptors for the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. In traditional practice of medicine, several plants have been reported to treat cognitive disorders. In this review paper, we attempt to throw some light on the use of medicinal herbs to treat cognitive disorders. In this review, we briefly deal with some medicinal herbs focusing on their neuroprotective active phytochemical substances like fatty acids, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes etc. The resistance of neurons to various stressors by activating specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors are also discussed. It was observed in the review that a number of herbal medicines used in Ayurvedic practices as well Chinese medicines contain multiple compounds and phytochemicals that may have a neuroprotective effect which may prove beneficial in different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Though the presence of receptors or transporters for polyphenols or other phytochemicals of the herbal preparations, in brain tissues remains to be ascertained, compounds with multiple targets appear as a potential and promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with a multifactorial etiology.

  4. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

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    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  5. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  6. Phytochemicals and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian T

    2007-05-01

    Epidemiological studies showing a protective effect of diets rich in fruits and vegetables against cancer have focused attention on the possibility that biologically-active plant secondary metabolites exert anti-carcinogenic activity. This huge group of compounds, now collectively termed 'phytochemicals', provides much of the flavour and colour of edible plants and the beverages derived from them. Many of these compounds also exert anti-carcinogenic effects in animal models of cancer, and much progress has been made in defining their many biological activities at the molecular level. Such mechanisms include the detoxification and enhanced excretion of carcinogens, the suppression of inflammatory processes such as cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inhibition of mitosis and the induction of apoptosis at various stages in the progression and promotion of cancer. However, much of the research on phytochemicals has been conducted in vitro, with little regard to the bioavailability and metabolism of the compounds studied. Many phytochemicals present in plant foods are poorly absorbed by human subjects, and this fraction usually undergoes metabolism and rapid excretion. Some compounds that do exert anti-carcinogenic effects at realistic doses may contribute to the putative benefits of plant foods such as berries, brassica vegetables and tea, but further research with human subjects is required to fully confirm and quantify such benefits. Chemoprevention using pharmacological doses of isolated compounds, or the development of 'customised' vegetables, may prove valuable but such strategies require a full risk-benefit analysis based on a thorough understanding of the long-term biological effects of what are often surprisingly active compounds.

  7. GLOBOX: A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    2010-06-15

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for the calculation of LCA characterisation factors for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The model is differentiated on the level of 239 countries/territories and 50 seas/oceans. Each region has its own set of homogeneous compartments, and the regions are interconnected by atmospheric and aquatic flows. Multimedia transport and degradation calculations are largely based on the EUSES 2.0 multimedia model, and are supplemented by specific equations to account for the advective air and water transport between different countries and/or seas. Metal-specific equations are added to account for speciation in fresh and marine surface water. Distribution parameters for multimedia transport equations are differentiated per country or sea with respect to geographic features, hydrology, and climate. The model has been tested with nitrobenzene as a test chemical, for emissions to all countries in the world. Spatially differentiated characterisation factors turn out to show wide ranges of variation between countries, especially for releases to inland water and soil compartments. Geographic position, distribution of lakes and rivers and variations in environmental temperature and rain rate are decisive parameters for a number of different characterisation factors. Population density and dietary intake play central roles in the variation of characterisation factors for human toxicity. Among the countries that show substantial deviations from average values of the characterisation factors are not only small and remote islands, but also countries with a significant economic production rate, as indicated by their GDPs. It is concluded that spatial differentiation between countries is an important

  8. Validation of a web-based questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of Brazilian children aged 7-10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (CAAFE) comprises an online questionnaire to self-report diet and physical activity of Brazilian schoolchildren. The present study aimed to assess the validity (matches, omissions and intrusions) and moderating factors of the CAAFE. Direct obs...

  9. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is... discussion at the workshop. As background for the workshop, a literature review document on these...

  10. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  11. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  12. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Wernimont, Susan M; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M

    2015-12-01

    Picky eating (also known as fussy, faddy or choosy eating) is usually classified as part of a spectrum of feeding difficulties. It is characterised by an unwillingness to eat familiar foods or to try new foods, as well as strong food preferences. The consequences may include poor dietary variety during early childhood. This, in turn, can lead to concern about the nutrient composition of the diet and thus possible adverse health-related outcomes. There is no single widely accepted definition of picky eating, and therefore there is little consensus on an appropriate assessment measure and a wide range of estimates of prevalence. In this review we first examine common definitions of picky eating used in research studies, and identify the methods that have been used to assess picky eating. These methods include the use of subscales in validated questionnaires, such as the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire as well as study-specific question(s). Second, we review data on the prevalence of picky eating in published studies. For comparison we present prevalence data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in children at four time points (24, 38, 54 and 65 months of age) using a study-specific question. Finally, published data on the effects of picky eating on dietary intakes (both variety and nutrient composition) are reviewed, and the need for more health-related data and longitudinal data is discussed.

  13. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA MAURICIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the validity we compared results obtained by the FFQs with those obtained by four 4-day 24-hour recalls at three month intervals. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using regression analysis and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of log-e and calorie-adjusted nutrient scores. Results. Mean values for intake of most nutrients assessed by the two food frequency questionnaires were similar. However, means for the 24-hr recall were significantly lower. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes, assessed by questionnaires, administered one year apart, ranged from 0.38 for cholesterol to 0.54 for crude fiber. Correlation coefficients between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, measured by diet recalls, and the first FFQ ranged from 0.12 for polyunsaturated fatty acids to 0.67 for saturated fatty acids. Regression coefficients between 24-hr recall and FFQ,s were all significant were significant for all nutrients, except for polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, vitamin E and Zinc. Conclusions. These data indicate that this semi-quantitative FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful estimate by which to categorize individuals by level of past nutrient intake. However, its application outside Mexico City or in different age and gender populations will require additional modifications and validation efforts.

  14. Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

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    Mirmiran Parvin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC, body adiposity index (BAI among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend . Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend . There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend . Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.

  15. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

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    Dahl Lisbeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OHD in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OHD and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods from China: levels, dietary intake, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Wen, Sheng; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2013-07-03

    A national survey of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in various foodstuffs from the Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2007 was conducted for the first time. Meats and aquatic foods had the highest average sum PBDEs (192.5 and 190.6 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively). For indicator PCBs, the highest average concentration was found in aquatic foods (628.7 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight). On the basis of measured PBDE and indicator PCB levels, the dietary intake estimate was subsequently calculated for the nonoccupationally exposed population in China. For adults, average estimated dietary intakes of PBDEs and indicator PCBs were 0.76 and 2.34 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, respectively. Health risk assessment of PBDEs using a MOE approach recommended by EFSA suggested unlikely health concern with respect to current dietary intake of PBDEs in China.

  17. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day...

  18. Assessing U.S. sodium intake through dietary data and urine biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium intake is directly related to blood pressure, a primary risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Reducing intake is estimated to save billions in U.S. health care dollars annually. Current public health recommendations and efforts targeting sodium reductions make accurate monitoring of pop...

  19. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method accurately assesses sodium intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate and practical methods to monitor sodium intake of the U.S. population are critical given current sodium reduction strategies. While the gold standard for estimating sodium intake is the 24 hour urine collection, few studies have used this biomarker to evaluate the accuracy of a dietary ins...

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  1. Intake of radioactive materials as assessed by the duplicate diet method in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Nonaka, Shunkichi; Tada, Jun Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    A large quantity of radioactive materials was released from Reactor-II of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP). People living in the area affected by the release are concerned about internal exposures from the daily intakes of contaminated foodstuffs. In order to assess whether the people should be concerned, Co-op Fukushima (Consumer Co-operative in Fukushima Prefecture) conducted a broad survey of radiocaesium in daily meals for which local inhabitants voluntarily provided a set of duplicate meals. Analyses by the duplicate diet method were conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 and from June 2012 to September 2012, each covering 100 families throughout the prefecture. Among the 200 meals thus analysed, 12 were found to have (134)Cs and/or (137)Cs concentrations exceeding 1 Bq kg(-1). Even with the largest radiocaesium value in our survey, daily consumption of such meals throughout a year gave an annual committed effective dose that did not exceed 0.1 mSv.

  2. Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation.

  3. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY Bauhinia forficata (FABACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the results of preliminary phytochemical screening, Toxicological Artemia salina bioassay and antimicrobial activity in Bauhinia forficata link, known for popularly Pata-de-vaca. The Bauhinia is a pantropical genus, its species are used in the treatment of several infections and diseases, especially diabetes. The phytochemical prospection used crude ethanolic extract (EBE) of the stem bark of Bauhinia forficata Link; the toxicity analyses in Artemia salina for give...

  5. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults....... Design: In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6...

  6. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  7. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  8. Probabilistic intake assessment of multiple compounds as a tool to quantify the nutritional-toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Verdonck, Frederik; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Willems, Jan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-04-01

    Seafood represents a natural source of valuable nutrients (e.g., long chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), vitamin D, and iodine), but the favourable health perception is troubled by the presence of contaminants (e.g., PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, and (methyl) mercury (MeHg)). This dualism forms the basis for an important public health conflict. The objective of this study was to calculate and evaluate the simultaneous intake of multiple beneficial and harmful compounds (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, iodine, (Me)Hg, PCBs, and dioxin-like compounds) via seafood consumption in Belgium. A methodology and a software module were developed for executing probabilistic assessments of the simultaneous intake of multiple compounds leading to better insight in the problematic nature of food items involving both health benefits and risks. The simulations concerning seafood consumption in Belgium predicted that, as far as only seafood consumption is concerned, the considered populations do not reach a sufficiently high intake for the three nutrients considered (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, and iodine). Regarding the contaminants, (Me)Hg contamination of seafood on the Belgian market does not seem to be an issue of major toxicological concern. In contrast, for dioxin-like compounds the tolerable daily intake is reached by people with high seafood consumption.

  9. RAPD and phytochemical analysis of Thymus moroderi plantlets after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Medina, Ana; Casas, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation is at present the most reliable strategy to preserve plant germplasm. When aromatic plants are the object of conservation it is necessary to assess not only the genetic but also the phytochemical stability to ensure that plant material maintains its qualities after storage. In this work we present molecular and phytochemical stability data related to a previously described vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for Thymus moroderi Pau ex Martínez. RAPD markers have been used to assess the genetic stability of T. moroderi explants and revealed 0.34 percent of variation in the cryopreserved material studied. Phytochemical data collected from GC-MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts from cryopreserved plantlets rendered a profile in which 1,8-cineole (14.5 percent), camphor (5.9 percent) and borneol (5.2 percent) were the major components. Both data confirmed the suitability of the cryopreservation protocol applied.

  10. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  11. Relative validity and reproducibility of a parent-administered semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing food intake in Danish children aged 3-9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Andersen, Tine; Perez-Cueto Eulert, Federico Jose Armando; Toft, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) applied in the evaluation of a community intervention study, SoL-Bornholm, for estimating food intakes. DESIGN: The reference measure was a 4 d estimated food record. The SFFQ was completed two times...... with the food records, especially for vegetables. For most intakes, the mean difference increased with increasing intake. Gross misclassification was on average higher for energy and nutrients (17 %) than for foods (8 %). Spearman correlation coefficients were significant for twelve out of fourteen intakes......, ranging from 0·29 to 0·63 for foods and from 0·12 to 0·48 for energy and nutrients. Comparing the repeated SFFQ administrations, the intakes of the first SFFQ were slightly higher than those of the second SFFQ. Gross misclassification was low for most intakes; on average 6 % for foods and 8 % for energy...

  12. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  13. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  14. Phytochemicals in Food and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-29

    The International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF2015) was held from June 26 to 29, 2015, in Shanghai, China. It is for the first time that a Phytochemical Society of Europe conference took place in China, which provided an opportunity for 270 scientists from 48 countries to communicate their up-to-date knowledge on phytochemicals. ISPMF2015 comprised exciting and various programs with 16 sessions, including 12 plenary lectures, 20 invited talks, 55 short oral presentations, and more than 130 posters. With the help of Prof. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a special issue of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition containing 11 reviews from scientists was presented in this conference. In this special issue, bioactive flavonoids and polysaccharides for human health received significant attention.

  15. Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake – two case studies: folate and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Pfeiffer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time.The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary, and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism.Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys.

  16. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah C; Benjamin, Sara E; Ward, Dianne S

    2007-04-01

    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published. This article reviews the development and testing of a diet observation system for child care facilities that occurred during a larger intervention trial. Development of this system was divided into five phases, done in conjunction with a larger intervention study; (a) protocol development, (b) training of field staff, (c) certification of field staff in a laboratory setting, (d) implementation in a child-care setting, and (e) certification of field staff in a child-care setting. During the certification phases, methods were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of all observers at estimating types and amounts of food and beverages commonly served in child care. Tests of agreement show strong agreement among five observers, as well as strong accuracy between the observers and 20 measured portions of foods and beverages with a mean intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.99. This structured observation system shows promise as a valid and reliable approach for assessing dietary intake of children in child care and makes a valuable contribution to the growing body of literature on the dietary assessment of young children.

  17. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  18. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  19. Assessment of traditional knowledge of the antidiabetic plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas in the context of recent phytochemical and pharmacological advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakhi Chakraborty; Swarnendu Roy; Vivekananda Mandal

    2016-01-01

    Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, a part of Eastern Himalayan Hotspot, is characterized by its richness of plant diversity. Herbal medicine has been one of the most popular and reliable healing practices among the different ethnic groups of this region for ages. However, the lack of documentation practice by the traditional healers has led to obscurity regarding the effi cacy of herbal medicine among the present generation, though they have to depend on the same quite often. Meanwhile, several reviews have attempted to document the plants used for the treatment of diabetes from this region, but interestingly, very few research works can be obtained regarding the characterization of antidiabetic properties of the plants of this region. Therefore, it demands a better understanding of the potentiality of these plants in the purview of scientifi c evidence. This review article reports 55 such plant species which have been reported to be frequently used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and our objective was to validate the potentiality of the plants in the light of recent phytochemical and pharmacological researches being carried out localy or elsewhere.

  20. Assessment of developmental cardiotoxic effects of some commonly used phytochemicals in mouse embryonic D3 stem cell differentiation and chick embryonic cardiomyocyte micromass culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Omar J; McAlpine, Roseanna; Chiewhatpong, Phasawee; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-09-01

    Pregnant women often use herbal medicines to alleviate symptoms of pregnancy. The active phytochemicals eugenol (from holy basil) and α-bisabolol (from chamomile) are recommended to promote calmness and reduce stress. There is evidence that both eugenol and α-bisabolol possess pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects and induce reactive oxygen species. The potential effect was examined by monitoring cardiomyocyte contractile activity (differentiation), cell activity, protein content and ROS production for mouse D3 embryonic stem cell and ‎chick embryonic micromass culture. The results showed that eugenol (0.01-80μM) demonstrated effects on cell activity (both systems) and ROS production (stem cell system only), as well as decreasing the contractile activity and protein content at high concentrations in both systems. Additionally, α-bisabolol (0.01-80μM) at high concentrations decreased the contractile activity and cell activity and in the stem cell system induced ROS production and decreased protein content. The results suggest only low concentrations should be ingested in pregnancy.‎.

  1. The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Sepideh; Zayeri, Farid; Niroomand, Mahtab; Najarzadeh, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The results of the studies on the effects of sodium on bone metabolism have been inconsistent. There is no definitive answer to the question of whether sodium restriction can be associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis. What reinforces the necessity of designing this study is the lack of findings with the approach of examining the effects of sodium on bone in our country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 185 retired female teachers aged 45 to 70. Sodium intake was evaluated using two methods: A 24-hour recall and a 12-hour urine sample. To assess bone health, ORAI index was calculated for each individual. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, potassium and serum vitamin D and PTH were measured as laboratory variables. To compare the general characteristics of the participants across tertiles of urinary sodium, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Phosphorous, calcium and potassium urinary excretion rate increased with the increase in urinary sodium (p<0.05). However, the changes in serum vitamin D, and PTH levels across tertiles of urinary sodium were not significant. Changes in urinary sodium levels were not significant (p=0.933) in ORAI groups (sorted by rating). The relationship between urinary calcium and sodium was apparent in low calcium intake (r=0.415, p<0.001), but not in higher calcium intake (r=0.144, p=0.177). Conclusion: Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI. PMID:27493921

  2. Assessment of the dietary intake of total flavan-3-ols, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2014-04-28

    Dietary interventions with flavan-3-ols have shown beneficial effects on vascular function. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA) and theaflavins in the European Union (EU) and determined their main food sources using the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Data for adults aged 18-64 years were available from fourteen European countries, and intake was determined using the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition Database, developed for the present study and based on the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. The mean habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, theaflavins and PA ranged from 181 mg/d (Czech Republic) to 793 mg/d (Ireland). The highest intakes of flavan-3-ol monomers and theaflavins were observed in Ireland (191/505 mg/d) and the lowest intakes in Spain (24/9 mg/d). In contrast, the daily intake of PA was highest in Spain (175 mg/d) and lowest in The Netherlands (96 mg/d). Main sources were tea (62%), pome fruits (11%), berries (3%) and cocoa products (3%). Tea was the major single contributor to monomer intake (75%), followed by pome fruits (6%). Pome fruits were also the main source of PA (28%). The present study provides important data on the population-based intake of flavanols in the EU and demonstrates that dietary intake amounts for flavan-3-ol monomers, PA and theaflavins vary significantly across European countries. The average habitual intake of flavan-3-ols is considerably below the amounts used in most dietary intervention studies.

  3. Comparison between Dietary Assessment Methods for Determining Associations between Nutrient Intakes and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Vanessa A.; Harris, Margaret; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Thomson, Cynthia; Weber, Judith L; Houtkooper, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to identify the role of nutrition in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. The goal of this study is to compare the equivalency of nutrient intakes assessed by diet records (DR) and the Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire (AFFQ) and the associations of these nutrients with bone mineral density (BMD). This is a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data that was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997) of postmenopausal women (n=244; 55.7±4.6 years) participating ...

  4. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  5. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  6. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  7. Assessment of time interval between tramadol intake and seizure and second drug-induced attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetic drug which is prescribed in moderate and severe pain. Tramadol overdose can induce severe complications such as consciousness impairment and convulsions. This study was done to determine the convulsions incidence after tramadol use until one week after hospital discharge. Methods: This prospective study was done in tramadol overdose patients without uncontrolled epilepsy and head injury history. All cases admitted in Loghman and Rasol Akram Hospitals, Tehran, Iran from 1, April 2011 to 1, April 2012 were included and observed for at least 12 hours. Time interval between tramadol intake and first seizure were record. Then, patients with second drug-induced seizure were recognized and log time between the first and second seizure was analyzed. The patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU if clinical worsening status observed. One week after hospital discharge, telephone follow-up was conducted. Results: A total of 150 patients with a history of tramadol induced seizures (141 men, 9 women, age: 23.23±5.94 years were enrolled in this study. Convulsion was seen in 104 patients (69.3%. In 8 out of 104 patients (7.6% two or more convulsion was seen. Time interval between tramadol use and the onset of the first and second seizure were 0.93±0.17 and 2.5±0.75 hours, respectively. Tramadol induced seizures are more likely to occur in males and patients with a history of drug abuse. Finally, one hundred forty nine patients (99.3% were discharged with good condition and the only one patient died from tramadol overdose. Conclusion: The results of the study showed tramadol induced seizure most frequently occurred within the first 4 hours of tramadol intake. The chance of experiencing a second seizure exists in the susceptible population. Thus, 4 hours after drug intake is the best time for patients to be hospital discharged.

  8. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the human body is responsible for the pathogenesis of some diseases. The scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress of organisms. It has been reported that intake of vegetables and fruits is inversely associated with the risk of many chronic diseases, and antioxidant phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are considered to be responsible for these health benefits. Antioxidant phytochemicals can be found in many foods and medicinal plants, and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. They often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes recent progress on the health benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals, and discusses their potential mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  9. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  10. An assessment of dietary intake and state of nutritional in hypertensive patients from rural and urban areas of Greater Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Duda, Grażyna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Piątek, Jacek; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional factors connected with the prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban areas of Greater Poland. The study consisted of 308 people aged 35-62, with essential hypertension but without any other coexisting disorders. The studied group consisted of 154 residents of Poznań (79 women and 75 men) and 152 inhabitants of rural areas in Greater Poland (78 women and 74 men). Participants were randomly assigned to the study. Nutritional state assessment was based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Dietary intake were assessed with a 24-hour nutritional survey from 3 consecutive days. Analysis of anthropometric examination results showed a large prevalence of obesity in the studied group. Moreover people living in rural areas had a significantly higher BMI and body fat percentage than those living in a city. It has been proved that the patients with hypertension consume food with an excess of fat and a shortage of fibre, antioxidant vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The total food rations of rural dwellers consisted of larger amounts of fat, cholesterol and vitamin A compared to those of city dwellers. Present studies have shown incorrect dietary intake among patients with hypertension, often related to the coexistence of overweight and obesity. Obtained results indicate significantly worse eating habits and state of nutrition among rural inhabitants.

  11. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

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    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories

  12. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  13. Guidance for the assessment of a chronic intake of workers in a nuclear fuel facility in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, A.M.; Spinella, M.R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires - Republica Argentina (Argentina); Gomez Parada, I. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccio, Buenos Aires - Republica Argentina (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Todays trend for the design of internal dose monitoring programmes of workers applying the ICRP respiratory tract model requires taking into account the specific absorption parameters of the compounds and the physical data of the workplace aerosols. The aim of this analysis is to determine the specific ALIs and to establish reference levels for the assessment of chronic intake of workers, using the data from individual monitoring (pulmonary burden and urinary and fecal excretion) for natural uranium and uranium with 3.5 % and 20 % enrichment. In this paper the I.M.B.A. and AIDE software were used applying the respiratory tract model and the uranium biokinetic model published by ICRP taking into consideration the specific parameters of the uranium compounds. On the basis of this analysis, the relevance of lung, urine and faeces measurements in the individual monitoring of workers for internal dosimetry purposes is discussed It is concluded that these monitoring methods are useful for confirming that ALIs have not been exceeded and to assure that daily intakes are below the toxicological limits (2 mg/d) but it is necessary considering practical limitations of each method. (authors)

  14. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  15. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh Anthony I; Aiyegoro Olayinka A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents ...

  16. Assessment of consumers' level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, Joanne; Henson, Spencer; L'abbe, Mary

    2013-10-25

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers' level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers' engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers' engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  17. Assessment of consumers’ level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, JoAnne; Henson, Spencer; L'Abbe, Mary

    2014-02-01

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers’ level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers’ engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers’ engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  18. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  19. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  20. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, pnutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with nutritional risk had more pronounced nutritional deficiencies. Despite a too low energy value of foods among individuals with correct nutrition, their anthropometric parameters paradoxically showed the presence of excessive fatty tissue. The most frequent

  1. Probabilistic intake assessment and body burden estimation of dioxin-like substances in background conditions and during a short food contamination episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, B; De Henauw, S; Dewettinck, K; Talloen, W; Goeyens, L; De Backer, G; Willems, J L

    2002-07-01

    The objective was to perform a dioxin body burden estimate based on a probabilistic intake assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs because of the so-called 1999 'Belgian dioxin incident'. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to combine detailed 7-day food intake data on the individual level from a sample of 14-18-year-old adolescents with 'background' and 'incident-related' food contamination data. In background conditions, 3% of the adolescents had an intake dioxin-like contaminants, while fish constituted the main source at the higher percentiles of intake. During the dioxin incident, the estimated median dioxin intake showed a moderate increase. At the 99th percentile, the highest intake level, and the 95% upper bound uncertainty level, peak body burden-23.73 ng TEQ kg(-1) bw-remained below body burdens that in the experimental animal or in man are accompanied by a population-based observable increase in the incidence of adverse effects. The 1999 Belgian dioxin incident most likely did not affect public health in Belgium in a measurable way, although exceptions remain possible on the individual level.

  2. Assessment of Dietary Intakes of Filipino-Americans: Implications for Food Frequency Questionnaire Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Matt, Georg E.; Rock, Cheryl L.; de la Rosa, Ruth; Conway, Terry L.; Romero, Romina A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe food consumption practices of Filipino-American adults, to describe how they respond to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a function of acculturation and sex, and to suggest modifications to the FFQ to improve dietary assessment among Filipino-Americans. Methods: Twenty-one…

  3. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.; Kirsten, W.F.A.; Gummow, R.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on

  4. Monitoring dietary intake and physical activity electronically: Feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mobile-based ecological momentary assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spook, J.E.; Paulussen, T.; Kok, G.; Empelen, P. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment

  5. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  6. Dose assessment for inhalation intakes in complex, energetic environments: experience from the US Capstone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Raymond A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Because of the lack of existing information needed to evaluate the risks from inhalation exposures to depleted uranium (DU) aerosols of US soldiers during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the US Department of Defense funded an experimental study to measure the characteristics of DU aerosols created when Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles are struck with large-caliber DU penetrators, and a dose and risk assessment for individuals present in such vehicles. This paper describes some of the difficulties experienced in dose assessment modelling of the very complex DU aerosols created in the Capstone studies, e.g. high concentrations, heterogeneous aerosol properties, non-lognormal particle size distributions, triphasic in vitro dissolution and rapid time-varying functions of both DU air concentration and particle size. The approaches used to solve these problems along with example results are presented.

