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Sample records for assessing personality traits

  1. Comparing Dimensional Models Assessing Personality Traits and Personality Pathology Among Adult ADHD and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerting, Johanna; Pukrop, Ralf; Klein, Philipp; Ritter, Kathrin; Knowles, Mark; Banzhaf, Anke; Gentschow, Laura; Vater, Aline; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael; Roepke, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study was a comparison of dimensional models assessing personality traits and personality pathology in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD and adults diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control sample of healthy adults. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and dimensional personality pathology with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Adults with ADHD and BPD produced higher Emotional Dysregulation/Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior scores than controls. For the Extraversion/Inhibitedness scale, adults with BPD produced significantly lower scores than adults with ADHD and controls. On the Conscientiousness/Compulsivity domains, Conscientiousness scores were lower for both disorders, whereas low Compulsivity values were specific to adult ADHD. Our results suggest that patients with adult ADHD and BPD have distinguishable profiles of personality traits and personality pathology. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. The importance and acceptability of general and maladaptive personality trait computerized assessment feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengel, Gregory J; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee. Treatment-seeking participants from a university (n = 72) and Amazon.com MTurk (n = 101) completed measures of the 5-factor model and the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorder, and were then provided feedback on their general and maladaptive personality traits. Individuals then provided feedback on which aspects they found most useful. Results demonstrated strong participant agreement that the personality trait feedback was accurate and relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A dimensional approach to assessing personality functioning: examining personality trait domains utilizing DSM-IV personality disorder criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fowler, J; Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Madan, Alok; Clapp, Joshua; Allen, Jon G; Christopher Frueh, B; Oldham, John M

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a dimensional, trait domain approach to characterizing personality pathology with the traditional polythetic approach with respect to their associations with interpersonal functioning and personality traits from the five factor model. Psychiatric inpatients (N=1476) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders. Dimensional representations of trait domains were derived from reorganizing DSM-IV criteria into personality trait domains from DSM-5 Alternative Model. Dimensional scores and personality disorder (PD) total criterion scores served as independent variables in predicting interpersonal profile clusters, as well as extraversion, agreeableness conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness from the five factor model traits. Trait domain scores and PD criteria totals were significantly correlated with submissive interpersonal style yet none proved significant in regression analyses. Avoidant and borderline PD total criteria were negatively associated with a normative interpersonal style. Combined trait domain of detachment and avoidant PD total criteria predicted a hostile/withdrawn interpersonal style. The trait domain of detachment was negatively associated with five factor traits of extroversion, whereas borderline PD total criteria were negatively associated with conscientiousness. Avoidant and borderline PD total criteria were positively associated with neuroticism. The cross-cutting dimensional approach provided useful information in predicting a hostile/withdrawn interpersonal style as well as extroversion. Importantly, PD criterion scores and dimensional trait scores combined to predict this interpersonal style providing support to the alternative model of personality diagnosis in DSM-5. Clinicians are encouraged to assess dimensions of personality traits as these are related to interpersonal problems frequently encountered in psychiatric settings. While potentially useful, the dimensional

  4. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  5. Assessing DSM-5 section III personality traits and disorders with the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Anderson, Jaime L; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-12-01

    An alternative model for diagnosing personality disorders (PDs) appears in DSM-5 Section III. This model includes a set of dimensional personality traits, which along with impairment in personality functioning can be configured to represent one of six PDs. Although specific assessment instruments for these personality traits have already been developed (e.g., the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]), clinicians will likely continue to use omnibus measures of psychopathology that are familiar to them to inform diagnostic decision making. One such measure, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), will likely remain in the test armamentarium of many practitioners and be employed to assess the DSM-5 dimensional traits. In the current investigation, we examined the associations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and the PID-5 trait scores and DSM-5 Section III PDs in a combined sample of university students (n = 668) from the United States and Canada. Our results indicated that the MMPI-2-RF scale scores mostly converge with PID-5 dimensional traits as well as the Section III PDs in a conceptually expected manner. As such, we conclude that the MMPI-2-RF is a potentially useful instrument in assessing personality psychopathology as conceptualized in DSM-5 Section III.

  6. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  7. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  8. Personality traits in patients with Parkinson's disease: assessment and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-06-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence on the association between personality traits and Parkinson's disease (PD), with a twofold aim. First, to better identify non-motor symptoms, such as affective symptoms and personality changes, that could help to define the pre-motor phase of PD; second, to better understand the neurobiological bases of personality traits, a goal that is not fully accomplished by a purely anatomical approach. A literature review was performed on studies of personality traits in PD patients, in electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline and PsychInfo, conducted in July 2011. We found evidence that the existence of a characteristic premorbid personality profile of PD patients is not actually sustained by robust empirical evidence, mainly due to the methodological bias of the retrospective assessment of personality; PD patients present a personality profile of low novelty seeking and high harm avoidance. We concluded that the definition of a pre-motor phase of PD, based on non-motor symptoms, should search for the presence of concomitant affective disorders and for a positive psychiatric history for affective disorders rather than for a typical personality profile or personality changes. The low novelty seeking profile is probably related to the dopaminergic deficit, while the high harm avoidance profile is probably associated with the presence of affective disorders. Clinical implications of these findings, in regard to personality assessment and pharmacological treatments in PD, are also discussed.

  9. Personality Traits in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene......-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons...... symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms....

  10. Personality traits, income, and economic ideology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    While the psychological underpinnings of social ideology are well established, less is known about the psychological underpinnings of economic ideology. In this study I assess whether Big Five personality traits are associated with economic ideology and when personality traits are more strongly or

  11. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F.; Castro, São Luís

    2018-01-01

    The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39–0.72), very good 4-week test–retest reliability (n = 81, rs > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory (rs > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited. PMID:29674989

  12. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F; Castro, São Luís

    2018-01-01

    The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39-0.72), very good 4-week test-retest reliability ( n = 81, r s > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory ( r s > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited.

  13. The Convergent and Concurrent Validity of Trait-Based Prototype Assessment of Personality Disorder Categories in Homeless Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Connolly, Adrian J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" proposal indicates that personality disorders (PDs) be defined as collections of maladaptive traits but does not provide a specific diagnostic method. However, researchers have previously suggested that PD constructs can be assessed by comparing individuals' trait profiles with those prototypic of PDs and evidence from the…

  14. General and maladaptive personality dimensions and the assessment of callous-unemotional traits in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Associations between callous-unemotional traits and general and maladaptive personality dimensions are examined in adolescence. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent general and maladaptive personality dimensions can account for the variance in callous-unemotional (CU) scores. Adolescents (N = 509) and their mothers completed the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick, 2003), the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999, 2002), and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Both personality measures accounted for substantial variance in ICU scores and the overall CU profile in terms of the HiPIC and DIPSI was consistent with psychopathy conceptualizations and consistent across informant. Implications for the assessment of early externalizing trait pathology are discussed.

  15. Improving assessment of personality disorder traits through social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2007-10-01

    When assessing personality disorder traits, not all judges make equally valid judgments of all targets. The present study uses social network analysis to investigate factors associated with reliability and validity in peer assessment. Participants were groups of military recruits (N=809) who acted as both targets and judges in a round-robin design. Participants completed self- and informant versions of the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology. Social network matrices were constructed based on reported acquaintance, and cohesive subgroups were identified. Judges who shared a mutual subgroup were more reliable and had higher self-peer agreement than those who did not. Partitioning networks into two subgroups achieved more consistent improvements than multiple subgroups. We discuss implications for multiple informant assessments.

  16. Physiognomy: Personality Traits Prediction by Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Zhang; Ri-Zhen Qin; Qiu-Lei Dong; Wei Gao; Hua-Rong Xu; Zhan-Yi Hu

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating individuals' personality traits and intelligence from their faces plays a crucial role in interpersonal relationship and important social events such as elections and court sentences.To assess the possible correlations between personality traits (also measured intelligence) and face images,we first construct a dataset consisting of face photographs,personality measurements,and intelligence measurements.Then,we build an end-to-end convolutional neural network for prediction of personality traits and intelligence to investigate whether self-reported personality traits and intelligence can be predicted reliably from a face image.To our knowledge,it is the first work where deep learning is applied to this problem.Experimental results show the following three points:1)"Rule-consciousness" and "Tension" can be reliably predicted from face images.2) It is difficult,if not impossible,to predict intelligence from face images,a finding in accord with previous studies.3) Convolutional neural network (CNN) features outperform traditional handcrafted features in predicting traits.

  17. Complementary approaches to the assessment of personality disorder. The Personality Assessment Schedule and Adult Personality Functioning Assessment compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J; Fudge, H; Harrington, R; Pickles, A; Rutter, M

    2000-05-01

    Current concepts and measures of personality disorder are in many respects unsatisfactory. To establish agreement between two contrasting measures of personality disorder, and to compare subject-informant agreement on each. To examine the extent to which trait abnormality can be separated from interpersonal and social role dysfunction. Fifty-six subjects and their closest informants were interviewed and rated independently. Personality functioning was assessed using a modified Personality Assessment Schedule (M-PAS), and the Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (APFA). Subject-informant agreement on the M-PAS was moderately good, and agreement between the M-PAS and the APFA, across and within subjects and informants, was comparable to that for the M-PAS. This was equally the case when M-PAS trait plus impairment scores and trait abnormality scores were used. The M-PAS and the APFA are probably assessing similar constructs. Trait abnormalities occur predominantly in an interpersonal context and could be assessed within that context.

  18. Personality Processes: Mechanisms by which Personality Traits “Get Outside the Skin”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and temperament: negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint. Personality processes are studied over the short-term, as in event-sampling studies, and over the long-term, as in lifespan research. Implications of findings from the study of processes are considered for resolving issues in models of personality structure, improving and extending methods of personality assessment, and identifying targets for personality interventions. PMID:21740225

  19. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the men, antisocial, dependent and histrionic personality traits, in that .... Personality traits observed during the follow-up assessment. Men. Women. Total. No. %. No. %. No. % ..... impulsive and thoughtless. Appendix 2. Diagnostic ...

  20. Personality in proportion : A bipolar proportional scale for personality assessments and its consequences for trait structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Trait structures resulting from personality assessments on Likert scales are affected by the additive and multiplicative transformations implied in interval scaling and correlational analysis. The effect comes into view on selecting a plausible alternative scale. To this end, we propose a bipolar

  1. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits.

  2. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years).

  3. A Model for Traffic Accidents Prediction Based on Driver Personality Traits Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Čubranić-Dobrodolac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The model proposed in this paper uses four psychological instruments for assessing driver behaviour and personality traits aiming to find a relationship between the considered constructs and the occurrence of traffic accidents. A Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used for the assessment of impulsivity, Aggressive Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (ADBQ for assessing the aggressiveness while driving, Manchester Driver Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ and the Questionnaire for self-assessment of driving ability. Besides these instruments, the participants filled out an extensive demographic survey. Within the statistical analysis, in addition to the descriptive indicators, correlation coefficients were calculated and four hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive power of personality traits on the occurrence of traffic accidents. Further, to confirm the results and to obtain additional information about the relationship between the considered variables, the structural equation modelling and binary logistic regression have been implemented. A sample of this research covered 305 drivers, of which there were 100 bus drivers and 102 truck drivers, as well as 103 drivers of privately owned vehicles. The results indicate that BIS-11 and ADBQ questionnaires show the best predictive power which means that impulsivity and aggressiveness as personality traits have the greatest influence on the occurrence of traffic accidents. This research could be useful in many fields, such as the design of selection procedures for professional drivers, development of programs for the prevention of traffic accidents and violations of law, rehabilitation of drivers who have been deprived of the driving license, etc.

  4. Personality Traits and Comorbidity in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instanes, Johanne Telnes; Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne

    2016-10-01

    To assess personality traits using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a group of 63 previously diagnosed ADHD patients and 68 population controls and investigate the impact of common comorbid psychiatric disorders on these personality measures. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and personality traits by the TCI. The patient group had significantly higher scores on the TCI dimensions Harm avoidance and Novelty seeking compared with the control group. However, when adjusting for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder, the ADHD group no longer showed higher Harm avoidance than the control group. The difference in Novelty seeking between the patient and control groups was correlated with lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). It is important to take comorbid psychiatric disorders into account while investigating personality traits in ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Assessment of Pathological Traits in DSM-5 Personality Disorders by the DAPP-BQ: How Do These Traits Relate to the Six Personality Disorder Types of the Alternative Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Han; Ingenhoven, Theo J M; van der Heijden, Paul T; Rossi, Gina M P; Schotte, Chris K W

    2017-11-09

    The six personality disorder (PD) types in DSM-5 section III are intended to resemble their DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II PD counterparts, but are now described by the level of personality functioning (criterion A) and an assigned trait profile (criterion B). However, concerns have been raised about the validity of these PD types. The present study examined the continuity between the DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II PDs and the corresponding trait profiles of the six DSM-5 section III PDs in a sample of 350 Dutch psychiatric patients. Facets of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) were presumed as representations (proxies) of the DSM-5 section III traits. Correlational patterns between the DAPP-BQ and the six PDs were consistent with previous research between DAPP-BQ and DSM-IV PDs. Moreover, DAPP-BQ proxies were able to predict the six selected PDs. However, the assigned trait profile for each PD didn't fully match the corresponding PD.

  6. Symptoms of Dry Eye Disease and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Sho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Daisuke; Ono, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The essential targets of dry eye disease (DED) treatments include both objective signs and subjective symptoms. However, due to the numerous subjective symptoms, it is understandable why little association has been found between the signs and symptoms. Although psychological influences on the subjective symptoms have been reported, little is known about the influence of personality traits. The present study analyzed the relationship between the signs/symptoms of DED and the personality traits of patients using a cross-sectional design. We examined 56 DED patients (mean age; 62.4 ± 12.9, range 34-85 years) visiting the outpatient clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Nippon Medical School Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Objective signs evaluated included the Schirmer I test, tear breakup time (BUT), fluorescein and lissamine green staining, and tear osmolality. Subjective symptoms were assessed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) questionnaires. For personality traits, the Big Five personality traits model analysis was used. Correlations between the objective signs, subjective symptoms, and personality traits were analyzed. A significant correlation was found between the neuroticism in the Big Five Personality Inventory and the symptoms assessed by the DEQS (r = -0.35, p personality traits. The results of our current study suggest that the personality of the patient, which appears to be the basis of various psychological factors, can have some impact on the subjective symptoms. This may be one of the reasons why there has been little association noted between the signs and symptoms of DED.

  7. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  8. Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the importance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as a personality construct in isolation from other facets of psychopathy. Specifically, we review research suggesting that these traits are useful for designating a subgroup of youth with serious conduct problems who differ from other antisocial youth on important biological, emotional, cognitive, and social characteristics. In addition, the temperamental features related to CU traits are risk factors for impairments in conscience development in young children. Thus, these traits could advance theoretical models explaining the development of severe antisocial behavior and psychopathy. CU traits also have important clinical utility because they designate a particularly severe and impaired subgroup of antisocial youth, leading to their inclusion in the DSM-5. As a result of this inclusion in diagnostic classification, there has been an increased focus on how to best assess CU traits, and we discuss several key issues in their assessment, highlighting several limitations in existing measures. Finally, the increased use of CU traits, separately from other facets of psychopathy, makes it important to determine how these traits relate to other personality constructs. Thus, we examine how measures of CU traits relate to the broader construct of psychopathy and to other basic personality dimensions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Core features of personality disorder: differentiating general personality dysfunctioning from personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between general personality dysfunctioning (GPD) and specific personality traits (SPT) is an important focus of attention in the proposed revisions of the DSM-5. The present study explores the distinction between GPD and SPT using the self-report questionnaires General Assessment of

  10. [Problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Andréoletti, A; Chauchard, E; Rodgers, R F; Chabrol, H

    2016-06-01

    Internet addiction or problematic Internet use is a recent and increasingly recognized disorder which has been consistently associated with many psychiatric disorders, adding to the documented negative consequences of problematic Internet use. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits and none in a French sample. Moreover, those which have evaluated this relationship have mainly been conducted on small samples. The main goal of our study was to explore the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits in a French sample, taking into account the presence of depressive symptoms, and gender. A sample of 276 participants aged from 18 to 50 (M=28; SD=8.9) completed a questionnaire assessing problematic Internet use, time spent online, the presence of ten personality traits and depressive symptoms. Our results revealed significant differences between genders. Among men, problematic Internet use was associated with personality clusters A and B while in women no cluster or personality traits were associated. Time spent online was predicted by schizoid personality traits among men and avoidant personality traits among women. Our results indicate that cluster A (schizoid and schizotypal) and cluster B traits (borderline and antisocial) play a more important role in problematic Internet use than cluster C traits among men. Differences between men and women regarding the relationships between personality traits, time online and problematic Internet use may be related to differences in the activities engaged in by men and women online. We observed that communication websites use was more prevalent among women while erotic, gambling and shopping websites use was more prevalent among men suggesting that the characteristics of problematic Internet use may vary according to gender. Few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent

  11. Are premorbid abnormal personality traits associated with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jack; Abraham, Rajesh; Nicholas, Helen; Chan, Tom; Vanvlymen, Jeremy; Lovestone, Simon; Boothby, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to investigate associations between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and abnormal premorbid personality traits. Data were obtained from 217 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of late-onset dementia were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Premorbid personality traits were assessed using the Standardised Assessment of Personality. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were categorised with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10 diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were associated with increased behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. Cluster A (solitary/paranoid) premorbid personality traits were associated with anxiety, depression and hallucinations. Cluster C (anxious/dependent) traits were associated with a syndrome of depression. The presence of Clusters A (solitary/paranoid) and C (anxious/dependent) abnormal premorbid personality traits seems to affect the expression of certain behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, depression in particular. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Personality Traits among Inmates of Aba Prison in Nigeria: Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the personality traits of inmates in Aba prison. Methods: Four hundred and six inmates were studied. Each inmate completed a semi-structured sociodemographic questionnaire and personality traits were assessed with the 44-item Big Five Inventory. Results: The majority (72.7%) of the inmates were within ...

  13. Effectiveness of Persona with Personality Traits on Conceptual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari, Farshid; Richards, Deborah; Hitchens, Michael

    2015-01-01

    traits) on students’ performance in creating conceptual designs. Our results indicate that the students were able to identify the personality traits of personas and their ratings of the personalities match closely with the intended personalities. A majority of the participants stated that their designs...... were tailored to meet the needs of the given personas’ personality traits. Results suggest that the Holistic Personas can help students to take into account personality traits in the conceptual design process. Further studies are warranted to assess the value of incorporating Holistic Personas......Conceptual design is an important skill in Software Engineering. Teaching conceptual design that can deliver a useful product is challenging, particularly when access to real users is limited. This study explores the effects of the use of Holistic Personas (i.e. a persona enriched with personality...

  14. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik; Frogner, Louise; Lopez-Romero, Laura; Veen, Violaine; Andershed, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.