  7. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  8. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

  9. A study on first intake assessments of in-patient referrals to psychiatric rehabilitation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an important component in mental health services. The rehabilitation needs of patients with mental illness have been highlighted in various studies. The studies on in-patient referrals to rehabilitation services however are sparse. This study describes the clinical and demographic details and the reasons for referrals to rehabilitation services during the in-patients stay. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured pro forma was used for the assessment of in-patients referred for the psychiatric rehabilitation services. The pro forma included socio-demographic details such as background, family resources, illness related details such as symptom status, risk assessment, medication details. The total number of referrals for a period of 5 months was collected and coded. Results: The total number of referrals for a period of 5 months was 216 and there were 197 forms available for the study. The mean age of the sample was 31.48 ± 10.46 years. Vocational rehabilitation was the commonest reason for referral to the in-patient services. Severe mental disorders were the most common diagnosis of patients refereed to the services. Conclusions: Patients with severe mental illness were most often referred to the in-patient services. This indicates that we need include to rehabilitation in the management plan at the earliest. Vocational rehabilitation is the most common reason for referrals and there is a need to develop services to cater to these needs.

  10. Risk assessment on mixture toxicity of arsenic, zinc and copper intake from consumption of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskål), cultured using contaminated groundwater in Southwest Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Chao

    2009-07-01

    Studies on bioaccumulation of arsenic, zinc, and copper in freshwater-cultured milkfish were carried out to assess the risks on human health. The arsenic, zinc, and copper levels in milkfish showed significant positive correlations to the arsenic, zinc, and copper concentrations in pond water. The hazard index of arsenic, zinc, and copper mixture for intake of milkfish (1.75 +/- 0.65) demonstrated that intake of in this way contaminated milkfish will result in non-carcinogenic risk. The target cancer risk of arsenic for intake of the milkfish (2.74 x 10(-4) +/- 1.18 x 10(-4)) indicated that the inhabitants were exposed to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic risk.

  11. Emerging Applications of Metabolomics in Studying Chemopreventive Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals from diet and herbal medicines are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents to block and suppress carcinogenesis. Chemical diversity of phytochemicals, together with complex metabolic interactions between phytochemicals and biological system, can overwhelm the capacity of traditional analytical platforms, and thus pose major challenges in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals. Recent progresses in metabolomics have transformed it to beco...

  12. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy

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    Andrew M. Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in cancer therapy is a common condition and there is a need for new options in therapeutic management. While phytochemicals have been proposed as one pain management solution, knowledge of their utility is limited. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the biomedical literature for the use of phytochemicals for management of cancer therapy pain in human subjects. Of an initial database search of 1,603 abstracts, 32 full-text articles were eligible for further assessment. Only 7 of these articles met all inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The average relative risk of phytochemical versus control was 1.03 [95% CI 0.59 to 2.06]. In other words (although not statistically significant, patients treated with phytochemicals were slightly more likely than patients treated with control to obtain successful management of pain in cancer therapy. We identified a lack of quality research literature on this subject and thus were unable to demonstrate a clear therapeutic benefit for either general or specific use of phytochemicals in the management of cancer pain. This lack of data is especially apparent for psychotropic phytochemicals, such as the Cannabis plant (marijuana. Additional implications of our findings are also explored.

  13. Can thyroid size still be considered as a useful tool for assessing iodine intake?

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    Arkadiusz Zygmunt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has always been very difficult to precisely define a goitre. For years, the borderline values have been sought which could be universally used in such evaluations. However, presented reference values were very often disappointing as they proved to be either too restrictive or too liberal. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the two methods of goitre evaluation: 1 traditional, based on ultrasound reference ranges for the thyroid size, 2 based on the analysis of thyroid volume (V referred to the body surface area (BSA. Materials and Method. For this purpose, the study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of goitre and ioduria among 102 school-aged children in Opoczno, Poland. The study group comprised 59 girls and 43 boys; age range: 8–12 years. Results. The incidence of goitre among the examined children varied from 1.0–11.8% in relation to the age, and from 0–14.5% in relation to the BSA, depending on the references ranges used. Conclusion. Analysis of V/BSA ratio is a better estimation of the size of the thyroid gland than the evaluation of thyroid size based on traditional ultrasound reference values. Summing up, relating the size of the thyroid gland to BSA is a good, sensitive tool for such analysis, and can be used for comparisons of different populations, as well as surveys conducted at different time points.

  14. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  15. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

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    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  16. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  17. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  18. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases.

  19. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9–84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1–98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  20. Phytochemical notes on cissampelos spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Galvis Luis Enrique

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cissampelos ovalifolia D. C. and C. pareira L. from Guyana, India and several regions of Colombia are discussed. A description of extraction procedures, isolation, purification, chromatographic (CC, TLC and spectroscopic techniques (IR, H +-NMR, MS as well as a comparison of the BBI alkaloids present in the material studied,
    are presented.Se discuten aspectos fitoquímicos y farmacológicos de Cissampelos ovalifolia D. C. y C. pareira L. y se describen procedimientos de extracción, aislamiento, purificación, crornatoqraña (CC, CCF y espectroscopia (IR, H+ -RMN, SM de dos alcaloides BBI aislados de esas especies. Se hace una
    comparación entre material estudiado proveniente de la Guayana Británica, la India y varias partes de Colombia.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EUPHORBIA RESINIFERA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Benmehdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at detecting the phytochemicals and evaluating the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia resinifera known for their medicinal properties in folk medicine. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aerial part of Euphorbia resinifera. The assessment of antifungal activity was performed in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum. The antibacterial effect was studied by the agar direct contact method using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains. Then, the antioxidant evaluation of the extracts of alkaloids, flavonoids and methanolic extract was performed by DPPH• free radical scavenging and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC techniques. The phytochemical estimation revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponosides. These phytochemicals were isolated from the plant with yields of 0.7 %, 0.4 % and 0.35 %. HPTLC screening provided qualitatively the antioxidant effect of extracts under study. Furthermore, it was found that the methanolic, flavonoids and alkaloids extracts had a potent DPPH scavenging potency with IC50 values of 0.0086; 0.378 and 1.171 mg/mL, respectively. Finally, the results of antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract showed a pronounced antifungal activity against the tested strains. The percentage inhibition values were found to be in the range of 64.14 to 85.51 % against Aspergillus flavus and 60.33 to 92.28 % against Penicillium expansum. In contrast, the same extract inhibited only the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Further study is recommended to isolate and elucidate the active compounds and to evaluate in vivo their antioxidant and antimicrobial effect.

  2. New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tartrazine An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Héraud, Fanny; Bemrah, Nawel; Gauchard, Françoise; Lorino, Tristan; Lambré, Claude; Frémy, Jean Marc; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the JECFA in 1964, many new studies have been conducted, some of which have incriminated tartrazine in food intolerance reactions. The aims of this work are to update the hazard characterization and to revaluate the safety of tartrazine. Our bibliographical review of animal studies confirms the initial hazard assessment conducted by the JECFA, and accordingly the ADI established at 7.5mg/kg bw. From our data, in France, the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile. It may therefore be concluded that from a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not represent a risk for the consumer. It appears more difficult to show a clear relationship between ingestion of tartrazine and the development of intolerance reactions in patients. These reactions primarily occur in patients who also suffer from recurrent urticaria or asthma. The link between tartrazine consumption and these reactions is often overestimated, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is estimated to be less than 0.12% in the general population. Generally, the population at risk is aware of the importance of food labelling, with the view of avoiding consumption of tartrazine. However, it has to be mentioned that products such as ice creams, desserts, cakes and fine bakery are often sold loose without any labelling.

  3. Glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of selected Pakistani potato cultivars and their dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Asghar, Ali; Yasin, Muhammad; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) are naturally occurring toxic compounds in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) that cause acute intoxication in humans after their consumption. Present research was conducted to evaluate α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions by high-performance liquid chromatography method in selected Pakistani potato cultivars. The α-solanine content varies 45.98 ± 1.63 to 2742.60 ± 92.97 mg/100 g of dry weight (DW) in peel and from 4.01 ± 0.14 to 2466.56 ± 87.21 mg/100 g of DW in flesh. Similarly, α-chaconine content varied from 4.42 ± 0.16 to 6818.40 ± 211.07 mg/100 g of DW in potato peel and from 3.94 ± 0.14 to 475.33 ± 16.81 mg/100 g DW in flesh portion. The TGA concentration varied from 177.20 ± 6.26 to 5449.90 ± 192.68 mg/100 g of DW in peel and from 3.08 ± 0.11 to 14.69 ± 0.52 mg/100 g of DW in flesh portion of all the potato cultivars tested. All the potato cultivars contained lower concentration of TGA than the limits recommended as safe, except 2 cultivars, that is FD8-3 (2539.18 ± 89.77 mg/100 g of DW) and Cardinal (506.16 ± 17.90 mg/kg). The dietary intake assessment of potato cultivars revealed that Cardinal, FD 35-36, FD 8-3, and FD 3-9 contained higher amount of TGA in whole potato, although FD 8-3 only possessed higher content of TGA (154.93 ± 7.75) in its flesh portion rendering it unfit for human consumption. Practical Application:  This paper was based on the research conducted on toxic compounds present in all possible potato cultivars in Pakistan. Actually, we quantify the toxic compounds (glycoalkaloids) of potato cultivars through HPLC and their dietary assessment. This paper revealed safety assessment and their application in food industries especially potato processing.

  4. Elevated BMI and Male Sex Are Associated with Greater Underreporting of Caloric Intake as Assessed by Doubly Labeled Water12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Palmrose, Christina A; Burger, Kyle S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccuracies in energy intake (EI) measurement hinder identification of risk factors that predict weight gain and evaluation of obesity prevention and treatment interventions. Research has used objective measures of EI to identify underreporting correlates, producing mixed results, suggesting the need to examine novel potential correlates. Objective: With the use of an objective measure of EI from doubly labeled water (DLW) this report examined multiple potential underreporting correlates. Methods: Adolescents from 2 studies (study 1, n = 91; mean age: 18.4 ± 0.58 y; 100% female; study 2, n = 162; mean age: 15.2 ± 1.99 y; 82 female adolescents; 80 male adolescents) completed a DLW assessment of EI, a food-frequency questionnaire, and measures of perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, food-cue reactivity, eating disorder symptoms, socioeconomic status, and neural response to food; BMI (in kg/m2) was measured over a 2-y follow-up. Results: Elevated BMI correlated with underreported EI in study 1 (r = 0.26, P Underreporting correlated negatively (r = −0.29; uncorr P Underreporting did not predict future change in BMI in either study. Conclusions: Findings document marked underreporting and replicate evidence that BMI correlates positively with underreporting and extends this literature by revealing that several novel factors were unrelated to underreporting and further that neural responsivity to food correlated with underreporting, suggesting that adolescents who showed reduced responsivity in a motor control region to food receipt and elevated responsivity of gustatory regions to anticipated palatable food receipt showed greater underreporting. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00433680 and NCT02084836. PMID:26338886

  5. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  6. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  7. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Neelakantan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%. The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  8. Phytochemical diversity in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

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    D. H. Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal is an important commercial medicinal crop, which is considered as an alternate to Ginseng. It is a superior class herb with multiple benefits. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the plant have been used for ages in Ayurveda. The root has been used most frequently for therapeutic uses and is a constituent of over 200 formulations in Ayruvedha, Siddha and Unani medicines. Biologically active chemical constituents are withanolides with adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, memory boosting and stress relieving properties. It is also protective towards arthritis, cartilage degradation, leprosy etc. Owing to its diverse therapeutic uses, there is renewed interest in phytochemistry of this crop. A large number of withanolides have been identified and different therapeutic activities are associated with different constituents viz., withaferine A associated with anti-inflammatory activity and is a safe radiosensitizer/chemotherapeutic agent, withanolide A and withanoside IV known for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and Withanone for anti-cancer and antiaging activities, etc. The success of genetic improvement in this medicinal crop strongly depends on diversity of phytochemical content along with high potential for root yield. Though there are many reports on diversity for root yield and associated traits, systematic studies on chemical diversity are scarce and limited. Therefore efforts were made for systematic collection and evaluation of germplasm from diverse geographical locations in India. One hundred and eight selected accessions were assessed for chemical diversity. The accessions differed both quantitatively and qualitatively for withalonides estimated by HPLC method. The total withalonide content ranged

  9. Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria: I. Nutrient intake and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabayek, Magda M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of nutrient intake and food consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics and dietary data were determined in a sample of 231 disabled children chosen randomly from five specialized day care centers. Results showed that the age of the sample ranged from less than 7 to 24 years with a mean age of 12.6 +/- 4.7 years. Mental retardation represents the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and then Autism Male subjects were found to consume higher nutrients than females at all ages except age under seven years. The intake of both gender was less than the recommended for energy, calcium, vitamin A, niacin and zinc. While the intake of protein and vitamin C was more than the RDA Iron intake was below the recommended for females at all ages and within the acceptable level for male. The results also showed that there is a relationship between nutrient intake and disability type. Down syndrome children were found to consume more nutrients than mentally retarded and autistic subjects.

  10. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  11. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Musa-Veloso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S. and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI. To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+, gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3% and older female adults (11.1%. Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  12. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang

    2016-08-17

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  13. Neurohormetic phytochemicals: An evolutionary-bioenergetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by 'neurohormetic phytochemicals' (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  14. Phytochemical Study of Swertia Longifolia

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    V Mozaffarian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae grow widely in eastern and southern Asian countries such as Japan, China and India and are used as traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complains because of their bitter principles. Several studies have been carried out on hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, mono amino oxidase inhibitory and antidepressant effects of these plants and it has been shown that xanthones and iridoids are responsible for their activities. Purpose of the study: In order to gain better knowledge of endemic plants of Flora Iranica, Swertia longifolia Boiss. growing in the northern parts of Iran, was subjected to phytochemical studies. Methods: Dried and milled aerial parts of the plant were extracted with petroleum ether and ethanol of which results of petroleum ether extract has been reported previously. For purification of ethanol extract, it was acidified with acetic acid and subsequently extracted with chloroform and then with n-butanol. The n-butanol extract was analyzed using different chromatographic methods and the structures of the isolated components were established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Results: Four components including an iridoid glycoside (loganic acid, a secoiridoid glycoside (gentiopicroside, a secoiridoid dilactone (gentiolactone and a nucleoside (uridine were isolated from n-butanol extract of the plant. Major conclusion: Similar to other species of Swertia, iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides could be considered as major constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss.

  15. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leyvraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes.

  16. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvraz, Magali; Laillou, Arnaud; Rahman, Sabuktagin; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Alam, Nurul; Ireen, Santhia; Panagides, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes. PMID:27598197

  17. Assessment of vitamin D and vitamin A intake by female students at the United Arab Emirates University based on self-reported dietary and selected fortified food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleye, Louis C; Kerkadi, Abdel Hamid; Wasesa, Abdulkadar Ah; Rao, Madduri V; Aboubacar, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many adolescent girls and women (especially the UAE citizens) are not adequately exposed to sunlight and their dietary intake of vitamin D is insufficient to fulfill the required recommended daily allowance of the vitamin. In the present study, the problem of vitamin D and vitamin A insufficiency in female students of UAE University was investigated through a dietary intake assessment of the vitamins. Results indicated that over 70% of female students constituting the survey population did not consume enough milk and other vitamin-D-rich foods, and many showed poor food habits. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the population studied indicated that 37% of the total population was considered vitamin D insufficient and 40% of the female students residing in the hostels also had vitamin D insufficiency ( food consumption.

  18. Phytochemical and antiproliferative activity of proso millet.

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    Lizhen Zhang

    Full Text Available The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20 to 151.14 (Mi2504-6 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20 to 305.81 (Mi2504-6 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6 to 147.32 (Gumi20 µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52 to 136.48 (Gumi 20 µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN BLUEBERRIES IS INFLUENCED BY UV ILLUMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  20. Emerging applications of metabolomics in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Chi

    2013-10-01

    Phytochemicals from diet and herbal medicines are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents to block and suppress carcinogenesis. Chemical diversity of phytochemicals, together with complex metabolic interactions between phytochemicals and biological system, can overwhelm the capacity of traditional analytical platforms, and thus pose major challenges in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals. Recent progresses in metabolomics have transformed it to become a robust systems biology tool, suitable for examining both chemical and biochemical events that contribute to the cancer prevention activities of plant preparations or their bioactive components. This review aims to discuss the technical platform of metabolomics and its existing and potential applications in chemoprevention research, including identifying bioactive phytochemicals in plant extracts, monitoring phytochemical exposure in humans, elucidating biotransformation pathways of phytochemicals, and characterizing the effects of phytochemicals on endogenous metabolism and cancer metabolism.

  1. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

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    Muhammad Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn (P. murex and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Pharmacological activities of P. murex have proven its importance for medicinal uses. This review will be helpful to create interest to use P. murex for developing new formulation in therapeutic medicines.

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Imran; Naresh Kumar; Ferozuddin Nohri; Dileep Kumar; Tayyuba Kousar; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Sajjad Ali Ilyas; Shabnam Shahida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn) (P. murex) and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Pharmacological activities of P. murex have proven its importance for medicinal uses. This review will be helpful to create interest to use P. murex for developing new formulation in therapeutic medicines.

  3. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  4. BARLERIA CRISTATA LINN.: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran Narmadha; Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical examination (qualitative and quantitative) and HPTLC analysis of phytochemicals of the crude extract Barleria cristata Linn. leaves were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaves revealed the presence of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. HPTLC finger printing analysis support the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds (Quercetin) in this...

  5. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  6. In vitro phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera, Plukenetia volubilis, Caiophora carduifolia, Cecropia membranacea

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Quino, César; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Farmacología, Facultad de Odontología, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Muñoz Espinoza, Danny; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador; Gómez Herreros, César; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Chau Miranda, Gina; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Cueva Piña, Liliana; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Guardia Ortiz, Eliza; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Saavedra Yucra, Santos; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Arroyo Acevedo, Jorge; Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Herrera Calderón, Oscar; Facultad de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Antioxidants have shown chemopreventive potential in degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune, oncology and respiratory distress associated pathologies. Objective. To assess the phytochemical and antioxidant properties in vitro by DPPH and ABTS method. Design. Observational analytical. Location. Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological/Chemical Material. Aloe vera leaves, Plukenetia volubilis see...

  7. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  8. Phytochemical and Bioactive Studies on Conyza blinii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuYanfang; ZhengJunhua; GuoDean; MaJunjiang

    2001-01-01

    Conyza blinii Lévl. (Compositae), commonly called Jin Long Dan Cao, is distributed in southwest districtsof China. Its aerial parts are used in folk medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, gastroenteritis andother inflammatory diseases. Preliminary pharmacological and clinical tests showed that the aerial parts of C.blinii possessed expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and antibacterial effects. Although many otherplants of Conyza have been studied phytochemically, there have been rare reports on the chemical constituentsof C. blinii. Moreover, studies on the saponins of Conyza plants have not been observed until now. Therefore,we conducted a detailed phytochemical investigation and extensive bioassays on C. blinii.

  9. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUTION OF VENTILAGO CALYCULATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yadav et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ventilago calyculata (Rhamnaceae commonly known as Pitti. Ventilago calyculata is present in hotter parts of India, Burma, Siam, China, in forest region. The plant is antimalarial, Antiviral, stomachic, skin disorder. Phytochemical studies had revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannin, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone. Present study was carried out to determine, the morphological, microscopical and phytochemical profiles. Microscopy show thick unicellular covering trichomes, vein islet no.-3, vein termination no.-6, Anomocytic type stomata, lignifed, xylem, etc. The physical parameter such as moisture content, ash value and extractive value were evaluated.

  10. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  11. Establishment of the Korean Tolerable Daily Intake of Bisphenol A Based on Risk Assessments by an Expert Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chan-Woong; Jeong, Ji-Yoon; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Jung, Ki-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Min

    2010-01-01

    Recently, reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been documented, and thus a review was requested for BPA management direction by the government. Therefore, this study was performed to establish a Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA. An expert committee, consisting of specialists in fields such as toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, and statistics, was asked to evaluate BPA health based guidance values (HbGVs) . Although many toxicological studies were revi...

  12. The e-EPIDEMIOLOGY Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment: Comparison with a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Bejar, Luis Maria; Sharp, Brett Northrop; García-Perea, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a great necessity for new methods of evaluation of dietary intake that overcome the limitations of traditional self-reporting methods. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a new method, based on an app for mobile phones called e-EPIDEMIOLOGY, which was designed to collect individual consumption data for a series of foods/drinks, and to compare this app with a previously validated paper food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Methods University students >18 year...

  13. Determination of Nutrient Intakes by a Modified Visual Estimation Method and Computerized Nutritional Analysis for Dietary Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    reported that trained data collectors can estimate average energy intake at a meal with an accuracy of + 2%. 2 JPI%.V] It is generally agreed that weighing...GINGER ALE# PALE DRY 04070 1. 04090 1. CARBONATED, ARTIFICIALLY SWEETENED 04090 1. 10 V...information on population patterns of food consumption and not for metabolic studies, a small difference in reliability scores is not as critical

  14. Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cencič, Avrelija

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195 mg kg(-1) (ranging 47-487 mg kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237 mg kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196 mg kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890 mg kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298 mg kg(-1)). Consumption of 100 g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce.

  15. Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals.

  16. Comparison of estimated energy intake in children using a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-estimated energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Hjort, Mads F.; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    -induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods...... in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children) to collect data from the children. Objective To compare the energy intake (EI) of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy...... expenditure (TEE) as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore...

  17. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the 26 April 2010 Environmental Assessment and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    February 8, 2013 Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana...Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the...Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the

  18. Intracellular distribution and biological effects of phytochemicals in a sex steroid- sensitive model of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility and its well-known oncological biomarker, namely Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), can be also used to monitor prostate epithelial human cells upon treatment with pharmaceutical drugs or natural bioactive compounds. The LNCaP human prostate cell line was previously set up as a model system to investigate chemicals affecting prostate epithelium functionality by means of a tiered approach integrating two different toxicological endpoints, cell viability (MTS) and PSA secretion assays. Here, the same approach has been used to characterize the biological effects of phytochemicals on prostate epithelium. The antiandrogenic ability of phytochemicals to inhibit DHT-induced PSA secretion has been investigated also characterizing their intracellular distribution, in the presence or absence of sex steroids. Intracellular distribution allows to verify whether and to which extent each phytochemical is able to enter the cell and to reach the nucleus, the latter being the target of the supposed transcriptional modulatory activity upon phytochemicals' binding to sex steroid receptors. Some phytochemicals, supposed to have a role in the functionality of the prostate epithelium, have been tested in a dose-dependent manner in both MTS and PSA secretion assays. In parallel, to establish the "effective concentration", in comparison to the "nominal one", the intracellular amount of each phytochemical has been assessed upon cell fractionation of LNCaP-treated cells and subsequent chromatographic measurements.

  19. Phytochemical Investigations of Caesalpinia digyna Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical examination of petroleum ether extract of Caesalpinia digyna root resulted in the isolation of four compounds namely, friedelin, hexacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds have been characterized on basis of physical and spectral data. All the four compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant

  20. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...straightener. The annular gap at the inner diameter of the straightener feeds air to a centrally located pilot flame and the proportion that passes to...integrated with the missile forebody. A central air transfer duct feeds the Odin engine at the rear. The central schematic in figure 10 shows the

  1. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STACHYTARPHETA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.N. Krishna Kumar*, S.D.Preethi, E. Chandana and Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Stachytarpheta indica Vahl. was assessed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoides, tannins and reducing sugars. The antibacterial properties of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts were studied against clinically important bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogens by disc diffusion method. The aqueous extract showed significant activity against all the presently investigated species of bacteria which is comparable with standard antibiotic streptomycin. At the concentrations of 50-100µg /disc, aqueous extract showed significant zone of inhibition against E. coli, (14 mm, B. cereus (13 mm, P. aeruginosa, (17 mm, and E. aerogens (7 mm. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC have been determined. The MIC values observed was 20, 30, 5 and 25µg/ml (for aqueous extract and 40, 35, 20 and 30µg/ml (for methanolic extract against E. coli, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and E. aerogens respectively. Further isolation of active compound responsible for the activity could be the potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  3. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garden Tabacchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects: The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy, completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc, kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results: High cc (≥0.40 were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40 for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks to 100% (dried fruit; for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin to 77% (lactose. Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions: The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the

  4. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  5. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  6. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  7. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  8. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies.

  9. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  10. Assessing the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in young children: comparison of a simple population survey with 24 hr-recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing focus on obesity prevention there is a need for simple, valid tools to assess dietary indicators that may be the targets of intervention programs. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity of previous day dietary intake using a newly developed parent-proxy questionnaire (EPAQ for two to five year old children. Methods A convenience sample of participants (n = 90 recruited through preschools and the community in Geelong, Australia provided dietary data for their child via EPAQ and interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 hr-recall. Comparison of mean food and beverage group servings between the EPAQ and 24 hr-recall was conducted and Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine the association between the two methods. Results Mean servings of food/beverage groups were comparable between methods for all groups except water, and significant correlations were found between the servings of food and beverages using the EPAQ and 24-hr recall methods (ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Conclusion The EPAQ is a simple and useful population-level tool for estimating the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in children aged two to five years. When compared with 24-hour recall data, the EPAQ produced an acceptable level of relative validity and this short survey has application for population monitoring and the evaluation of population-based obesity prevention interventions for young children.