  17. Hypomanic personality traits in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D N; Lewinsohn, P M; Seeley, J R

    1996-06-05

    The distribution and correlates of hypomanic personality traits were examined in a representative sample of 1709 adolescents. Hypomanic traits were assessed with an abbreviated version of Eckblad and Chapman's (1986) Hypomanic Personality Scale. Hypomanic traits were normally distributed and were slightly but significantly higher among females. Test-retest stability over a mean 14-month interval was 0.54. High scores were associated with elevated lifetime rates of mood, disruptive behavior and substance use disorders. Among subjects with no history of mood disorder, hypomanic traits were associated with a broad range of indices of psychosocial dysfunction, both concurrently and at 1-year follow-up. In addition, hypomanic personality traits predicted increased levels of impairment in a number of areas, including depressive and internalizing symptomatology, over the course of the follow-up. Finally, among subjects with a past history of major depression, hypomanic traits were associated with a higher level of depression at the initial assessment, greater symptomatology and impairment during their worst episode, and higher rates of attempted suicide, comorbid disruptive behavior disorders and recurrent major depressive episodes.

  18. Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, B E; Johnson, S L

    2001-03-01

    There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality.

  19. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  20. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija TAHIROVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.

  1. The Bright and Dark Side Correlates of Creativity: Demographic, Ability, Personality Traits and Personality Disorders Associated with Divergent Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the personality trait and personality disorder correlates of creative potential, as assessed by a divergent thinking (DT) test. Over 4,000 adult managers attending an assessment center completed a battery of tests including a "bright side," normal personality trait measures (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, or…

  2. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMaćkiewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C. To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged approximately 7 to 10 years.

  3. Multidimensional perfectionism and the DSM-5 personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract\\ud Encouraging further research on the dimensional assessment of personality disorders (PDs), Section III of the DSM-5 introduced a hybrid model for the assessment of six PDs employing self-reports on 25 maladaptive personality traits (“DSM-5 personality traits”). Following suggestions that multidimensional perfectionism is an important characteristic across various personality disorders (Ayearst, Flett, & Hewitt, 2012), the present study investigated how personal (self-oriented) and...

  4. Personality traits in patients with cluster headache: a comparison with migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, I; Hernández, M S; Santos, S; Jurado, C; Ruiz, L; Toribio, E; Sotelo, E M; Guerrero, A L; Molina, V; Uribe, F; Cuadrado, M L

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache (CH) has been associated with certain personality traits and lifestyle features, but there are few studies assessing personality profiles in CH. We aimed to analyze personality traits in patients with CH, and to compare them with those found in migraine. We included all consecutive patients with CH attending 5 outpatient offices between January and December 2013. Personality traits were evaluated using the Salamanca screening test, a validated inventory assessing 11 personality traits grouped in 3 clusters. We analyzed the test results in this population, and compared them with those of a migraine population previously assessed with the same test. Eighty patients with CH (75 men, 5 women; mean age, 43.2 ± 9.9 years) were recruited. The reference population consisted of 164 migraine patients (30 men, 134 women; mean age 36.4 ± 12.7 years). In CH patients, the most frequent personality traits were anancastic (52.5 %), anxious (47.5 %), histrionic (45 %), schizoid (42.5 %), impulsive (32.5 %) and paranoid (30 %). When compared to migraine patients, paranoid (p traits (p = 0.007; χ2 test) were significantly more prevalent in CH patients. In logistic regression analysis the paranoid trait was significantly associated with CH (p = 0.001; OR: 3.27, 95 % CI [1.66-6.43]). According to the Salamanca screening test, personality traits included in cluster A (odd or eccentric disorders) are more prevalent in CH patients than in a population of migraineurs. Larger studies are needed to determine whether certain personality traits are related to CH.

  5. Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Brent W.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the div...

  6. The Connections between Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian A. McCabe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An alternative model of pathological personality traits was recently developed in an effort to address the challenges associated with the categorical model of personality disorder classification (e.g., high rates of comorbidity, minimal overlap with modern conceptualizations of personality structure. More specifically, this alternative model provides a dimensional framework through which personality disorders can be understood in terms of their level of impairment in personality functioning. The development of this alternative model led to the construction of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012 which assesses the presence and level of the following pathological personality traits: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. These pathological personality traits are considered to be maladaptive variants of the basic personality dimensions described by the Big Five model (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness; Thomas et al., 2013. We will focus our review on previous research concerning the interpersonal outcomes associated with the PID-5 pathological personality traits and suggest possible directions for future research.

  7. Hazardous alcohol users during pregnancy: psychiatric health and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus

    2007-07-10

    We examined alcohol use disorders, psychiatric symptoms and personality traits in women reporting alcohol use during pregnancy. In a pilot cohort (n=139), subjects were screened for alcohol use disorders, and assessed for psychopathology, personality traits, and alcohol use during the first trimester. Those reporting consumption exceeding a conservative threshold for harmful use were offered a diagnostic psychiatric interview. The main findings of the pilot study were replicated using a large sample of women in the third trimester (n=715), who were screened for alcohol use disorders, had their consumption during pregnancy assessed, and were assessed for personality traits. In the pilot cohort, only a minority of women who consumed significant amounts of alcohol during pregnancy fulfilled alcohol dependence criteria, or had scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test typically associated with such a diagnosis. Psychiatric morbidity was also unremarkable as assessed by self-reported symptom intensity. The distinguishing feature was high novelty seeking. The results were robustly confirmed in the replication study. Most women with significant alcohol consumption during pregnancy do not seem to be alcohol dependent. Instead, use during pregnancy may reflect impulsive personality traits, and be correlated with additional risk behaviors.

  8. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide. ... South African Medical Journal ... After 5 years, 205 respondents were traced to complete a follow-up questionnaire and, where possible, a personality assessment was ...

  9. Prediction of Performance Facets using Specific Personality Traits in the Chinese Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jessica Y. Y.; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory for 187 Hong Kong supervisors showed that personality traits related to interpersonal orientation better predicted interpersonal versus personal contextual behaviors. Traits associated with moral obligation and group loyalty predicted personal but not interpersonal contextual behaviors.…

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) maladaptive personality traits and their connections with normative personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Zara E; Pahlen, Shandell; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposes an alternative model for personality disorders, which includes maladaptive-level personality traits. These traits can be operationalized by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Although there has been extensive research on genetic and environmental influences on normative level personality, the heritability of the DSM-5 traits remains understudied. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by assessing traits indexed by the PID-5 and the International Personality Item Pool NEO (IPIP-NEO) in adult twins (N = 1,812 individuals). Research aims include (a) replicating past findings of the heritability of normative level personality as measured by the IPIP-NEO as a benchmark for studying maladaptive level traits, (b) ascertaining univariate heritability estimates of maladaptive level traits as measured by the PID-5, (c) establishing how much variation in personality pathology can be attributed to the same genetic components affecting variation in normative level personality, and (d) determining residual variance in personality pathology domains after variance attributable to genetic and environmental components of general personality has been removed. Results revealed that PID-5 traits reflect similar levels of heritability to that of IPIP-NEO traits. Further, maladaptive and normative level traits that correlate at the phenotypic level also correlate at the genotypic level, indicating overlapping genetic components contribute to variance in both. Nevertheless, we also found evidence for genetic and environmental components unique to maladaptive level personality traits, not shared with normative level traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Relationship between personality traits and cooperation of adolescent orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Joaquín; Sierra, Angela Maria; Gallón, Alejandro; Alvarez, Cristina; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-07-01

    To establish the relationship between the personality traits of the adolescent and his or her cooperation with the orthodontic treatment. From a sample of 70 adolescent orthodontic patients (46 girls and 24 boys) between 12 and 15 years of age (average age, 13.4 +/- 1.1 years), the patients' personality traits were evaluated by using a personality questionnaire (16 Personality Factors-Adolescent Personal Questionnaire) and the degree of patient cooperation was assessed through the cooperation test (Orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale [OPCS]). The cutting point for the assessment of cooperation on the OPCS questionnaire (noncooperation vs cooperation) was carried out through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of curves. A chi2 test with Yates correction (P < or = .05) was applied to evaluate the associations between the degree of cooperation and the scales of personality, gender, or age. The cutting point for cooperation as assessed by the OPCS by means of ROC analysis was 380. No statistically significant relations were found between the degree of cooperation and the scales of personality, gender, or age. The results of the current study indicate that the personality traits alone of adolescents do not predict cooperation during treatment.

  12. [Influence of personality traits on collage works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Shiho

    2004-10-01

    The present study investigated whether personality traits may influence the outcome of collage works. In this study, 60 undergraduates were asked to fill Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and generate collage works. The relations between the five factors of the NEO-PI-R (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and some evaluation measures of collage works (constructional features of collage works and characteristic behavior patterns in the process of their generation) were examined. Results indicated that several subscales of personality traits were substantially correlated with some indices of both two measures. These findings suggest that collage work may be a useful tool for psychological assessment.

  13. Genetic Characterization of Dog Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilska, Joanna; Haskell, Marie J; Blott, Sarah C; Sánchez-Molano, Enrique; Polgar, Zita; Lofgren, Sarah E; Clements, Dylan N; Wiener, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    The genetic architecture of behavioral traits in dogs is of great interest to owners, breeders, and professionals involved in animal welfare, as well as to scientists studying the genetics of animal (including human) behavior. The genetic component of dog behavior is supported by between-breed differences and some evidence of within-breed variation. However, it is a challenge to gather sufficiently large datasets to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits such as behavior, which are both time-consuming and logistically difficult to measure, and known to be influenced by nongenetic factors. In this study, we exploited the knowledge that owners have of their dogs to generate a large dataset of personality traits in Labrador Retrievers. While accounting for key environmental factors, we demonstrate that genetic variance can be detected for dog personality traits assessed using questionnaire data. We identified substantial genetic variance for several traits, including fetching tendency and fear of loud noises, while other traits revealed negligibly small heritabilities. Genetic correlations were also estimated between traits; however, due to fairly large SEs, only a handful of trait pairs yielded statistically significant estimates. Genomic analyses indicated that these traits are mainly polygenic, such that individual genomic regions have small effects, and suggested chromosomal associations for six of the traits. The polygenic nature of these traits is consistent with previous behavioral genetics studies in other species, for example in mouse, and confirms that large datasets are required to quantify the genetic variance and to identify the individual genes that influence behavioral traits. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  15. Personality traits beyond the big five: are they within the HEXACO space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibeom; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Ashton, Michael C

    2005-10-01

    Paunonen (2002) recently developed the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI), a measure of 10 traits that have low loadings within the space of the Big Five personality factors. If the SPI personality traits are representative of the domain of non-Big Five personality traits, then the major source of the variance in the SPI traits would be expected to correlate strongly with the sixth factor of personality, Honesty-Humility. We tested this hypothesis using self-report measures (N = 200) of the SPI traits, of the Big Five, and of the new six-dimensional ("HEXACO") structure. Results indicated that the first unrotated factor underlying the 10 SPI traits was heavily saturated with variance from Honesty-Humility (r = .65). Nevertheless, the 10 SPI traits contained substantial amounts of unique variance not accounted for by the HEXACO or the Big Five variables, highlighting the importance of the facet-level assessment of personality traits.

  16. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  17. Measuring Teacher Dispositions: Identifying Workplace Personality Traits Most Relevant to Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun; Pagnani, Alexander; Thomas, Matt; Abellan-Pagnani, Luisa; Brown, Terrell; Buchanan, Dawna Lisa

    2017-01-01

    What personality traits represent dispositions most relevant to teaching professionals? Could an instrument reflecting work personality traits for a wide variety of professions provide a valid assessment of dispositions for teacher candidates? This study analyzed the internal structure of a state mandated dispositions assessment that was adapted…

  18. Forced-Choice Assessment of Work-Related Maladaptive Personality Traits: Preliminary Evidence From an Application of Thurstonian Item Response Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenole, Nigel; Brown, Anna A; Cooper, Andrew J

    2018-06-01

    This article describes an investigation of whether Thurstonian item response modeling is a viable method for assessment of maladaptive traits. Forced-choice responses from 420 working adults to a broad-range personality inventory assessing six maladaptive traits were considered. The Thurstonian item response model's fit to the forced-choice data was adequate, while the fit of a counterpart item response model to responses to the same items but arranged in a single-stimulus design was poor. Monotrait heteromethod correlations indicated corresponding traits in the two formats overlapped substantially, although they did not measure equivalent constructs. A better goodness of fit and higher factor loadings for the Thurstonian item response model, coupled with a clearer conceptual alignment to the theoretical trait definitions, suggested that the single-stimulus item responses were influenced by biases that the independent clusters measurement model did not account for. Researchers may wish to consider forced-choice designs and appropriate item response modeling techniques such as Thurstonian item response modeling for personality questionnaire applications in industrial psychology, especially when assessing maladaptive traits. We recommend further investigation of this approach in actual selection situations and with different assessment instruments.

  19. Pilot study of personality traits assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) in asthma, atopy, and rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, Roma; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Norbäck, Dan

    2011-12-01

    Asthma and atopy are common diseases. To study associations between personality and asthma, atopy, rhinitis, and personality traits were measured on the Karolinska Scales of Personality for 193 persons working in 19 buildings with suspected indoor air problems. In addition, information on history of atopy, asthma, and rhinitis was collected by postal questionnaire. In analyses, asthma was associated with higher impulsiveness scores, and atopy in non-asthmatics was associated with higher social desirability scores and lower irritability, guilt, and impulsiveness scores. Non-atopic rhinitis was associated with scores on several anxiety-related scales, while atopic rhinitis was not associated with scores on the Karolinska Scales of Personality. This exploration implies that asthma, atopy, and rhinitis may be associated with various but different personality trait scores. The finding of such personality trait associations in persons with non-asthmatic atopy raises the question of a potential role of an emotional conflict in atopy and the role of personality in asthma, atopy, and rhinitis.

  20. Handprints of the Mind: Decoding Personality Traits and Handwritings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Mahesh Ramanina; Harish, Nikitha; Aslam, Arun; Padmanabiah, Mangala; Magaji, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Context: Handwriting analysis is a unique, specialized and emerging scientific process that has been carried out and applied for centuries now. However, its reliability and effectiveness as a method of assessing personality and behavior is not established and is still a debatable issue. The present paper aimed to examine the possibility of a correlation between clinical diagnosis and graphological analysis and to explore the key links between the underlying personality traits and its manifestations in handwriting among children. Aim: The aim was to study the possibility of a correlation between clinical diagnosis and graphological analysis. Objectives: To explore the key links between the underlying personality traits and its manifestations in handwriting among children. To study the possibility of using Graphotherapy as a remedial tool in aid of teaching/learning techniques and behavior modifications. Hypothesis: There are no significant and concrete differences between the psychodiagnostic assessment of personality through Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) and handwriting analysis. Materials and Methods: N = 60, age group = 8-12 years. Tools: CPQ - a 16 personality factor scale and a semi-structured proforma. Simple random sampling technique was used. Results: The P values for the study sample were found to be greater than 0.05 at 5% level of significance to all the 14 dimensions of personality hence going in line with the null hypothesis that states “there are no significant and concrete differences between the psychodiagnostic assessment of Personality through CPQ and handwriting analysis.” Graphologists were thoroughly trained to interpret on the same 14 dimensions of personality as that of CPQ, most samples were analyzed to have a lying loop, a trait, which might also be attributed to the difference found in Trait-H, further asserting the subjective limitations of most psychological tests. PMID:26702172

  1. The Genetic and Environmental Sources of Resemblance Between Normative Personality and Personality Disorder Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Aggen, S H; Gillespie, Nathan; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Krueger, R F; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Ystrom, Eivind; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has suggested a high level of congruence between normative personality, most typically represented by the "big five" factors, and abnormal personality traits. In 2,293 Norwegian adult twins ascertained from a population-based registry, the authors evaluated the degree of sharing of genetic and environmental influences on normative personality, assessed by the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and personality disorder traits (PDTs), assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Norwegian Brief Form (PID-5-NBF). For four of the five BFI dimensions, the strongest genetic correlation was observed with the expected PID-5-NBF dimension (e.g., neuroticism with negative affectivity [+], conscientiousness with disinhibition [-]). However, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness had substantial genetic correlations with other PID-5-NBF dimensions (e.g., neuroticism with compulsivity [+], agreeableness with detachment [-]). Openness had no substantial genetic correlations with any PID-5-NBF dimension. The proportion of genetic risk factors shared in aggregate between the BFI traits and the PID-5-NBF dimensions was quite high for conscientiousness and neuroticism, relatively robust for extraversion and agreeableness, but quite low for openness. Of the six PID-5-NBF dimensions, three (negative affectivity, detachment, and disinhibition) shared, in aggregate, most of their genetic risk factors with normative personality traits. Genetic factors underlying psychoticism, antagonism, and compulsivity were shared to a lesser extent, suggesting that they are influenced by etiological factors not well indexed by the BFI.

  2. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, Alexander B.; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  3. Revisiting the Malleable Self: Brand Effects on Consumer Self-Perceptions of Personality Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Maasland, Mascha

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined the relationships between dimensions of brand personality and consumer self-perceptions of personality traits. We hypothesized and found that when consumers are exposed to brands, brand personality dimensions may affect individual assessments of personality traits. Study 1

  4. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  5. Personality Traits and Shame to Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elifas; Gongalves; Junior

    2016-01-01

    The failure of the parent's company has psychological, social, and economic repercussions for the children of theseentrepreneurs. Research has identified that the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism are the majorinfluencers of the shame of parental failure among personality traits. The dimensions of openness, extraversion, andagreeableness were not significant. The research is quantitative and cross-sectional. The sample is non-probabilistic andconvenient, consisting of literate people from five continents and 33 countries, with a greater predominance of responsesfrom Brazil and Portugal. Data collection on-line was carried out by average social workers, allied to 19 institutions of highereducation. The metric used is called the five dimensions of personality--short version. A multiple linear regression wasperformed to assess the intensity of the five dimensions of personality. Conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantpredictors of shame. The results are important to help characterize the children of entrepreneurs who have failed and fill agap in the literature on entrepreneurship.

  6. [Relation between personality traits and personal values in cocaine-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Jesús; Álvaro, José Luis; Martínez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    To describe the relationship between personal values and personality traits in cocaine-using patients and analyze their specificity in the explanation of different types of constructs. A study was carried out to explore the association between these variables in a group of 230 patients receiving treatment for cocaine dependence. The Portrait Values Questionnaire was used for measuring personal values, while the Big-Five Factors Questionnaire was used to measure personality traits. In addition, we explored the relationship of values and traits with the variables "degree of satisfaction with life" (life satisfaction) and "belonging to a religious association" (religiosity). A significant association was found between personal values and personality traits. At the same time, their conceptual and empirical differences were revealed, as it was demonstrated that personal values better explain "belonging to a religious association", whilst personality traits better explain "degree of satisfaction with life". Thus, it was found that personal values better explain behaviours that depend on greater cognitive control, while personality traits would have more influence on tendencies and behaviours that are subject to lower cognitive control levels. Considering the relationship between the two constructs, and given that cocaine use is associated with both high and low cognitive control, in explanations of cocaine use it would be appropriate to take into account the explanatory contribution of personal values and personality traits in a complementary way.