  11. Voluntary food fortification with folic acid in Spain: predicted contribution to children's dietary intakes as assessed with new food folate composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish market offers a significant number of folic acid (FA) voluntarily fortified foods. We analysed FA and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid ((6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu) content in ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (n=68) and cow's milk (n=25) by a previously validated affinity chromatography-HPLC method. Contribution to potential FA intakes for children aged 2-13years, was assessed using food consumption data from a representative nationwide study, folate Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI), and Upper Levels (UL). Results showed that at all food fortification levels obtained, fortified products provided more than tenfold FA than (6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu. For RTEC, the high fortification level provided 6-21%, per serving, of RDI and ⩽32% of ULs at 90th percentile of RTEC consumption (P90). Milk products fortified at the higher level reached on average 54-136% of RDI per serving and only exceeded UL at P90 of milk consumption in children aged 2-5years.

  12. Phytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Watson, Gregory; M Beaver, Laura; E Williams, David; H Dashwood, Roderick; Ho, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol respectively, have been the subject of intense investigation by cancer researchers. Sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol inhibit prostate cancer by both blocking initiation and suppressing prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Research has largely focused on the anti-initiation and cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways. With regards to suppressive activity, research has focused on the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol to antagonize cell signaling pathways known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer. Recent investigations have characterized the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol derivatives to modulate the activity of enzymes controlling the epigenetic status of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we will summarize the well-established, "classic" non-epigenetic targets of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, and highlight more recent evidence supporting these phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PURINE INTAKE IN CHINESE RESIDENTS%中国居民膳食嘌呤摄入量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣胜忠; 邹立娜; 崔新宇; 李淼晶; 潘洪志; 杨月欣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess dietary purine intake in Chinese residents.MethodsUsing data from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 1982, 1992 and 2002 and food purine database, we calculated purine intake in Chinese residents.ResultsThe average total purine intake per reference man per day 216.7, 274.4 and 319.0 mg in 1982, 1992 and 2002, respectively. The average purine intake per reference man per day from plant food were 130.1, 115.5, 120.4mg and from animal food were 9.5, 152.0, 192.8 mg in 1982, 1992 and 2002, respectively. Livestock and poultry, fish and shrimps, light vegetables, rice and rice products, dark vegetables, flour and flour products and legumes and legume products provided about 43.1%, 17.0%, 9.9%, 7.4%, 6.3%, 3.6% and 5.4% of dietary purine in 2002, respectively. ConclusionOur findings suggest that from 1982 to 2002, the average total purine intake and animal food purine intake per reference man per day are increasing.Livestock and poultry, fish and shrimps contribute more purine.%目的评估中国居民每日膳食嘌呤平均摄入量。方法利用1982、1992和2002年中国居民营养与健康状况调查中各类食物的消费数据和已测定的食物中嘌呤含量资料计算中国居民膳食嘌呤摄入量。结果中国居民每标准人日(18岁轻体力活动男子)在1982、1992和2002年嘌呤的总摄入量分别为每标准人日216.7、274.4和319.0mg,来源于植物性食品的嘌呤摄入量分别为每标准人日130.1、115.5和120.4mg,来源于动物性食品的嘌呤摄入量分别为每标准人日79.5、152.0和192.8 mg;2002年调查中,不同食物嘌呤贡献率分别为:畜禽类(43.1%)、鱼虾类(17.0%)、浅色蔬菜(9.9%)、米类及其制品(7.4%)、深色蔬菜(6.3%)、面粉及其制品(3.6%)和干豆类及制品(5.4%)。结论中国居民每日膳食嘌呤总摄入量和动物性食物嘌呤摄入量在1982、1992和2002年逐年增加;2002年膳食嘌呤主

  14. Green Nanotechnology from Tea: Phytochemicals in Tea as Building Blocks for Production of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2009-06-01

    Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.

  15. Effects of Postharvest Processing and Geographical Source on Phytochemical Variation of Corydalis Rhizoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Jing-hui; YANG Shu-ting; FAN Jie; FU Cheng-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative contributions of postharvest processing and geographical source to phytochemical variation of Corydalis Rhizoma,and rhizome of Corydalis yanhusuo,and to examine what phytochemical components are the most sensitive to the differences of each factor and how they change.Methods HPLC fingerprinting and LC-MS coupled with chemometric approaches were applied.Results The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) explicitly demonstrated the postharvest processing could produce a greater impact on the phytochemical profiles of Corydalis Rhizoma than geographical source.The contents of most compounds increased after water boiling while decreased after sulphur-fumigation.Protopine,coptisine,and palmatine were the most variable components in processing.Geographical sources also led to a remarkable phytochemical differentiation,in which the environmental variation of the three regions might play a role.Dehydrocorybulbine,coptisine,dehydrocorydaline,and protopine varied most among the three production regions and decreased sequentially in Zhejiang,Shaanxi,and Jiangsu provinces,China.Conclusion Both postharvest processing and geographical source should be enhanced with the priority for the former in the quality control of Corydalis Rhizoma.The application of boiling is supported but the consistency should be improved in practice.Sulphur-fumigation is strongly suggested to be abandoned.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  17. FUNCTIONAL FOODS OR PHYTOCHEMICALS, CLASSIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquibol S., Nancy; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Lengua C., Laura; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Delmás, Inés; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rivera C., Dolores; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.Lima, Perú; Bazán, Dora; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Aguirre M., Rosa; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Bravo A., Martha; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We described the benefits of funtional or phytochemicals foods in disease prevention and health promotion. This article is a contribution for the development of this new research area. Los alimentos funcionales o fitoquímicos tienen diversos beneficios en la prevención de enfermedades y contribuyen a reducir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Se presenta el siguiente articulo como conttibución para el desarrollo de esta nueva área de investigación.

  18. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal a

  19. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Belgian foodstuffs--assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focant, J F; Eppe, G; Pirard, C; Massart, A C; André, J E; De Pauw, E

    2002-07-01

    Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 197 foodstuffs samples of animal origin from Belgium during years 2000 and 2001. All investigated matrices (except horse) present background levels lower than the Belgian non-commercialization value of 5 pg TEQ/g fat. Pork was the meat containing the lowest concentration of both PCDD/Fs and cPCBs. The mean background concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent in milk was 1.1 pg/g of fat, with a congener distribution typical of non-contaminated milk. The relative contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the PCDD/Fs TEQ was 85+/-7.9% for all investigated matrices. The cPCBs contribution to the total TEQ was 47+/-19.0% for products of terrestrial species and 69+/-20.0% for aquatic species. Once the contribution of cPCBs was added to the TEQ, few foodstuffs such as horse, sheep, beef, eggs and cheese presented levels above the future European guidelines that currently only include PCDD/Fs but will be re-evaluated later in order to include 'dioxin-like' PCBs. Based on levels measured in the samples, the estimation of the dietary intake was 65.3 pg WHO-TEQ/day for PCDD/Fs only (1.00 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person) and 132.9 pg WHO-TEQ/day if cPCBs were included (2.04 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person). Meat (mainly beef), dairy products, and fish each account for roughly one third of the intake.

  20. Vegetable intake is associated with reduced breast cancer recurrence in tamoxifen users: a secondary analysis from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L; Thompson, Patricia A; Caan, Bette J; Cussler, Ellen; Flatt, Shirley W; Pierce, John P

    2011-01-01

    The protective effect of vegetables on the risk of breast cancer recurrence is uncertain. We sought to evaluate the association between breast cancer recurrence and vegetable intake including analyses stratified on tamoxifen use. Experimental evidence of anti-carcinogenic activity of phytochemicals in cruciferous vegetables in combination with tamoxifen led to specific evaluation of this class of vegetables as well. To assess the association between vegetable intake and breast cancer recurrence, vegetable intake from repeat 24-h dietary recalls were examined as a secondary analysis of 3,080 breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. At the time of enrollment women were, on average, 23.5 months post-diagnosis. The hazard of recurrence, controlling for relevant and significant clinical and demographic variables, with vegetable intake was assessed overall and separately for women taking tamoxifen. WHEL participants reported mean baseline intakes (⁻x, SE) of 3.1 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.02 servings/day of total and cruciferous vegetables, respectively. Baseline vegetable intake in the highest as compared to lowest tertiles was associated with an overall lower adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence of 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.87. Among women taking tamoxifen, the HRs were 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77 for total vegetables and 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.89 for cruciferous vegetable intake. The hazard in women using tamoxifen who reported cruciferous vegetable intake above the median and who were within the highest tertile of total vegetable intake was HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.70. This secondary analysis in over 3,000 breast cancer survivors suggests that baseline vegetable intake may be associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer recurrent or new events particularly for those using tamoxifen. Such associations should be explored further as the possibility that vegetable intake is simply a surrogate for other health

  1. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  2. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Hsi

    Full Text Available This study examined methylmercury (MeHg concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg. In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg. The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack.

  3. Phytochemicals in cancer prevention and therapy: truth or dare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maria; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Tedesco, Idolo; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2010-04-01

    A voluminous literature suggests that an increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables is a relatively easy and practical strategy to reduce significantly the incidence of cancer. The beneficial effect is mostly associated with the presence of phytochemicals in the diet. This review focuses on a group of them, namely isothiocyanate, curcumin, genistein, epigallocatechin gallate, lycopene and resveratrol, largely studied as chemopreventive agents and with potential clinical applications. Cellular and animal studies suggest that these molecules induce apoptosis and arrest cell growth by pleiotropic mechanisms. The anticancer efficacy of these compounds may result from their use in monotherapy or in association with chemotherapeutic drugs. This latter approach may represent a new pharmacological strategy against several types of cancers. However, despite the promising results from experimental studies, only a limited number of clinical trials are ongoing to assess the therapeutic efficacy of these molecules. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are promising and raise solid foundations for future investigations.

  4. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  5. Comparison of Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems for the assessment of nutrient intake before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Marques da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional intake before and after bariatric surgery assists in identifying eating disorders, nutritional deficiencies and weight loss/maintenance. The 7-day record is the gold standard for such an assessment and is interpreted using specialized software. This study sought to compare the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems in assessing nutrient intake in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: Nutritional intake was assessed in 10 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 3 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The 7-day record was used to assess food intake and then, the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems were used to calculate calorie, macronutrient and micronutrient intake based on validated food chemical composition databases. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01251016. RESULTS: During the preoperative period, deficits in the ingestion of total fiber and 15 out of 22 estimated micronutrients were observed when using the Virtual Nutri Plus®, compared to deficiencies in total fiber and 4 micronutrients when using the Dietpro 5i®. During the postoperative period, both the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® systems detected deficits in the ingestion of total fiber, carbohydrates and 19 micronutrients, but only the Virtual Nutri Plus® detected deficits in complex B vitamins (except B12 and minerals. CONCLUSION: Virtual Nutri Plus® was more sensitive than Dietpro 5i® for the identification of deficits in nutrient intake in obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  6. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age.

  7. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Curcuma neilgherrensis (Wight) leaf - A folklore medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Prasad M; Ramachandran, Anju P; Chandola, Harimohan; Harisha, C R; Shukla, Vinay J

    2012-04-01

    Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight is a folk medicinal plant used in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of this herb are said to be successful in managing high blood glucose levels. This study is aimed at assessing the scientific appraisal of C. neilgherrensis in the course of pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical parameters, as these are not yet been done. Pharmacognostic study mainly covered the macroscopic and microscopic features of the leaves including powder microscopy, and revealed the presence of trichomes, spiral vessels etc. Phytochemical parameters such as pH, total ash value, water-soluble extract and MeOH extract values were assessed in the preliminary physicochemical screening. Qualitative analysis revealed the existence of certain chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and saponin glycosides. The crude extract of leaves was subjected to TLC and HPTLC for the separation of components.

  8. Sodium chloride intake: is lower always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers; Ritz, Eberhard

    2012-07-01

    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide a critical assessment of post hoc analyses of recent interventional and observational studies on the effect of salt intake on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. To evaluate the mechanisms and safety of reduced salt intake, studies specifically designed to assess salt intake as an endpoint are needed. This approach will have implications for health care policies and labeling of the salt content of purchased foods.

  9. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummow, B; Kirsten, W F A; Gummow, R J; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2006-10-17

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on extrapolating information from the point source (e.g. stack height, exit velocity, exit diameter) to the point of exposure. (2) It incorporates the physiological constraints of the species exposed. (3) It takes into account oral as well as inhalation exposure. (4) It addresses terrain, by using measurements at the point of exposure. (5) It accounts for existing background concentrations of pollutants and pollutants from multiple sources. (6) It uses a stochastic process with distribution functions to account for variability in the data over time. Environmental inputs into the model included aerial fall-out sample vanadium (n=566), unwashed grass sample vanadium (n=342) and soluble soil sample vanadium (n=342). Physiological cattle inputs were derived from two cohorts of Brahman-cross sentinel cattle (n=30). The model provided an estimate of the chronic external exposure dose of vanadium for two separate groups of cattle grazing over a 5-year period (1999-2004) immediately adjacent (median dose=2.14mg vanadium/kg body weight/day) and 2km away (median dose=1.07mg/kg/day) from a South African vanadium-processing plant, respectively. The final output of the model is a distribution curve of the probable vanadium intake based on the variability within the inputs over the 5-year period of the study. The model is adaptable enough for application to other transition metals and species (including man), and could be used as an alternative to plume-dispersion modelling.

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  11. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P

  12. Bumble bee parasite strains vary in resistance to phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Sadd, Ben M.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Irwin, Rebecca E.; Adler, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Nectar and pollen contain diverse phytochemicals that can reduce disease in pollinators. However, prior studies showed variable effects of nectar chemicals on infection, which could reflect variable phytochemical resistance among parasite strains. Inter-strain variation in resistance could influence evolutionary interactions between plants, pollinators, and pollinator disease, but testing direct effects of phytochemicals on parasites requires elimination of variation between bees. Using cell cultures of the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, we determined (1) growth-inhibiting effects of nine floral phytochemicals and (2) variation in phytochemical resistance among four parasite strains. C. bombi growth was unaffected by naturally occurring concentrations of the known antitrypanosomal phenolics gallic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid. However, C. bombi growth was inhibited by anabasine, eugenol, and thymol. Strains varied >3-fold in phytochemical resistance, suggesting that selection for phytochemical resistance could drive parasite evolution. Inhibitory concentrations of thymol (4.53–22.2 ppm) were similar to concentrations in Thymus vulgaris nectar (mean 5.2 ppm). Exposure of C. bombi to naturally occurring levels of phytochemicals—either within bees or during parasite transmission via flowers—could influence infection in nature. Flowers that produce antiparasitic phytochemicals, including thymol, could potentially reduce infection in Bombus populations, thereby counteracting a possible contributor to pollinator decline. PMID:27883009

  13. Phytochemical screening of Plumbago zeylanica: A potent Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Tyagi; Ekta Menghani

    2014-01-01

    The results of the phytochemical screening carried out on Plumbago zeylanica leaf sample showed the existence of beneficial phytonutrients. The results showed that Plumbago zeylanica all six solvent extract contained reducing sugar, terpenoids , tannin, alkaloids and flavonoid. The results of the phytochemical screening on the three species of medicinal plants were discussed in relations to their usefulness to mankind.

  14. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  15. Phytochemical and Bioactive Studies on Conyza blinii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yanfang; Zheng Junhua; Guo Dean; Ma Junjiang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Conyza blinii Levl. (Compositae), commonly called Jin Long Dan Cao, is distributed in southwest districts of China. Its aerial parts are used in folk medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, gastroenteritis and other inflammatory diseases. Preliminary pharmacological and clinical tests showed that the aerial parts of C.blinii possessed expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and antibacterial effects. Although many other plants of Conyza have been studied phytochemically, there have been rare reports on the chemical constituents of C. blinii. Moreover, studies on the saponins of Conyza plants have not been observed until now. Therefore,we conducted a detailed phvtochemical investigation and extensive bioassays on C. blinii.

  16. The Role iNDF in the Regulation of Feed Intake and the Importance of Its Assessment in Subtropical Ruminant Systems (the Role of iNDF in the Regulation of Forage Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Harper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intake and digestibility of forages is largely influenced by the fibre content and specifically the neutral detergent fibre (NDF. Currently, the focus in commercial diet formulation and the modelling of animal performance is on the total NDF so as to achieve higher ruminant feed intakes, higher production performance and rumen health. Rations are often formulated for a specific level of NDF in the diet assuming that the digestibility of NDF operates over a narrow range. Forage NDF, particularly in C4 forages, varies greatly in potential digestibility within the rumen. This potential digestibility is defined as the NDF fraction which disappears after a long incubation period and the remaining indigestible component of NDF (iNDF is unavailable for microbial digestion. It is hypothesized that this dietary iNDF has an important role in contributing to rumen digesta load and voluntary intake. Formulating a diet to a specific level of NDF without reference to the iNDF could markedly affect the resulting intake, digestibility and metabolisable energy (ME content of the diet. It is concluded that nutritional models need to be modified to accept directly determined iNDF.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY FROM NERIUM OLEANDER AND EVALUVATE THEIR PLANT MEDIATED NANOPARTICLE SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Suganya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of essential oils obtained from Nerium oleander leaf with the help of three different extracts like ethanol, Methanol, and acetone. In this aqueous leaf extracts confirms the presence of various phytochemicals. To evaluate the antibacterial activities of these aqueous extracts were determined by disc diffusion method. From these three extracts methanol shows strong antibacterial effect on Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Alkaligenes except Acinetobacter. None of the leaf extracts show no more activity in Acinetobacter. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Shade dried leaves of Nerium oleander was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV- Visible spectroscopy studies were carried out to assess the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to characterize the Ag nanoparticle. To compare the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles with the different leaf extracts.

  18. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  19. Assessment of caregiver’s knowledge, complementary feeding practices, and adequacy of nutrient intake from homemade foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6 month onwards. Homemade complementary foods, however, are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6 – 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households.Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2% children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6% were fed 3 or more times per day. Daily energy intake however was significantly lower (P<0.05 than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77 and 364.76 (kcal/dayfor 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (mg/day were below the daily requirements (p=0.000, with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p=0.000 was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11months (3.25, 4.17mg/day, respectively, even accounting for high bioavailability.The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn and Fe (except 12 – 23 months intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  20. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  1. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  2. Estimated protein intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequate intakes in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, G H; Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a probability assessment of the adequacy of protein intakes of toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) in study communities in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico judged in relation to FAO/WHO/UNU estimates of requirements. Effects of supplementing amino acid intakes, or of assuming lower bioavailability for lysine are also considered. In Egypt and Mexico existing protein intakes of toddlers were adequate. In Kenya existing intakes were marginal. Total protein intake was low and often lysine or tryptophan concentration was low. If Kenyan intakes met estimated energy requirements, protein intakes would be adequate. We conclude that protein intake is unlikely to be a primary limiting factor for toddler growth and development, and the benefit to be expected from increasing the intake of limiting amino acids is marginal. Reported associations of animal-source protein and energy with growth, size, and psychologic function of these toddlers are unlikely to be causally attributable to inadequacy of protein intakes.

  3. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    -grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...... a high level of β-glucan. Physiologically, it is of importance that some of the cell wall polysaccharides, i.e. AX and β-glucan (soluble NSP) contribute to higher viscosity as this may influence rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Associated to the DF matrix of cereals......, however, is also an array of non-nutritive non-carbohydrate constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Of importance in a nutritional-health context is the phenolic components - benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans. Of the phenolics only a small fraction is absorbed...

  4. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sunayna; Kumar, Puneet; Malik, Jai

    2013-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  5. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Begonia malabarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, N; Viswanathan, M B; Saraswathy, A; Balakrishna, K; Brindha, P; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the various extracts of the leaves of Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of six known compounds, viz. friedelin, epi-friedelinol, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin and beta-sitosterol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The aqueous and organic solvent extracts were also tested against ten human pathogenic bacteria and four fungal strains by the agar-well diffusion method. All the extracts were devoid of antifungal activity against the tested fungi. The hexane extract did not show any activity. The aqueous extracts showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria except Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The chloroform and methanol extracts showed activity against all the tested bacteria. The study supported the claim of the usefulness of the plant in respiratory tract infections and also suggests its use in diarrhoea and skin diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  7. Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adesuyi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola were Investigated. The Nutritional Analyses involves Proximate analyses; Anti-Nutrient composition and Mineral composition. The Phytochemical parameters carried out were Flavonoids; Phenol; Alkaloids; Saponin and Tannin. The proximate Analyses showed that the sample has high level of Carbohydrate 88.30%, little amount of Crude Fibre and Protein 1.23 and 1.86%, respectively and negligible amount of Ash content 0.47% and Crude Fat 0.19%. Also a considerable level 7.6% of moisture was shown. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of Carbohydrate, dietary fibre and Protein. The Anti-Nutrient composition presents are in negligible amount. The Parameters are Oxalate (0.423 g/100 g, Phytate (0.57 g/100 g and Trypsin Inhibitor (0.37 g/100 g. The Mineral content show a high level of calcium (2200 ppm,Potassium (968 ppm and Sodium (852 ppm. Other mineral analysed were found to range from moderate to negligible. Garcinia Kola could be a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of Anti-Nutrients found that could prevent the absorption of these minerals. The result also show a high level of Saponin (2.471%, Flavonoids (2.041% and Cardiac Glycosides (3.421%. Alkaloids and Tannins were present in Considerable amount 0.647 and 0.34%, respectively. But Phenol is present in negligible amount (0.147%. With the high level of Cardiac glycosides, Garcinia kola can be used as anti-inflammatory and as active components of drugs derived from plants.

  8. Garcinia mangostana L.: a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolskiy, Dmitriy; Pischel, Ivo; Siriwatanametanon, Nisarat; Heinrich, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, Clusiaceae) has a long history of use as a medical plant, mostly in Southeast Asia. This is a review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of mangosteen. Traditionally mangosteen is famous for its antiinflammatory properties and is used in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. Other applications include the therapy of various conditions such as dysentery, different urinary disorders, cystitis and gonorrhoea. This review highlights the development of this botanical drug into a widely used nutraceutical. Products derived from G. mangostana are now distributed increasingly all over the world. This has given rise to a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of mangosteen. Central to the biological activity of the species are xanthones which are reviewed in detail. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of individual xanthones as well as extracts of G. mangostana is included. In addition, its potential in terms of developing novel drug leads is assessed. Products containing its fruits are now sold widely as 'liquid botanical supplements', but evidence for the health benefits of these products is still lacking. As shown here, a serious weakness in our knowledge is the lack of clinical data and it is not yet clear to what extent the findings about pharmacological activities are of potential clinical relevance.

  9. Interactions among GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, S E; Gaudet, M M; Britton, J A; Teitelbaum, S L; Terry, M B; Neugut, A I; Santella, R M; Gammon, M D

    2007-09-01

    Isothiocyanates are anticarcinogenic phytochemicals found in cruciferous vegetables that both induce and are substrates for the gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs). The GSTs are phase II metabolizing enzymes involved in metabolism of various bioactive compounds. Functional polymorphisms in GST genes have been identified and may interact with cruciferous vegetable intake to affect cancer risk. We examined this hypothesis using data from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project, a population-based case-control study conducted in Long Island, NY, from 1996 to 1997. Cruciferous vegetable intake in the previous year was assessed via modified Block food frequency questionnaire. DNA was extracted from blood samples (n = 1052 cases and n = 1098 controls) and genotyped for GSTM1 deletion, GSTT1 deletion and GSTP1 Ile105Val using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and Taqman assays. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found an 86% increase in the OR for breast cancer among carriers of the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP 105Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.08) and a 36% decrease in the OR among carriers of GSTM1 present, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 105Ile/Val + Val/Val genotypes (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.97) compared with GSTM1 present, GSTT1 present and GSTP1 105Ile/Ile carriers. We found no joint effects among GST polymorphisms and cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer risk. In conclusion, we found associations between specific combinations of three GST gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk but these did not modify the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to confirm the associations observed.

  10. Morpho-anatomy, physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with HPTLC fingerprinting of aerial parts of Rivea hypocrateriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saboo Shweta; Tapadiya Ganesh; Khadabadi Somshekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the morpho-anatomy of the aerial parts of Rivea hypocrateriformi (Convolvulaceae) to increase the knowledge and standardization parameters of these plants and its family. Methods: Morpho-anatomical studies of aerial parts of have been carried out by free hand. The different types of histochemical tests were performed for the identification of micro-chemical by using staining reagents. Preliminary phytochemical and quantitative estimation has been determined along with HPTLC fingerprinting. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software was used for fingerprinting. Results: The morpho-anatomical structure of plant revealed the presence of thick wall collenchyma cell and parenchyma cells along with spharaphides and columnar palisade cells. Presense of numerous covering trichomes, parasitic stomata, oval shaped vascular bundles and calcium oxalate crystals were observed. In powder microscopy lignified xylem vessels, and covering trichomes were clearly seen. Physicochemical parameters, ash value, inorganic elements, moisture content and extractive value were determined to develop the stringent pharmacognostic standards. Qualitative standardization and HPTLC fingerprinting of phytochemical revealed the presense of various plant secondary metabolites. Conclusions:These findings will be useful in establishing pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards for identification, as well as assessment of purity and quality of this plant, which definitely gaining the relevance in plant drug research and establishment of plant monograph.