  7. Relationship between leukocyte telomere length and personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, R; Suzuki, A; Enokido, M; Matsumoto, Y; Shibuya, N; Kamata, M; Goto, K; Otani, K

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that certain personality traits are related to mortality and disease morbidity, but the biological mechanism linking them remains unclear. Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomere length is a predictor of mortality and late-life disease morbidity. Thus, it is possible that personality traits influence telomere length. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with personality traits in healthy subjects. The subjects were 209 unrelated healthy Japanese who were recruited from medical students at 4th-5th grade. Assessment of personality traits was performed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, shorter telomere length was related to lower scores of neuroticism (Ppersonality traits, and this association may be implicated in the relationship between personality traits and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical and personality traits in emotional disorders: Evidence of a common framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Brittain L; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Kotov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Certain clinical traits (e.g., ruminative response style, self-criticism, perfectionism, anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, and thought suppression) increase the risk for and chronicity of emotional disorders. Similar to traditional personality traits, they are considered dispositional and typically show high temporal stability. Because the personality and clinical-traits literatures evolved largely independently, connections between them are not fully understood. We sought to map the interface between a widely studied set of clinical and personality traits. Two samples (N = 385 undergraduates; N = 188 psychiatric outpatients) completed measures of personality traits, clinical traits, and an interview-based assessment of emotional-disorder symptoms. First, the joint factor structure of these traits was examined in each sample. Second, structural equation modeling was used to clarify the effects of clinical traits in the prediction of clinical symptoms beyond negative temperament. Third, the incremental validity of clinical traits beyond a more comprehensive set of higher-order and lower-order personality traits was examined using hierarchical regression. Clinical and personality traits were highly correlated and jointly defined a 3-factor structure-Negative Temperament, Positive Temperament, and Disinhibition-in both samples, with all clinical traits loading on the Negative Temperament factor. Clinical traits showed modest but significant incremental validity in explaining symptoms after accounting for personality traits. These data indicate that clinical traits relevant to emotional disorders fit well within the traditional personality framework and offer some unique contributions to the prediction of psychopathology, but it is important to distinguish their effects from negative temperament/neuroticism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Assessors' use of personality traits in descriptions of assessment centre candidates : A five-factor model perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, F.; de Fruyt, F.; van Dam, K.

    2001-01-01

    In assessment centres assessors are typically taught to note down behavioural observations. However, previous studies have shown that about 20% of assessor notes contain trait descriptors. Instead of regarding these descriptors as errors, this study examines their position in a personality

  10. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C) – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Marta eMaćkiewicz; Jan eCieciuch

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores f...

  11. Personality Processes: Mechanisms by which Personality Traits “Get Outside the Skin”

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and ...

  12. Personality traits and sibling relationships in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Richard P

    2007-04-01

    Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes.

  13. Personality traits and psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Julia; Cano-Domínguez, Pablo; de-Luis-Matilla, Antonia; Peñuelas-Calvo, Inmaculada; Espina-Eizaguirre, Alberto; Moreno-Kustner, Berta; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Personality in patients with psychosis, and particularly its relation to psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis (ROP) patients, is understudied. The aims of this research were to study the relation between dimensional and categorical clinical personality traits and symptoms, as well as the effects that symptoms, sex and age have on clinically significant personality traits. Data for these analyses were obtained from 94 ROP patients. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess personality and symptoms. Correlational Analysis, Mann-Whitney test, and, finally, logistic regression were carried out. The negative dimension was higher in patients with schizoid traits. The excited dimension was lower for those with avoidant and depressive traits. The anxiety and depression dimension was higher for patients with dependent traits. The positive dimension was lower for patients with histrionic and higher for patients with compulsive traits. Logistic regression demonstrated that gender and the positive and negative dimensions explained 35.9% of the variance of the schizoid trait. The excited dimension explained 9.1% of the variance of avoidant trait. The anxiety and depression dimension and age explained 31.3% of the dependent trait. Gender explained 11.6% of the histrionic trait, 14.5% of the narcissistic trait and 11.6% of the paranoid trait. Finally gender and positive dimension explained 16.1% of the compulsive trait. The study highlights the importance of studying personality in patients with psychosis as it broadens understating of the patients themselves and the symptoms suffered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality Traits, Ego Development, and the Redemptive Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jen; Klevan, Miriam; McAdams, Dan P

    2016-09-20

    Life narratives are the internalized stories that people construct to provide meaning, purpose, and coherence in their lives. Prior research suggests that psychologically healthy and socially engaged adults generally narrate their lives in a prototypical fashion labeled the redemptive self, consisting of five themes: (a) a sense of childhood advantage, (b) empathy for others' sufferings, (c) moral steadfastness, (d) turning of negative events into positive outcomes (redemption sequences), and (e) prosocial goals. The current study examines trait correlates of the redemptive self in 157 late-midlife adults. Summing thematic scores across 12 life story interview scenes, the redemptive self was positively associated with four of the Big Five traits: extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability, but unrelated to cognitive features of personality, as assessed on openness and ego development. The findings suggest those with positive socio-emotional personality traits, but not necessarily a proclivity for sophisticated thoughts, tend to have redemptive life stories. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Emotional intelligence predicts peer-rated social competence above and beyond personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Szczygieł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This study investigated the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI and social competences (SC, which determine effective functioning in three types of social situations: intimate situations, situations of social exposure and situations requiring self-assertion. Social competences were assessed using a peer nomination method. It was hypothesized that trait EI predicts SC above and beyond personality traits. Participants and procedure Data were collected from among 111 adolescents (46.95% girls. The study was conducted among five classes from three public high schools. Participants first completed the Personality Inventory NEO-FFI and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF. Subsequently, the descriptions of three different persons were presented to the participants. Each description concerned one of the SC: intimate competence, social exposure competence and assertive competence. Participants were asked to nominate three classmates who suited each description best. Results A series of hierarchical regression analyses was performed. Personality traits and trait EI were regressed on each competence. Analyses involved two-step hierarchical regressions, entering personality traits at step 1 and adding trait EI at step 2. The results demonstrated that personality traits explained a substantial portion of the variance in each SC. Beyond these variables, trait EI was significant as a predictor of nominations for each SC, explaining an additional amount of the unique variance. Conclusions The results complement existing evidence that trait EI contributes to successful social functioning. The relationships between trait EI and SC remained statistically significant even after controlling for Big Five variance. The results demonstrate incremental validity of trait EI over and above personality traits.

  16. Abnormal functional brain connectivity and personality traits in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Basile, Barbara; Masciullo, Marcella; Makovac, Elena; Torso, Mario; Spanò, Barbara; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Harrison, Neil A; Bianchi, Maria L E; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy observed in adults, is a genetic multisystem disorder affecting several other organs besides skeletal muscle, including the brain. Cognitive and personality abnormalities have been reported; however, no studies have investigated brain functional networks and their relationship with personality traits/disorders in patients with DM1. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the potential relationship between personality traits/disorders and changes to functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with DM1. We enrolled 27 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 matched healthy control individuals. Patients underwent personality assessment using clinical interview and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 administration; all participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations were conducted at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Santa Lucia Foundation, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, and Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of personality traits in patients and changes in functional connectivity within the DMN in patients and controls. Changes in functional connectivity and atypical personality traits in patients were correlated. We combined results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and clinical interview to identify a continuum of atypical personality profiles ranging from schizotypal personality traits to paranoid personality disorder within our DM1 patients. We also demonstrated an increase in functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate and left parietal DMN nodes in DM1 patients compared with controls. Moreover, patients with DM1 showed strong associations between DMN functional connectivity and schizotypal-paranoid traits. Our findings provide novel

  17. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leadership and Personality: Is There a Relationship between Self-Assessed Leadership Traits and Self-Assessed Personality Traits of Female Elementary School Principals in the Hampton Roads Area of Virginia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lakisha Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if there were statistically significant relationships between leadership traits and personality traits of female elementary school principals who serve in school districts located within the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. This study examined randomly selected participants from three school divisions. These…

  19. Psychological distress, burnout and personality traits in Dutch anaesthesiologists: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Raymond A B; Bucx, Martin J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Prins, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    The practice of anaesthesia comes with stress. If the demands of a stressful job exceed the resources of an individual, that person may develop burnout. Burnout poses a threat to the mental and physical health of the anaesthesiologist and therefore also to patient safety. Individual differences in stress appraisal (perceived demands) are an important factor in the risk of developing burnout. To explore this possible relationship, we assessed the prevalence of psychological distress and burnout in the Dutch anaesthesiologist population and investigated the influence of personality traits. Survey study. Data were collected in the Netherlands from July 2012 until December 2012. We sent electronic surveys to all 1955 practising resident and consultant members of the Dutch Anaesthesia Society. Of these, 655 (33.5%) were returned and could be used for analysis. Psychological distress, burnout and general personality traits were assessed using validated Dutch versions of the General Health Questionnaire (cut-off point ≥2), the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Big Five Inventory. Sociodemographic variables and personality traits were entered into regression models as predictors for burnout and psychological distress. Respectively, psychological distress and burnout were prevalent in 39.4 and 18% of all respondents. The prevalence of burnout was significantly different in resident and consultant anaesthesiologists: 11.3% vs. 19.8% (χ 5.4; P personality trait influencing psychological distress and burnout was neuroticism: adjusted odds ratio 6.22 (95% confidence interval 4.35 to 8.90) and 6.40 (95% confidence interval 3.98 to 10.3), respectively. The results of this study show that psychological distress and burnout have a high prevalence in residents and consultant anaesthesiologists and that both are strongly related to personality traits, especially the trait of neuroticism. This suggests that strategies to address the problem of burnout would do well to focus on

  20. Analysis of personality traits as a risk factor in crash related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Goyal, Rahul; Singh, Ajai; Sharma, Vineet; Srivastava, Rajeshwer Nath; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    Due to increasing stress, individual personality traits are becoming a significant contributor to CRT (Crash Related Trauma). In the present study, we hypothesized that there will be no difference in personality characteristics of CRT patients and control subjects and there will be no association between trauma and personality characteristics of CRT patients. A total of 119 cases and 112 controls of age >18 years were selected as per criteria decided. After obtaining ethical clearance, patients presenting to the emergency orthopedic unit were included in the study. After primary management all enrolled subjects were assessed by ICD 10 module screening questionnaire and analyzed for nine personality traits, subject to written informed consent. Of all the cases enrolled 82.35% were males. Impulsive personality trait is found in 84.78% (39/46) cases. There were 46 motorcyclists out of 119 cases enrolled. Most of the personality traits showed a statistical significant association (p personality characteristics which accounted for 84.78% and 82.61% cases respectively. These traits showed a statistical significant association with CRT.

  1. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    followed during a project assignment. The long version of the commonly-used NEO-PI-R test instrument was employed to describe and compare each group member's personality traits at a more detailed level. Data were also collected through a process survey, a diary and an interview. Analysis. The calculation....... Information behaviour associated with personality traits was identified, but the presence of personality effects tended to vary with the perceived presence of the social context. Conclusions. Some matches were identified between group members' personality traits and their actual information behaviour...... but there were also deviations, which were found that seemed to be related to the group-work context. The importance of studying personality traits in context has further been confirmed....

  2. The person within: memory codes for persons and traits using fMRI repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleven, Elien; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on trait inference demonstrated that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) houses neural representations of memory codes for traits . In this study, we investigate the neural code not only of traits, but also of persons who exemplify these traits. We used repetition suppression, which is a rapid suppression of the neuroimaging signal upon repeated presentation of the same stimulus or core stimulus characteristics-in this case, the implied trait and person. Participants inferred familiar person's traits. At each trial, a critical (target) sentence described a behavior that implied a trait, and was preceded by a (prime) sentence that implied the same trait and portrayed the same person, the same trait but portrayed a different person or did not imply a trait and portrayed a different person. As predicted, we found partly overlapping repetition suppression areas in the ventral mPFC when persons and traits were repeated, indicating that not only traits but also familiar persons have a neural code in the ventral mPFC. We also found a negative correlation between activation when reading about a new person and participants' social network size, indicating that experience with larger social groups results in less recruitment of a person code. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Personality traits and chronic disease: implications for adult personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease.

  4. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  5. A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C J; Noakes, T D; Dunne, T; Lambert, M I; Rochford, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess the personality profiles of the anabolic androgenic steroid users (AAS) and (2) to determine whether valid premorbid personality traits could be obtained from cross sectional assessment using multisource data. METHODS: The first author became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. An experimental group of body builders who had been using AAS for no more than 18 months (n = 12) was identified. A group of control subjects, each of whom claimed that he did not, and never had, used AAS (n = 12) was also recruited during this period. Key informants played a crucial role in recruiting subjects representative of the AAS and body building communities. An interview schedule based on the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM3-R) personality disorder criteria was conducted with each subject. Additional data were obtained from an AAS using informant and significant others including family and friends. RESULTS: The user group was significantly heavier than the control group and showed abnormal personality traits, in contrast to the control group. Personality traits of AAS users before the onset of AAS use, assessed retrospectively, were not different from personality traits of control subjects. There were significant differences between the before and after personality traits in AAS user group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest (1) that AAS use is associated with significant disturbances in personality profile, and (2) that these personality disturbances are possibly the direct result of AAS use. PMID:8889121

  6. A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C J; Noakes, T D; Dunne, T; Lambert, M I; Rochford, K

    1996-09-01

    (1) To assess the personality profiles of the anabolic androgenic steroid users (AAS) and (2) to determine whether valid premorbid personality traits could be obtained from cross sectional assessment using multisource data. The first author became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. An experimental group of body builders who had been using AAS for no more than 18 months (n = 12) was identified. A group of control subjects, each of whom claimed that he did not, and never had, used AAS (n = 12) was also recruited during this period. Key informants played a crucial role in recruiting subjects representative of the AAS and body building communities. An interview schedule based on the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM3-R) personality disorder criteria was conducted with each subject. Additional data were obtained from an AAS using informant and significant others including family and friends. The user group was significantly heavier than the control group and showed abnormal personality traits, in contrast to the control group. Personality traits of AAS users before the onset of AAS use, assessed retrospectively, were not different from personality traits of control subjects. There were significant differences between the before and after personality traits in AAS user group. The results suggest (1) that AAS use is associated with significant disturbances in personality profile, and (2) that these personality disturbances are possibly the direct result of AAS use.

  7. Subjective assessment of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality: reliability and stability of trait ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Diane M

    2008-10-01

    A 46-item rating scale was used to obtain personality ratings from 75 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from 7 zoological parks. Factor analysis revealed five personality dimensions similar to those found in previous research on primate personality: Agreeableness, Dominance, Neuroticism, Extraversion and Intellect. There were significant sex and age differences in ratings on these dimensions, with males rated more highly on Dominance and older chimpanzees rated as more agreeable but less extraverted than younger chimpanzees. Interobserver agreement for most individual trait items was high, but tended to be less reliable for trait terms expressing more subtle social or cognitive abilities. Personality ratings for one zoo were found to be largely stable across a 3-year period, but highlighted the effects of environmental factors on the expression of personality in captive chimpanzees.

  8. Personality Traits: A View From the Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Given their backgrounds in classical ethology and in comparative psychology, researchers who study animal personality in biology and psychology, respectively, differ in how they measure personality, what questions they see as important, and how they address these questions. Despite these differences, both comparative psychologists and biologists embrace personality traits. By doing so, they have solved empirical and conceptual problems in animal behavior. Studies of animal personality have provided answers to questions about the evolution of human personality and have presented conceptual and empirical anomalies for sociocognitive theories. Animal personality research does not break from trait theories of personality. Instead, it enriches trait theories by conceiving of traits as not belonging to a species, but as expressed, with some modifications, across species. Broadening trait theory in this way has the potential to further enhance its ability to answer questions related to animal and human personality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Personality published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Temporal stability of personality traits in group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horback, K M; Parsons, T D

    2016-08-01

    The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing.

  10. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0±3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8±3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females

  11. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  12. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  13. The influence of depression on personality traits in patients with fibromyalgia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela M; Lage, Laís V; Jabur, Eleonora K; Kaziyama, Helena H S; Iosifescu, Dan V; De Lucia, Mara Cristina S; Fráguas, Renério

    2017-01-01

    We developed this study to investigate the association of fibromyalgia with personality traits, controlling for depression and other potential confounders. We assessed personality traits using the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 78 female patients with fibromyalgia and in a control group of 78 subjects without fibromyalgia. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess depression and anxiety diagnoses. To investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory we performed unadjusted and adjusted analyses of covariance, using the TCI score as dependent variable and adjusting the model for depression, anxiety and for clinical and socio-demographic variables. We used a backward selection method to choose the final model. In the unadjusted analysis, fibromyalgia was associated with all personality traits, except persistency. After adjusting for depression and anxiety, patients with fibromyalgia presented decreased novelty seeking compared to controls; the differences in other personality traits were no longer significant. Novelty seeking was also correlated with the length of history of fibromyalgia and pain intensity. Decreased novelty seeking may be a personality trait associated with fibromyalgia. Depression and anxiety should be considered potential confounders in the evaluation of personality traits in this population.