  11. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots ofP. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  12. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical contents of greenhouse grown lettuces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2010-05-26

    Antioxidants and phytochemicals in vegetables are known to provide health benefits. Strategies that enhance these properties are expected to increase the nutritional values of vegetables. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical content of lettuces grown in a greenhouse. Red loose leaf lettuce (cv. Galactic) and green loose leaf lettuce (cv. Simpson Elite) were cultivated using a randomized complete block design. Three concentrations of ABA in water [0 (control), 150, 300 ppm] were sprayed on the 30th and 39th days after sowing, and lettuces were harvested on the 46th day. Exogenous ABA significantly decreased yield of green and red lettuces. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in red lettuce treated with ABA were significantly higher than in controls, whereas no significant differences were observed in green lettuce. ABA significantly induced the accumulation of chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in lettuces. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified in red and green lettuces included caffeoyltartaric acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin 3-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside. Additionally, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonoyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonoyl)-glucoside in red lettuces were quantified. No significant effects of ABA on these individual phytochemicals were observed in green lettuces, whereas ABA significantly elevated the content of individual phytochemicals in red lettuces except for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Differences among red lettuces with or without exogenous ABA were visualized on the score plots of principal component analyses. Loading plot indicated that multiple phenolic compounds contributed to the observed differences in red lettuces.

  13. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6% and gallic acid (96%. Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24% and Gallic (94.82%. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  14. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

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    Claire M. Marchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014 with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12–49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI: 4%, 9% increase in red blood cell (RBC folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12% increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~1050 nmol/L associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  15. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHANASEKARAN.M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alkaloids in leaf tissue. Anatomical and histochemical investigation offered some clues on the localization of certain specific metabolites. This paper revealed preliminary phytochemical constituents of Kigelia pinnta D.C.., by phytochemical and histochemical investigation.

  16. In vitro phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Thymus linearis

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    Attiqa Naz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from the whole plant of Thymus linearis were extracted with methanol (crude, chloroform, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol and screened for their phytochemical and antimicrobial potentials. Preliminary phytochemical screening of plant extracts manifests the existence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugars. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies were carried out on various phytochemicals extracted from the extracts of T. linearis which results in the presence of different compounds like amides, aldehydes, carboxylic acid, ethers, alcohol and ketones. All the extracts of T. linearis showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when tested against nine bacterial and four fungal strains. It was concluded from this study that extracts of T. linearis have an array of important phytochemicals and significant activities against some of the multidrug resistant bacterial and medically important fungal strains.

  17. Cocoa phytochemicals: recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jaekyoon; Shim, Jaesung; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytochemicals. Cocoa is rich in procyanidins, theobromine, (-)-epicatechin, catechins, and caffeine. Among the phytochemicals present in consumed cocoa, theobromine is most available in human plasma, followed by caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. It has been reported that cocoa phytochemicals specifically modulate or interact with specific molecular targets linked to the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes, and skin aging. This review summarizes comprehensive recent findings on the beneficial actions of cocoa-driven phytochemicals in molecular mechanisms of human health.

  18. Role of phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals are plant-derived secondary metabolites, which may exert many biological activities in humans, including anticancer properties. Although recent findings appear to support their role in cancer prevention and treatment, this issue is still controversial. Anti-cancer activity of phytochemicals mainly depends on their multi-target mechanism of action, including antimutagenic, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, they may modulate the host immune response to ca...

  19. Discovery and development of sulforaphane as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuesheng ZHANG; Li TANG

    2007-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a phytochemical that displays both anticarcinogenic and anticancer activity. SF modulates many cancer-related events, including suscep-tibility to carcinogens, cell death, cell cycle, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis.We review its discovery and development as a cancer chemopreventive agent with the intention of encouraging further research on this important compound and facilitating the identification and development of new phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

  20. Phytochemicals as Anticancer and Chemopreventive Topoisomerase II Poisons

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are a rich source of anticancer drugs and chemopreventive agents. Several of these chemicals appear to exert at least some of their effects through interactions with topoisomerase II, an essential enzyme that regulates DNA supercoiling and removes knots and tangles from the genome. Topoisomerase II-active phytochemicals function by stabilizing covalent protein-cleaved DNA complexes that are intermediates in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. As a result, these compounds convert...

  1. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran, M.; ABRAHAM.G.C; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alka...

  3. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on Ficus Microcarpa L. fil

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaskar, Mohan G.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ficus microcarpa L. fil. (Syn: Ficus retusa) (Moraceae) is well-known traditional medicinal plant. The bark is used for diverse health ailments in traditional and folklore remedies. Aims: The present study was undertaken to lay down pharmacognostical and phytochemical standards. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on fresh, dried and powdered bark was carried out to determine it's morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Furthermore, major phyto...

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AGAVE SISALANA PERRINE LEAVES (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mwandogo O. Chigodi; David K. Samoei; Mutemi Muthangya

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical properties of the methanolic, Ethyl acetate and Hexane extract of the Agave sisalana Perrine leaves were investigated to evaluate the chemical properties. The phytochemical screening revealed that Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Reducing sugars, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phlobatannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, and Coumarins were present in the three extracts of A. sisalana Perrine leaves while, Alkaloids were present only in the methanolic and Ethyl acetate extracts. Anthraquinones and Em...

  5. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  6. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  7. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges that ...

  8. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007–2010 analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007–2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007–2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA‐LO ® Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes ...

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF ANTHRAQUINONES FROM CASSIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rizwan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal problem mainly constipation is the major disorder in human beings in almost all regions. The present work aimed to study exclusively on various seeds of Cassia species for exploration and phytochemical estimation of anthraquinones and for its laxative activity. Three species of Cassia namely C. fistula, C. angustifolia,, C. siamea have been taken for the study in which three varieties of Cassia fistula has been taken viz. C. fistula seed marketed, C. fistula seed collected and C. fistula pod. The process was carried out in which initially the samples of different varieties were extracted by four methods namely maceration, percolation, decoction and Soxhlation. The crude extract obtained was subjected for qualitative and quantitative estimation of anthraquinones. The content of total anthraquinone glycoside in the crude extract prepared by each extraction method was determined by U.V. spectrophotometry. The extract prepared by maceration method (Cassia siamea exhibit highest content of anthraquinone glycoside of followed by extract of percolation method, Soxhlation and decoction method. The investigation reviles that seed of C. siamea and C. angustifolia possess maximum amount of anthraquinone glycoside in majority of extraction processes.

  10. Cruciferous plants: phytochemical toxicity versus cancer chemoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayed, Mohamed E; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2009-11-01

    The Cruciferae (also known as the Brassicaceae) are the family of plants that include the various familiar members of the species Brassica oleracea (e.g., broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts) as well as many other plants that are widely consumed in various parts of the world. Forage and root brassicas are widely used as winter feeds for cattle and sheep. A striking and characteristic chemical property of cruciferous plants is their high content of glucosinolates (more than 120 types), which often approaches 1% or more of their dry weight. The interest devoted to this group of natural products is caused by the appreciable biological effects of both the intact glucosinolates (GSLs) and especially the complex group of glucosinolate transformation products produced in non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions. Depending on the concentration and structural types of these compounds, their biological effects can be toxic, anti-nutritional or beneficial to health. Most serious economic problems in livestock seem to result from rapeseed meal; arising from GSLs or their breakdown products. In contrast, GSLs and their isothiocyanate (ITC) hydrolysis products are reportedly well-known protectors against carcinogenesis. GSLs play further protective and evolutionarily important roles in plants. These include allelopathy (suppression of growth of neighboring plants), specific positive and negative feeding cues for some insects and broad antibiotic properties including nematocidal, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and insecticidal activities. The controversy in the referred actions contributed to crucifers' phytochemicals has been exclusively discussed.

  11. Commiphora leptophloeos Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Jorge J.; Pereira, Aline de P. C.; Jandú, Jannyson J. B.; da Paz, Josinete A.; Crovella, Sergio; dos Santos Correia, Maria T.; de Azevêdo Silva, Jaqueline

    2017-01-01

    Commiphora leptophloeos is a plant specie usually known for its medicinal purposes in local communities in Northeast Brazil. In order to evaluate its therapeutic potential, we aimed to determine the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of C. leptophloeos extracts. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was able to detect the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Three phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC and described as Gallic, Chlorogenic and Protocatechuic acids. On the other hand, H1NMR analysis revealed the presence of hinokinin, a bioactive lignan further characterized in the present work. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for hinokinin ranged from 0.0485 to 3.125 mg/mL in different S. aureus clinical isolates and showed a bactericidal activity against MRSA isolated from blood (MMC 0.40 mg/mL) and postoperative secretion (MMC = 3.125 mg/mL). C. leptophloeos extracts also showed antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium species such as M. smegmatis (MIC = 12.5 mg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 52 mg/mL). Additionally, we determined the toxicity of C. leptophloeos by in vitro HC50 tests with hemolytic activity detected of 313 ± 0.5 μg/mL. Our results showed that C. leptophloeos possesses inhibitory properties against MRSA as well as several other clinically important microorganisms. Furthermore, the present work is the first report of the presence of hinokinin in Commiphora genus. PMID:28174564

  12. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  13. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  14. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  15. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2016-01-01

    composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple...

  16. Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele-Salvatore Scarpa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory that several carcinogenetic processes are initiated and sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs has been validated, and specific methods to identify the CSCs in the entire population of cancer cells have also proven to be effective. This review aims to provide an overview of recently acquired scientific knowledge regarding phytochemicals and herbal extracts, which have been shown to be able to target and kill CSCs. Many genes and proteins that sustain the CSCs’ self-renewal capacity and drug resistance have been described and applications of phytochemicals able to interfere with these signaling systems have been shown to be operatively efficient both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of specific surface antigens, mammosphere formation assays, serial colony-forming unit assays, xenograft transplantation and label-retention assays coupled with Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 activity evaluation are the most frequently used techniques for measuring phytochemical efficiency in killing CSCs. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that EGCG, curcumin, piperine, sulforaphane, β-carotene, genistein and the whole extract of some plants are able to kill CSCs. Most of these phytochemicals act by interfering with the canonical Wnt (β-catenin/T cell factor-lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF-LEF pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers. Therefore, the use of phytochemicals may be a true therapeutic strategy for eradicating cancer through the elimination of CSCs.

  17. Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Emanuele-Salvatore; Ninfali, Paolino

    2015-07-10

    The theory that several carcinogenetic processes are initiated and sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been validated, and specific methods to identify the CSCs in the entire population of cancer cells have also proven to be effective. This review aims to provide an overview of recently acquired scientific knowledge regarding phytochemicals and herbal extracts, which have been shown to be able to target and kill CSCs. Many genes and proteins that sustain the CSCs' self-renewal capacity and drug resistance have been described and applications of phytochemicals able to interfere with these signaling systems have been shown to be operatively efficient both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of specific surface antigens, mammosphere formation assays, serial colony-forming unit assays, xenograft transplantation and label-retention assays coupled with Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity evaluation are the most frequently used techniques for measuring phytochemical efficiency in killing CSCs. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that EGCG, curcumin, piperine, sulforaphane, β-carotene, genistein and the whole extract of some plants are able to kill CSCs. Most of these phytochemicals act by interfering with the canonical Wnt (β-catenin/T cell factor-lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF-LEF)) pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers. Therefore, the use of phytochemicals may be a true therapeutic strategy for eradicating cancer through the elimination of CSCs.

  18. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is now widely believed that the actions of the antioxidant nutrients alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, because taken alone, the individual antioxidants studied in clinical trials do not appear to have consistent preventive effects. Work performed by our group and others has shown that fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. We proposed that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables are responsible for these potent antioxidant and anticancer activities and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods. This explains why no single antioxidant can replace the combination of natural phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables to achieve the health benefits. The evidence suggests that antioxidants or bioactive compounds are best acquired through whole-food consumption, not from expensive dietary supplements. We believe that a recommendation that consumers eat 5 to 10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily is an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health.

  19. An in-silico investigation of anti-Chagas phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, Stephanie F; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million people in tropical and subtropical America are afflicted by American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease. In humans, symptoms of the disease include fever, swelling, and heart and brain damage, usually leading to death. There is currently no effective treatment for this disease. Plant products continue to be rich sources of clinically useful drugs, and the biodiversity of the Neotropics suggests great phytomedicinal potential. Screening programs have revealed numerous plant species and phytochemical agents that have shown in-vitro or in-vivo antitrypanosomal activity, but the biochemical targets of these phytochemicals are not known. In this work, we present a molecular docking analysis of Neotropical phytochemicals, which have already demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, with potential druggable protein targets of the parasite. Several protein targets showed in-silico selectivity for trypanocidal phytochemicals, including trypanothione reductase, pteridine reductase 2, lipoamide dehydrogenase, glucokinase, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, cruzain, dihydrofolate-reductase/thymidylate-synthase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Some of the phytochemical ligands showed notable docking preference for trypanothione reductase, including flavonoids, fatty-acid-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons, geranylgeraniol and the lignans ganschisandrine and eupomatenoid-6.

  20. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Kaisarun; Emma C. Barnes; Brophy, Joseph J.; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F.

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an ...

  1. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTINIOPTERIS RADIATA (SWARTZ LINK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manonmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of preliminary phytochemicals in six different solvent extracts of Actiniopteris radiata (Swartz link. by qualitative screening methods. The solvent used for the extraction of leaf and rhizome powder were ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, DMSO and aqueous. The secondary metabolites such as steroids, triterpenoids, reducing sugars, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, catechins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened by using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of both (leaf & rhizome revealed the presence of most active constituents than the other solvents. The ethanolic rhizome extracts of Actiniopteris radiata showed higher amount of phytochemicals when compared with the ethanolic leaf extracts.

  3. Nanotechnology for the delivery of phytochemicals in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Yang, Zhaogang; Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Jing; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize advances that have been made in the delivery of phytochemicals for cancer therapy by the use of nanotechnology. Over recent decades, much research effort has been invested in developing phytochemicals as cancer therapeutic agents. However, several impediments to their wide spread use as drugs still have to be overcome. Among these are low solubility, poor penetration into cells, high hepatic disposition, and narrow therapeutic index. Rapid clearance or uptake by normal tissues and wide tissue distribution result in low drug accumulation in the target tumor sites can result in undesired drug exposure in normal tissues. Association with or encapsulation in nanoscale drug carriers is a potential strategy to address these problems. This review discussed lessons learned on the use of nanotechnology for delivery of phytochemicals that been tested in clinical trials or are moving towards the clinic.

  4. Phytochemicals and their potential usefulness in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Sahil J; Modi, Ketan P; Majumdar, Anuradha S; Sadarani, Bhakti N

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiology, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Various drug therapies including aminosalicylates and immunomodulators have been approved for use; they have shown to produce diverse side effects. To overcome these limitations of the current therapeutics for IBD, extensive research is underway to identify drugs that are effective and free of undesirable side effects. Recently, various naturally occurring phytochemicals that cover a wide range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, terpeniods, flavonoids, and alkaloids have received attention as alternative candidates for IBD therapy. These phytochemicals act by modulating the immune response, various transcription factors, or reduce cytokine secretion. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on phytochemicals as therapeutic agents in the management of IBD.

  5. Agriculture and Bioactives: Achieving Both Crop Yield and Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Torres-Pacheco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices.

  6. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  7. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV s). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  8. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  9. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Dhabale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempt to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemicals parameters of Capparis zeylanica leaves belong to family Caparadaceae is a climbing shrub found in through out India. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat, rheumatism, abdominal ulcers and hernia, swelling, itching, hepatitis, liver tonic, insect poisoning and anti-inflammatory. But there is no standardization work reported on Capparis zeylanica leaves. Physicochemical parameters, preliminary characterization and phytochemical analysis were carried out. There finding will be useful to words establishing quality control parameters for the standardization of the plant material.

  10. THE PHYTOCHEMICAL RICHNESS OF THE IRIDACEAE AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. WILLIAMS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Just as the family Iridaceae is abundant in its morphological and anatomical diversity, so is it rich in its secondary metabolites. Many varied phytochemicals have been described from the family. Isoflavones, first recorded in Iris florentina, have recently been detected in Iris pseudopumila. Almost all common classes of flavonoid are present, while the rarer biflavonoids characterise Isophysis and Patersonia. The anthocyanins in flowers are generally distinctive at the generic level. Quinonoid and xanthone pigments have systematically interesting distribution patterns. Distinctive chemicals in Iris rhizome oils and in Crocus styles are useful economically. Yet other phytochemicals such as nonprotein amino acids and special storage carbohydrates have restricted distribution patterns.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  12. Phytochemical study of prickly pear from southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bouzoubaâ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the phytochemical study of the prickly pear pulp’s fruits of two opuntia cultivars; Achefri and Amouslem widely present in two regions of southern Morocco; Arbaa Sahel and Asgherkis that are different in their altitude and annual rainfall. The results of the phytochemical study show that the levels of antioxidants have a non-significant difference between the fruits of the two sites (comparing Amouslem and Achefri in the same site, on the one hand, for the differences due to the variety or cultivar, on the other hand between Amouslem and Achefri from the two sites to show the site effect.

  13. [Folic acid intake in daily food rations of 20-25 years old women from Wroclaw and assessment of knowledge about its importance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The mean folic acid content in the diets of 50 young women from Wroclaw was 282 mcg and complied in 70.5% of recommended intake in prophylactic of neural tube defects. Only 8% of women used peri-conceptional folate supplementation every day. In the examined group low knowledge about importance of folic acid in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women at childbearing age of the benefits resulting from supplementation of diet with folic acid.

  14. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  15. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  16. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine.

  17. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  18. Avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes de crianças de uma creche filantrópica: aplicação do Consumo Dietético de Referência Assessment of nutrients intake of children in a charity daycare center: application of Dietary Reference Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira Sampaio Barbosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar a adequação aparente da ingestão dos nutrientes utilizando os valores de referência "Consumo Dietético de Referência" (Dietary Reference Intake-DRIs de 35 crianças de uma creche filantrópica, em dois momentos, no ato da matrícula (momento 1 e após seis meses de freqüência na creche (momento 2. MÉTODOS: A avaliação sócio-demográfica foi realizada através de questionário abordando renda, escolaridade, condições de moradia e saneamento básico. Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, no ato da matrícula, a história dietética foi determinada em entrevista com o responsável, com o propósito de obter informações sobre consumo habitual da criança na sua residência. Após o período de seis meses foi utilizado o método de pesagem direta de alimentos (na creche complementando com o consumo alimentar da criança na residência. A análise dos nutrientes como proteínas, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C, além das fibras alimentares, foi realizada através um programa computacional. Para comparar a adequação dos nutrientes nos dois momentos do estudo utilizou-se o teste t de Student para dados pareados (p OBJECTIVES: to compare nutrients intake apparent adequacy through reference values of Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs of 35 children of a charity daycare center in two instances, when they enrolled (instance 1 and six months after (instance 2. METHODS: socio-demographic assessment was performed through a questionnaire collecting information pertaining to income, school level, living conditions and basic sanitation. To assess food consumption at enrollment, dietary history was informed through an interview with the parent, family member or guardian on the usual intake of the child at home. Following a six month period the weighed food record method (in the daycare center was performed complemented by the food intake of the child at home. Nutrient analysis such as proteins, iron, calcium and vitamin C in

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF DENDROPTHOE PENTANDRA LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Nik Aina Syazana Nik Zainuddin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrophthoe pentandra known as mistletoe is a semi-parasitic plant with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to determine phytochemical constituents of Dendropthoe petandra (DP leaves extract, to evaluate toxicity of extracts by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT and to confirm cytotoxicity activity of DPME against various normal cell lines. The most potent extract was then evaluated by GC-MS. DP leaves that have been extracted with petroleum ether (DPPEE, methanol (DPME and water (DPWE were screened for phytochemical constituents. BSLT was carried out to determine the lethality concentration that kills 50% of tested population (LC50. The cytotoxicity was assessed by Methylene Blue Assay (MBA that evaluates the inhibition concentration for cell growth by 50% (IC50. The normal cell lines used were MDCK, L929 and Vero. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and terpenoid in those extracts. Highest total phenolic content was found in DPME (471.63±2.02 mg GAE/g. BSLT have determined the lowest LC50 value is 2.74±1.23 ppm in DPME. No IC50 detected when MDCK, L929 and Vero cell line were treated with all extracts. Therefore, this can be concluded that DP extracts did not show any harmful effects towards MDCK, L929 and Vero cell lines although the DPME, DPPEE and DPWE are toxic towards brine shrimp. Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester are among compounds present in DPME. Further studies using mammalian cancer cell lines should be conducted on DP extracts to know if they posses anticancer potential.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz; Ahmad; Nahida; Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis(P.officinalis)L.Methods:Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures.Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines.The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P.officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)induced hepatic damage in rats.Aqueous extract of P.officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals.Liver injury was induced chemically,by CCl4 administration(1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum alkaline phosphatase(SALP),total bilirubin and total protein(TP)along with histopathological studies.Result:Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P.officinalis contain alkaloids,tannins,saponins,glycosides,carbohydrates,flavonoids,terpenes,steroids and proteins.The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg.In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg,the substantially elevated AST,ALT,SALP,total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered,respectively,in a dose dependent manner,along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups.Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal.Conclusions:The aqueous extract of P.officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Agbafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4 treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL/kg body weight of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P>.05 from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P<.05 in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P<.05 relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants.

  2. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Luffa aegyptiaca (Sponge gourd Leave Sample from Northern Nigeria: A Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhya DH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of the leaves of Luffa aegyptiaca was preliminary screened with the aim of assessing the availability of some biologically active compounds. Pulverized leaves sample of Luffa aegyptiaca was extracted with water; the filtrate was concentrated on water bath and then air-dried at 25oC. The prepared aqueous-extract was used for the phytochemical screening study which was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemicals screened from the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca showed positive result for flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycoside compounds. These compounds found in the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca leaves may have a wide range of biological activities which could of pharmaceutical importance.

  3. Diseño de un cuestionario de frecuencia para evaluar ingesta alimentaria en la Universidad de Antioquía, Colombia Development of questionnaire to assess food intake in the University of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.ª Monsalve Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Diseñar un cuestionario de frecuencia de ingesta alimentaria (CFIA semicuantitativo y autoreportado para valorar la ingesta usual de alimentos y macronutrientes en lacomunidad académica de la Universidad de Antioquia (UdeA. Metodología: El diseño del cuestionario se realizó a partir de la revisión y el análisis de estudios de ingesta previos y de los lineamientos establecidos para la venta de productos alimentarios en la UdeA. Para la selección de los alimentos y la definición del tamaño de porción, se aplicó el criterio de patrón de ingesta y el peso o tamaño de porción de mayor frecuencia por cada alimento según lo reportado en estudios previos. Con el CFIA se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con 154 personas de la UdeA. El análisis incluyó la comprensión, aplicabilidad y exhaustividad del instrumento para los participantes, así como el cálculo de medidas descriptivas en el componente exploratorio. Resultados: Un CFIA semicuantitativo compuesto por 144 alimentos clasificados en 9 grupos, con tamaños de porción reconocidos por la población y con 9 categorías de opciones de frecuencia de ingesta usual en el último año. El estudio exploratorio evidenció diferencias en el patrón de ingesta en los grupos poblacionales analizados. Conclusión: El CFIA diseñado fue adecuado para la población objeto de estudio, dado que fue de fácil comprensión y aplicación y permitió valorar la ingesta usual de la comunidad de la UdeA.Objective: To design a self-reported semi-quantitative questionnaire of frequency of food intake (QFFI to assess the usual intake of foods and macronutrients of the academic community from the University of Antioquia (UoA. Methodology: The design of the questionnaire was done by reviewing and analyzing previous studies on food intake and the established linings for the selling of dietary products at the UoA. For selecting the foods and defining the serving size, we applied the

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF COSMETICS FOR HAIR COLORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzyk D.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Henna-based cosmetic products are becoming increasingly popular. They can be used during pregnancy, lactation as well as for temporary children’s tattoo. The aim of this work is to develop quality control methods, allowing determining the naturalness of the composition of hair coloring cosmetic products, as well as the presence of lawsone and its quantitative content. Material & methods The researched objects were eight hair coloring cosmetic products. The spectrophotometer UV-vis Evolution 60S was used in our phytochemical studies. The quantitative content of chlorophyll a and b was determined in methanolic extracts by spectrophotometric method, using the methodology proposed by K. Miazek. By using well-known methods, methanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the studied objects. The extracts, then, were purified to obtain dry residues containing lawsone. Hair color pastes were obtained according to the instructions on the packages of researched products, and finally chloroform extracts were obtained from these pastes.Quantitative content of lawsone in methanolic and aqueous extracts and dry residues after cleaning of the extracts were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The wavelengths at which the solution of lawsone gives absorption maxima were determined experimentally on the basis of the spectra of the standard sample of lawsone dissolved in methanol (methanolic extracts and in water with the addition of aqueous NaHCO3 (aqueous extracts.The quantitative content of polyphenolic compounds in methanolic and aqueous extracts of the researched objects in terms of gallic acid was performed by the spectrophotometric method at the wavelength of 765 nm using the technique of Folin - Ciocalteau. The gallic acid (by virtue of absorbance dependence on concentration was used as a standard sample to construct the calibration graph. Results & discussion The total content of chlorophyll in the samples was determined by

  5. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer nontoxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable to individual phytochemicals, rather may be ascribed to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03 to 0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE's antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management.

  6. Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Swapna; Dixit, Madhulika

    2015-01-01

    Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.

  7. Cancer therapy with phytochemicals: evidence from clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the major causes of mortality in both developing and developed countries. At this time, in spite of intensive interventions, a large number of patients have poor prognosis. Therefore, the effort for finding new anticancer agents with better efficacy and lesser side effects has continued. According to the traditional recommendations and experimental studies, numerous medicinal plants have been reported to have anticancer effect. Also antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects of several phytochemicals have been shown with in vitro experiments or animal studies. However, only a small number of them were tested in cancerous patients and limited evidence exists on their clinical effectiveness. Also, regarding some phytochemicals, only beneficial effects on cancer-related symptoms or on quality of life have been reported and no positive results exist on their antitumor actions. In this review we focus on phytochemicals that their beneficial effects on various types of cancer are supported by clinical trials. Based our literature search, curcumin, green tea, resveratrol and Viscum album had satisfactory instances of clinical evidence for supporting their anticancer effects. The main findings on these phytochemicals are summarized and discussed.