  14. Motivational Basis of Personality Traits: A Meta-Analysis of Value-Personality Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between personality traits and basic value dimensions. Furthermore, we developed novel country-level hypotheses predicting that contextual threat moderates value-personality trait relationships. We conducted a three-level v-known meta-analysis of correlations between Big Five traits and Schwartz's (1992) 10 values involving 9,935 participants from 14 countries. Variations in contextual threat (measured as resource threat, ecological threat, and restrictive social institutions) were used as country-level moderator variables. We found systematic relationships between Big Five traits and human values that varied across contexts. Overall, correlations between Openness traits and the Conservation value dimension and Agreeableness traits and the Transcendence value dimension were strongest across all samples. Correlations between values and all personality traits (except Extraversion) were weaker in contexts with greater financial, ecological, and social threats. In contrast, stronger personality-value links are typically found in contexts with low financial and ecological threats and more democratic institutions and permissive social context. These effects explained on average more than 10% of the variability in value-personality correlations. Our results provide strong support for systematic linkages between personality and broad value dimensions, but they also point out that these relations are shaped by contextual factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Personality traits as vulnerability factors in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Martin, Alexandra

    2013-11-30

    Cognitive behavioural models consider certain personality traits to be risk factors for the development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). Research on personality traits in BDD is scarce, therefore this study examined perfectionism, aesthetic sensitivity and the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) in BDD. Furthermore, the association between these personality traits and the extent of dysmorphic concerns was investigated. Individuals with BDD (n=58) and a population based control sample (n=2071), selected from a representative German population survey, completed self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-5 criteria of BDD, dysmorphic concerns, perfectionism, aesthetic sensitivity and BIS-reactivity. Individuals with BDD reported significantly higher degrees of perfectionism as well as of BIS-reactivity compared to the population based control sample, whereas the groups did not differ significantly regarding aesthetic sensitivity. However, for the total sample, each of the personality traits was related dimensionally to dysmorphic concerns. Current BDD models consider perfectionism and aesthetic sensitivity to be vulnerability factors. In addition to these concepts, the present study suggests that BIS-reactivity is related to BDD. Self-reported aesthetic sensitivity was not found to be specifically pronounced in BDD, but along with perfectionism and BIS-reactivity aesthetic sensitivity was generally associated with dysmorphic concerns. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of personality traits in coping skills in individuals with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Leonardo de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Bipolar disorder is marked by alterations in coping skills which in turn impacts the disease course. Personality traits are associated with coping skills and for this reason it has been suggested that personality traits of patients with BD may have influence over their coping skills. Objective : To investigate possible associations between coping skills and personality in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD. Methods : Thirty-five euthymic subjects with BD were compared with 40 healthy controls. Coping skills were evaluated using Ways of Coping Checklist Revised and Brief-COPE. Personality traits were assessed by Neo Personality Inventory. MANCOVA was used for between groups comparison. Results : Regarding coping, individuals with BD reported more frequent use of emotion-focused strategies than problem-focused strategies, and high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extroversion and conscientiousness on personality measures. Neuroticism influenced negatively the use of problem-focused strategies, and positively emotion-focused coping. Conscientiousness influenced the use of problem-focused strategies in both groups. There was a significant difference between emotion focused coping and personality traits between BD and control groups. Discussion : Personality traits seem to modulate coping skills and strategies in BD which may be took into account for further interventions.

  17. Single dose antidepressant administration modulates the neural processing of self-referent personality trait words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Cowen, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    categorisation and recognition of self-referent personality trait words were assessed using event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Reboxetine had no effect on neuronal response during self-referent categorisation of positive or negative personality trait words. However, in a subsequent...

  18. Associations between informant ratings of personality disorder traits, self-reports of personality, and directly observed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurin, Aleksandra; Sauerberger, Kyle S; Funder, David C

    2018-03-02

    Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers-either clinicians or acquaintances-because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports of PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; M age  = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. In line with previous work, informant reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam & Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD-relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the

  19. Long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Martin, Mike

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal measurement invariance (MI) was established for both measures. The mean rank-order stabilities were .79 and .62 for personality traits and for perceived social support, respectively. The results demonstrated a mean-level increase for neuroticism and a decrease for extraversion and significant change variances for all constructs. The results of latent change models showed significant initial level correlations and correlated changes between personality traits and social support, implying that changes in these constructs show commonality. The results can expand our current thinking about correlated change in personality. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Relating DSM-5 section III personality traits to section II personality disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, L C; Benson, K T; Skodol, A E

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group formulated a hybrid dimensional/categorical model that represented personality disorders as combinations of core impairments in personality functioning with specific configurations of problematic personality traits. Specific clusters of traits were selected to serve as indicators for six DSM categorical diagnoses to be retained in this system - antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive and schizotypal personality disorders. The goal of the current study was to describe the empirical relationships between the DSM-5 section III pathological traits and DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II personality disorder diagnoses. Data were obtained from a sample of 337 clinicians, each of whom rated one of his or her patients on all aspects of the DSM-IV and DSM-5 proposed alternative model. Regression models were constructed to examine trait-disorder relationships, and the incremental validity of core personality dysfunctions (i.e. criterion A features for each disorder) was examined in combination with the specified trait clusters. Findings suggested that the trait assignments specified by the Work Group tended to be substantially associated with corresponding DSM-IV concepts, and the criterion A features provided additional diagnostic information in all but one instance. Although the DSM-5 section III alternative model provided a substantially different taxonomic structure for personality disorders, the associations between this new approach and the traditional personality disorder concepts in DSM-5 section II make it possible to render traditional personality disorder concepts using alternative model traits in combination with core impairments in personality functioning.

  1. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Fisher, Patrick Mac Donald

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo...... in the healthy brain. In 69 healthy participants (18 females), the associations between personality traits assessed with the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and regional cerebral 5-HT4R binding in neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were investigated...... using linear regression models. The associations between each of the five personality traits and a latent variable construct of global 5-HT4R levels were also evaluated using latent variable structural equation models. We found no significant associations between the five NEO personality traits...

  2. Plasma oxytocin and personality traits in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, Marie; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Petersson, Maria; Gustavsson, Petter; Svanborg, Pär; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-07-01

    The oxytocin system is regarded as being of relevance for social interaction. In spite of this, very few studies have investigated the relationship between oxytocin and personality traits in clinical psychiatric populations. We assessed the relationship between personality traits and plasma oxytocin levels in a population of 101 medication-free psychiatric outpatients (men = 37, women = 64). We used the Karolinska Scale of Personality (KSP) and diagnostic and symptomatic testing. Plasma oxytocin levels were analysed with a specific radioimmunoassay at inclusion and after one month for testing of stability. Plasma oxytocin levels were stable over time and did not differ between patients with or without personality disorders, nor were they related to severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms. The KSP factors Impulsiveness and Negative Emotionality were significant independent predictors of plasma oxytocin. A subscale analysis of these personality factors showed significant positive correlations between baseline plasma oxytocin and the KSP subscales monotony avoidance and psychic anxiety. The significant association between the KSP factor Impulsiveness and oxytocin levels observed at baseline was observed also one month later in men. These findings suggest that personality traits such as Impulsiveness and Negative emotionality which are linked to social functioning in several psychiatric disorders seem to be associated with endogenous plasma oxytocin levels. These variations in oxytocin levels might have an impact on social sensitivity or social motivation with possible gender differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  4. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  5. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Genetic and Environmental Covariation among Psychopathic Personality Traits, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the…

  7. Eye Movements During Everyday Behavior Predict Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sabrina; Loetscher, Tobias; Morey, Stephanie A; Bulling, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness) as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements. Further analysis revealed new relations between previously neglected eye movement characteristics and personality. Our findings demonstrate a considerable influence of personality on everyday eye movement control, thereby complementing earlier studies in laboratory settings. Improving automatic recognition and interpretation of human social signals is an important endeavor, enabling innovative design of human-computer systems capable of sensing spontaneous natural user behavior to facilitate efficient interaction and personalization.

  8. Eye Movements During Everyday Behavior Predict Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hoppe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements. Further analysis revealed new relations between previously neglected eye movement characteristics and personality. Our findings demonstrate a considerable influence of personality on everyday eye movement control, thereby complementing earlier studies in laboratory settings. Improving automatic recognition and interpretation of human social signals is an important endeavor, enabling innovative design of human–computer systems capable of sensing spontaneous natural user behavior to facilitate efficient interaction and personalization.

  9. Household Finances and the 'Big Five' Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationship between household finances and personality traits from an empirical perspective. Specifically, using individual level data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey, we analyse the influence of personality traits on financial decision-making at the individual level focusing on decisions regarding unsecured debt acquisition and financial assets. Personality traits are classified according to the 'Big Five' taxonomy: openness to experience, conscientiousness, ext...

  10. Further evidence for the fifth higher trait of personality pathology: a correlation study using normal and disordered personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hao; Xu, Shaofang; Zhu, Junpeng; Chen, Wanzhen; Xu, You; He, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-30

    Studies between disordered personality and the Big-Five or the Alternative Five-Factor model of normal personality have consistently shown four higher traits. The fifth higher trait, relating to Openness to Experience or Impulsive Sensation Seeking was less supported. The culture-free Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (NPQ) might help us to characterise the fifth higher trait. We therefore tried the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP), the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the NPQ in 253 healthy participants. Our results yielded five factors, four of which resembled the previous ones. The fifth one, namely Peculiarity Seeking, was defined by NPQ and NEO-PI-R Openness to Experience, ZKPQ Impulsive Sensation Seeking and DAPP Stimulus Seeking. Whether the fifth factor is linked to the schizotypal personality disorder as proposed remains unanswered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deriving ICD-11 personality disorder domains from dsm-5 traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Kongerslev, M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The personality disorder domains proposed for the ICD-11 comprise Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia, which are reasonably concordant with the higher-order trait domains in the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders. METHOD: We...... replication sample (N = 637) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Sixteen PID-5 traits were designated to cover features of the ICD-11 trait domains. RESULTS: Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyzes showed that the designated traits were meaningfully organized......-11 personality disorder domains can be accurately described using designated traits from the DSM-5 personality trait system. A scoring algorithm for the ICD-11 personality disorder domains is provided in appendix....

  12. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  13. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  14. Personality and recovery: integrating personality assessment data to facilitate the recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, D C

    2001-01-01

    The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.

  15. Personality Traits and the Expression Area of Synthetic House-Tree-Person Drawings in Early Adolescent Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Kato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed the expression areas of the Synthetic House-Tree-Person drawing test (S-HTP test, Mikami, 1995 for Japanese early adolescents. The S-HTP test is a projective method in which subjects are asked to draw a house, tree, and person. The expression area is defined as the area of each drawn item, such as the house, tree or person. The participants consisted of 186 Japanese junior high school students and their S-HTP drawings were analyzed using path analysis. The relationships between the expression areas of each item in the test and the students’ personality traits were examined. The personality traits were measured using the Five-Factor Personality Inventory for Children (FFPC, Soga, 1999. The results show that personality traits of high conscientiousness were associated with larger houses (p < .10 and trees (p < .10. In addition, higher scores on openness to experience (p < .01 and on agreeableness (p < .05 correlate with bigger person figures as their size, whereas higher scores on neuroticism correlate with smaller figures as their size (p < .01. The findings also indicate that the total fitness of the model was sufficient (CFI = .984, RMSEA = .021. These findings may aid the development of useful criteria for future psychological assessments.

  16. Long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Allemand Mathias; Schaffhuser Kathrin; Martin Mike

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal meas...

  17. Personality disorders and traits in patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A; McElroy, S L

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic, and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD are limited. This study assessed 148 subjects with BDD, 26 of whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 subjects were assessed for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIII-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), 100 subjects completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 subjects completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. Forty-two subjects (57%) had one or more personality disorders, with avoidant personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent (15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness, the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean score was -17.1 +/- 32.0 for women and -17.0 +/- 32.3 for men. Among fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint. These findings suggest that the rate of personality disorders in BDD is relatively high, with avoidant personality disorder being most common. The high neuroticism scores and low extraversion scores are consistent with this finding.

  18. Employee health-relevant personality traits are associated with the psychosocial work environment and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, Karin; Hasson, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about personality in relation to assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership. Therefore the objective of this study is to explore possible associations and differences in mean values between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behaviors. 754 survey responses from ten organizations were selected from a large-scale intervention study. The Health-relevant Personality 5 inventory was used to assess personality. Five dimensions of the psychosocial work environment were assessed with 38 items from the QPS Nordic and 6 items from the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire were used to assess leadership behavior. Positive correlations were found between Hedonic capacity (facet of Extraversion) and perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behavior. Negative correlations were found for Negative affectivity (facet of Neuroticism), Antagonism (facet of Agreeableness), Impulsivity (facet of Conscientiousness) and Alexithymia (facet of Openness). There were also significant differences in mean values of all work environment indicators between levels of health-relevant personality traits. Those with higher levels of hedonic capacity had higher (better) perceptions compared to those with lower levels. Those with higher levels of negative affectivity had lower (worse) perceptions compared to those with lower levels. The findings show a clear association between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behavior. Personality can be important to take into consideration for leaders when interpreting survey results and when designing organizational interventions.

  19. Frozen shoulder and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Philippe; Franssens, Fien; Roosen, Isabelle; Dankaerts, Wim; Claes, Laurence

    2014-02-01

    In the past, several studies have suggested the existence of a "periarthritic personality" in patients with frozen shoulder. We conducted a study to determine differences in personality traits in patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulders. We prospectively evaluated 118 patients (84 women and 34 men; mean age, 53.8 years; SD 7.56) with a frozen shoulder. Of these patients, 48 had an idiopathic frozen shoulder and 70 had a secondary frozen shoulder. Personality traits were determined by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) scale. This questionnaire measures the 5 major personality traits and is based on the norms determined in a neutral test situation for 2415 controls. Compared with healthy controls, no differences in personality traits were found in patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulder, except for Conscientiousness and Extraversion, for which patients with secondary frozen shoulder scored significantly higher than healthy controls. Patients with primary frozen shoulder scored significantly higher on Openness to Experience than did patients with secondary frozen shoulder; on the other 4 Big Five personality traits, no significant differences were found between patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. More specifically, patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder did not score higher on the trait Neuroticism as would be expected from previous publications. Our study results do not indicate that patients with an idiopathic frozen shoulder have a specific personality compared with healthy controls. Only a few differences were found in personality traits when the entire frozen shoulder group was compared with healthy controls and between patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulders. The results of this study suggest that these differences are not sufficient to speak about a specific "frozen shoulder personality." Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  20. Exploring the Assessment of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders With the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alexander J; Morey, Leslie C; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorder involving the assessment of 25 traits and a global level of overall personality functioning. There is hope that this model will be increasingly used in clinical and research settings, and the ability to apply established instruments to assess these concepts could facilitate this process. This study sought to develop scoring algorithms for these alternative model concepts using scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). A multiple regression strategy used to predict scores in 2 undergraduate samples on DSM-5 alternative model instruments: the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and the General Personality Pathology scale (GPP; Morey et al., 2011 ). These regression functions resulted in scores that demonstrated promising convergent and discriminant validity across the alternative model concepts, as well as a factor structure in a cross-validation sample that was congruent with the putative structure of the alternative model traits. Results were linked to the PAI community normative data to provide normative information regarding these alternative model concepts that can be used to identify elevated traits and personality functioning level scores.

  1. Multimethod, contextualized personality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, CJ; Bleidorn, W

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology. Lievens asserted that personality researchers should (a) use multiple methods, in contrast to traditional over-reliance on self-report and (b) move past highly general and context-free assessments to more careful consideration of the situations within which personality predictions are made. These points are with reference to personnel selection settings using the broader framework of Trait Activation Theory. Like most personality research...

  2. Stability of personality traits in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentros, M; Smith, T E; Hull, J; McKee, M; Terkelsen, K; Capalbo, C

    1997-09-01

    This study was performed in an effort to begin characterization of personality traits in schizophrenia. Specific concerns included personality profiles relative to normal adults, personality profile stability over time, and trait-state issues. The authors administered the NEO Personality Inventory as well as symptom ratings at two time points to 21 patients. Patients were all stabilized outpatients attending an adult continuing day treatment program and diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Personality profiles were determined for all patients. Compared with a normal adult sample, this sample's scores on three out of five of the personality domains assessed were not distinguishable from normal adults. Test-retest correlations were highly significant over an average 28.2-week time interval. In general, the presence of positive symptoms did not appear related to NEO-PI stability, while negative symptoms did show a relationship to the stability of personality profiles. These data suggest that personality profiles can be looked at in schizophrenia, that these profiles do appear stable over time, and that negative symptoms have a strong influence on profile stability and appear to be "trait-like."

  3. Sense of Coherence and Personality Traits Related to Depressive State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kikuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The current study aims to examine the influence of job stress, SOC, and personality traits on depressive state. Methods. A self-reported survey was conducted among 347 female nurses in a general hospital. Job stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire scale. Depressive state was assessed by the K6 scale. We used 13-item SOC scale. Personality traits were assessed by the Japanese version of Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Multiple liner regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors that significantly affect depressive state. Results. Job and life satisfaction and SOC negatively related to the depressive state (β=-0.76,  P<0.01;  β=-0.18,  P<0.001, resp. while neuroticism was positively correlated (β=0.49,  P<0.001. Also, intrinsic rewards tended to negatively relate (β=-0.80,  P<0.1. Conclusions. From a practical perspective, the possible influence of SOC and neurotic personality on depressive state should be considered for health care professionals.

  4. Leukocyte telomere length and personality: associations with the Big Five and Type D personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, D; Verhoeven, J E; Denollet, J; van de Poll-Franse, L; Penninx, B W J H

    2018-04-01

    Backgrounds Accelerated cellular ageing, which can be examined by telomere length (TL), may be an overarching mechanism underlying the association between personality and adverse health outcomes. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between personality and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) across time among adults with a wide age-range. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used and included patients with a depression and/or anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Overall, 2936 persons (18-65 years, 66% female) had data on LTL at baseline and 1883 persons had LTL at 6-year follow-up. The Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and Type D personality were assessed. Neuroticism was negatively (B = -2.11, p = 0.03) and agreeableness was positively (B = 3.84, p = 0.03) related to LTL measured across two time points, which became just non-significant after adjusting for somatic health, lifestyle factors, and recent life stress (B = -1.99, p = 0.06; and B = 3.01, p = 0.10). Type D personality was negatively (B = -50.16, p Big Five traits high neuroticism and low agreeableness, and Type D personality were associated with shorter LTL measured across a 6-year period. Associations with the Big Five traits became non-significant after controlling for somatic health, lifestyle factors, and recent life stress, yet similar trends were observed. Type D personality remained independently associated with shorter LTL after full adjustment.

  5. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life......, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients...... diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores...

  6. A Parallel Process Growth Model of Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms and Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Methods Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, 2006), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. Results AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. Conclusions These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general. PMID:22506627

  7. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  8. Associations between personality traits and CCK-4-induced panic attacks in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõru, Innar; Aluoja, Anu; Võhma, Ulle; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Maron, Eduard; Shlik, Jakov

    2010-07-30

    In this study we examined how personality disposition may affect the response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4; 50 microg) challenge in healthy volunteers (n=105). Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Statistical methods employed were correlation analysis and logistic regression. The results showed that the occurrence of CCK-4-induced panic attacks was best predicted by baseline diastolic blood pressure, preceding anxiety and SSP-defined traits of lack of assertiveness, detachment, embitterment and verbal aggression. Significant interactions were noted between the above mentioned variables, modifying their individual effects. For different subsets of CCK-4-induced symptoms, the traits of physical aggression, irritability, somatic anxiety and stress susceptibility also appeared related to panic manifestations. These findings suggest that some personality traits and their interactions may influence vulnerability to CCK-4-induced panic attacks in healthy volunteers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.

  10. Modeling borderline personality disorder based on the neurobehavioral foundation of major personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Richard A; Fu, Yu

    2012-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an exceedingly complex behavioral phenomenon that is in need of conceptual clarification within a larger model of personality disorders (PDs). The association of personality traits to BPD is discussed initially as a means of introducing a dimensional personality approach to understanding BPD. While this model suggests that PDs emerge at the extremes of personality dimensions, attempts to demonstrate such an association have been empirically disappointing and conceptually unilluminating. Therefore, in this article, we attempt to extend such models by outlining the neurobehavioral systems that underlie major personality traits, and highlight the evidence that they are subject to experience-dependent modification that can be enduring through effects on genetic expression, mainly through processes known as epigenetics. It is through such processes that risk for personality disorder may be modified by experience at any point in development, but perhaps especially during early critical periods of development. We conclude by presenting a multidimensional model of PDs, in general, and BPD, in particular, that relies on the concepts developed earlier in the article. Our goal is to provide a guide for novel clinical conceptualization and assessment of PDs, as well as research on their psychobiological nature and pharmacological treatment.

  11. Violent behavior among middle school children: The role of gender and personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of personality traits and gender in violent interaction among middle school children (11-15 age range. The aim of the research presented here was to determine the contribution of personality traits and gender to various aspects of violent interaction, i.e. predisposition towards and exposure to peer violence. The sample consisted of 344 students from 5th to 8th grade, the majority of whom were girls (60.8%. The instruments used in the research were a questionnaire designed to assess violent behavior in primary school children (PRONA and the Big Five Plus Two inventory (the BF + 2 for children, designed to assess seven basic personality traits in primary school children. The results of a multivariate analysis of covariance suggest that boys tend to perpetrate and be exposed to violent behaviour more than girls, and also that certain personality traits contribute to the manifestation of these constructs. Exposure to violence is determined by low Extraversion, as well as higher levels of Neuroticism and Negative Valence. The traits that contribute most significantly to the tendency towards abusive behaviour are high levels of Aggression and Negative Valence as well as lower levels of Positive Valence. The most effective means of abuse prevention among middle school children is the setting up of prevention programs along with the detection of specific vulnerable groups of students, and the adjustment of these programs to students' personological traits.

  12. Personality disorder traits, family environment, and alcohol misuse: a multivariate behavioural genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K L; Vernon, P A; Livesley, W J

    2000-06-01

    This study seeks to estimate the extent to which a common genetic and environmental basis is shared between (i) traits delineating specific aspects of antisocial personality and alcohol misuse, and (ii) childhood family environments, traits delineating broad domains of personality pathology and alcohol misuse. Postal survey data were collected from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Twin pairs were recruited from Vancouver, British Columbia and London, Ontario, Canada using newspaper advertisements, media stories and twin clubs. Data obtained from 324 monozygotic and 335 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the extent to which traits delineating specific antisocial personality traits and alcohol misuse shared a common genetic and environmental aetiology. Data from 81 monozygotic and 74 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the degree to which traits delineating personality pathology, childhood family environment and alcohol misuse shared a common aetiology. Current alcohol misuse and personality pathology were measured using scales contained in the self-report Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology. Perceptions of childhood family environment were measured using the self-report Family Environment Scale. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that a subset of traits delineating components of antisocial personality (i.e. grandiosity, attention-seeking, failure to adopt social norms, interpersonal violence and juvenile antisocial behaviours) are influenced by genetic factors in common to alcohol misuse. Genetically based perceptions of childhood family environment had little relationship with alcohol misuse. Heritable personality factors that influence the perception of childhood family environment play only a small role in the liability to alcohol misuse. Instead, liability to alcohol misuse is related to genetic factors common a specific subset of antisocial personality traits describing conduct problems, narcissistic and stimulus

  13. Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individuals from different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has established reliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends this research by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey in English with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive, open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulated that differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this a Similarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities across countries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second, within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patterns across countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries was less than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personality traits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  14. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Donadon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110, and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110. The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV. AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008 and tobacco abuse (P=0.007, whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02. The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder.

  15. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder.

  16. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347 also completed the Big Five Inventory-Adolescent, 144 provided 2-week retest data, and 128 others completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. Outpatient adolescents (N = 103) completed the SNAP-Y, and 97 also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The SNAP-Y demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and structural, convergent, discriminant, and external validities. Consistent with the continuity of personality, results paralleled those in adult and college samples using the adult Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2), from which the SNAP-Y derives and which has established validity in personality-trait assessment across the normal-abnormal continuum. The SNAP-Y thus provides a new, clinically useful instrument to assess personality traits and personality pathology in adolescents.

  17. Personality traits of children before and after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Olga; Schappin, Renske; Meekes, Joost; van Rijen, Peter C; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Braun, Kees P; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2017-07-01

    We studied how children with epilepsy (CWE) who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, perceive themselves with respect to overarching personality traits and whether the traits change after surgery. We explored influences of demographic and illness variables. A total of 23 CWE [mean age at inclusion 12.8 (sd 2.3); 12 girls] participated. Using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire Juniors (DPQ-J), we assessed 20 of the CWE shortly before epilepsy surgery and compared the results to those of 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, we obtained follow-up scores 6, 12 and 24 months after epilepsy surgery from the clinical group. CWE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery scored above average in inadequacy, perseverance, social inadequacy and recalcitrance, whereas healthy peers scored average. Over the two years' period after epilepsy surgery we found no changes, apart from a decrease of social inadequacy. Sporadic illness and demographic variables were related to some personality traits. However, neither post-surgical seizure freedom nor cessation of AEDs did noticeably change the self-evaluations of CWE. Asking CWE to evaluate their personality themselves may offer a shared basis for individually tailored behavior intervention in order to help them adapting to their ameliorated circumstances after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotional intelligence predicts peer-rated social competence above and beyond personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Szczygieł; Joanna Weber

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and social competences (SC), which determine effective functioning in three types of social situations: intimate situations, situations of social exposure and situations requiring self-assertion. Social competences were assessed using a peer nomination method. It was hypothesized that trait EI predicts SC above and beyond personality traits. Participants and procedure Data were co...

  19. Personality disorder traits, risk factors, and suicide ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Poindexter, Erin K; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder traits are relatively prevalent among older adults, and can be associated with complex and chronic difficulties, including suicide risk. However, there is a lack of research regarding personality disorders and suicide ideation in older adults. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness may be important to the relation between personality disorders and suicide risk. Additionally, variables from the interpersonal theory of suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, may be critical risk factors for suicide in this population. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, theory-based variables, would act as parallel mediators of the relation between personality disorder traits and suicide ideation, whereas depressive symptoms and hopelessness would not. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 143 older adults recruited from a primary care setting. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of personality traits, suicide ideation, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Findings from a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure indicated that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated the relation between total personality disorder traits and suicide ideation. Hopelessness did not act as a mediator. These findings indicate that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms are likely important risk factors for suicide ideation among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of these issues when assessing and treating suicide risk among older adults.

  20. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, I M; Samuels, J F; Eaton, W W; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Nestadt, G

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the role of parenting in the development of adult antisocial personality traits. A total of 742 community-based subjects were assessed for adult DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder traits and for measures of parental behavior experienced as children, including by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Three fundamental dimensions of parental behavior - care, behavioral restrictiveness and denial of psychological autonomy - were derived by factor analysis from the PBI. These dimensions significantly correlated with measures of parental behavior considered influential in later antisocial behavior. Adult antisocial traits in males were associated with low maternal care and high maternal behavioral restrictiveness, and in females, antisocial traits were associated with low paternal care and high maternal denial of psychological autonomy. These dimensions did not, however, explain all variance parental behavior has on adult antisocial personality traits. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.

  1. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  2. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A parallel process growth model of avoidant personality disorder symptoms and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, M. F., 2006, The longitudinal study of personality disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645-670. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.645), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general.

  4. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autisti...

  5. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  6. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D.; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A.; Grotzinger, Andrew D.; Patterson, Megan W.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Strathan, Dixie B.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2017-01-01

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB. PMID:28824215

  7. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Strathan, Dixie B; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2017-01-15

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB.

  8. Retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality traits influence postconcussion symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-Man; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Chi; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Postconcussion symptoms (PCS) are not uncommon following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Personality traits have always been viewed as one of the most important explanations for persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS). Unfortunately, studies on the association between preinjury personality traits and the PPCS are still limited. This study thus aimed to examine the relationship between the preinjury personality and PCS in patients with mTBI. A total of 106 participants including 53 healthy participants were recruited. All participants complete the modified Checklist of Postconcussion Symptoms and the Health, Personality, & Habit Scale. Participants were evaluated within 4 weeks and at 4 months, respectively, after injury. The results showed patients reported significantly more PCS than healthy participants did within 4 weeks postinjury. A significant positive association between PCS and retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality was found. Specifically, patients who reported that their preinjury personality was depressive or anxious-related presented more PCS. This study might be the first to directly demonstrate that preinjury personality traits are closely linked to PCS reporting in patients with mTBI. Importantly, PCS reporting might be associated with different personality traits at different periods after injuries, and thus, a careful evaluation for personality characteristics is merited after mTBI.

  9. Risk profiles of personality traits for suicidality among mood disorder patients and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-H; Chen, H-C; Lu, M-L; Feng, J; Chen, I-M; Wu, C-S; Chang, S-W; Kuo, P-H

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between personality traits and suicidal ideation (SI) and attempt (SA) in mood disorder patients and community controls. We recruited 365 bipolar, 296 major depressive disorder patients, and 315 community controls to assess their lifetime suicidality. Participants filled out self-reported personality questionnaires to collect data of personality traits, including novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), extraversion (E), and neuroticism (N). We used logistic regression models adjusted for diagnoses to analyze combinational effects of personality traits on the risk of suicide. Additionally, radar charts display personality profiles for suicidal behaviours by groups. All personality traits were associated with the risk of suicidality with various effect size, except for E that showed protective effect. High N or HA had prominent and independent risk effects on SI and SA. Combinations of high N and low E, or high HA and NS were the risk personality profiles for suicidality. Higher N scores further distinguished SA from SI in mood disorder patients. Introvert personality traits showed independent risk effects on suicidality regardless of diagnosis status. Among high-risk individuals with suicidal thoughts, higher neuroticism tendency is further associated with increased risk of suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relationship between personality traits and vocational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sedeño, Manuel; Navarro, Jose I; Menacho, Inmaculada

    2009-10-01

    Summary.-The relationship between occupational preferences and personality traits was examined. A randomly chosen sample of 735 students (age range = 17 to 23 years; 50.5% male) in their last year of high school participated in this study. Participants completed Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor-5 Questionnaire (16PF-5 Questionnaire) and the Kuder-C Professional Tendencies Questionnaire. Initial hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the participants into two groups by Kuder-C vocational factors: one showed a predilection for scientific or technological careers and the other a bias toward the humanities and social sciences. Based on these groupings, differences in 16PF-5 personality traits were analyzed and differences associated with three first-order personality traits (warmth, dominance, and sensitivity), three second-order factors (extraversion, control, and independence), and some areas of professional interest (mechanical, arithmetical artistic, persuasive, and welfare) were identified. The data indicated that there was congruency between personality profiles and vocational interests.

  11. Psychological differences between early- and late-onset psoriasis: a study of personality traits, anxiety and depression in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remröd, C; Sjöström, K; Svensson, A

    2013-08-01

    Onset of psoriasis may occur at any age. Early negative experiences often influence personality development, and may lead to physical disease, anxiety and depression in adulthood. Knowledge about onset of psoriasis and psychopathology is limited. To examine whether patients with early-onset psoriasis differ psychologically from patients with late-onset psoriasis, regarding personality traits, anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed followed by self-assessment of validated questionnaires: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with early-onset psoriasis (age personality traits: SSP-embitterment, -trait irritability, -mistrust and -verbal trait aggression. Our results indicate that early detection of psychological vulnerability when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis seems to be of great importance. Traits of psychological vulnerability and pessimistic personality traits were found to be significantly associated with the early onset of psoriasis, but not with disease duration in this study. These traits may be seen as a consequence of psoriasis, and/or as individual traits modulating and impairing clinical course and efforts to cope with psoriasis. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Rice, D; McIntyre, A; Getty, H; Speechley, M; Sequeira, K; Shapiro, A P; Morley-Forster, P; Teasell, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  13. [The impact of personality traits on adolescents' adaptation and compliance to clear retainers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Tang, Guo-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adolescents' adaptation and compliance to clear retainers, and to investigate their associations with personality traits. Fifty adolescents at the end of fixed orthodontic treatment were consecutively recruited. After debonding the fixed orthodontic appliances, clear retainers were used. Participants were asked to fill questionnaires 2 months after wearing the clear retainers. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate their adaptation and compliance for clear retianers. Eysenck personality questionnaire was used to assess the personality traits. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the associations between personality traits with the adaptation and compliance to clear retainers using SAS8.0 software package. Forty-two of 50 adolescents accomplished the questionnaires. 76% felt no mucous irritation, 95% felt no influence on socializing. However, 75% showed oral constraint, 71% felt impaired speech. Moreover, 40% adolescents wore the retainers less than 18 hours per day. 31% patients had their aligner lost. 83% patients did not brush their teeth after each meal. Neuroticism was positively associated with the effect of impaired chewing (r=0.32). Psychoticism was positively associated with the oral constraint (r=0.31) and facial muscular soreness (r=0.35), but negatively associated with the influence on emotion (r=-0.34). Extraversion was positively associated with the retainers' damage (r=0.31). Adolescents showed good adaptation for clear retainers, but unsatisfactory compliance. There are associations between adolescents' adaptation and compliance for clear retainers and personality traits. These results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to the compliance of adolescents when using clear retainer. Personality traits could be a useful prediction to assess the compliance for clear aligners.

  14. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  15. Trait Anger, Physical Aggression, and Violent Offending in Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Bagby, R Michael; Brijmohan, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are common conditions in forensic settings that present high rates of violence. Personality traits related to the five-factor model personality domains of neuroticism and agreeableness have shown a relationship with physical aggression in nonclinical and general psychiatric samples. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the association of these personality traits with violence and aggression in ASPD and BPD. Results revealed that trait anger/hostility predicted self-reported physical aggression in 47 ASPD and BPD subjects (β = 0.5, p = 0.03) and number of violent convictions in a subsample of the ASPD participants (β = 0.2, p = 0.009). These preliminary results suggest that high anger and hostility are associated with physical aggression in BPD and ASPD. Application of validated, self-report personality measures could provide useful and easily accessible information to supplement clinical risk assessment of violence in these conditions. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Personality traits in learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    Personality traits judged relevant for the context of learning and education are identified as a subset of a comprehensive set of 1203 trait descriptive adjectives, constructed by Brokken (1979). The identification procedure is described and relevant statistics are provided. Self- and peer-ratings

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SOLDIERS IN BATTLE UNIT OF SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.

  18. Obsessive, compulsive, and conscientious? The relationship between OCPD and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Anissa; King, Hannah; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Jackson, Joshua J

    2017-12-22

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is defined as being overly controlling, rigid, orderly, and perfectionistic. At a definitional level, OCPD would appear to be highly related to the trait of Conscientiousness. The current study attempts to disentangle this relationship by examining the relationship at a facet level using multiple forms of OCPD assessment and using multiple reports of OCPD and personality. In addition, the relationship between OCPD and each Big Five trait was examined. The study relied on a sample of 1,630 adults who completed self-reports of personality and OCPD. Informants and interviewers also completed reports on the targets. Bifactor models were constructed in order to disentangle variance attributable to each facet and its general factors. Across four sets of analyses, individuals who scored higher on OCPD tended to be more orderly and achievement striving, and more set in their ways, but less generally conscientious. OCPD was also related to select facets under each Big Five trait. Notably, findings indicated that OCPD has a strong interpersonal component and that OCPD tendencies may interfere with one's relationships with others. Findings suggest that OCPD's relationship with personality can be more precisely explained through its relationships with specific tendencies rather than general, higher-order traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Investigation of Correlation between Personality Traits and Dietary Habits in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Golestanbagh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Proper nutrition has a significant role in prevention of chronic disease and health promotion. Psychological factors play an important role in making food choices and subsequently dietary habits and in this context, personality is considered as a key factor. The present study was performed with the purpose of determining the correlation between personality traits and dietary habits in female students. Methods: The present research was conducted as a descriptive-correlational study on 224 female students aged 18-30 years in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (2013-2014. Personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were assessed using NEO Five-Factor Inventory and dietary habits were were assessed by a dietary habits questionnaire containing 20 questions about dietary habits. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and stepwise regression test. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05. Results: In this study, high neuroticism and openness were correlated with low score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Higher level of conscientiousness was significantly correlated with high score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Based on the stepwise regression analysis, personality traits can predict the score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that neuroticism and openness are correlated with unhealthy dietary habits, and conscientiousness is correlated with healthy dietary habits. Therefore, appropriate nutritional educations based on the personality traits of students are recommended to modify dietary patterns and prevent chronic diseases.

  20. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  1. Sex- and Subtype-Related Differences of Personality Disorders (Axis II) and Personality Traits in Persistent ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Reichert, Susanne; Geissler, Julia; Jans, Thomas; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Nguyen, Trang T; Romanos, Marcel; Reif, Andreas; Dempfle, Astrid; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2016-12-01

    Despite growing awareness of adult ADHD and its comorbidity with personality disorders (PDs), little is known about sex- and subtype-related differences. In all, 910 patients (452 females, 458 males) affected with persistent adult ADHD were assessed for comorbid PDs with the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV and for personality traits with the revised NEO personality inventory, and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. The most prevalent PDs were narcissistic PD in males and histrionic PD in females. Affected females showed higher Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness scores as well as Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence scores. Narcissistic PD and antisocial PD have the highest prevalence in the H-type, while Borderline PD is more frequent in the C-type. Sex- and subtype-related differences in Axis II disorder comorbidity as well as impairment-modifying personality traits have to be taken into account in epidemiological studies of persistent ADHD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Do personality traits predict work outcomes of certified nursing assistants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Christine R; Simpson, Michelle R; Reitmaier, Amy B; Johnson, Addie; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2010-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe personality traits of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) employed at nursing homes and explore relationships between personality traits, job satisfaction, and job performance. The sample included 177 CNAs providing direct care to residents in three nursing homes. CNAs with high and low job performance skills were distinguished by the cluster of traits associated with teamwork skills. Overall, 21.3% of the variance in job satisfaction was explained by the personality traits of Adjustment, Prudence, Likeability, Excitable, and Dutiful, F(8, 145) = 4.899, p personality, job satisfaction, and job performance provide important information about the personality traits of nursing staff who are most likely to enjoy and perform well in the nursing home setting. Knowledge of these links may be useful for hiring the appropriate person for direct care nursing home positions. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Fluid intelligence, traits of personality and personality disorders in a cohort of adult KS patients with the classic 47, XXY karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, D; Granato, S; Grimaldi, D; Rossi, F M; Tahani, N; Gianfrilli, D; Anzuini, A; Lenzi, A; Cavaggioni, G; Radicioni, A F

    2017-11-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) is associated with specific neurobehavioral features and personality traits. The aim of our study was to investigate fluid intelligence, personality traits and personality disorders (PD) and possible correlations with testosterone in a cohort of adult KS patients. We analyzed 58 adult KS patients with the classic 47, XXY karyotype. The Structured Clinical Interview for axis II disorders was used to assess DSM IV personality disorders. Personality traits were assessed using MMPI-2. Fluid intelligence was tested by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) Test. Testosterone blood concentration was measured by CMIA. PD prevalence was 31%. Four altered MMPI scales (Social Responsibility, Dominance, Ego Strength and Repression) were found in more than 40% of patients. Overcontrolled hostility and MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised scales were altered in the PD- group only. Biz-Odd Thinking and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder scale were associated with the presence of personality disorder. The raw SPM score was 44 ± 10.8 without any significant correlation with testosterone. No significant difference in mean age, SPM raw score and MMPI score was observed between eugonadal, hypogonadal and treated patients. Most KS patients had average fluid intelligence. PD prevalence was higher than in the general population. Testosterone was not correlated with fluid intelligence, personality traits or PD, but a reduction in marital distress was observed in treated patients. This could suggest that testosterone therapy can improve physical symptoms and this effect could also improve relationship abilities and wellness awareness.