  8. Dietary Phytochemicals In Neuroimmunoaging: A New Therapeutic Possibility For Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziamaria Corbi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although several efforts have been made in the search for genetic and epigenetic patterns linked to diseases, a comprehensive explanation of the mechanisms underlying pathological phenotypic plasticity is still far from being clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation are two of the major triggers of the epigenetic alterations occurring in chronic pathologies, such as neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made to realize that chronic, low-grade inflammation is one of the major risk factor underlying brain ageing. Accumulated data strongly suggest that phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices may exert relevant immunomodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory activities in the context of brain aging. Starting by the evidence that a common denominator of aging and chronic degenerative diseases is represented by inflammation, and that several dietary phytochemicals are able to potentially interfere with and regulate the normal function of cells, in particular neuronal components, aim of this review is to summarise recent studies on neuroinflammaging processes and proofs indicating that specific phytochemicals may act as positive modulators of neuroinflammatory events. In addition, critical pathways involved in mediating phytochemicals effects on neuroinflammaging were discussed, exploring the real impact of these compounds in preserving brain health before the onset of symptoms leading to inflammatory neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

  9. Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.

  10. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scie

  11. New analytical approaches for faster or greener phytochemical analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chapter 1 provides a short introduction into the constraints of phytochemical analysis. In order to make them faster, less laborious and greener, there is a clear scope for miniaturized and simplified sample preparation, solvent-free extractions and the use

  12. Modern Phytochemical Analysis: Evaluation in Plant Tissues and Processed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in chromatography separation media, solvent delivery mechanisms, microprocessor driven hardware, computer software, and chemical detectors have combined to usher in a new era of phytochemical analysis. Technological advances have given rise to bench-top gas and liquid chromatography system...

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE GENUS ZINGIBER FROM FAMILY ZINGIBERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarkar A. R.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of three Zingiber species (Zingiberaceae revealed presence of phenols and phenolic compounds, acicubin, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid and lignins leucoanthocyanis, catechol, tannins, quinone, naptho-quinones and coumarin are absence in all the species. The chemical compounds like syringin glycosides, saponin are doubtful in these species.

  14. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  15. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-08

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake.

  16. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  17. The potential health effects of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits: phytochemical, chemotaxonomic and ethnobotanical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Most natural product research is market-driven and thus many plant species are overlooked for their health value due to lack of financial incentives. This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. bijugatus fruit pulp and seeds are assessed in relation to phytochemical and ethnobotanical studies, as well as chemotaxonomic information and medicinal uses of other Sapindaceae species. The chemistry of M. bijugatus fruits was found to be different than the other Sapindaceae fruits, although some of the medicinal uses were similar. Specific phenolics or sugars in M. bijugatus fruits may contribute to their therapeutic uses, especially for gastrointestinal problems, and to some extent toxicological effects. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of M. bijugatus fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce.

  18. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mabel Parimala; Francis Gricilda Shoba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus.Methods:the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined.Results:Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g).Conclusion:Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  19. Effect assessment of salt intake reduction intervention among residents in Baoshan District, Shanghai%上海市宝山区减少居民食盐摄入干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡忠元; 陈婷

    2011-01-01

    评价上海市宝山区减少居民食盐摄入干预效果,为控盐干预工作提供依据.方法 采用免费派发控盐勺等方法 对上海市宝山区居民实施控盐干预,分别于干预前、干预后半年、1年和2年对160户家庭及家庭成员进行调查,分析人均日食盐摄入量及居民控盐知信行变化.结果 2年中,社区居民4项盐与健康知识平均知晓率由58.5%上升至79.2%;3项控盐态度平均形成率由72.2%上升至77.4%;平时能劝阻家人烧菜时减少食盐用量的比例由60.7%上升至68.4%,上述指标差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),且存在1年内持续上升,1年后有所下降的变化趋势.人均日食盐摄入量干预前和干预后半年、1年、2年分别为8.00克、7.94克、7.41克和7.78克,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在摄入的盐中,隐形盐人均日摄入达1.65克;食用低钠盐的家庭仅占3.7%.结论 控盐干预活动取得了一定的效果,但没有产生食盐摄入量的变化,因此控盐工作要持之以恒,同时要积极倡导食用低钠盐.%Objective To assess the effect of the intervention on the residents' salt intake reduction in Baoshan District, Shanghai, and to provide evidence for further salt intake interventions. Methods Investigators distributed the salt control spoons to the residents. A sample of 160 families were assessed pre-intervention, and six months, one year, and two years after the interventions on the daily salt consumption and knowledge, belief, and practice of salt intake (KABP). Results Two years after the interventions, the average awareness rate of four knowledge items about the relations between slat and health had risen from 58. 5% to 79. 2%. The average of three salt control acceptance rates had increased from 72.2% to 77.4%. The percent of those who persuaded other family members to use less salt when cooking had increased from 60. 7% to 68.4%. All the presented improvements were statistically

  20. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals.

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    Hafsa Amat-Ur-Rasool

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh. The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE, an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD.

  1. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD.

  2. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  3. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Fennel, Juniper and Kalonji essential oils against multi drug resistant clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharmishtha Purkayastha; Rittee Narain; Praveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The inhibitory effects of essential oils including fennel, juniper and kalonji from Foeniculum Vulgare, Juniperus Osteosperma and Nigella Sativa on multi drug resistant clinical isolates were investigated. All the oils have been evaluated for phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activity and TLC bioautography assay. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed. The antibacterial potential of essential oils from fennel, juniper and kalonji fennel, juniper and kalonji was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect was investigated using the TLC-bioautographic method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of most of the phytochemicals including saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was assessed on eight multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and two standard strains. All the oils tested showed significant to moderate antibacterial activity toward all tested strains except Acinetobacter sp and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. The maximum zone of inhibition was found to be 25依0.12 mm for juniper oil followed by 21依0.085 mm for kalonji oil againstStaphylococcus aureus 2. Thin layer chromatography and bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus 2 and E. coli for juniper essential oil in correspondence with tannins observed at Rf values of 0.07 and 0.57. Conclusions: Based on the present study, the essential oils from juniper and kalonji possess antibacterial activity against several multi drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and thus can be used as a base for the development of new potent drugs and phytomedicine.

  5. Impact assessment on DFS supplementation Post NHE on nutrient intake of critically anemic pregnant mothers in a tribal set up of Gujarat

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    S Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adequate nutrition is essential during pregnancy to ensure optimal fetal growth. Especially maternal Iron and Iodine deficiency have negative and irreversible effects of the developing fetus. Double Fortified Salt (DFS with both iodine and iron was later proposed by NIN to be simple and inexpensive public health strategy to control iron and iodine deficiencies. Efficacy trials were run by Nair et al., 2007 using DFS showed a beneficial effect on population by an increase of 4-5% change in the iron status of the highly malnourished subjects.  Objectives: The study has focused on the impact of DFS along with nutrient intake on critically anemic pregnant mothers in tribal areas of Jhagadia with 58% of preterm deliveries. Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out in Bharuch District. From this area 135 pregnant mothers were enrolled. NHE regarding consumption of DFS and dietary improvement was provided. Reinforcement was carried out after 1 month of supplementation with DFS. Results: Out of 135 subjects, 40% were UIC deficient, 75% were moderately anemic, 15% and 10% were mild and severely anemic respectively.  DFS (1mg iron and 40ppm iodine/g supplementation and Nutrition Health Education for 2 months showed statistical non-significant change in UIE and iron status of the pregnant mothers. Significant increment in both macro and micro nutrient intake from pre to post intervention period was observed. Conclusion: Owing to the fact that dietary contribution of Iron was only 7mg/day, it is clearly evident that even DFS and IFA supplementation showed no significant improvement in iron status. Dense nutrition is the key element for improving maternal nutritional status.

  6. Biofunctional activity of tortillas and bars enhanced with nopal. Preliminary assessment of functional effect after intake on the oxidative status in healthy volunteers

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    Paz Maldonado Luz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prickly pear cactus stem (nopal has been used in folk medicine and a raw material since ancient times. Stems have been proved to possess components with valuable biological activities: anti inflamatory, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hypoglycemic, and so forth. Nowadays, people consume foods not only to cover the nutritional requirements, they also demand for healty, natural and convenient foods that show biological activity. This study evaluated the bio-functional effects of consuming tortillas or bars (filled with prickly pear fruit jam supplemented or not with nopal dietary fiber. Results The addition of nopal increased the fiber and polyphenols content in both tortillas (16.67%, 2.33 mg QE/L and bars (13.79%, 1.99 mg QE/L. Furthermore the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 1.47 mmol/L, polyphenols (7.67 mg QE/L and vitamin C (77.91 μmol/L showed increased levels in volunteer's plasma after intake. Also lower levels of glucose (4.43 mmol/L, total cholesterol (4.27 mmol/L, LDL (1.96 mmol/L and triglycerides (1.54 mmol/L were observed in plasma after the supplementation scheme with nopal-based tortilla, while GSH:GSSG ratio in erythrocytes was higher. Conclusions The results suggested that the intake of nopal-based tortillas with high content in fiber and antioxidant compounds can help to improve the overall oxidative status in healthy humans, which can reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. In addition, these products showed suitable physicochemical characteristics to be marketed.

  7. Consumo alimentar de atletas: reflexões sobre recomendações nutricionais, hábitos alimentares e métodos para avaliação do gasto e consumo energéticos Athletes' food intake: reflections on nutritional recommendations, food habits and methods for assessing energy expenditure and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pereira Panza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi efetuar revisão sobre o consumo alimentar de atletas, enfatizando recomendações nutricionais, adequações dietéticas, comportamento alimentar e limitações dos métodos na avaliação dietética e estimativa do gasto energético nesta população. Foram analisados 30 artigos, publicados no período de 1984-2004, selecionados em bases eletrônicas de dados. O critério de inclusão dos artigos foi a abordagem sobre aspectos nutricionais relacionados ao exercício, recomendações de energia e nutrientes, bem como consumo alimentar de atletas. As recomendações de energia, macronutrientes e hidratação para atletas já estão bem determinadas, porém, pouco se conhece sobre as necessidades de vitaminas e minerais. Contudo, existe um consenso de que as necessidades de micronutrientes para a maioria desses indivíduos podem ser atendidas por uma dieta variada e equilibrada. Por outro lado, estudos indicam que a inadequação de energia e nutrientes ainda predomina em vários grupos atléticos, revelando a necessidade da reeducação nutricional. Diversos fatores inerentes à modalidade esportiva, tais como os esquemas de treinamento e as exigências relativas à imagem corporal, podem influenciar os hábitos alimentares do atleta. Portanto, a compreensão das relações entre o padrão de alimentação de atletas e os diversos fatores relacionados ao esporte são aspectos fundamentais para o estabelecimento de orientações nutricionais. A ocorrência de erros sistemáticos em pesquisas com atletas que empregam métodos que utilizam o auto-relato, ressalta a importância do rigor metodológico na aplicação desses instrumentos.The purpose of this paper was to review the bibliography on athletes' food intake, emphasizing nutritional recommendations, dietary propriety and behavior, limitations of the methods for assessing food intake and estimated energy expenditure in this population. Thirty articles were analyzed

  8. Dietary intake of magnesium may modulate depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz; Soleimannejad, Kourosh

    2013-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent in students and may lead to countless problems. Several hypotheses associate magnesium with depression because of the presence of this mineral in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which may play a key role in the pathological pathways of depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether magnesium intake could modulate depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 402 Iranian postgraduate students studying in Malaysia to assess the relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 32.54 ± 6.22 years. The results of the study demonstrated an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms, which persisted even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status.

  9. Dietary phytochemical PEITC restricts tumor development via modulation of epigenetic writers and erasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Eun; Sun, Yang; Lim, Sai Kiang; Tam, James P.; Dekker, Matthijs; Chen, Hong; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intake of bioactive phytochemicals including the cruciferous vegetable derivative phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce risk of human cancers, but possible epigenetic mechanisms of these effects are yet unknown. We therefore sought to identify the molecular basis of PEITC-mediated epigenetic tumor restriction. Colon cancer cells treated with low-dose PEITC for >1 month exhibited stable alterations in expression profile of epigenetic writers/erasers and chromatin-binding of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins. Sustained PEITC exposure not only blocked HDAC binding to euchromatin but was also associated with hypomethylation of PcG target genes that are typically hypermethylated in cancer. Furthermore, PEITC treatment induced expression of pro-apoptotic genes in tumor cells, which was partially reversed by overexpression of PcG member BMI-1, suggesting opposing roles for PEITC and PcG proteins in control of tumor progression. These data demonstrate that PEITC regulates chromatin binding of key epigenetic writers/erasers and PcG complexes to restrict tumor development. PMID:28079155

  10. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii.Methods:and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree.Conclusions:Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii.

  11. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of Indigofera serpentinicola

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    Charmaine Kahiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and aqueous root extracts of Indigofera serpentinicola were investigated for their phytochemical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tanins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, reducing sugars oils and fats in both extracts. Flavanoids were only detected in the methanolic extract. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The extracts showed low activity against Staphylococus aureus, Cornybacterium diptheriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and no activity against Escherichia coli. The diameters zones of inhibition ranged between 3-10 mm. The aqueous extract had higher activity showing zones of inhibition of 10 mm against S. enterica. Brine shrimp lethality test showed LC50 values which ranged from 0.079-0.158 mg/mL, showing that the extracts were highly toxic.

  12. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  13. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae

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    FELIPE A. GIRARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv. extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano, L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  14. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SEEDS OF PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA

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    Mohammed RafiqKhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralea corylifolia known as “Babchi” is a medicinal plant for the treatment of skin diseases. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicines have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various disorders. In our present investigation preliminary phytochemical analysis of Psoralea corylifolia has been evaluated for the presence of bioactive constituents using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of maximum compounds including carbohydrates, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, amino acid and proteins, cardiac glycosides. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Psoralea corylifolia has promising therapeutic potential and can be used as a base for the development of novel potent drugs in phytomedicine.

  15. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China.

  16. Health Promoting Effects of Phytochemicals from Brassicaceae: A Review.

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    Savinder Kaur Mann and Namita Khanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, natural antioxidants have attracted considerable interest as potential treatment for a wide variety of disease states, including cancer and other causes e.g. chronic inflammatory diseases and aging. Therefore, plant derived antioxidants are now receiving a special attention as they possess good antioxidant properties and hence a worldwide trend towards the use of natural phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables have been reported. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases and reduced incidence of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and other sites. The substances that seem to be responsible for these properties are phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, polyphenols etc. and sulphur-containing organic compound glucosinolates and their derived products. The present review focuses on the health promoting effects of phytochemicals and their beneficial bioactivities in Brassicaceae.

  17. Agronomical and phytochemical evaluation of Stevia rebaudiana genotypes

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    Vouillamoz, José F.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The agronomical potential and the phytochemical variability of 18 genotypes of the Paraguayan plant Stevia rebaudiana have been investigated in Switzerland in order identify the best genotype for local cultivation. Over a two years period, yields in dry leaves ranged from 10 to 170 g m-2, with a percentage of leaves ranging from 53 to 75 %. HPLC analyses showed a notable variability in phytochemical composition, with stevioside content ranging from 0.3 to 7.9 % w/w and rebaudioside A from 0.3 to 6.5 % w/w. Cultivation of S. rebaudiana in Switzerland is feasible. With a density of 10 plants per m2, the potential yields of dry matter are approximately 1-2 t ha-1. The most productive genotypes (Pharmasaat, Hem Zaden, Stepa and Mediplant 3 and 11 will be submitted to the industry for organoleptic evaluation.

  18. An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of the Genus Meconopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Bai, Ruifeng; Zhao, Baosheng; Feng, Xiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Tu, Pengfei; Chai, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    The Meconopsis plants (Chinese: ), belonging to the family Papaveraceae, have been used as traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) for thousands of years. Meconopsis has the effects of clearing heat, reducing swelling, and easing pain, and is mainly prescribed for heat syndromes, hepatitis, pneumonia, and pain in joints. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of major isoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological research has demonstrated its antitumor, hepatoprotective, analgestic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antitussive, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, resource availability, in-depth in vivo pharmacological study and qualitative and quantitative analysis are still insufficient and deserve further efforts. This paper provides a comprehensive advance on the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of the genus, in hopes of promoting a better understanding of their medicinal values.

  19. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of leaf and root parts of the medicinal herb, Hypochaeris radicata L. for in vitro antioxidant activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jamuna Senguttuvan; Subramaniam Paulsamy; Krishnamoorthy Karthika

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse qualitative and quantitative phytochemical and evaluate in vitro antioxidant properties of various alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaf and root parts of Hypochaeris radicata.Methods:glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and triterpenoids and quantitative phytochemical analysis for alkaloids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins and ascorbic acid were made by following standard procedures. In vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated by assessing DPPH Preliminary phytochemical analysis for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids,•, NO• and ABTS•+, radical scavenging abilities and assaying the reducing power, β-carotene and antihemolytic activities by adapting standard methods.Results:alkaloids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins and ascorbic acid in considerable quantity. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the species, Hypochaeris radicata clearly demonstrated that both the leaf and root parts have prominent antioxidant properties.Conclusions:From this study, it can be concluded that the species is effective in scavenging free The quantitative phytochemical analysis of this species exhibited the presence of radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.

  20. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Javeed Ahmed Wani; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; R. K. NEMA

    2011-01-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphr...

  1. Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Aloe Bar Badensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adesuyi and O.A. Awosanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research Study is to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the Aloe barbadensis for Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Phytochemical composition. The Proximate, Anti-Nutrient composition and Phytochemical screening of Aloe barbadensis were determined. The Proximate composition involves the Moisture content, Crude protein, Crude fibre, Crude Fat, Ash content and Carbohydrate. The Anti-Nutrients involved Oxalate, Tannins and Phytate while the Phytochemicals determined were the Saponins, Phenols, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. Aloe barbadensis was found to be rich in Carbohydrate (73.07%, so it can be used as a good source of Carborhydrate. The Protein and Fat content were found to be relatively low, (4.73 and 0.27% respectively. But Aloe barbadensis can still be used as a source of Protein and Fat. Qualitatively, Tannin, Oxalate and Phytate were found in trace amount. Tannin, Phytate and Oxalate contents were 0.155 g/100 g, 0.683 g/100 g, and 0.524 g/100 g respectively. This could affect the availability of Minerals in Aloe barbadensis. It was also discovered that Phytochemicals are present in quantities of 0.232 g/100g, 5.651 g/100 g, 2.471 g/100 g and 3.246 g/100 g for Phenols, Saponins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids respectively. This is an indication of Cosmetic and medicinal Value of Aloe barbadensis. The Sample was also found to be a rich source of minerals. Sodium and Potassium content (5280 and 10670 PPM respectively indicates the tendency of Aloe barbadensis to be able to regulate or control the osmotic balance of the body fluid as well as body pH. Aloe barbadensis is also found to be rich in Phosphorus (6657 PPM, which is essential for bone formation. Lead occur in traces. Magnesium (325.8 PPM is also present, which could help to lower the blood pressure. The overall data suggest that Aloe barbadensis has some Nutritional and Medicinal Properties.

  2. Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele-Salvatore Scarpa; Paolino Ninfali

    2015-01-01

    The theory that several carcinogenetic processes are initiated and sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been validated, and specific methods to identify the CSCs in the entire population of cancer cells have also proven to be effective. This review aims to provide an overview of recently acquired scientific knowledge regarding phytochemicals and herbal extracts, which have been shown to be able to target and kill CSCs. Many genes and proteins that sustain the CSCs’ self-renewal capacity ...

  3. Phytochemical, antioxidant, antiviral and cytotoxic evaluation of Opuntia dillenii flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Arthanari Saravana Kumar; Mani Ganesh; Mei Mei Peng; Jang Hyun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia dillenii used in Asian traditional medicine especially in China. We here report on the investigation of the phytochemical content, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanolic extract of O. dillenii flowers. The antioxidant activity was measured with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging method. In the antiviral and cytotoxic assay we used different viruses in different cell lines. In antioxidant assay, the DPPH assay exhibited potent antioxid...

  4. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening 4 of Arbutus unedo L

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Allali, Hocine; Bendiabdellah, Amel; Meliani, Nawel; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of water and methanol extract, and three phenolic fractions of the roots of Arbutus unedo L. were investigated. Poor antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria was shown with water and methanol extract. However moderate antibacterial activity was shown by water extract and phenolic fractions against Escherichia coli and S. aureus, respectively. The phytochemical screening of roots of A. u...

  5. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  6. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Derris scandens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Different fractions of root and stem of Derris scandens demonstrated good antibacterial (Escherichia coli, and Bacillus megaterium, antialgal (Chlorella fusca, and antifungal (Microbotryum violaceum activities. Phytochemical investigation resulted in isolation of scandenin, scandenin A, betulinic acid, lupeol, β-amyran-3-one, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and ß-sitosterol glucopyranoside. Study showed that scandenin has strong antibacterial activity against B. megaterium and good antifungal and antialgal properties. Scandenin A showed good antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  8. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi D; N. Prasanna; Baskar R.

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth a...

  9. the potential of AGE MODE, an age-dependent model, to estimate usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes in a population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, Patricia M C M; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Boer, Jolanda M A; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Rossum, Caroline T M van

    2006-01-01

    Dietary intake data often stem from short-term measurements. However, for dietary assessment, generally the habitual intake distribution is of interest. Currently, habitual intake distributions are often estimated separately for subgroups of gender and age and do not take into account the variation

  10. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on Leucas vestita Wall ex Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salem Varadharajan Rajesh; Thiruppathi Senthil Kumar; Mandali Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In search of alternative herbal medicine for pathogenic microorganism variety of plant species have been identified. However, search of new species are still in progress to reduce the pressure on biological diversity and increase availability of organic compound. In the light of this the present work identified phytochemical property and antibacterial activity of Leucas vestita.Methods:The ethanol extract of L. vestita was used for this study. The phytochemicals present in the extract was identified and the antibacterial activity was tested through disc diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of primary and secondary metabolites which ensuring their herbal properties. Antimicrobial activity showed increasing zone of inhibition with increasing concentration of the extract with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis among the other microorganism. Larger zone of inhibition of 14mm was recorded for K. pneumoniae. Conclusions:The study suggests that this extract can be used as a medicine to control some of these pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Plant phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators: role in cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay S; Deb, Gauri; Babcook, Melissa A; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, "nutri-epigenetics," which focuses on the influence of dietary agents on epigenetic mechanism(s), has emerged as an exciting novel area in epigenetics research. Targeting of aberrant epigenetic modifications has gained considerable attention in cancer chemoprevention research because, unlike genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are reversible and occur during early carcinogenesis. Aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, such as promoter DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional alterations, can silence critical tumor suppressor genes, such as transcription factors, cell cycle regulators, nuclear receptors, signal transducers, and apoptosis-inducing and DNA repair gene products, and ultimately contribute to carcinogenesis. In an effort to identify and develop anticancer agents which cause minimal harm to normal cells while effectively killing cancer cells, a number of naturally occurring phytochemicals in food and medicinal plants have been investigated. This review highlights the potential role of plant-derived phytochemicals in targeting epigenetic alterations that occur during carcinogenesis, by modulating the activity or expression of DNA methyltransferases, histone modifying enzymes, and miRNAs. We present in detail the epigenetic mode of action of various phytochemicals and discuss their potential as safe and clinically useful chemopreventive strategies.

  12. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  13. Complexation of phytochemicals with cyclodextrin derivatives - An insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Vasanti; Gujar, Parul; Murahari, Manikanta

    2017-04-01

    Natural compounds have been attracting huge attention because of their broad therapeutic properties with specificity in their action in human health care as functional foods, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. However poor bioavailability and reduced bioactivity attributed to poor solubility and instability is the major drawback hindering the incorporation of these therapeutically potential molecules in novel drug delivery systems. Based on the findings of reported research investigations; complexation of poorly water soluble phytochemicals with cyclodextrins has emerged to be a promising approach to improve their aqueous solubility, stability, rate of dissolution and bioavailability. The present article summarizes the encapsulation of natural compounds ranging from various flavonoids, phenolic derivatives, coumestans to triterpenes, with cyclodextrin and their derivatives. Also the article highlights the method of complexation, complexation ability, drug solubility, stability, bioavailability and safety aspects of reported natural compounds. Additionally we present the glimpses of patents published in recent 10-15 years to highlight the significance of inclusion of phytochemicals in cyclodextrins. In patents narrated, improvement in stability and solubility of curcumin by complexation with alkyl ether derivative of gamma-cyclodextrin is claimed. Another patent mentioned, complexation of artemisinins with β-cyclodextrin, improved the stability and integrity of peroxide part of artemisinins for long period. On the other hand the complex of dihydromyricetin with γ-CD has shown improved solubility, stability and bioavailability. Thus it can be concluded that phytochemicals have multiple biological activities with broader safety index and improvement of their solubility will be truly beneficial to aid their effective delivery in healthcare.