  4. Phone-based metric as a predictor for basic personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...... traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted...

  5. Phone-based metric as a predictor for basic personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted......Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...

  6. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Toine; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed

  8. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F. H.; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality traits. Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed

  9. Personality Traits and the Gender Gap in Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    personality traits by far dominate the direct effects of gender. They also dominate other potential differences between the sexes like income or education as explanatory factors. Our findings suggest that women tend to be more leftist than men mainly because they have different personalities, which, in turn......What explains the gender gap in ideology, i.e. the observation that women tend to be more leftist than men? We provide new evidence showing that personality traits play a key role. Using a novel high-quality data set, we show that the mediating (i.e. indirect) effects of gender operating through......, shape their expressed ideology. Taking such mediating effects of personality traits into account explains over three quarters of the observed gender gap in general ideological preferences....

  10. Personality psychology: lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story--why it is time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2013-03-01

    This article develops a comprehensive philosophy-of-science for personality psychology that goes far beyond the scope of the lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts that currently prevail. One of the field's most important guiding scientific assumptions, the lexical hypothesis, is analysed from meta-theoretical viewpoints to reveal that it explicitly describes two sets of phenomena that must be clearly differentiated: 1) lexical repertoires and the representations that they encode and 2) the kinds of phenomena that are represented. Thus far, personality psychologists largely explored only the former, but have seriously neglected studying the latter. Meta-theoretical analyses of these different kinds of phenomena and their distinct natures, commonalities, differences, and interrelations reveal that personality psychology's focus on lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts entails a) erroneous meta-theoretical assumptions about what the phenomena being studied actually are, and thus how they can be analysed and interpreted, b) that contemporary personality psychology is largely based on everyday psychological knowledge, and c) a fundamental circularity in the scientific explanations used in trait psychology. These findings seriously challenge the widespread assumptions about the causal and universal status of the phenomena described by prominent personality models. The current state of knowledge about the lexical hypothesis is reviewed, and implications for personality psychology are discussed. Ten desiderata for future research are outlined to overcome the current paradigmatic fixations that are substantially hampering intellectual innovation and progress in the field.

  11. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1995-02-01

    Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits combining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at both levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Facet analysis-the interpretation of a scale in terms of the specific facets with which it correlates-is illustrated using alternative measures of the five-factor model and occupational scales. Finally, the hierarchical interpretation of personality profiles is discussed. Interpretation on the domain level yields a rapid understanding of the individual interpretation of specific facet scales gives a more detailed assessment.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p<0.05. Significant difference in disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  13. Neuropsychological and emotional correlates of personality traits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara; Leenders, Klaus L; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is, apart from the well-known motor symptoms, also characterized by neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. However, patients also often present with a personality profile of low Novelty Seeking and high Harm Avoidance. This profile can be identified as the disease emerges, which raises the question whether these traits correlate with more fundamental neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. This study determined the neuropsychological and emotional correlates of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance and two other personality traits that are often considered in PD, i.e. Reward Dependence and Persistence. Forty-three patients and 25 healthy participants were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, a symptoms of depression questionnaire and neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher Harm Avoidance than healthy participants, which was predicted by symptoms of depression. Groups did not differ regarding Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Persistence. While cognitive flexibility was a predictor of Reward Dependence, Persistence was predicted by divergent thinking and inhibition. Novelty Seeking was not predicted by cognition or emotion. In conclusion, cognition and emotion are selectively related to personality traits in PD. Whereas Harm Avoidance covaries with emotional symptoms, Persistence and Reward Dependence are related to cognition. Alterations in personality, cognition and emotion in PD are thus not independent from each other.

  14. Personalized persuasion: tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients' personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Kang, Sonia K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-06-01

    Persuasive messages are more effective when they are custom-tailored to reflect the interests and concerns of the intended audience. Much of the message-framing literature has focused on the advantages of using either gain or loss frames, depending on the motivational orientation of the target group. In the current study, we extended this research to examine whether a persuasive appeal's effectiveness can be increased by aligning the message framing with the recipient's personality profile. For a single product, we constructed five advertisements, each designed to target one of the five major trait domains of human personality. In a sample of 324 survey respondents, advertisements were evaluated more positively the more they cohered with participants' dispositional motives. These results suggest that adapting persuasive messages to the personality traits of the target audience can be an effective way of increasing the messages' impact, and highlight the potential value of personality-based communication strategies.

  15. Secular rise in economically valuable personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Sarvimäki, Matti; Terviö, Marko; Uusitalo, Roope

    2017-06-20

    Although trends in many physical characteristics and cognitive capabilities of modern humans are well-documented, less is known about how personality traits have evolved over time. We analyze data from a standardized personality test administered to 79% of Finnish men born between 1962 and 1976 ( n = 419,523) and find steady increases in personality traits that predict higher income in later life. The magnitudes of these trends are similar to the simultaneous increase in cognitive abilities, at 0.2-0.6 SD during the 15-y window. When anchored to earnings, the change in personality traits amounts to a 12% increase. Both personality and cognitive ability have consistent associations with family background, but the trends are similar across groups defined by parental income, parental education, number of siblings, and rural/urban status. Nevertheless, much of the trends in test scores can be attributed to changes in the family background composition, namely 33% for personality and 64% for cognitive ability. These composition effects are mostly due to improvements in parents' education. We conclude that there is a "Flynn effect" for personality that mirrors the original Flynn effect for cognitive ability in magnitude and practical significance but is less driven by compositional changes in family background.

  16. Offender Characteristics in Lethal Violence with Special Reference to Antisocial and Autistic Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…

  17. Personality traits predict perceived health-related quality of life in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Minacapelli, Eleonora; Falautano, Monica; Demontis, Silvia; Carpentras, Giovanni; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-04-01

    Personality traits can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in different disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS), personality traits can determine patients' willingness to take on more risky treatment options, predispose to neuropsychiatric symptoms and affect coping strategies. We investigated the role of personality traits as possible predictors of HRQoL in a large cohort of persons with MS (PwMS). In total, 253 consecutively recruited PwMS were screened for intellectual deficits with Raven Colour Progressive Matrices (RCPM), state anxiety with STAI-X1 and major depression on a clinical basis. PwMS' self-perceived mental and physical health status was measured with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the personality profile with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). The correlation between HRQoL and personality traits was investigated by means of analysis of variance, adjusting for possible confounders. Of the 253 MS patients, 195 (F:M=2.75), aged 41.7±10.2 years were included in the analysis. The variance of SF-36 mental and physical composite score was largely explained by extraversion and neuroticism. Our data confirm that PwMS' HRQoL is largely influenced by personality traits, which may therefore act as predictors of perceived quality of life and should be included in clinical and experimental settings focusing on HRQoL. © The Author(s), 2015.

  18. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  19. Lifetime trauma, personality traits, and health: A pathway to midlife health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W; Goldberg, Lewis R; Barckley, Maureen; Klest, Bridget; Dubanoski, Joan P; Hillier, Teresa A

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated whether lifetime experience of trauma is related to personality through instrumental and reactive trait processes, and whether lifetime trauma is a mechanism underlying the association between childhood conscientiousness and objectively assessed adult physical health. Participants (N = 831) were 442 women and 389 men from the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of personality were obtained when the participants were in elementary school. Self-reported adult personality assessments, lifetime histories of trauma experience, and objectively assessed physiological dysregulation were obtained between ages 45-55. Women tended to report more high-betrayal trauma than men, whereas men reported more low-betrayal trauma than women. Women who were judged by their teachers to be less agreeable and less conscientious in childhood reported more lifetime trauma, suggesting instrumental trait processes. For both genders, neuroticism and openness/intellect/imagination in adulthood, but not in childhood, were associated with lifetime trauma, suggesting reactive trait processes. For both genders, trauma experience was correlated with dysregulation and with Body Mass Index (BMI). The indirect paths from childhood conscientiousness to adult dysregulation and BMI through total teen and adult trauma were significant for women, but not for men (indirect effect for women's dysregulation = -.025, p = .040, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -.048, -.001; indirect effect for women's BMI = -.037, p = .009, 95% CI = -.067, -.008). Teen and adult trauma experience appears to be a hitherto unidentified mechanism in women underlying the association between conscientiousness and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Personality traits as an endophenotype in genetic studies on suicidality in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, M; Maciukiewicz, M; Kapelski, P; Czerski, P; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, A; Zaremba, D; Hauser, J

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The influence of personality traits on suicidal behaviour risk has been well documented. Personality traits and suicidal behaviour are partially genetically determined and personality has been described as an endophenotype of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between personality traits with suicidal behaviour and selected serotonergic gene polymorphisms. In the study we included 156 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (BP) and 93 healthy controls. The personality dimensions were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We genotyped two selected polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene (rs1800532 218A>C and rs1799913 779A>C) and polymorphism in the promoter region of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) related to serotoninergic neurotransmission. Multiple poisson regression, logistic regression and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied. We found numerous differences between the BP patients and the control group in terms of their TCI dimensions/subdimensions. Significant differences were found between patients with, and without, suicidal attempts in fatigability and asthenia (Ha4), as well as in harm avoidance (Ha). We also found that the interactions between TCI subdimensions (the interaction of disordiness (Ns4) and spiritual acceptance (St3), disordiness (Ns4) and integrated conscience (C5), extravagance (Ns3) and resourcefulness (Sd3)) were significantly contributing for suicidal behaviour risk. We found association between all studied genetic polymorphisms and several TCI dimensions and subdimensions. Our results confirm that personality traits are partially determined by genes. Both personality traits and the interactions between temperament and character traits, may be helpful in predicting suicidal behaviour.

  1. A Big Five approach to self-regulation: personality traits and health trajectories in the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W; Barckley, Maureen; Goldberg, Lewis R; Dubanoski, Joan P; Hillier, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory processes influencing health outcomes may have their origins in childhood personality traits. The Big Five approach to personality was used here to investigate the associations between childhood traits, trait-related regulatory processes and changes in health across middle age. Participants (N = 1176) were members of the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of the participants' traits when they were in elementary school were related to trajectories of self-rated health measured on 6 occasions over 14 years in middle age. Five trajectories of self-rated health were identified by latent class growth analysis: Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good, Good, Decreasing and Poor. Childhood Conscientiousness was the only childhood trait to predict membership in the Decreasing class vs. the combined healthy classes (Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good and Good), even after controlling for adult Conscientiousness and the other adult Big Five traits. The Decreasing class had poorer objectively assessed clinical health measured on one occasion in middle age, was less well-educated, and had a history of more lifespan health-damaging behaviors compared to the combined healthy classes. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood Conscientiousness (i.e. greater self-discipline and goal-directedness) may prevent subsequent health decline decades later through self-regulatory processes involving the acquisition of lifelong healthful behavior patterns and higher educational attainment.

  2. Interaction of personality traits with social deprivation in determining mental wellbeing and health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Chris J; Cavanagh, Jonathan; McLean, Jennifer S; McConnachie, Alex; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Velupillai, Yoga N; Tannahill, Carol; Millar, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Associations between personality traits, mental wellbeing and good health behaviours were examined to understand further the social and psychological context of the health divide. In a cross-sectional study, 666 subjects recruited from areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation had personality traits and mental wellbeing assessed, and lifestyle behaviours quantified. Regression models (using deprivation as a moderating variable) assessed the extent to which personality traits and mental wellbeing predicted health behaviour. Deprived (vs. affluent) subjects exhibited similar levels of extraversion but higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism, more hopelessness, less sense of coherence, lower self-esteem and lower self-efficacy (all Pmental wellbeing than in the least deprived group (Pmental wellbeing and extraversion appeared more strongly related to good health behaviours. Persistence of a social divide in health may be related to interactions between personality, mental wellbeing and the adoption of good health behaviours in deprived areas. Effectiveness of health messages may be enhanced by accommodating the variation in the levels of extraversion, neuroticism, hopelessness and sense of coherence.

  3. Differential impact of personality traits on distracted driving behaviors in teens and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Morgan N; Ross, Lesley A; McManus, Benjamin; Bishop, Haley J; Wittig, Shannon M O; Stavrinos, Despina

    2016-07-01

    To determine the impact of personality on distracted driving behaviors. Participants included 120 drivers (48 teens, 72 older adults) who completed the 45-item Big Five Personality questionnaire assessing self-reported personality factors and the Questionnaire Assessing Distracted Driving (QUADD) assessing the frequency of distracted driving behaviors. Associations for all five personality traits with each outcome (e.g., number of times texting on the phone, talking on the phone, and interacting with the phone while driving) were analyzed separately for teens and older adults using negative binomial or Poisson regressions that controlled for age, gender and education. In teens, higher levels of openness and conscientiousness were predictive of greater reported texting frequency and interacting with a phone while driving, while lower levels of agreeableness was predictive of fewer reported instances of texting and interacting with a phone while driving. In older adults, greater extraversion was predictive of greater reported talking on and interacting with a phone while driving. Other personality factors were not significantly associated with distracted driving behaviors. Personality traits may be important predictors of distracted driving behaviors, though specific traits associated with distracted driving may vary across age groups. The relationship between personality and distracted driving behaviors provides a unique opportunity to target drivers who are more likely to engage in distracted driving behavior, thereby increasing the effectiveness of educational campaigns and improving driving safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression: from trait to state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. Baseline data of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. In 333 patients (≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder, anxiety was assessed with the BAI, personality traits with the NEO-FFI and the Mastery Scale, and life-events with the Brugha questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied with anxiety severity as dependent and life-events and personality traits as independent variables. 147 patients (44.1%) had recently experienced one or more life-events. The presence of a life-event is not associated with anxiety (p = .161) or depression severity (p = .440). However, certain personality traits interacted with life-events in explaining anxiety severity. Stratified analyses showed that life-events were associated with higher anxiety levels in case of high levels of neuroticism and openness and low levels of conscientiousness or mastery. In the face of a life-event, personality traits may play a central role in increased anxiety levels in late-life depression.

  5. Personality traits predict treatment outcome with an antidepressant in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanum, L; Malt, U F

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between personality traits and response to treatment with the tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin or placebo in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD) without psychopathology. Forty-eight patients completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Neuroticism Extroversion Openness -Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), neuroticism + lie subscales, before they were consecutively allocated to a 7-week double-blind treatment study with mianserin or placebo. Treatment response to pain and target symptoms were recorded daily with the Visual Analogue Scale and Clinical Global Improvement Scale at every visit. A low level of neuroticism and little concealed aggressiveness predicted treatment outcome with the antidepressant drug mianserin in non-psychiatric patients with FGD. Inversely, moderate to high neuroticism and marked concealed aggressiveness predicted poor response to treatment. These findings were most prominent in women. Personality traits were better predictors of treatment outcome than serotonergic sensitivity assessed with the fenfluramine test. Assessment of the personality traits negativism, irritability, aggression, and neuroticism may predict response to drug treatment of FGD even when serotonergic sensitivity is controlled for. If confirmed in future studies, the findings point towards a more differential psychopharmacologic treatment of FGD.

  6. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  7. Personality Traits of Substance Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotirmoy Roy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug taking behavior and drug dependence is a multi-factorial disorder. Personality is a very important determining factor of drug dependence. Objectives: To find out the possible relationship between personality traits and substance use disorders. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional and case-control study conducted in the department of Psychiatry of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and Central Drug Addiction Treatment Center, Dhaka for a period of one year (January 2005 to December 2005. From five hundred respondents, 250 had the history of substance use disorders selected as case, and equal number were age, sex, habitat and economic background matched controls were taken. Personality traits of both cases and control were measured by applying Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: Mean ± SD psychoticism (8.42±3 vs 4.33±1.8, Neuroticism (11.89±2.3 vs 9.83±2 were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cases than controls. It was found that psychoticism was 2.3 times and neurticism was 1.7 times higher in substance users than that of controls. There were no significant differences of mean distribution of extroversion and lie scales among the cases & controls. This study also revealed that, there was no significant relationship between personality traits and different variables related to substance use except that psychoticism was significantly higher in those substance users who had have positive history of troubles with law than those having no history of trouble with law (8.82±3.2 & 7.95±2.7 respectively. Conclusion: Personality traits may have an influence on persons with substance use disorder which detoriates quality of life. Key words: Drug dependence; Personality; Psychoticism; Neuroticism; Extraversion; Lie scale. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7056BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 76-81

  8. National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terracciano, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Adám, N

    2005-01-01

    ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them with the average personality scores of culture members assessed by observer ratings and self-reports. National character ratings were reliable but did not converge with assessed traits. Perceptions of national character thus appear to be unfounded......Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character...

  9. Association between personality traits and substance use in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Guillon-Riquelme, Alejandro; Secades, Roberto; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-03-02

    Substance use is considered one of the most frequent risk behaviors during adolescence. Personality factors are linked to consumption during adolescence. Although there are studies on personality and consumption among Spanish adolescents, some outcomes are contradictory, and more studies including larger samples and using validated measures are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different personality factors and substance use among Spanish adolescents. Participants were 1,455 students aged between 13-18 years. The adaptation of the 16PF-IPIP Personality Inventory was applied to assess Warmth, Stability, Gregariousness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Trust, Openness to experience, Sociability, Perfectionism, and Calmness. Participants were asked about their different consumption substances during their lifetime. Results provide evidence for a relationship between personality factors and psychoactive substance use. There are different distributions of alcohol use regarding personality traits. Furthermore, personality factors have some influence on consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.Trust and Calmness influence average alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption, whereas Sociability had no statistically significant influence on any of the three substances. The results from this study are highly useful in the design of preventive programs, as they provide more evidence of the role of personality traits as a risk factor.

  10. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Weel, Bas ter

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  11. Personality traits and dysfunctional construal of online health promotion messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yaeeun; Kurtz, John E

    2017-10-20

    With the Internet becoming increasingly popular as a source of information, blogs offering healthy lifestyle techniques and knowledge have become popular and accessible. Despite their focus on health, these blogs portray content that may be negatively construed by viewers, especially those with or at risk for eating disorders. The present study investigated changes in affect and self-esteem after viewing a prototypic health blog. Personality traits, specifically neuroticism and conscientiousness, were also investigated. A prototypic health blog was constructed after extensive review of existing blogs. A parallel format was then followed to create a home décor website for a control condition. Female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of two blog sites, and participants completed an earlier personality assessment and post-viewing study questionnaires. Contrary to the hypothesis that readers of the health blog will report more negative outcomes, no main effect of blog condition was found. However, individuals high in trait neuroticism experienced greater differences in negative affect, but not self-esteem, when viewing the health blog versus the control blog. This study found that viewing health blogs did not have immediate effects on affect and self-esteem, but more neurotic individuals were more inclined to experience negative affect when viewing health promotion messages. Personality traits assessed prior to the experiment were more predictive of negative affect and self-esteem during the experiment than blog viewing conditions. No level of evidence, experimental study.

  12. Patient SWAP-200 personality dimensions and FFM traits: Do they predict therapist responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzilli, Annalisa; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Hilsenroth, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapists' emotional responses and patients' personality evaluated by 3 dimensional diagnostic approaches empirically derived from the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b): Two of these rely on the 5-factor model (FFM) domains, that were assessed with different SWAP-200 FFM versions developed by Shedler and Westen (SW-FFM scales; 2004) and McCrae, Löckenhoff, and Costa (MLC-FFM scales; 2005); the third approach is based on a multifaceted model of personality syndromes (SWAP personality dimension scales; see Shedler & Westen, 2004). A national sample of psychiatrists and psychologists (N = 166) of various theoretical orientations completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Zittel Conklin & Westen, 2003) to identify patterns of therapist response, and the SWAP-200 to assess personality regarding a patient currently in their care. The findings showed good levels of construct validity between the SW-FFM and MLC-FFM scales, with the exception of the Openness trait. Moreover, specific SW-FFM and MLC-FFM scales were significantly associated with distinct SWAP personality dimension scales according in a conceptually meaningful nomological network. Although there were significant, theoretically coherent, and systematic relationships between therapists' responses and patients' personality features, overall the contribution of the SW-FFM and MLC-FFM traits in predicting therapists' responses was less sizable than the SWAP personality dimensions. These results seem to confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic value of countertransference as an essential tool in understanding psychological traits/dimensions that underlie the patients' psychopathology, both from within and outside of the FFM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The role of experiential avoidance in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Michael G; Pinto, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is one of the most prevalent personality disorders, yet it remains an understudied phenomenon. Experiential avoidance (EA) has been investigated as a factor relevant in many forms of psychopathology, including borderline personality disorder. To date however, no study has yet investigated whether EA might also be relevant to OCPD. We administered a measure of EA and a multidimensional OCPD measure (assessing 5 OCPD trait dimensions and overall severity) to a large community sample (N = 571) as well as a group of individuals with self-identified OCPD features (N = 53). Results revealed that the OCPD group experienced heightened EA relative to the unscreened community sample, even controlling for group differences in distress symptoms. Correlational analyses showed significant relationships between EA and all 5 OCPD trait dimensions and overall severity. Moreover, EA accounted for OCPD traits and severity after controlling for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Implications for the role of EA in OCPD, including treatment implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A structural model of age, grey matter volumes, education, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Soichiro; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Kazui, Hiroaki; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Jun; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    When the relationship between ageing and changes in personality traits is considered, it is important to know how they are influenced by biological and environmental factors. The present study examined the relationships between various factors associated with the effect of ageing on personality traits, including structural changes of the brain and environmental factors such as education. We recruited 41 healthy subjects. We administered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality factors. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and regional grey matter (GM) volumes were obtained. We identified associations in the correlation analysis of age, cerebral GM volume, years of education, and the personality trait of openness. Path analysis was used to estimate the relationships among these factors. The path analysis model of age, GM volume, years of education, and the personality trait of openness revealed that age has an indirect negative association with openness through GM volume and years of education. Ageing was related to a decrease in GM volume, which was in turn related to a decrease in the openness score. Older subjects generally had fewer years of education, which was related to a lower openness score. Maintaining openness against the effects of ageing is desirable, and our results imply that interventions against age-related cerebral atrophy and the promotion of opportunities for higher education may contribute to the development and stability of a healthy personality during the adult life course. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, S; von Knorring, L; Ekselius, L

    2000-11-01

    As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

  16. Exploring the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jowon; Song, Yosep; Teng, Ching-I

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games. We identified the underlying dimensions of motivations to play online games, examined how personality traits predict motivation, and investigated how personality traits predict online gaming behavior (i.e., playing time and preference for game genres). Factor analyses identified five motivational factors: relationships, adventure, escapism, relaxation, and achievement. The regression analyses indicated that two personality traits, extraversion and agreeableness, predicted various motivations; however, personality traits did not affect the playing time and game genre preference.

  17. Comparing the dependability and associations with functioning of the DSM-5 Section III trait model of personality pathology and the DSM-5 Section II personality disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Ruggero, Camilo J; Kotov, Roman; Liu, Keke; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Two competing models of personality psychopathology are included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5 ; American Psychiatric Association, 2013); the traditional personality disorder (PD) model included in Section II and an alternative trait-based model included in Section III. Numerous studies have examined the validity of the alternative trait model and its official assessment instrument, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012). However, few studies have directly compared the trait-based model to the traditional PD model empirically in the same dataset. Moreover, to our knowledge, only a single study (Suzuki, Griffin, & Samuel, 2015) has examined the dependability of the PID-5, which is an essential component of construct validity for traits (Chmielewski & Watson, 2009; McCrae, Kurtz, Yamagata, & Terracciano, 2011). The current study directly compared the dependability of the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the PID-5, and the traditional PD model, as assessed by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4+), in a large undergraduate sample. In addition, it evaluated and compared their associations with functioning, another essential component of personality pathology. In general, our findings indicate that most DSM-5 traits demonstrate high levels of dependability that are superior to the traditional PD model; however, some of the constructs assessed by the PID-5 may be more state like. The models were roughly equivalent in terms of their associations with functioning. The current results provide additional support for the validity of PID-5 and the DSM-5 Section III personality pathology model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Do gender and personality traits (BFI-10) influence achievement of success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Olexova, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    There exists a body of literature on impact of personality traits on academic performance. But there appears to be a gap in literature when it comes to impact of personality traits on extracurricular activities. In order to fill the gap, the paper focuses on impact of personality traits...... for students and taking some of the first three or five places, Student personality of the year and participation in a special programme aimed at talented students. The research was conducted in Slovakia on a sample of university students. Personality traits were measured using Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10...

  19. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Education or Personality Traits and Intelligence as Determinants of Political Knowledge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Recently the causal influence of education on political knowledge has been questioned. Rather, pre-adult predispositions such as personality traits and intelligence are proposed as the real causal agents. This article investigates in two studies whether education retains its explanatory power...... on political knowledge when personality traits and intelligence are taken into account. One study draws on a draftee sample and has excellent measures of both personality traits and intelligence; the other study draws on a representative sample and has excellent measures of personality traits. Openness...

  1. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and a Medical School Admission Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourinho, Isabel; Moreira, André; Mota-Cardoso, Rui; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-12-30

    Personality has became popular in medical student's selection. However, few research exists about the association between the big five personality traits and the existent medical school selection tools. Our aim was to study which personality traits were selected by a medical school admission interview. One hundred ninety four graduate applicants that had applied to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto through the graduate entry approach, after ranked on previous achievement, were interviewed between the academic years of 2011 and 2013. From these, 181 (93.3%) answered to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that assesses high order personality traits of openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Admission interview corresponded to the second phase of the seriation process. Every applicant was interviewed and scored by three interviewers on seven dimensions asesssed by Lickert scale (1-10). Interview score was the sum of the dimensions. Linear mixed effects model and respective regression coefficients were used to estimate the association between personality traits from each interviewer's score. Final models were adjusted for gender, interviewers and previous achievement. Openness to experience (Beta = 0.18: CI 95%: 0.05; 0.30) had the strongest association with interview score followed by the interaction effect between the extraversion and conscientiousness traits (Beta = 0.14; CI 95%: 0.02; 0.25). Also, applicants scored higher when their gender was opposite to the interviewers. Previous achievement and interview score had no association. Our admission interview selected different personality traits when compared to other selection tools. Medical schools should be aware of the implications of the adopted selection tools on the admitted medical student's personality because it can help providing beneficial interventions.

  2. Personality Traits of Minority Arab Teachers in the Arab Educational System in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hussain, Jamal; Abu Hussain, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The present research examined the personality traits prevalent among Arab teachers as a minority in the Arab educational system in Israel. Personality traits has much significance in the prediction of human behavior in various situations. Personality traits affect a person's behavior. Usually personality traits do not change, and they are…

  3. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  4. Personality traits predict job stress, depression and anxiety among junior physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramstad, Thomas Olsen; Gjestad, Rolf; Haver, Brit

    2013-11-09

    High levels of stress and deteriorating mental health among medical students are commonly reported. In Bergen, Norway, we explored the impact of personality traits measured early in their curriculum on stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms as junior physicians following graduation. Medical students (n = 201) from two classes participated in a study on personality traits and mental health early in the curriculum. A questionnaire measuring personality traits (Basic Character Inventory (BCI)) was used during their third undergraduate year. BCI assesses four personality traits: neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness and reality weakness. Questionnaires measuring mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Symptom Checklist 25 (SCL-25)), and stress (Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS)) were used during their third and sixth undergraduate year. During postgraduate internship, Cooper's Job Stress Questionnaire (CJSQ) was used to measure perceived job stress, while mental health and stress reactions were reassessed using HADS and SCL-25. Extroversion had the highest mean value (5.11) among the total group of participants, while reality weakness had the lowest (1.51). Neuroticism and reality weakness were related to high levels of perceived job stress (neuroticism r = .19, reality weakness r = .17) as well as higher levels of anxiety symptoms (neuroticism r = .23, reality weakness r = .33) and symptoms of depression (neuroticism r = .21, reality weakness r = .36) during internship. Neuroticism indirectly predicted stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. These relations were mediated by perceived job stress, while reality weakness predicted these mental health measures directly. Extroversion, on the other hand, protected against symptoms of depression (r = -.20). Furthermore, females reported higher levels of job stress than males (difference = 7.52). Certain personality traits measured early in

  5. Personality traits and the risk for Parkinson disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Johanna; Gustavsson, Petter; Weibull, Caroline Elise; Feldman, Adina Leiah; Petzinger, Giselle Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we explored the association between the personality traits, neuroticism and introversion, and risk of Parkinson disease (PD). A population-based cohort study was conducted using questionnaire data from the Swedish Twin Registry for twins born 1926-1958 (n > 29,000). Personality traits were assessed in 1973 by a short form of Eysenck's Personality Inventory. The cohort was followed from 1974 to 2012 through Swedish patient and cause of death registers for PD ascertainment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate subsequent risk of PD, adjusting for attained age, sex and smoking. A mediation analysis was performed to further explore the role of smoking in the relationship between personality trait and PD. Confounding by familial factors was explored using a within-pair analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 36.8 years, 197 incident PD cases were identified. Both neuroticism and introversion were associated with an increased risk of PD after adjustment. Smoking was a significant mediator in the relationship between personality traits and PD that partly accounted for the effect of introversion, whereas it acted as a suppressor for the effect of neuroticism on PD risk. In the within-pair analyses, associations for neuroticism and introversion were attenuated. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that neuroticism is associated with an increased risk of PD that is in part suppressed by smoking. There was a weak association between introversion and PD and this effect was at least partly mediated through smoking. The observed effects may partly be explained by familial factors shared by twins.

  6. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  7. Personality Traits in Panic Disorder Patients With and Without Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugliani, Morena M; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Freire, Rafael Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is often correlated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. This study aims to ascertain whether PD patients differ from healthy controls in regard to personality traits and determine if these traits are correlated with comorbid disorders, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Personality traits of 69 PD patients and 42 controls were compared using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. In PD patients, comorbidities, anxiety, and depression symptoms were also evaluated. PD patients showed higher neuroticism and lower extraversion compared with healthy controls. Patients without comorbidities presented similar results to controls, whereas those with comorbidities presented higher neuroticism and lower extraversion scores. PD per se may be unrelated to deviant personality traits, although comorbidities with major depressive disorder and agoraphobia are probably associated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. These traits show a strong correlation with the accumulation and severity of these disorders.

  8. A cross-sectional exploration of the personality traits of dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L; Eley, D S; Desbrow, B; Lee, P; Ferguson, M

    2015-10-01

    Personality traits refer to habitual patterns of behaviour, thought and emotions, and have been shown to influence health professionals' career decisions, career development, job satisfaction and retention. There is an opportunity to better understand and support the career pathways of dietitians by exploring their personality traits. The two primary aspects of personality are: (i) temperament traits, which determine automatic emotional responses to experiences, and are generally stable over lifetime, and (ii) character traits, which reflect personal goals and values, and tend to develop with life experience. The present study explored the levels of temperament and character traits of dietitians, as well as their relationship to demographic variables. The study comprised a cross-sectional online survey of 346 Australian dietitians [95% female; mean (SD) age 32 (10) years; mean (SD) time since graduation 7 (9) years]. Temperament and character traits were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory. Key demographic variables were measured to describe career decisions and pathways of dietitians. Multivariate analyses of variance was used to investigate the relationship between demographic variables and personality traits. Levels of several traits were significantly associated with gender, age and highest level of education. In comparison to the general population, the dietitians displayed average levels of Novelty Seeking; high levels of Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness; and low levels of Self-Transcendence. The dietitians in the present study displayed levels of personality traits that were similar to other health professionals, although they differed from the general population. These findings are the precursor to further work that may inform recruitment strategies and career counselling in dietetics. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Personality traits and mental health states of methamphetamine-dependent and methamphetamine non-using MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Todd M; Kiang, Mathew V; Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert W; Pappas, Molly K

    2010-02-01

    This analysis considers the relation between personality traits, mental health states and methamphetamine (MA) use in 60 men who have sex with men (MSM). Thirty MA-dependent and 30 MA non-using MSM were assessed on the Neo Five Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version tests. Our results indicate differences between groups on a variety of measures of personality traits and mental states. Specifically, MA-dependent participants were found to be more Neurotic, less Open, less Agreeable, and less Conscientious. Further, MA-dependent participants were found to have higher levels of Paranoid Ideation and higher levels of Interpersonal Sensitivity. Given the high prevalence of MA use in the MSM community and the association between MA use and sexual risk taking, our findings provided a clearer understanding of how individual personality traits may be a factor in the continued use of this drug among MSM. Further research should seek to incorporate individual personality traits into the development of efficacious MA-specific treatment interventions.

  10. Do Gender and Personality Traits Influence Awareness of Deal Sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Deal sites exist for a decade now but there are still some people who have not heard about them. The research pre-sented in the paper investigates if gender and personality traits influence awareness of deal sites. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. The findings...... are that gender does not influence awareness, and neuroticism is the most significant personality trait influencing awareness of deal sites - the more neurotic the person is, the higher is the probability that he or she has never heard of deal sites....

  11. Continuity between DSM-5 Section II and Section III personality traits for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Jacqueline; Sellbom, Martin; Bach, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is formally operationalized in Section II of the DSM-5 by a heterogeneous collection of 8 categorical criteria. Section III contains an alternative model operationalizing personality disorders via dimensional personality traits and associated impairment. The extent to which the personality traits used to define OCPD in Section III correspond with the Section II operationalization of the disorder is contested. The current study aims to contribute to the evidence base necessary to solidify the optimal trait profile for this disorder via a more fine-tuned examination of OCPD. The research questions were examined using a clinical sample of 142 Danish adults who completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 to index both the Sections II and III (personality traits) operationalizations of OCPD, respectively. Bivariate correlations supported Rigid Perfectionism and Perseveration as traits relevant to OCPD; however, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that of the 4 traits used in the Section III operationalization of OCPD, only Rigid Perfectionism uniquely predicted OCPD (p traits of Submissiveness, Suspiciousness, and (low) Impulsivity were also found to uniquely predict OCPD and its specific symptoms in a regression model. These findings indicate that the traits proposed in Section III are only partially aligned with the traditional, Section II conceptualization of OCPD, and may be augmented by incorporating Submissiveness, Suspiciousness, and (low) Impulsivity. In light of the current findings and existing literature, a modified constellation of traits to operationalize OCPD is likely justified. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Borderline personality disorder traits and their relationship with dimensions of normative personality: a web-based cohort and twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Myers, J; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2011-05-01

    To describe the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for four dimensions of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to understand the source of resemblance of these dimensions and normal personality. A web-based sample (n = 44,112 including 542 twin pairs) completed items from 4 scales of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology Basic Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory. A one-factor common pathway model best fits the 4 BPD scales producing a highly heritable latent liability (heritability = 60%) and strong loadings on all 4 dimensions. Affective instability had the lowest trait-specific genetic loading, suggesting that it was a core feature of BPD. A complex pattern of genetic and environmental associations was found between the big five personality traits and BPD dimensions. The strongest genetic correlations with the BPD traits were generally seen for neuroticism (positive), followed by conscientiousness and agreeableness, both negative. In the general population, these four BPD dimensions reflect one underlying highly heritable factor. The association between normative personality and dimensions of BPD is complex with high degrees of genetic correlation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Robert P; Burnett, Dawn D

    2003-06-01

    Evidence for situational specificity of personality-job performance relations calls for better understanding of how personality is expressed as valued work behavior. On the basis of an interactionist principle of trait activation (R. P. Tett & H. A. Guterman, 2000), a model is proposed that distinguishes among 5 situational features relevant to trait expression (job demands, distracters, constraints, releasers, and facilitators), operating at task, social, and organizational levels. Trait-expressive work behavior is distinguished from (valued) job performance in clarifying the conditions favoring personality use in selection efforts. The model frames linkages between situational taxonomies (e.g., J. L. Holland's [1985] RIASEC model) and the Big Five and promotes useful discussion of critical issues, including situational specificity, personality-oriented job analysis, team building, and work motivation.

  14. Insecure Attachment, Maladaptive Personality Traits, and the Perpetration of In-Person and Cyber Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S

    2018-02-01

    Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.

  15. Exploring the relation between childhood trauma, temperamental traits and mindfulness in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Carmona, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Ruiz, Elisabet; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor; Soler, Joaquim

    2015-07-29

    Deficits in mindfulness-related capacities have been described in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little research has been conducted to explore which factors could explain these deficits. This study assesses the relationship between temperamental traits and childhood maltreatment with mindfulness in BPD. A total of 100 individuals diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), temperamental traits were assessed using the Zuckerman-Khulman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), and mindfulness capabilities were evaluated with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed including only those CTQ-SF and ZKPQ subscales that showed simultaneous significant correlations with mindfulness facets. Results indicated that neuroticism and sexual abuse were predictors of acting with awareness; and neuroticism, impulsiveness and sexual abuse were significant predictors of non-judging. Temperamental traits did not have a moderator effect on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mindfulness facets. These results provide preliminary evidence for the effects of temperamental traits and childhood trauma on mindfulness capabilities in BPD individuals. Further studies are needed to better clarify the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on mindfulness capabilities and to determine the causal relations between these variables.