  14. Phytochemical standardization of Aloe vera extract by HPTLC techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; Kanika Patel; SP Dhanabal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemical parameters of Aloe vera (A. vera) L. which can be used as a tool for its standardization. Methods: The phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis of gallic acid and berberine by HPTLC method were included in present study. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.9% and 13.11%. Concentartion of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium was found to be under the limit. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas Escherichia coli (E. coli) and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Quantitative analysis through HPTLC revealed the presence of 2.74%and 0.543% w/w of berberine and gallic acid. Conclusions: The results indicate that the plant extract are rich in berberine and gallic acid implying their importance to human health. This investigation could be used as source of standard parameters which can play an important role in its standardization.

  15. Cytoprotective, antihyperglycemic and phytochemical properties of Cocos nucifera (L.) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Renjith; AM Chikku; T Rajamohan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the cytoprotective and antidiabetic activities as well as phytochemical composition of the immature inflorescence ofCocos nucifera belonging to theArecaceaeFamily. Methods:The phytochemical screening of inflorescence was done to determine the major constituents present inCocos nuciferainflorescence.The free radical scavenging potential of inflorescence extracts were evaluated using in vitro radical scavenging assay models.Results:The phytochemical analyses on inflorescence showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, resins and alkaloids.The macronutrient analyses, on the other hand, showed the presence of carbohydrate, proteins and fibers.Administration of the methanol extract of coconut inflorescence to the diabetic rats showed dose dependent reduction in hyperglycemia.The cytoprotective property of coconut inflorescence was evidenced from the acute toxicological evaluation.The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased in the diabetic rats treated with inflorescence when compared with the diabetic control rats.Conclusion:The results obtained from the present study apparently proved the non-toxic nature and the cytoprotective and antihyperglycemic properties of coconut inflorescence.

  16. Significances and importance of phytochemical present in Terminalia chebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ A.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical are naturally present in the plants and shows biologically significance by playing an essential role in the plants to defend themselves against various pathogenic microbes by showing the antimicrobial activity by inhibition or killing mechanisms. The secretion of these compounds is varying from plant to plant some produce more and some produce in minimal quantity. Sometimes they can be harmful and sometimes they can be very helpful. There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration The present study was focused to find out the photochemical analysis of Terminalia chebula plant extracts of leaves, fruits, seed, stem and roots. The formation of yellow colour indicated the presence of flavonoids while the brown colour formation indicated the presence alkaloids and terpenoids. The phenol content was maximum in roots (82.13 mg/gdw followed by seed leave, stem and fruit. The sugar content was highest in leaves (8.27 mg/gdw followed by fruits, stem, root and seed. The protein content was maximum in fruits (55.59 mg/dgw followed by seeds leaves, stem and root.

  17. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-03-17

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  18. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  19. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two ...

  20. Risk assessment due to intake of heavy metals through the ingestion of groundwater around two proposed uranium mining areas in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Mahato, Mukesh K; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N

    2012-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution of water resources can be apprehended in East Singhbhum region which is a highly mineralised zone with extensive mining of copper, uranium and other minerals. Ten groundwater samples were collected from each site and the heavy metal analysis was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Analysis of the results of the study reveals that the concentration of iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper and nickel in groundwater of Bagjata mining area ranged 0.06-5.3 mg l(-1), 0.01-1.3 mg l(-1), 0.02-8.2 mg l(-1), 1.4-28.4 μg l(-1), 0.78-20.0 μg l(-1) and 1.05-20.1 μg l(-1), respectively. In case of Banduhurang mining area, the range was 0.04-2.93 mg l(-1), 0.02-1.1 mg l(-1), 0.01-4.68 mg l(-1), 1.04-33.21 μg l(-1), 1.24-18.7 μg l(-1) and 1.06-14.58 μg l(-1), respectively. The heavy metals were found to be below the drinking water standards (IS:10500 1993) except iron (0.3 mg l(-1)) and manganese (0.1 mg l(-1)). The hazard quotients of the heavy metals for drinking water were below 1 posing no threat due to intake of water to the people for both the areas.

  1. Changes in adolescents' intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and sedentary behaviour: Results at 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study - a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Lene F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent effects of school-based obesity prevention interventions may be related to how different subgroups receive them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention program, including fact sheets to parents and classroom components, on intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and screen time. Further, to explore whether potential effects and parental involvement varied by adolescents' gender, weight status (WS and parental educational level. Methods In total, 1465 11-year-olds participated at the pre-test and the 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study. Parents (n = 349 contributed with process evaluation data. Self-reported intake of SSB was collected from the 11-year-olds assessing frequency and amount, while time used on watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use (weekday and weekend day were assed by frequency measures. Data on awareness of the intervention and dose received were collected from parents. Covariance analyses (ANCOVA were conducted testing for effects by gender and for moderation by WS and parental education. Results Time spent on TV/DVD (week p = 0.001, weekend p = 0.03 and computer/game-use (week p = 0.004, weekend p Conclusions The preventive initiatives appeared to change behaviour in girls only. This study suggests that exploration of potential beneficial or negative effects of intervention in subgroups is important. In formative evaluation of obesity prevention studies it seems warranted to include issues related to gender, WS and parental involvement in order to enhance the effectiveness of preventive initiatives.

  2. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking....... At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association...

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FUMARIA OFFICINALIS L. (FUMARIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Paltinean, Ramona; Toiu, Anca; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Frederich, Michel; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Mircea TAMAS; Crisan, Gianina

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the investigation of active compounds from several samples of Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae). The identification of the isoquinoline alkaloids (allocryptopine, chelidonine, protopine, bicuculline, sanguinarine, cheleritrine, stylopine and hydrastine) was performed by comparison with reference standards using an HPLC-DAD method, and their quantification by LC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods. The presence of polyphenolic compounds was simultaneously assessed...

  4. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  5. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the pericarp of Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. - a medicinal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemicals present in the pericarp of Crataeva magna (C. magna) (Lour.) DC. which is used as a traditional medicine by the inhabitants of Kanyakumari district. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the pericarp was done to determine the secondary metabolites in various solvents studied. Results: The phytochemical screening on the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. proved the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The findings of the present study recommended that the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. have potential antimicrobial compounds that may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments.

  6. Self-reported energy intake by FFQ compared with actual energy intake to maintain body weight in 516 adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that a FFQ is not suitable to estimate the absolute levels of individual energy intake. However, in epidemiological studies, reported nutrients by FFQ are often corrected for this intake. The objective of the present study was to assess how accurately participants report thei

  7. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  8. Phytochemical analysis of ten varieties of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Robert G; Peters, Trisha; Talcott, Stephen T

    2015-02-01

    Pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) is a tree fruit with the potential to become a high-value fruit crop, however, its rapid perishability is a significant obstacle. The objective was to determine the phytochemical content and quality characteristics of pawpaw pulp from ten varieties. This study reports for the first time the mass spectral characterization of phenolic acids and flavonoids of pawpaw, which indicated that the predominant polyphenolic compounds were three phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid hexoside, p-coumaroyl hexoside, and 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and flavonols, particularly (-)-epicatechin, B-type procyanidin dimers and trimers. The relationship between the polyphenolics identified in the current study and future work on polyphenolic oxidase activity will help the process of assessing whether pawpaws should be selected based on potential health benefits, i.e. high polyphenolic content, or increased shelf life in the form of decreased browning that may be afforded pawpaws containing low polyphenolic levels via decreased action of polyphenol oxidase.

  9. Nutritient intake of young children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Lindmark

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic disorder resulting in obesity. The diets for young children with PWS must balance the importance of preventing development of obesity with the need to supply sufficient energy and essential nutrients. Objective: To investigate the nutritional intake for children with PWS 2, 3, and 4 years of age and compare it with Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR and intake of healthy controls. Design: Assessments of food intake for six children 2–4 years of age were performed twice a year. At the age of 2 and 3 years data was obtained by using food recall interviews and at 4 year of age a pre-coded food-diary was used. Results: The energy intake for the 2-year-old children was 3.25 MJ/day (SD 0.85 and for the 3- and 4-year olds 3.62 MJ/day (SD 0.73 and 4.07 MJ/day (SD 0.39 MJ, respectively. These intakes are 61%, 68%, and 77% of the estimated energy requirements in NNR for healthy 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children, respectively, and 60% and 66% of the energy intakes of 2- and 4-year-old children in reference populations. The children's BMI-for-age score and length growth was within the normal range during the study period. The intake of fat was about 25 E% in all age groups and reduced when compared with reference populations. In 25% of the assessments the fat intake was 20 E% or below. The intake of iron was below recommendations in all age groups both with and without supplementation. The mean intake of vitamin D and tocopherol was below recommendations when intakes were determined excluding dietary supplementations. Conclusions: More large-scale investigations on nutritional intake are needed to further investigate dietary challenges for this patient group.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mbaebie BO; Edeoga HO; Afolayan AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods:The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results:The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  11. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  12. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  13. Valoración de la ingesta de nutrientes y energía en paciente crítico bajo terapia nutricional enteral Nutrients and energy intake assessment in the critically ill patient on enteral nutritional therapy

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    J. Abilés

    2005-04-01

    vitaminas y minerales. Las recomendaciones utilizadas como referencia corresponden a ingestas suficientes para cubrir requerimientos de individuos sanos, por lo tanto, los valores obtenidos en nuestro estudio muestran una adecuación superior al 75%, salvo casos particulares como la vitamina A y el magnesio. Sin embargo al observar la figura 3, el cual nos muestra la adecuación de las ingestas vitamínicas a las dosis recomendadas para pacientes enfermos, la ingesta es inferior al 25% de lo requerido en todos los casos, estas deficiencias repercuten de manera significativa en la cicatrización, el sistema inmune, el cardiovascular y el nervioso así como en el metabolismo del resto de macronutrientes, provocando un desequilibrio en el sistema antioxidante y empeorando la situación clínica del paciente. Conclusiones: El presente estudio nos confirma la necesidad de monitorizar de una manera personalizada las necesidades nutricionales en el paciente crítico y adaptar las recomendaciones a sus cambios metabólicos, ya que las mismas no están claramente definidas para estas situaciones en la actualidad. Es necesario aportar dosis de micronutrientes que se acerquen más a sus necesidades y así preservar o mejorar el estado nutricional y el equilibrio del sistema antioxidante, haciendo más eficaz el tratamiento clínico aplicado.Introduction and objectives: The critically ill patient is especially susceptible to malnutrition due to his/her hypermetabolic state that leads to an increase in the nutritional requirementes, which many times are not compensated with the administered enteral formulas. The assessment of nutritional intake is essential in this kind of patients to know to what level their energetic and nutritional requirements are fulfilled, improving and monitoring in the most individualized possible way to indicated clinical and nutritional therapu. Methodology: This is a retrospective study in which all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Virgen de

  14. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver

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    Lefèvre Florence

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat

  15. Estimated long-term fish and shellfish intake--national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.

  16. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  17. Quality of life, dietary intake and nutritional status assessment in hospital admitted cancer patients Calidad de vida, ingesta dietética y valoración del estado nutricional en pacientes ingresados con cáncer

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    J. Trabal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life (QoL, nutritional status, and quantitative food intakes of non-terminal admitted cancer patients receiving oral feeding. As well as to evaluate what kind of relation exists between the quality of life, and the nutritional status and current intake Scope: Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy Service ward at the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona. Subjects: Fifty admitted patients in the Service ward. Interventions: There was a follow-up of the dietary intake during 3 working days through direct observation, as well as an assessment of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, a record of symptomatology related data, and a QoL assessment through the EORTC QLQC30 questionnaire. Results: Our data show that 32.6% of the patients did not reach 25 kcal/kg/day, and 23.3% did not even fulfill 1g protein/kg/day. Concerning QoL, mean score for global health status and overall QoL for all patients was 46.2. Compared to the general population, there were important deficits among cancer patients regarding physical, role and social functioning. The most pronounced differences in the symptom scales were for fatigue, and in single items for appetite loss and constipation. A low protein intake was associated to a poorer perception on physical functioning (p=0.01, and fatigue was close to significance (p=0.058. No significant differences were found regarding caloric intake and QoL. Conclusions: A significant percentage of patients who received exclusive oral feeding did not cover a minimum acceptable quantity of their protein-energy requirements. Our results point-out that poor food intakes can affect QoL by themselves.Objetivos: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron valorar la calidad de vida (QoL, el estado nutricional y la ingesta dietética cuantitativa realizada en pacientes oncológicos no terminales ingresados que recibieron alimentación oral. Así mismo evaluar qué tipo de relaci

  18. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct

  19. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

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    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  20. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion of epithelial cells by phytochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, M.H.G.; Jongerius-Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Vervelde, L.; Vernooij, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to coccidiostats and possible future restrictions on their use raise the need for alternative methods of reducing coccidiosis in poultry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected phytochemicals on Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion in vitro. Four phytochemicals were s

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  3. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  4. Organoselenium Compounds as Phytochemicals from the Natural Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achibat, Hanane; AlOmari, Nohad A; Messina, Federica; Sancineto, Luca; Khouili, Mostafa; Santi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Selenium is naturally present in soils but it is also produced by pollution from human activities into the environment. Its incorporation into plants affords organoselenium metabolites that, depending on the nature of the molecules and the plant species, can be incorporated into proteins, stored or eliminated by volatilization. The possibility to use the selenium metabolism of some plants as a method for bioremediation and, at the main time, as a source of selenated phytochemicals is here discussed taking into consideration the growing interest in organic selenium derivatives as new potential therapeutic agents.

  5. Docking study of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Abhik; Aykkal, Riju; Babu, Rosana O; Ghosh, Mriganka

    2011-02-15

    Natural products are important sources of drug discovery. In this context groups of different set of phytochemicals were taken and docked into the different cavities of the Reverse transcriptase (PDB ID: 1REV) of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results were discussed. Natural compounds such as Curcumin, Geranin, Gallotannin, Tiliroside, Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside and Trachelogenin were found to very effective according to its binding energy and ligand efficiency score. Those compounds also were found to have no adverse effect as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity and favorable drug likeness score. Hence, considering the facts those compounds could use effectively for HIV-1 drug discovery.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SILK COCOONS OF BOMBYX MORI L.

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    Kaskoos Raad A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk cocoons, produced by Bombyx mori L. (Bombicidae are useful as hypotensive, expectorant, bronchodilator and attenuant drug in traditional medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the cocoons led to the isolation of new phenolic constituents identified as n-butyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (1, 3′,8′,9′-trigeranilanyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (2, 3′,7′-dimethyl-3′-hydroxy-octanyl gallate (3, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-n-pentanyl ether (4 and 2,3,4-trihydoxypenyl-n-pentanyl ether (5 on the basis of spectral data analysis.

  7. Standardization and phytochemical investigation of antilithiatic polyphyto dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhishek Bharadwaj; Kumud Upadhayaya; NV Stheesh Madhav

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To deals with the characterization, phytochemical determination of antilithiatic polyphyto dispersible tablet.Methods: an attempt has been made to standardize polyphyto dispersible tablet by using macroscopy and microscopic characters, powder microscopy, fluorescence analysis, quantitative and physicochemical values.Results:The polyphyto combinations were subjected to macroscopical examination and observations were recorded.The proper examination of the polyphyto combinations was carried out under sun light and artificial source similar to day light.Conclusions:Data reveals that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either an alternative or a complementary therapy in the management of urolithiasis.

  8. Phytochemical examination of Prosopis cineraria L.(druce leaves

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    Malik Archana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical studies on the leaves of Prosopis cineraria resulted in isolation of methyl docosanoate, diisopropyl-9,10-dihydroxyicosane-1,20-dioate, tricosan-1-ol and 7,24-tirucalladien-3-one. While diisopropyl-10,11-dihydroxyicosane-1,20-dioate is a hitherto unreported compound, methyl docosanoate, tricosan-1-ol and 7,24-tirucalladien-3-one are being reported for the first time from P. cineraria . These compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral and other data.

  9. Phytochemical analysis of Ferulogo Bernardii Tomk & M.Pimen

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    Khalighi-Sigaroodi F.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the hexane extract of the aerial parts of Ferulago Bernardii (Apiaceae four coumarins, namely prantschimgin 1, oxypeucedanin 2, psoralen 3 and umbelliferone 4; β-sitosterol 5; and nonacosane 6 were isolated by Column Chromatography (CC, Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC and crystallization. The structures were elucidated by melting point, UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectra. The presence of compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5 in some others Ferulago species could be used as chemotaxonomic marker in genus Ferulago. This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of Ferulago Bernardii Tomk. & M. Pimen.

  10. ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BACTERIOSTATIC ACTIVITY OF TAGETES SP

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    Ramya, R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn and Tagetes patula Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antimicrobial efficacy of the extracts was evaluated through agar well diffusion method using the bacterial species, viz Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study has demonstrated highest anti-bacterial activity of the flower extract of T. erecta among all the four extracts tested.

  11. Peptides and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo; Aranzazu Perianes Cachero; Lilian Puebla Jiménez; Vicente eBarrios; Eduardo eArilla

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the r...

  12. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  13. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

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    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of Cyphostemma glaucophilla Aqueous Leaf Extract

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    E. Ojogbane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyphostemma glaucophilla is used in the treatment of several degenerative diseases. Phytochemical analyses was carried out on aqueous leaves extract and the anti oxidant activity were investigated using albino rats, which were divided into five groups of five animals each. Group A received (0.85% NaCl; 5ml/kg control while single daily oral doses of 10, 15, 20, 25mg/kg body weight of extract were administered to groups B, C, D and E for 21 days respectively. Animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed with ether anaesthesia and the liver homogenates were used for the assessment of protein, malondialdehyde and assay of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, anti lipid peroxidation and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-piccrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH radical scavenging activities by standard methods. Results confirmed the presence of flavonoids, vitamin C, proteins, carbohydrates, steroids, O and C glycosides, traces of vitamin E and A. The extract induced significant (p<0.05 dose dependent increase in the concentration of proteins and inhibited significant (p<0.05 dose related decrease in the concentration of malondialdehyde. It produced significant (p<0.05 dose dependent increase in the concentration of glutathione peroxidase and SOD peaks at 25mg/kg (55 and 35% relative to control, there was also a significant (p<0.05 inhibition of lipid peroxidation by 18.80% in group B and 25.42% in E, the DPPH radical scavenging activity increased with increased concentration of extract by 14.31% and 37.23% in groups B and E respectively. Study has shown that extract contains phytochemicals of biological and pharmacological importance and has antioxidant capacity which can be utilized to alleviate the symptoms of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P. Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C.; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S.; de Araújo, Janete M.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L. de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = −0.89) and flavonoid content (r = −0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27446005

  16. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S; de Araújo, Janete M; Correia, Maria T Dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = -0.89) and flavonoid content (r = -0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs.

  18. Relationship Between Vitamin A and Fat Intake, with Growth Retardation. Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima – Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Cossio, Vladimir; Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To evaluate the relationship between Vitamin A and fat intake, with growth retardation (GR) among 12- to 47-months-old children. METHODS: A prospective, analytic study on 70 children from "Las Torres de Melgar", Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima–Peru. Vitamin A and fat intake were assessed through self-reported remind intake, and usual intake through the IVACG method. Growth was measured by anthropometric evaluations. RESULTS: We found GR in 27,22%; inadequate amounts of Vitamin A intak...

  19. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  20. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, M.; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E.

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total bod...

  1. Desenvolvimento de um inquérito para avaliação da ingestão alimentar de grupos populacionais Development of a questionnaire to assess food intake of population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes de Sales

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho procurou desenvolver um instrumento para obtenção de dados relativos ao consumo alimentar, de caráter qualitativo e quantitativo, para avaliar a ingestão dietética em estudos populacionais. MÉTODOS: Inicialmente foram coletados dados sobre a ingestão alimentar de uma amostra representativa de moradores da cidade de Viçosa (n=119. Para conhecer os alimentos mais consumidos e seus porcionamentos, foram utilizados os métodos recordatório de 24h e pesagem direta. A entrevista ocorreu no horário do almoço ou jantar, com pesagem de todos os alimentos constantes na refeição e de porções referidas como consumidas nas últimas 24h, usou-se também álbum fotográfico como auxiliar na estimativa do peso da porção. RESULTADOS: A partir dos 60 alimentos mais consumidos e dos porcionamentos identificados, foi desenvolvido um inquérito baseado no método Freqüência de Consumo Alimentar semi-quantitativo, com 65 itens e um álbum fotográfico de alimentos. Realizou-se um estudo piloto para avaliação desta metodologia em uma sub-amostra (n=34. Para comparação entre os dois métodos, avaliaram-se o valor energético e os macronutrientes, utilizando o coeficiente de Pearson e o teste "t" de Student, tendo-se obtido: r=0,53 para energia, r=0,43 para proteína, r=0,58 para lipídeos e r=0,21 para carboidratos. Não foi detectada diferença significante entre os dois métodos para proteína e lipídeos, pelo teste "t" (alfa=0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O inquérito desenvolvido mostrou-se um instrumento promissor para inquéritos populacionais, no entanto, são necessários maiores estudos para averiguar as limitações e os possíveis desdobramentos do inquérito para atingir toda a população.OBJECTIVE: This study sought to develop an instrument to obtain and assess data on the qualitative and quantitative food intake of population groups. METHODS: Initially, data on food intake of a representative sample of inhabitants of

  2. Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomy selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg......) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h I excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than...

  3. Subnotificação da ingestão energética na avaliação do consumo alimentar Underreporting of energy intake in dietary assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Informações válidas sobre o consumo de energia e nutrientes são um pré-requisito em muitas pesquisas de nutrição humana, principalmente nos estudos epidemiológicos sobre dieta e saúde. Até o advento da água duplamente marcada, não era possível validar as avaliações do consumo energético de forma externa e independente. Este marcador demonstrou a existência de significativa subnotificação da ingestão energética. Esta pesquisa objetiva discutir os principais aspectos relacionados a tal fenômeno: prevalência, determinantes, especificidade de nutrientes e formas de controle. O sub-relato parece estar associado à obesidade e a características psicossociais, como a restrição dietética e o desejo de ajuste social. Todos os métodos de avaliação do consumo possuem erros inerentes, sendo portanto suscetíveis à sub ou superestimação (menos comum. O sub-relato demonstra atingir predominantemente alimentos específicos, ricos em lipídeos e carboidratos, o que insere grande viés nas inferências baseadas em levantamentos do consumo alimentar. Este artigo também discute como controlar tal erro e recomenda que as estimativas do consumo energético sejam confrontadas com o gasto energético, a fim de detectar a subnotificação.Valid data on energy and nutrient consumption are necessary in human nutrition research, mainly in epidemiologic studies concerning diet and health. Until the advent of doubly labeled water, it was not possible to validate dietary assessment methods using an independent procedure and this marker showed an important underreporting of energy intake. This paper aims to discuss the major aspects related to this phenomenon: prevalence, determinants, nutrient specificity and attenuation. Underreporting seems to be associated with obesity and with psychological and social factors, such as dietary restraint and social desirability. Error in the dietary assessments may lead to under- or over-estimation (less

  4. Validation of beverage intake methods vs. hydration biomarker: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluid intake is difficult to monitor. Biomarkers of beverage intake are able to assess dietary intake / hydration status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also the intra-individual variability. Various markers have been proposed to assess hydration, however, to date; there is a lack of universally accepted biomarker that reflects changes of hydration status in response to changes in beverage intake. Aim: We conduct a review to find out the questionnaires of beverage intake available in the scientific literature to assess beverage intake and hydration status and their validation against hydration biomarkers. Methods: A scientific literature search was conducted. Only two articles were selected, in which, two different beverage intake questionnaires designed to capture the usual beverage intake were validated against Urine Specific Gravidity biomarker (Usg. Results: Water balance questionnaire (WBQ reported no correlations in the first study and the Beverage Intake Questionnaire (BEVQ, a quantitative Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in the second study, also found a negative correlation. FFQ appears to measure better beverage intake than WBQ when compared with biomarkers. However, the WBQ seems to be a more complete method to evaluate the hydration balance of a given population. Conclusions: Further research is needed to understand the meaning of the different correlations between intake estimates and biomarkers of hydration in distinct population groups and environments.

  5. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  6. Targeting apoptotic pathways in myocardial infarction: attenuated by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidarali, Shaikh; Patil, Chandragouda R; Ojha, Shreesh; Mohanraj, Rajesh; Arya, Dharamvir S; Goyal, Sameer N

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an insidious disease, gently spreading in developed and developing countries. MI is the consequence of hypoxia in myocardial tissue, which may lead to apoptosis, narcosis and followed by cardiac cell death. Activation of apoptotic pathways during MI is frequently reported in clinical, preclinical and post-mortem studies. Several mediators of apoptosis signalling cascades culminate into MI leading to cardiomyocytes death. Such involvements of ischemia-induced apoptosis in MI are widely accepted. Apoptosis is a natural phenomenon for regulating the homeostasis in cellular organelles. Unlike the necrosis, it is a synchronized energy dependent process which is carried out by shrinkage of the cell. This contraction of cells leads to squeezing of nuclei and nuclear chromatin into brusquely demarcated masses. However, such programmed cell death in several tissues, including the myocardium becomes pathogenic under certain conditions. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated oxidative stress also plays a key role in production of apoptosis and several associated signalling alterations which ultimately lead to MI. Recently, certain natural products, especially from the plant kingdom have been evaluated for their anti-apoptotic potential. There is an uprise in the investigations delineating the exact mechanisms through which natural phytochemicals target apoptosis associated MI. This review explores novel signalling pathways and target sites for anti-apoptotic phytochemicals having potential to check the cellular apoptosis consequent to MI. A new vista may explore the prospective treatment of MI by using apoptosis-modulating natural products.

  7. Anti-inflammatory phytochemicals for chemoprevention of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-06-01

    Every year more than a million new cancer cases and 600,000 deaths are reported world-wide. Colorectal cancer is the fourth most commonly occurring and second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Significant progress has been made in understanding colorectal cancer through epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies. Development of metastatic adenocarcinomas is a multistage process occurring over several years during which multiple genetic alterations and pathophysiological changes are associated. Colorectal cancer can be prevented if the transformation of normal colonic crypt cells to malignant can be halted or reversed. Some of the key molecules that are altered significantly and play important roles in colorectal tumor progression are associated with inflammation. Since chronic inflammation is now recognized as a potential risk factor for tumor development, targeting inflammatory pathways has proven effective in preventing formation of colonic tumors and their malignant progression in both preclinical and clinical studies. Synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been identified as potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents; however, most of these synthetic agents are associated with unwanted and sometimes fatal side effects. There is mounting evidence in support of the efficacy of naturally-occurring phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory activity. In this review we discuss key inflammatory pathways associated with colorectal cancer and promising naturally-occurring phytochemicals as anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer.

  8. Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from Mammea suriga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from the root bark of a well-known Indian traditional medicinal plant, viz. Mammea suriga, with various solvents and evaluation of their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of some interesting secondary metabolites like flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. Also, the solvent extracts displayed promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cryptococcus neoformans with inhibition zone in a range of 20–33 mm. Further, results of their antioxidant screening revealed that aqueous extract (with IC50 values of 111.51±1.03 and 31.05±0.92 μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively and ethanolic extract (with IC50 values of 128.00±1.01 and 33.25±0.89 μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively were better antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid. Interestingly, FT-IR analysis of each extract established the presence of various biologically active functional groups in it.

  9. Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from Mammea suriga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahesha M. Poojary; Kanivebagilu A.Vishnumurthy; Airody Vasudeva Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from the root bark of a well-known Indian traditional medicinal plant, viz. Mammea suriga, with various solvents and evaluation of their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of some interesting secondary metabolites like flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. Also, the solvent extracts displayed promising anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cryptococcus neoformans with inhibition zone in a range of 20–33 mm. Further, results of their antioxidant screening revealed that aqueous extract (with IC50 values of 111.51±1.03 and 31.05±0.92μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively) and ethanolic extract (with IC50 values of 128.00±1.01 and 33.25±0.89μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively) were better antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid. Interestingly, FT-IR analysis of each extract established the presence of various biologically active functional groups in it.

  10. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  11. Jatropha curcas L:Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sillma Rampadarath; Daneshwar Puchooa; Rajesh Jeewon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities as well as the phytochemical and lav-icidal properties of different parts of Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) growing in Mauritius. Methods: Determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants extracts by test tube reactions. Disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used to detect the antimicrobial sensitivity and activity (minimal inhibitory concentration). The crude solvent extracts were also tested on the larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae). Results: The antimicrobial activities were significantly dependent for the different crude plant extracts on the thirteen microorganisms tested. For the Gram-positive bacteria, the crude ethyl acetate extract was more efficient compared to the Gram-negative bacteria with both solvents being effective. The crude ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark and mature seed oil showed the highest efficacy. The highest mortality percentage was observed after 24 h for both Diptera flies with (66.67 ± 2.89)%of Bactrocera cucurbitae larvae killed by ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark. Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The lar-vicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.

  12. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greetha Arumugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  13. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-03-30

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  14. Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattya Narayan Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd. It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica.

  15. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health.

  16. Pleiotropic Protective Effects of Phytochemicals in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Sergio Davinelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a severe chronic neurodegenerative disorder of the brain characterised by progressive impairment in memory and cognition. In the past years an intense research has aimed at dissecting the molecular events of AD. However, there is not an exhaustive knowledge about AD pathogenesis and a limited number of therapeutic options are available to treat this neurodegenerative disease. Consequently, considering the heterogeneity of AD, therapeutic agents acting on multiple levels of the pathology are needed. Recent findings suggest that phytochemicals compounds with neuroprotective features may be an important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against AD. In this paper we will describe some polyphenols and we will discuss their potential role as neuroprotective agents. Specifically, curcumin, catechins, and resveratrol beyond their antioxidant activity are also involved in antiamyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We will focus on specific molecular targets of these selected phytochemical compounds highlighting the correlations between their neuroprotective functions and their potential therapeutic value in AD.

  17. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

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    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  18. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

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    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  19. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

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    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (L. SM. RHIZOME

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    Rout Om Prakash

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet (L. Sm. is a well known medicinal plant employed to cure various diseases. The Current study provides a detailed summary of pharmacognostical and phytochemical characters of rhizome to give clear standards for identification of the drug. The study revealed the presence of the oil cells in cortex and central cylinder region containing yellow to orange coloured oleo-resin is the main characteristic feature. The presence of globose, ovoid and irregularly rounded starch grains are the distinguishing features and can be used as anatomical markers. Rhizome powder showed some of the characteristic features such as starch grains with a distinct hilum situated at narrow end and parenchymatous cells with characteristically wrinkled wall and prismatic crystals. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the rhizomes revealed the presence of glycosides, sterols, triterpenes, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and volatile oils. The present study signifies the use of TLC, HPTLC fingerprint profiles for determining the identity, purity of the drug and also for developing standards.

  1. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

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    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Al-Amin, M M; Russel, S M; Kabir, S; Bhattacherjee, R; Hannan, J M A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. The ethanol extract of the plant at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) analgesic effect in all test methods (hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin). The analgesic activity was compared with a standard drug (ketorolac at 10 mg/kg). Based on the present findings and previous literature review it can be concluded that flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for the analgesic activity. We suggest that ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel analgesic agent.

  3. Phytochemical studies on Allamanda cathartica L. using GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhadevi V; Sahaya Sathish S; Johnson M; Venkatramani B; Janakiraman N

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phytochemical constituents present in Allamanda cathartica (A. cathartica) L. using GC-MS. Methods: 20 g of the powdered leaf and stem sample of A. cathartica was equilibrated with 200 d/m of A. cathartica ethanol for 24 h, separately. The volume of the supernatant was later reduced by heating to 2 d/m. The concentrated ethanolic extracts were further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: The GC-MS analyses determined the presence of 28 different phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic leaf extract of A. cathartica. The major phytoconstituents were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z)- (16.39%), n-hexadecanoic acid (14.08%), 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (11.03%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z)-(10.58%). The ethanolic stem extract of A. cathartica showed the presence of 26 different bioactive compounds. The major ones are 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (29.86%), 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (14.87%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.13%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z)- (7.34%). Conclusions: This study helps to predict the formula and structure of biomolecules which can be used as drugs and further investigation may lead to the development of drug formulation.

  4. Phytochemical Investigation and Antimicrobial Screening of Cardiospermun grandiflorum (Sweet [Sapindaceae

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    Olaoluwa O. Olaoluwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Cardiospermum grandiflorum was investigated for the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities. The extract was screened for the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars, glucosides and flavonoids using standard methods. Antimicrobial assay was carried out on the extract against two gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; three gram negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiellac pneumonas and fungi: Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Pencilillum notatum by the agar diffusion method between concentrations 6.25 – 200 mg/ml. Preliminary screening of methanol extract of C. grandiflorum revealed the presence tannins, steroids and reducing sugars. The extract showed average activity against the organisms used and was most active on C. albicans between concentrations 50-200 mg/ml with zones of inhibition between 12-16 mm. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract yielded L-pinitol. The structure and relative configuration of the compound was elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data, especially MS and NMR techniques.

  5. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

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    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  6. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r = 0.9248; p = 0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0 µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2 )= 0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5 µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7 µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain.

  7. DASHAMULARISHTA: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING AGAINST EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

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    Ekta Menghani et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollution have a serious impact on human health and environment. The incidences of various diseases are becoming prominent with the increase in rate of population. The diseases mainly include respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, throat inflammation, skin infections etc. In the present study, widely claimed crude drug Dashamularishta, have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and ethanol and distilled water extracts of Dashamularishta have been screened. Phytochemical screening recorded positive results for reducing sugar in all six extracts, terpinoids present in pet. ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extract, Flavonoids present in ethyl acetate and distilled water, Tannin present in chloroform and methanol, saponins present in pet. ether, benzene, ethyl acetate and distilled water extract. The results were expressed in terms of the diameter of the inhibition zone: The maximum efficacy of ethyl acetate extract was showed against Aspergillus niger(18mm and Shigella flexneri (25mm.

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  9. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Nawi, S M; Usman, A R; Amin, Y M; Daar, E; Bradley, D A; Ahmed, H; Okhunov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  10. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Straits of Malacca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Khandaker

    Full Text Available The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Studies of Primula Denticulata – An Important Medicinal Plant of Kashmir Himalaya

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    Khaleefa Aslam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and radical-scavenging activities of ethanolic extract of Primula denticulata- an important medicinal herb of Kashmir Himalaya. Phytochemical study was performed by using various standard phytochemical methods. Free radical scavenging activities of the extract was assessed by employing different in vitro assays such as DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lipid per oxidation assay. Calf thymus DNA was also monitored by TBARS formation. The results were compared with standard antioxidant (α-tocopherol. Antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by agar well diffusion method. DPPH free radical scavenging assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity revealed plant extract to be an active radical scavenger. P.denticulata extract also dose dependently inhibited the MDA formation or lipid per oxidation and as such might intercept the free radical chain of oxidation. The leaf extract also prevents calf thymus DNA from oxidative damage induced by hydroxyl radical generated by FeSO4 and H2O2 in Fenton reaction. The hydroxyl radical quenching ability of polyphenolic compounds of Primula denticulata could be responsible for the protection against oxidative damage to DNA. The ethanolic extract showed anti-microbial activity which was visible as the zones of inhibition formed in the different cultures of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as in case of fungal cultures. Among all the maximum activity was seen for Escherichia coli with inhibition zone diameter of 23.53 ± 3.71mm followed by Klebsiella  pneumoniae with inhibition zone diameter of 20.74 ± 3.33mm. These findings provide evidence that the considered plant possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and may act as possible antioxidant for biological systems susceptible to free radical-mediated reactions. 

  12. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical value of old and modern common wheat cultivars.

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    Emanuela Leoncini

    Full Text Available Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems.Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed.Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases.

  13. Phytochemical constituents and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata Linn. (Euphorbiacea) leaf extracts against chikungunya vector,Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramar Ganasekar; Jeyasankar Alagarmalai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the phytochemical and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata (T. involucrata) leaf extracts against fourth instar larvae ofAe. aegypti. Methods:Phytochemical analysis of hexane leaf extract was performed and larvicidal activity was determined againstAe. aegypti at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The hexane extracts ofT. involucrata was found to be higher mortality against the larvae ofAe. aegypti with a LC50 value of 153.51 mg/L. Conclusions: These results suggested that the leaf extracts ofT. involucrata showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of theAe. aegypti.

  14. Simulation of total dietary iodine intake in Flemish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lin, Y; Moreno-Reyes, R; Huybrechts, I

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the distribution of total iodine intake among Flemish preschoolers and to identify the major sources contributing to iodine intake. A simulation model using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic techniques was utilised. Scenario analyses were performed to assess iodine intake via dairy products, industrially added iodised salt in bread and discretionarily added iodised household salt. Relevant data from 3-d estimated dietary records of 696 preschoolers 2·5-6·5 years old were used. Usual iodine intakes were calculated using the Iowa State University method. With a more generalised utilisation of iodised salt in bread (44 % of the bakers in 2011 instead of 12 % in 2002), mean iodine intake increased from 159 to 164 μg/d using the McCance and Widdowson's food composition table and from 104 to 109 μg/d using the German food composition table. The percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake below the estimated average requirement (65 μg/d) decreased from 5-12 to 4-9 %, while the percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake above the tolerable upper intake level (300 μg/d) remained constant (0·3-4 %). Mean iodine intake via food supplements was 4·2 μg/d (total population) and 16·9 μg/d (consumers only). Both in 2002 and 2011, sugared dairy products, milk and iodised salt (21·4, 13·1, and 8·7 %, respectively in 2011) were the main contributors to total iodine intake. In conclusion, dietary iodine intake could still be improved in Flemish preschoolers. The use of adequately iodised household salt and the more generalised use of iodised salt by bakers should be further encouraged.

  15. Peptides and Food Intake

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    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  16. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of C-C chemokine ligand 2: a model to assess the combined effect of high energy intake and continuous low-grade inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Menendez, Javier A; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study.

  17. Ubiquitous Transgenic Overexpression of C-C Chemokine Ligand 2: A Model to Assess the Combined Effect of High Energy Intake and Continuous Low-Grade Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rodríguez-Gallego

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study.

  18. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  19. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue;

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  20. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sweeteners.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hyptis suaveolens

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    Md. Zeshan Hashib Shaikat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Hyptis suaveolens leaf has been used in conventional therapies for various disease conditions, including diarrhea. However, some of the therapeutic potentials of the plant have not been scientifically evaluated. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanol extract of Hyptis suaveolens leaf against an experimental model of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also performed following standard procedures. Oral administration of the said ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant (P<0.01 and dose-dependent inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea. The onset of diarrhoea induced by castor oil was significantly delayed by administration of the plant extract. The results were comparable to those of standard antimotility drug, loperamide (50 mg/kg. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, saponin, tannin and flavonoid as major constituents. The results indicate the presence of some active principles in the plant extract possessing anti-diarrhoeal effect and justify its traditional use in the treatment for diarrhoea. Industrial relevance. Diarrheal diseases pose a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.  Moreover, in developing countries, the cost of modern synthetic medicines is out of reach of the common man, especially those in rural areas. A large population of the Indian subcontinent depend on traditional system of medicine for their physical and psychological health needs. Hence there is an intensive search for natural products which are biologically active against diarrhea. In this study, the antidiarrhoeal activity of H S. was studied and the results revealed that the ethanol leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens extracts significantly reduced induction time of diarrhoea and  number of diarrhoeal episodes in the orally treated mice. The results

  2. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  3. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  4. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies.

  5. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

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    Delgado-Vargas Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER COLOCASIA ESCULENTA

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    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the nutritional profile, successive value, thin layer chromatography and phytochemical screening of Colocasia esculenta. It is an important medicinal plant in India which is used in traditional medicine. Colocasia esculenta tubers contain nutrients such as ash value (total ash 4.80%, moisture 56.52%, crude fat 0.80% and crude fiber 7.5%, including minerals and vitamins such as calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Its edible corns and leaves are traditionally used for hepatic ailments. Leaf juice of this plant is applied over scorpion sting or in snake bite as well as it is used in food poisoning of plant origin. Ayurveda identified ailments viz. vata and pitta are supposed to be pacified by the leaf juice and so also the constipation, stomatitis, alopecia, hemorrhoids as well as general weakness.

  7. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CASIA OCCIDENTALIS (L

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    Venkanna Lunavath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study deals with the screening of Casia occidentalis leaves for their antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. Plant Cassia occidentalis belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae, is a diffuse offensively odorous under shrub. Casia occidentalis were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents Methanol. The antimicrobial activity test performed by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of HXF, CTF, CFF and AQF showed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, phytosterols, fixed oils and phenolic compounds. The AQF fraction of C. occidentalis showed high activity across pseudomonas aeuruginosa and staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Casia occidentalis leaves in the treatment of various diseases caused by micro-organisms.

  9. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  10. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

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    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  11. Plant phytochemicals: potential anticancer agents against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Anders; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2014-12-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are plant phytochemicals derived from vegetables consumed by human. ITCs comprise potent anti-carcinogenic agents of which the consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of cancer at several locations in the body. However, the studies on coping with gastric cancer remain unsatisfied. In the present review, ITCs are discussed in this context as ITCs may target gastric tumorigenesis at multiple levels. ITCs are taken up in the stomach, exposing mucosal and muscle layer cells as well as affecting Helicobacter pylori residing in the stomach. The natural and potent anti-cancer ITCs from vegetables have a great potential against gastric cancer, a disease in need of new treatment or preventive modalities.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive phytochemicals against gastroenterological cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Lim, Tae Gyu; Lee, Ki Won

    2013-02-21

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Commonly used cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, often have side effects and a complete cure is sometimes impossible. Therefore, prevention, suppression, and/or delaying the onset of the disease are important. The onset of gastroenterological cancers is closely associated with an individual's lifestyle. Thus, changing lifestyle, specifically the consumption of fruits and vegetables, can help to protect against the development of gastroenterological cancers. In particular, naturally occurring bioactive compounds, including curcumin, resveratrol, isothiocyanates, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and sulforaphane, are regarded as promising chemopreventive agents. Hence, regular consumption of these natural bioactive compounds found in foods can contribute to prevention, suppression, and/or delay of gastroenterological cancer development. In this review, we will summarize natural phytochemicals possessing potential antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities, which are exerted by regulating or targeting specific molecules against gastroenterological cancers, including esophageal, gastric and colon cancers.

  13. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington′s disease

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    Sunayna Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington′s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening of four common plants of family caesalpiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, N; Saleem, B; Nawaz, R

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening of Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Tamarindus indica did not reveal alkaloids and unbound anthraquinones while glycosides as well as flavonoids were present in all the four species of the family caesalpiniaceae. Cardiac glycosides were absent only in C. tora and saponins were present only in T. indica, B. variegata and T. indica were devoid of bound anthraquinones while bound anthraquinones were present in C. fistula and C. tora. Paper chromatography revealed 6 spots in solvent system I, and 5 spots in solvent system 2, showing different Rf values. The per cent yield of crude glycosides was 3.18 in B. variegata, 4.03 in C. fistula, 4.45 in C. tora and 4.14 in T. indica.

  15. Phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Helen PA; Susheela Gomathy K; Jayasree S; Nizzy AM; Rajagopal B; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.Methods:Fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and six fungi by the disc diffusion method. Results: GC – MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza contained the derivatives of xanthorihizol, camphene and curcumene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbons and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Morphological and Phytochemical Investigations on Crataegus curvisepala and Crataegus oxyacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghassemi Dehkordi

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Crataegus have been used for treatment of hypertension and certain cardiac disorders. Over than 20 species of this plant is extensively grew in Iran. One of these species is C. curvisepala."nin this study, C.curvisepala was examined botanically and phytochemically in comparison to C, oxyacantha."nMorphological as well as microscopical characteristics of C. curvisepala was examined and some differences distinguished from C. oxyacantha. By means of TLC in comparison to authentic samples,rutin, hyperoside and chlorogenic acid were identified in these plants. By preparative TLC method, rutin is isolated and then purified from these plants. The structure of rutin was determined by the UV-Vis. Techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of flavonoids in these plants were also performed by using an UV-Vis. spectroscopy method.

  17. The Genus Carissa: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunda, Joseph Sakah; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2017-02-27

    Carissa L. is a genus of the family Apocynaceae, with about 36 species as evergreen shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Most of Carissa plants have been employed and utilized in traditional medicine for various ailments, such as headache, chest complains, rheumatism, oedema, gonorrhoea, syphilis, rabies. So far, only nine Carissa species have been phytochemically studied, which led to the identification of 123 compounds including terpenes, flavonoids, lignans, sterols, simple phenolic compounds, fatty acids and esters, and so on. Pharmacological studies on Carissa species have also indicated various bioactive potentials. This review covers the peer-reviewed articles between 1954 and 2016, retrieved from Pubmed, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Wikipedia and Baidu, using "Carissa" as search term ("all fields") and with no specific time frame set for search. Fifteen important medicinal or ornamental Carissa species were selected and summarized on their botanical characteristics, geographical distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities.

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiyan Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies on leaves of Cassia obtusifolia Linn. Some distinct and different characters were observed with section of young thin leaves. The anatomy of the leaves was studied by taking transverse section of midrib. The chloroplasts are much more concentrated in the palisade layer of the mesophyll. There is only one large vascular bundle in the midrib. The midrib was stained with toluidine blue. This helps to resolve the vascular tissues with greater certainty. The xylem and phloem were also observed. Powder microscopical examination showed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and starch grain. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical study of the leaves powder were also carried out.

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Pharmacological Activities of Entada Scandens seeds

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    S K Dey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Entada scandens (E. scandens (family: Mimosaceae is a widely used medicinal plant has been traditionally used by the folklore medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh to treat pain, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders where antinociceptive, cytotoxic and anti-diarrheal medications are implicated. Therefore, phytochemical groups and antinociceptive, cytotoxic, and anti-diarrheal activities of ethanol extract of seed of E. scandens were investigated by using acetic acid induced writhing model in mice, brine shrimp lethality bioassay and castor oil induced diarrheal model in mice. Phytochemical study of the extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed a significant antinociceptive activity showing 60.61 and 72.73% inhibition respectively (P<0.001 comparable to that produced by Diclofenac Na (80.30% used as standard drug.  The extract showed significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay (LC50: 20µg/ml & LC90: 80µg/ml. While evaluating anti-diarrheal activity, the extract inhibited the mean number of defecation which were 13.21% (P<0.01 and 22.64 % (P<0.001 at the doses of 250 and 500mg/kg respectively. The latent period for the extract treated group was (p<0.01 increased as compared to control group. In addition, antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion assay, but no significant inhibition was found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei, Proteus vulgaris,  Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The study tends to suggest the antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antidiarrheal activities of the crude ethanol extract of the seed of E. scandens and justify its use in folkloric remedies. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants

  20. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-03-01

    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans.

  1. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA

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    Nainwal Pankaj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. Even though several differences exist between herbal and conventional pharmacological treatments, herbal medicine can be tested for efficacy using conventional trial methodology. Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though the public is often misled to believe that all natural treatments are inherently safe, herbal medicines do carry risks. Ultimately, we need to know which herbal remedies do more harm than good for which condition. Because of the current popularity of herbal medicine, research in this area should be intensified Caesalpinia pulcherrima, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. This review highlights some of the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant which has been searched during their detailed study.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF STEM OF C OUROUPITA GUIANENSIS

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    S. Manimegalai* and G. Rakkimuthu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Couroupita guianensis (Lecythidaceae , is a medicinal plant which is endowed with curative properties including anti- fungal, anti - biotic, anti - septic, analgesic, anti-malaria, stomach – ache, tooth - ache, scabies, gastritis, bleeding piles, dysentry and scorpion poison. The study deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem of Couroupita guianensis with various extracts such as petroleum ether, benzene, ethanol and water. This includes the powder characteristics studies, fluorescence studies and thin layer chromotgraphic studies of the stem powder. The qualitative analysis of some secondary metabolites, to ascertain medicinal claims of this widely used medicinal plant. The results showed that the moderate presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, amino acids, phenols and triterpenoids.

  3. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesa Shafi Bhat; Sooad Al-Daihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and photochemicals of five green leafy vegetables against a panel of five bacteria strains. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity, while kanamycin was used as a reference antibiotic. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results:All methanol extracts were found active against all the test bacterial strains. Overall maximum extracts shows antibacterial activity which range from 6 to 15 mm. Proteins and carbohydrates was found in all the green leaves, whereas alkaloid, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins were found in most of the test samples. Conclusions:The obtain result suggests that green leafy vegetables have moderate antibacterial activity and contain various pharmacologically active compounds and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of the studied vegetables in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  4. Phytochemicals: a multitargeted approach to gynecologic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Lee; Oh, Se-Woong; Song, Yong Sang; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    Gynecologic cancers constitute the fourth most common cancer type in women. Treatment outcomes are dictated by a multitude of factors, including stage at diagnosis, tissue type, and overall health of the patient. Current therapeutic options include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, although significant unmet medical needs remain in regard to side effects and long-term survival. The efficacy of chemotherapy is influenced by cellular events such as the overexpression of oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressors, which together determine apoptotic responses. Phytochemicals are a broad class of natural compounds derived from plants, a number of which exhibit useful bioactive effects toward these pathways. High-throughput screening methods, rational modification, and developments in regulatory policies will accelerate the development of novel therapeutics based on these compounds, which will likely improve overall survival and quality of life for patients.

  5. Phytochemical investigation and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Richardia scabra

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    Kathirvel Poonkodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extracts from the mature leaves of Richardia scabra from India. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the zone inhibition of the tested samples for antibacterial and agar plug method was used to determine the antifungal activity, while the microtube-dilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Both extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when tested against 10 bacterial and four fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the methanol extract of R. scabra ranged between 12.5–100 μg/mL for bacterial strains. Alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenoids and simple sugar were detected as phytoconstituents of extracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report against antimicrobial activity of common weed species R. scabra found in India.

  6. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Leaves of Alchonea Cordifolia

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    N. J. George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemistry of Achornea cordifolia leaf extract using different solvents was studied using standard methods. The effects of the leaf extract on some pathogenic bacteria and fungi were also examined. The Phytochemical screening of the leaves shows the presence of useful ethno-botanical bioactive substances such as tannin, saponin, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone, while alkaloid, phlobatanin and terpene also tested for were absent. The butanol fraction of the extract gives the highest zone of inhibition (13.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are in parity. The control, gentamycin injection gives 12.5 mm, 11.0 mm and 12.0 mm respective zones of inhibition against the Staphylococcus aureus, Eschariclia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the butanol fraction of the extract shows highest zone of inhibition of 17.0 mm against Candida albican, while ethanolic extract gives 13.0 mm zone of inhibition against Trichophyton violaceum.

  7. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Lebanese Eryngium creticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein Farhan; Fatima Malli; Hassan Rammal; Akram Hijazi; Ali Bassal; Nawal Ajouz; Bassam Badran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemical screening and quantification of total phenolics contents in fresh Eryngium creticum (E. creticum) leaves and stems extract and to evaluate its total antioxidant activity. Methods: Quantification of total phenolics contents in fresh E. creticum leaves and stems extract and evaluation of its total antioxidant activity, were done using the spectrophotometric analyses. Results: The consumption of 100 g of fresh E. creticum leaves and stems could provide antioxidants equivalent to (78.50±0.80) mg of vitamin C and (50.42±0.50) mg of vitamin C, respectively. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that E. creticum can be interesting to prevent diseases directly linked to oxidative stress.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

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    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  9. Phytochemical, Ethnobotanical and Pharmacological Profile of Lagenaria siceraria: - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of lagenaria siceraria (known as lauki in Hindi, has been used in the ointment for ailment of various diseases throughout India. The fruit of cultivated lagenaria siceraria is the good source of different nutrients components like protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium. The plant has also been suggested to possess antioxidant activity, laxative, cardioprotective, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, central nervous system stimulant, anthelmentic, antihypertensive, immunosuppressive analgesic, adaptogenic and free radical scavenging activity. This work reviews the pharmacological evidence of extracts of plants from the lagenaria siceraria, giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochemical composition. Although more studies are necessary, lagenaria siceraria exhibits proven potential to become of important pharmacological interest.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: phytochemicals and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Never before has the focus on the health benefits of commonly available foods been so strong. The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance within the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Dietitians are uniquely qualified and positioned to translate the available sound scientific evidence into practical dietary applications for the consumer and to provide the food industry and the government with valuable insight and expertise for future research, product development, and regulation of phytochemicals and functional foods. Increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population. As the nutrition experts, dietetics professionals must be the leaders in this new, exciting, and meaningful field as it evolves.

  11. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE/g of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g. When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL, Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL, and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities, phytochemical screening and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-07-31

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  14. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  15. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Lebgosi Nwidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA or Carpolobia lutea (CL is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  16. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwidu, Lucky Lebgosi; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA) or Carpolobia lutea (CL) is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  17. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah

    2016-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  18. The Phytochemical Contents and Antimicrobial Activities of Malaysian Calophyllum Rubiginosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaib I. ALkhamaiseh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many species of plants in Malaysia are widely used in folk medicine. However, Calophyllum species have been used in traditional medicine for their therapeutic values for many years. Several studies reported that antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-HIV and anti-cancer compounds were isolated from numerous Calophyllum species. Approach: The stem bark was extracted by EtOH, after with it was fractionated with n-Hexane, Dichloromethane (DCM and MeOH by using vacuum liquid chromatography apparatus. Phytochemical contents were examined to evaluate the phinolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents. Also the antimicrobial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion and dilution method to evaluate antimicrobial activity of the crude and the fractions respectively. Six references microbial strains of human pathogens were used for examined the anti microbial activity. The two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli were used for antibacterial test. Also two fungal strains (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were used for antifungal test. Results: Although the C. rubiginosum has phytochemicals as all plants, but it was showed a high content of flavonol in the range of 11.9- 15.2 µg mL−1. The C. rubiginosum fractions were showed no activity against gram negative and fungus. However, the non polar and semi polar fractions were showed a result MIC 12.5 µg mL−1 against B.cereus bacteria. While the MeOH fraction indicated for low or no activity against bacteria and fungus. Conclusion: At last, the optimistic result of this study encourage us to go forward for further studies in the future to isolate the active compound of the stem bark of C. rubiginosum, where it could lead to a new antibiotic, whereas this species never investigated before.

  19. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

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    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  20. Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Samanta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cissampelos Linn (family -Manispermaceae is perennial climbing herbs with small greenish-yellow flower. It belongs to the genus Cissampelos, of which thirty to forty species are distributed in the tropical and subtropical world. One species occur in India. In the market three plants Cissampelos pareira, Cyclea peltata and Stephania japonica (Fam. Menispermaceae are being used as source of Patha. Aim: Therefore, an establishment of pharmacognostical standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the herbal plant is required. Materials and Methods: Microscopic characteristics were observed under a light microscope. Physicochemical properties - including loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water alcohol and ether extractive values - were determined. Phytochemical screening for major groups of compounds was performed, and a thin-layer chromatography of methanolic extract of the air dried powdered stem of this plant was performed. Results: The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, biseriate radial medullary rays had also been found. Phytochemical screening revealed that Cissampelos pareira stem extract contains flavonoids, terpenoid, alkaloid, tannins, amino acid protein and carbohydrate. Alkaloids were detected in TLC of Cissampelos pareira stem extract developed using blends of methanol: concentrated ammonia (200:3 and n-Butanol:Acetone:Water (3:1:1. Flavonoids and essential oil were detected in TLC of Cissampelos pareira flower extract developed using blends of n-Butanol:Acetone:Water (4:1:5 and Benzene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (9:7:4 as solvent systems for flavonid where as chloroform(100%, Benzene(100%, Chloroform:Benzene (1:1 and Ether:Benzene (1:1 as solvent systems for essential oil. Conclusion: These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of Indigofera trita Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raju Senthil; Moorthy, Kannaiyan; Vinodhini, Raja; Punitha, Thambidurai

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of various extracts of Indigofera trita L. viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were carried out. A total of 21 microorganisms (19 bacteria and 2 fungal strains) were used for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and a standard procedure was used to identify the phytochemical constituents. Petroleum ether extract showed moderate inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (14.40 mm), S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), Salmonella paratyphi A (12.80 mm), Streptococcus mutans (12.20 mm), Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, S. typhi and Burkholderia cepacia (12.00 mm). The chloroform extract also showed antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), S. typhimurium (12.60 mm), S. paratyphi A, S. brunei and Yersinia enterocolitica (12.00 mm). The acetone extract of I. trita showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (18.20 mm), S. typhimurium (14.60 mm), S. infantis (13.80 mm), S. aureus (13.40 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.00 mm) and Enterobacter aerogenes (12.00 mm) were documented. Ethanol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (18.60 mm), S. paratyphi A (14.60 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.40 mm), S. typhi (12.40 mm), S. aureus, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium and S. infantis (12.00 mm). Aqueous extract of I. trita considerably inhibited S. epidermidis (13.80 mm), S. paratyphi A and Y. enterocolitica (12.20 mm), E. aerogenes and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus (12.00 mm). All the five extracts showed a minimal antifungal activity when compared to antibacterial activity. The result revealed that the antimicrobial properties of I. trita might be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols and alkaloids.

  2. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time.

  3. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population's economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human...... Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use.RESULTS: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds...

  4. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  5. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila; Benariba; Rabeh; Djaziri; Wafaa; Bellakhdar; Nacera; Belkacem; Marcel; Kadiata; Willy; J.Malaisse; Abdullah; Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis(C.colocynthis)seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging.Methods:Phytochemical screening,total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C.colocynthis seeds extracts,including a crude aqueous extract(E1),a defatted aqueous extract(E2),a hydromethanolic extract(HM),an ethyl acetate extract(EA)and a n-butanol extract(n-B)was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.Results:None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid,quinone,antraquinone,or reducing sugar.Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1,MM and EA,whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM.Coumarins were found in E2,EA and n-B.Polyphenols,expressed as gallic acid equivalent,amounted,per 100 g plant matter,to 329,1002 and 150 mg in EA,HM an E1 respectively.Flavonoids,expressed as catechin equivalent,amounted.per 100 g plant matter to 620,241 and 94 mg in EA,HM and E1 respectively.Comparable values were found in n-B and E1,with lower values in E2.Quercetin,myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography,The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded,when tested at a concentration of 2000μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay,a reducing percentage of 88.8%with EA,74.5%with HM and 66.2%with E1,and corresponding IC50of 350,580and 500μg/mL as compared to 1.1μg/mL for ascorbic acid.Conclusions:These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C.colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity,as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  6. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila Benariba; Rabeh Djaziri; Wafaa Bellakhdar; Nacera Belkacem; Marcel Kadiata; Willy J Malaisse; Abdullah Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids ofC. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2000 μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 μg/mL as compared to 1.1 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  7. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  8. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub- elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  9. Changes in phytochemical contents in different parts of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f. lindau due to storage duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaren Bunga Raya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans is a well recognized medicinal herb for its high phytochemical contents. Several aspects may contribute to the phytochemical contents, and thus determine the quality and efficacy of an herb. An experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD with five replications, in a factorial arrangement of treatments. including two plant parts harvested at two different stages such as young leaves, young stems, matured leaves and matured stems, and four different storage durations such as 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The study was aimed at determining how storage duration affects selected phytochemical contents of different plant parts of C. nutans at different harvesting stages. Total phytochemical content, total flavonoids content and DPPH radical scavenging activities are higher in young plants than in old plants, moreover, all those compounds are higher in leaves than in stems, and decrease gradually due to storage. Phytochemical, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content of C. nutans differ among different plant parts and change due to storage. In general, young plant parts contain higher amount of phytochemicals, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll compared with matured parts confirming that phytochemicals content of C. nutans decreases when plants tend to maturity. Prolonged storage reduces phytochemical, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content of C. nutans,which demands fresh use of this medicinal herb to avoid phytochemical losses. Further research focusing on the proper storage is necessary to minimize phytochemicals losses of C. nutans.

  10. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Gracilaria species from Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Considerable phytochemicals, high antioxidant potential, and moderate cytotoxic activity of G. salicornia and G. corticata make them appropriate candidates for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles.

  11. Effect of Intestinal Cytochrome P450 3A on Phytochemical Presystemic Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemicals, orally administered substances, are found to undergo presystemic metabolism mainly in the intestine. Although early researches confirmed the role of intestinal bacteria in phytochemical presystemic metabolism, along with the development of molecular biology in investigating intestinal metabolism, a breakthrough has been won in research into metabolizing enzymes and transporters in intestine,which demands more attention and further studies. Recently, Cytochrome P450 3A has been found to be the most effective enzyme in mediating both oxidative (Phase Ⅰ) and conjugative (Phase Ⅱ ) metabolism in the intestine. The present review summarizes the current findings correlated with the effect of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A on phytochemical presystemic metabolism, which provides a good basis for further research on phytochemical pharmacokinetics.

  12. Introduction to the 1st International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yafeng; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-03-30

    The 1st International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF 2015) was held in Shanghai, China, from June 26th to 29th, 2015. The 1st ISPMF was organized by the Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSE) and the Phytochemical Society of Asia (PSA). More than 270 scientists from 48 countries attended this meeting. The program of ISPMF 2015 consisted of 12 plenary lectures, 20 invited talks, and 55 short oral presentations in 16 sessions, including phytochemistry, phytomedicine, pharmacology, and application of phytochemicals in medicine and food. The 1st ISPMF has obtained support from Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Food Chemistry, Phytochemistry Reviews, and Nutrients. As supported by Prof. Thomas F. Hofmann, a special issue on Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS) for the 1st ISPMF was initiated in January 2015.

  13. Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, van S.G.; Wilms, L.C.; Gaj, S.; Briedé, J.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kok, de T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries contain relatively large amounts of different phytochemicals which are suggested to have chemopreventive properties, but little information is available on the underlying molecular modes of action. This study investigates whole genome gene expression changes in lymphocytes of 143 humans

  14. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    El agua es el principal constituyente del cuerpo humano. Está implicado en prácticamente la totalidad de sus funciones. Es especialmente importante en la termorregulación y en el rendimiento físico y cognitivo. El balance de agua refleja la ingesta y la pérdida de agua. La ingesta se realiza principalmente a través del consumo de agua potable y de bebidas (70 a 80%) más el agua que contienen los alimentos (20 a 30%). La pérdida de agua se realiza gracias a su excreción a través de la orina, las heces y el sudor. El interés por el tipo y la cantidad de bebidas consumidas no es nuevo, y numerosos enfoques se han utilizado para evaluarla, pero la validez de estos enfoques no se han establecido correctamente. Aún no existe, en población general, un cuestionario estandarizado desarrollado como herramienta de investigación para la evaluación de la ingesta de agua. El uso de información de diferentes fuentes y diferentes características metodológicas plantea problemas de comparabilidad entre estudios. En Europa los estudios epidemiológicos actuales que se centran exclusivamente en el consumo de bebidas son escasos. Los biomarcadores de ingesta permiten evaluar objetivamente la ingesta dietética sin el sesgo producido por los errores del auto-reporte. Además permiten superar el problema de la variabilidad intra-individual. Algunos métodos para medir ingesta alimentaria utilizan biomarcadores para validar los datos que recoge. Los marcadores biológicos ofrecen ventajas y son capaces de mejorar las estimaciones de la evaluación de ingesta dietética. Sin embargo, existen muy pocos estudios que examinen sistemáticamente la correlación entre la ingesta de bebidas y los biomarcadores de hidratación en diferentes poblaciones. Utilizando el cuestionario de bebidas de Hedrick y col. se realizó un estudio piloto para evaluar la validez y fiabilidad de un modelo multimedia interactivo (IMM) y para compararlo con una versión en papel-auto administrado (PP). El estudio mostró que el IMM parece ser un modelo válido y fiable para evaluar la ingesta de bebidas habitual. Un estudio similar se realizó en China, pero en este caso, se empleó para evaluar ingesta de bebidas la tecnología Smartphone. Conclusión: La metodología para valorar el consumo de bebidas en estudios poblacionales sigue siendo un tema controvertido. Existen pocos estudios validados y reproducibles, por lo que todavía no se dispone de un método ideal (corto, fácil de administrar, económico y preciso). Esta es un área de interés científico que aún está en desarrollo y que parece ser muy prometedora para mejorar las investigaciones en el área de la salud.

  15. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    lalitha govindaraj; Suseela vivek

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt) respe...

  16. Modulation of Protein Quality Control Systems as Novel Mechanisms Underlying Functionality of Food Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Kohta Ohnishi; Kazuhiro Irie; Akira Murakami

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plants that are produced for their defense against environmental stresses, such as polyphenols, which are considered to play a major role in protection against ultraviolet (UV) light-induced oxidative damage, as well as anti-fungal and anti-microbial activities. In addition, there is a great body of evidence showing that phytochemicals exhibit a wide array of physiological activities in humans. Accumulated data show t...

  17. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and micronutrients against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii

    OpenAIRE

    Goc, A; A. Niedzwiecki(University of Lodz, Poland); RATH, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims Little is known about the effects of phytochemicals against Borrelia sp. causing Lyme disease. Current therapeutic approach to this disease is limited to antibiotics. This study examined the anti‐borreliae efficacy of several plant‐derived compounds and micronutrients. Methods and Results We tested the efficacy of 15 phytochemicals and micronutrients against three morphological forms of Borrelia burgdoferi and Borrelia garinii: spirochetes, latent rounded forms and biofilm. The ...

  18. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and GC-MS profiling in the leaves of Sauropus Androgynus (l) MERR

    OpenAIRE

    Senthamarai Selvi. V; Anusha Basker

    2012-01-01

    In the present the phytochemical analysis of Sauropus androgynus was carried out. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this plant is reported for the first time. The leaves indicated the presence of proteins, resins, steroids, tannins, glycosides, reducing sugar, carbohydrates, saponins, sterols, terpenoids, acidic compounds, cardiac glycosides, catechol, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids. In the GC-MS analysis the Sauropus androgynus extract result shows the presence of bioactive compounds w...

  20. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Ankad Gireesh; Hegde Harsha; Kholkute S.D; Hurkadale Pramod

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. are used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders and also used as vegetable for its nutritive value. Such plant having medicinal and nutritive values lacks pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical information. Hence the present work is intended to study pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies, which will serve as quality control parameters. The pharmacognostical parameters like transverse section of midrib, epiderm...

  1. Analysis of anti-bacterial and phytochemical screening by using different anisomeles Malabarica samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha Nilofer HM; Packialakshmi N

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous leaf, flower, stem and boiled leaf extracts of Anisomeles malabarica were evaluated for antibacterial screening by disc diffusion methods along with their phytochemical screening.The Anisomeles malabarica extracts are sensitive to five  pathogenic organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Bacillus substilis except Proteus vulgaris by disc diffusion methods. The phytochemical screening to identify the active compounds. 

  2. A preliminary examination of the phytochemical profile of Azolla microphylla with respect to Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Abraham; Vidhu Aeri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of seasons on the phytochemical properties of Azolla microphylla.Methods:Dried and powdered leaves (50g) were extracted with 300 ml of methanol using soxhlet extractor for 16 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Standard methods have been used to screen the phytochemical constituents. Conclusions: From the observations it can be concluded that the plant extracts show the presence of several bioactive compounds which could be exploited further.

  3. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae); Fitoquimica e quimiossistematica de Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidoro, Marsele Machado; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Sebastiao da Cruz, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known coumarins isooxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, 8-methoxymarmesin and marmesin, flavonoids quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside and hesperidin, alkaloids skimmianine and N-methylflindersine and limonoid limonin. The compounds isolated and the chemical profile of Euxylophora obtained from the literature clearly indicate its phytochemical affinities with other Rutoideae species. (author)

  4. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  5. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  6. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Garcia-Larsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA. After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006. Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02. Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02 and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04. Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function.

  7. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the intake of household salt and its contribution to the total salt intake in a Danish population. Methods: Eighty-seven healthy individuals (37 men and 50 women), aged 20-55 years, recruited from the area of Copenhagen, completed the study. Total salt intake was estimated...... from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake...... of household salt was 1.0 g day(-1) in men and 0.5 g day(-1) in women, corresponding to 10.2 and 8.7% of total salt intake in men and women, respectively. A significant difference between sexes was found regarding total salt intake (P...

  8. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  9. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  10. Software application for the calculation of dietary intake of individual carotenoids and of its contribution to vitamin A intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Estévez-Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The software applications utilized to assess dietary intake usually focus on macro- and micronutrients, but not on other components of the diet with potential beneficial effects on health, which include the carotenoids. The degree to which each carotenoid exerts diverse biological activities differs and, thus, it is in our interest to know their composition in foods on an individual basis. Objective: To develop a software application with individualized data on carotenoids that enables the calculation of their dietary intake and consultation of the contents of these compounds in foods. Material and methods: Software application developed with Java 7, which includes a database of the carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene in foods (including those that are major contributors to carotenoid intake in Europe, generated by HPLC. The variables include those relative to the foods, subjects and diets that are necessary to provide accurate information on the content of carotenoids in foods and to enable the calculation of their intake. Results: The software application enables the calculation of the dietary intake of individual carotenoids from 128 foods (raw and cooked, and their contribution to vitamin A intake, in the two forms employed at the present time: retinol equivalents (RE and retinol activity equivalents (RAE. Conclusions: This software application is a dynamic, specific and accurate tool for the consultation of carotenoid concentrations in foods and the calculation of their intake, aspects that are essential in research studies on diet and health.

  11. Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the Nelumbo nucifera fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-02-01

    Recently use of herbal therapies and diet rich in flavonoids and vitamin C have increased significantly to treat minor to modest anxiety disorders and various forms of depression. But further research and studies are necessary to evaluate the pharmacological & toxicological effects of plants. Hence present study was designed to conduct phytochemical screening, acute toxicity study, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the ethanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera fruit in order to ascertain its therapeutic potential. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the seed pods of the N. nucifera fruit extract exposed the existence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids in it. The acute toxicity of the N. nucifera fruit extract in mice revealed its LD50 value to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Antianxiety activity was determined by elevated plus maze and light and dark test using 35 male Wister rats weighing 200-220 g which were equally divided in to 5 groups. The animals used in EPM underwent testing in light and dark box just 30 min after EPM. The antidepressant effect was assessed by forced swimming test using 35 male albino mice weighing 20-25 g equally divided in to 5 groups. In elevated plus maze, N. nucifera fruit extract exhibited substantial rise in number of open arm entries and time spent in open arms at dose 50 mg/kg while highly noteworthy increase in both parameters were observed at extract doses 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control. In light dark test highly significant increase in the percentage of time spent in light compartment was observed as compared to control. In forced swimming test highly noteworthy decline in duration of immobility was recorded at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg on 15th day i-e after administration of 14 doses, as compared to control; whereas same doses demonstrated significant decrease as compared to control in duration of immobility after single dose administration i-e on 2nd day of experiment. Thus N

  12. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR). Par

  13. Finding the right balance : An evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Tissing, Wim J E

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood cance

  14. Finding the right balance: an evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Bont, Eveline S.J.M. de; Burgerhof, Johannes G.M.; Tamminga, Rienk Y.J.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Tissing, Wim J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood cance

  15. Population-based nutrikinetic modelling of phytochemical exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van E.J.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Grün, C.H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Eilers, P.H.C.; Mulder, T.P.; Foltz, M.; Garczarek, U.; Kemperman, R.; Vaughan, E.E.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables have been attributed to their polyphenol content. These compounds undergo many bioconversions in the body. Modeling polyphenol exposure of humans upon intake is a prerequisite for understanding the modulating effect of the food matrix and the co

  16. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-ADHERENCE ANALYSIS OF PLANT AND AYURVEDIC EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Shah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The incessant and vital need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mode of action is stimulated by the increasing failure of chemotherapeutics and expanded antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic agents. In the present research work, antimicrobial activity of few plant extracts and ayurvedic samples were screened against bacteria. Phytochemical analysis of active plant extracts showed the presence of triterpenes, glycosides and flavonoids. Both aqueous and acetone extracts of Holoptelia integrifolia leaf and Barringtonia acutangula flower; and methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Meera powder exhibited activity against S. aureus. Aqueous mortar pestle and soxhlet extracts of B. acutangula flower exhibited activity against both P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Further, the ability to adhere and build biofilm was assessed in few biofilm formers at sub-MIC concentrations using the Microtiter plate assay and the Coverslip assay. Aqueous soxhlet and mortar pestle extract of B. acutangula flower and acetone overnight extract of H. integrifolia leaf exhibited antibiofilm activity against these organisms.

  18. Activation and Inhibition of ATM by Phytochemicals: Awakening and Sleeping the Guardian Angel Naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Wu, Shyh-Jong; Chang, Yung-Ting; Tang, Jen-Yang; Li, Kun-Tzu; Ismail, Muhammad; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Li, Ruei-Nian; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic DNA lesions caused by oxygen radicals, ionizing radiation, and radiomimetic chemicals. Increasing understanding of DNA damage signaling has provided an ever-expanding list of modulators reported to orchestrate DNA damage repair and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is the master regulator and main transducer of the DSB response. Increasingly, it is being realized that DNA damage response is a synchronized and branched network that functionalizes different molecular cascades to activate special checkpoints, thus temporarily arresting progression of the cell cycle while damage is being assessed and processed. It is noteworthy that both nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have revolutionized the field of molecular biology and rapidly accumulating experimental evidence has started to shed light on biological activities of a wide range of phytochemicals reported to modulate cell cycle, DNA repair, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis as evidenced by cell-based studies. In this review, we have attempted to provide an overview of DNA damage signaling, how ATM signaling regulates tumor necrosis factors-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced intracellular network. We also illuminate on how resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, jaceosidin, cucurbitacin, apigenin, genistein, and others trigger activation of ATM in different cancer cells as well as agents for ATM inactivation. Understanding the interplay of TRAIL-induced intracellular signaling and ATM modulation of downstream effectors is very important. This holds particularly for a reconceptualization of the apparently paradoxical roles and therapeutically targetable for enhancing the response to DNA damage-inducing therapy.

  19. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati: An ayurvedic polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Chhaganbhai Padhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati, a polyherbal formulation is recommended for the management of diseases due to Medodushti (abnormal fat metabolism like obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, etc. Though Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati is widely used for the treatment of diseases due to abnormal metabolism, but till date, its pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical study has not been carried out. Aim: Authentication of raw drug of Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati and phytochemical evaluation of finished product. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of the ingredients of Tryoshnadi Guggulu Vati and its physicochemical analysis. Results: Powder microscopy revealed the presence of annular vessels of Musta, starch grains of Vacha, stone cells of Pippali, stone cells of Chitraka, oleoresins of Shunthi, starch grains of Musta, etc., Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value (15.91%, water soluble extract (13.5%, methanol soluble extract (17.2% were assessed in preliminary physicochemical scanning. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC revealed maximum 10 spots in short wave ultraviolet (UV 254 nm. And four spots were obtained in long wave UV 366 nm. Conclusion: Pharmacognostical study revealed genuinity of raw drugs. Physicochemical and HPTLC studies inferred that the formulation meets the minimum quality standards as reported in the American Petroleum Institute at a preliminary level. The inference from this study may be used as reference standard in the further quality control researches.

  20. Phytochemical composition and gastroprotective effect of Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruits from Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Monforte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the fruit of Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge and gorgiona, cultured in Sicily, for its gastroprotective effect, in association with performing phytochemical evaluation. Methods: By means of HPLC, vitamin E complex and polyphenol compounds were determined. The gastroprotective effect was investigated on ethanol-induced ulcers in rats, with sucralfate as reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosae, stained by periodic acid-Shiff and haematoxylin/ eosin, were observed by light microscopy. Results: In pulp and peel samples of both varieties of fruit α, β and γ tocopherols were identified, while δ was only in var. coolidge. In whole fruit of two varieties, catechin, eriodictyol, eriocitrin, pyrocatechol, quercetin, rutin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acid were determined. The fruit showed gastroprotective effect (ulcer index: var. coolidge=1.07, var. gorgiona=1.02. The efficacy was comparable to that of sucralfate (ulcer index 1.10. Histological examination confirmed the inhibition of ulcerogenic activity of the ethanol. Conclusions: Active principles of Feijoa sellowiana can play an important role in human diet and show beneficial effects on various diseases, particularly those caused by oxidative processes resulting in cell damage. The amount of polyphenols and vitamin E complex confirms the nutritional value of this fruit, grown in pedoclimatic condition very different from the origin area.