  16. Effects of serotonin-2A receptor binding and gender on personality traits and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel; Mason, Neale Scott; Becker, Carl; Price, Julie C

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are personality traits associated with a vulnerability to suicidal behavior. Behavioral expression of these traits differs by gender and has been related to central serotonergic function. We assessed the relationships between serotonin-2A receptor function, gender, and personality traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder characterized by impulsive-aggression and recurrent suicidal behavior. Participants, who included 33 BPD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), were assessed for Axis I and II disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination, and with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-Revised for BPD. Depressed mood, impulsivity, aggression, and temperament were assessed with standardized measures. Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]altanserin as ligand and arterial blood sampling was used to determine the binding potentials (BPND) of serotonin-2A receptors in 11 regions of interest. Data were analyzed using Logan graphical analysis, controlling for age and non-specific binding. Among BPD subjects, aggression, Cluster B co-morbidity, antisocial PD, and childhood abuse were each related to altanserin binding. BPND values predicted impulsivity and aggression in BPD females (but not BPD males), and in HC males (but not HC females.) Altanserin binding was greater in BPD females than males in every contrast, but it did not discriminate suicide attempters from non-attempters. Region-specific differences in serotonin-2A receptor binding related to diagnosis and gender predicted clinical expression of aggression and impulsivity. Vulnerability to suicidal behavior in BPD may be related to serotonin-2A binding through expression of personality risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  18. The Effect of Personality Traits on Households' Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjisakikool, Teerapong

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at finding the relationship between households' personality traits and their financial literacy level. The data in this research are from the household survey which can represent the population in Dutch. Using the Big Five personality traits and economic locus of control--extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional…

  19. Within-Trait Heterogeneity in Age Group Differences in Personality Domains and Facets: Implications for the Development and Coherence of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits. PMID:25751273

  20. Cognitive dysfunction and anxious-impulsive personality traits are endophenotypes for drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersche, Karen D; Turton, Abigail J; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Müller, Ulrich; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W

    2012-09-01

    Not everyone who takes drugs becomes addicted, but the likelihood of developing drug addiction is greater in people with a family history of drug or alcohol dependence. Relatively little is known about how genetic risk mediates the development of drug dependence. By comparing the phenotypic profile of individuals with and without a family history of addiction, the authors sought to clarify the extent to which cognitive dysfunction and personality traits are shared by family members--and therefore likely to have predated drug dependence--and which aspects are specific to drug-dependent individuals. The authors assessed cognitive function and personality traits associated with drug dependence in stimulant-dependent individuals (N=50), their biological siblings without a history of drug dependence (N=50), and unrelated healthy volunteers (N=50). Cognitive function was significantly impaired in the stimulant-dependent individuals across a range of domains. Deficits in executive function and response control were identified in both the stimulant-dependent individuals and in their non-drug-dependent siblings. Drug-dependent individuals and their siblings also exhibited elevated anxious-impulsive personality traits relative to healthy comparison volunteers. Deficits in executive function and response regulation as well as anxious-impulsive personality traits may represent endophenotypes associated with the risk of developing cocaine or amphetamine dependence. The identification of addiction endophenotypes may be useful in facilitating the rational development of therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  1. Upper and Lower Limbs Disability and Personality Traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)

  2. The effect of personality traits of managers/supervisor on job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of personality traits of managers/supervisor on job satisfaction of medical ... of their time life in their workplace therefore investigation for job satisfaction related ... Keywords: Employees, Job satisfaction, Managers, Personality trait ...

  3. Typology of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults: Psychopathological and personality disorder traits correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Nidetch, Victoria; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-12-30

    Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas. Based on these factors, a cluster analysis was conducted, which yielded four clearly distinct groups characterized by "Low" (non schizotypy), "High schizotypy" (mixed positive and negative), "Positive schizotypy", and "Social impairment". Regarding personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, the "High schizotypy" cluster scored higher than the "Positive" and the "Social impairment" groups, which scored higher than the "Low" cluster. The "Positive" group had higher levels of interpersonal relationships than in the "High" and the "Social impairment" clusters, suggesting that positive schizotypy was associated to benefits such as perceived social relationships. Nevertheless the "Positive" cluster was also linked to high levels of personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, and to low academic achievement, at levels similar those observed in the "Social impairment" cluster, confirming an unhealthy side to positive schizotypy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality traits and life satisfaction among online game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lily Shui-Lien; Tu, Hill Hung-Jen; Wang, Edward Shih-Tse

    2008-04-01

    The DFC Intelligence predicts worldwide online game revenues will reach $9.8 billion by 2009, making online gaming a mainstream recreational activity. Understanding online game player personality traits is therefore important. This study researches the relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction in online game players. Taipei, Taiwan, is the study location, with questionnaire surveys conducted in cyber cafe shops. Multiple regression analysis studies the causal relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction in online game players. The result shows that neuroticism has significant negative influence on life satisfaction. Both openness and conscientiousness have significant positive influence on life satisfaction. Finally, implications for leisure practice and further research are discussed.

  5. Gender and personality traits' (BFI-10) effect on trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olexova, Cecilia; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to investigate if gender and personality traits influence rating of these two statements. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. The research was conducted in Slovakia using an on-line questionnaire. This paper is a replication of two previous studies conducted in Denmark...

  6. Personality Traits and Training Initiation Process: Intention, Planning, and Action Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Mariola; Purc, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at investigating the role of personality traits in relation to training initiation. Training initiation is conceptualized as a goal realization process, and explained using goal theories. There are three stages of the process analyzed: intention to undertake training, plan formulation, and actual training undertaking. Two studies tested the relationships between five personality traits, defined according to the five factor model, and the stages of the goal realization process. In Study 1, which explains training intention and training plans' formulation, 155 employees participated. In Study 2, which was time-lagged with two measurement points, and which explains intention, plans, and training actions undertaken, the data from 176 employees was collected at 3 month intervals. The results of these studies show that personality traits, mainly openness to experience, predict the training initiation process to some degree: intention, plans, and actual action initiation. The findings allow us to provide recommendations for practitioners responsible for human resource development. The assessment of openness to experience in employees helps predict their motivation to participate in training activities. To increase training motivation it is vital to strengthen intentions to undertake training, and to encourage training action planning.

  7. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo...... serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) brain availability, which has recently become possible to image with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This is particularly relevant since availability of 5-HT4R has been shown to adapt to synaptic levels of 5-HT and thus offers information about serotonergic tone...... in the healthy brain. In 69 healthy participants (18 females), the associations between personality traits assessed with the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and regional cerebral 5-HT4R binding in neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were investigated...

  8. Analysis on personality traits in patients undergoing LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze personality traits in preoperative patients who undergolaser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKand to provide psychological basis for the selection of refractive surgery.METHODS: Eligible patientswere seeking customized LASIK(group A n=53, conventional LASIK(group B n=75and non-operation patients with ametropia(group C n=71, who completed 16 personality factor questionnaires(16PF. Statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA by SPSS11.0 software package.RESULTS: Compared to group C, patients in group A scored high on dominance and tension levels, and low on emotional stability level(PPPCONCLUSION: The data indicates that personality profiles of LASIK patients with refractive error influence their decision for correction. Patients need suitable psychological assessment before surgery who actively chose customized LASIK seem to be more assertive and suspicious.

  9. Self-Report Measures of Juvenile Psychopathic Personality Traits: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…

  10. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes. PMID:22574204

  13. The role of childhood maltreatment in the altered trait and global expression of personality in cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K; Tripathi, Shanti Prakash; Young, Jonathan; James, G Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Drug addictions are debilitating disorders that are highly associated with personality abnormalities. Early life stress (ELS) is a common risk factor for addiction and personality disturbances, but the relationships between ELS, addiction, and personality are poorly understood. Methods Ninety-five research participants were assessed for and grouped by ELS history and cocaine dependence. NEO-FFI personality measures were compared between the groups to define ELS− and addiction-related differences in personality traits. ELS and cocaine dependence were then examined as predictors of personality trait scores. Finally, k-means clustering was used to uncover clusters of personality trait configurations within the sample. Odds of cluster membership across subject groups was then determined. Results Trait expression differed significantly across subject groups. Cocaine-dependent subjects with a history of ELS (cocaine+/ELS+) displayed the greatest deviations in normative personality. Cocaine dependence significantly predicted four traits, while ELS predicted neuroticism and agreeableness; there was no interaction effect between ELS and cocaine dependence. The cluster analysis identified four distinct personality profiles: Open, Gregarious, Dysphoric, and Closed. Distribution of these profiles across subject groups differed significantly. Inclusion in cocaine+/ELS+, cocaine−/ELS+, and cocaine−/ELS− groups significantly increased the odds of expressing the Dysphoric, Open and Gregarious profiles, respectively. Conclusions Cocaine dependence and early life stress were significantly and differentially associated with altered expression of individual personality traits and their aggregation as personality profiles, suggesting that individuals who are at-risk for developing addictions due to ELS exposure may benefit from personality centered approaches as an early intervention and prevention. PMID:25805246

  14. Aging perceptions and self-efficacy mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, D M; Dotson, V M; Fieo, R A

    2017-12-01

    Personality traits have been shown to be predictors of depressive symptoms in late life. Thus, we examined whether other more modifiable sources of individual differences such as self-efficacy and self-perceptions of aging would mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms in older adults. Data were obtained from 3,507 older adult participants who took part in the 2012 Health and Retirement Study. The "Big Five" personality traits, self-efficacy, aging perceptions, and depressive symptoms were assessed. Mediation analyses tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy and aging perceptions would mediate the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms. All five personality traits were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Neuroticism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and had the greatest effect compared with the other personality traits. There was a significant indirect effect of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness on depressive symptoms (including both mediators). The mediating effect of aging perceptions on the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptoms was the strongest compared with self-efficacy, accounting for approximately 80% of the total indirect effect. Our results provide support for interventions aimed at improving self-perceptions related to efficacy and aging in order to reduce depressive symptoms in older adults. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  16. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and reference group. PMID:28192464

  17. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  18. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Donadon; F.L. Osório

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence...

  19. Personality Traits in Patients with Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Adami Dehkordi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus is a common complaint in patients referred to otorhinolaryngology clinics and is a condition where one hears a sound without any distinguishable external acoustic source or electrical stimulus. About 3-30% of adults experience different degrees of tinnitus during their life. This study aims to ascertain and compare personality traits between patients with tinnitus and a control group.   Materials and Methods: In a case control study, 66 participants were assessed. The case group consisted of 33 patients who suffered from tinnitus for at least two months, in addition to 33 healthy volunteers who were selected among their family (preferably of the same age and sex. A standard demographic questionnaire and an Eyzenck personality questionnaire were filled for both groups. A tinnitus severity index (TSI questionnaire was only filled for the case group. Data from each group was compared by Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests. SPSS V.18 was the selected software.   Results: Statistical analysis showed a meaningful difference in neuroticism (P=0.001 and extraversion (P=0.001 between the patients and the controls; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups regarding psychotism.   Conclusion:  Tinnitus can be associated with personality characteristics. This study showed that in patients with tinnitus, neuroticism increases and extraversion decreases. Considering the personality and psychotic traits observed in the patients with tinnitus, psychiatric consultation is recommended.

  20. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and peptic ulcer disease in a large population-based adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Teras, Andero; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Allik, Jüri

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and physician-confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) diagnosis in a large population-based adult sample, controlling for the relevant behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Personality traits were assessed by participants themselves and by knowledgeable informants using the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO PI-3). When controlling for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking, only one of the five NEO PI-3 domain scales - higher Neuroticism - and two facet scales - lower A1: Trust and higher C1: Competence - made a small, yet significant contribution (p personality traits that are associated with the diagnosis of PUD at a particular point in time. Further prospective studies with a longitudinal design and multiple assessments would be needed to fully understand if the FFM personality traits serve as risk factors for the development of PUD. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  2. A metastructural model of mental disorders and pathological personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A G C; Simms, L J

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.

  3. Personality trait similarity between spouses in four cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R.R.; Martin, T.A.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Urbánek, Tomáš; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.; Costa, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2008), s. 1137-1163 ISSN 0022-3506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : personality traits * traits similarity * assortative mating Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.491, year: 2008

  4. Personality Traits of Suicidality Are Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Suicidal Women Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Ducasse

    Full Text Available Both Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD might increase the risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between personality dimensions specifically involved in suicidal vulnerability and PMS/PMDD.We collected data from 232 women consecutively hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We examined the relationship between impulsivity, aggressiveness/hostility, hopelessness, trait anger, affect intensity, emotional lability, and PMS/PMDD. Notably, we created an algorithm from the shortened Premenstrual Assessment form in order to assess PMDD status.The proportions of PMS and PMDD among female suicide attempters were 50% and 23% respectively. Women with PMS or PMDD were more likely to endorse most of these personality traits to than those without even after controlling for potential confounders. We found an impulsive-aggressive pattern of personality in women with PMS or PMDD, independently from the time of the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, trait anger remained associated with both PMS and PMDD independently of every other personality traits. The higher the anger level, the higher the risk was to suffer from both PMS and PMDD.This study demonstrates a strong, independent association between PMS/PMDD and trait anger among a representative sample of female suicide attempters. It is of major interest for clinicians in view of addressing a substantial public health problem among women of reproductive age.

  5. Personality Traits of Suicidality Are Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Suicidal Women Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, Déborah; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Guillaume, Sébastien; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Both Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) might increase the risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between personality dimensions specifically involved in suicidal vulnerability and PMS/PMDD. We collected data from 232 women consecutively hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We examined the relationship between impulsivity, aggressiveness/hostility, hopelessness, trait anger, affect intensity, emotional lability, and PMS/PMDD. Notably, we created an algorithm from the shortened Premenstrual Assessment form in order to assess PMDD status. The proportions of PMS and PMDD among female suicide attempters were 50% and 23% respectively. Women with PMS or PMDD were more likely to endorse most of these personality traits to than those without even after controlling for potential confounders. We found an impulsive-aggressive pattern of personality in women with PMS or PMDD, independently from the time of the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, trait anger remained associated with both PMS and PMDD independently of every other personality traits. The higher the anger level, the higher the risk was to suffer from both PMS and PMDD. This study demonstrates a strong, independent association between PMS/PMDD and trait anger among a representative sample of female suicide attempters. It is of major interest for clinicians in view of addressing a substantial public health problem among women of reproductive age.

  6. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  7. Self-Concept in Adolescents—Relationship between Sport Participation, Motor Performance and Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Klein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test 6–18 and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962 = 35.21; p < 0.001, whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395 = 0.31; p < 0.01. Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249 = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248 = 6.81; p < 0.001 than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248 = 5.10; p < 0.001. Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947 = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948 = −7.84; p < 0.001. The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism.

  8. Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 part I: description and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Clark, L.A.; Bender, D.S.; Krueger, R.F.; Morey, L.C.; Verheul, R.; Alarcon, R.D.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.; Oldham, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A major reconceptualization of personality psychopathology has been proposed for DSM-5 that identifies core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and prominent pathological personality types. A comprehensive personality assessment consists of four components:

  9. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  10. Segmenting consumers according to experiential preferences based on personality type vs. personality traits – a latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... at personality type rather than single personality traits to better understand behavior. Personality type represents “typical configurations of the dispositional attributes that define individuals” (Donnellan and Robins, 2010: 1). Type accounts for the necessity of understanding not only a person’s defining...... trait but also how this interacts with other traits providing a person centered rather than an attribute centered understanding. This allows for a classification of people rather than a classification of attributes of people. In the context of segmentation the objective is classifying people rather than...

  11. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  12. Personality traits, self-care behaviours and glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Bruce, D. G.; Davis, T. M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether the personality traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness are associated with self-care behaviours and glycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Big Five Inventory personality traits Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism and Openness were...... modelling was used to determine whether personality was associated with BMI, smoking, self-monitoring of blood glucose and medication taking. Multivariable regression was used to investigate which traits were independently associated with these self-care behaviours and HbA1c. Results: Patients with higher......, longer diabetes duration, diabetes treatment, self-monitoring of blood glucose (negatively) and less medication taking (P ≤ 0.009), but no personality trait added to the model. Conclusions: Although there was no independent association between personality traits and HbA1c, the relationship between high...

  13. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in

  14. How do people respond to health news? The role of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Sara J; Jackson, Joshua J

    2016-06-01

    When a patient receives a health diagnosis, their response (e.g. changes in behaviour, seeking support) can have significant consequences for long-term health and well-being. Characteristics of health news are known to influence these responses, but personality traits have been omitted from this line of research. The current study examines the role of personality traits in predicting response to health news. Participants (N = 298) read scenarios in which they received health news that was manipulated to vary in severity, controllability and likelihood of outcomes. Participants then rated how likely they were to engage in a number of response behaviours. We examined the main effects and interaction of situational manipulations and personality traits on ratings of these behaviours. Both situations and personality traits influenced behavioural responses to health events. In particular, conscientiousness predicted taking action and seeking social support. Neuroticism predicted both maladaptive and adaptive behavioural responses, providing support for the 'healthy neurotic' hypothesis. Moreover, personality traits predicted best in weak (unlikely, controllable) situations. Both personality traits and situational characteristics contribute to behavioural responses to health news.

  15. Alcohol use initiation is associated with changes in personality trait trajectories from early adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Durbin, C Emily; Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics from early adolescence to young adulthood. Few studies, however, have tested whether alcohol use initiation impacts trajectories of personality over this time period. We examined the effect of alcohol use initiation on personality development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were male (nmen = 2,350) and female (nwomen = 2,618) twins and adoptees from 3 community-based longitudinal studies conducted at the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research. Data on personality traits of Positive Emotionality (PEM; Well-being), Negative Emotionality (NEM; Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Aggression), and Constraint (CON; Control and Harm Avoidance)-assessed via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)-and age of first drink were collected for up to 4 waves spanning ages 10 to 32. Alcohol use initiation was associated with significant decreases in levels of Well-being and CON traits, most notably Control; and significant increases in levels of all NEM traits, particularly Aggression. In general, the effects of alcohol use initiation on personality traits were moderated by gender and enhanced among those with earlier age of first drink. From early adolescence to young adulthood, alcohol use initiation predicts deviations from normative patterns of personality maturation. Such findings offer a potential mechanism underlying the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics during this formative period of development. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence.

  17. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  18. Individual differences and reasoning: a study on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Luca; Giusberti, Fiorella; Nori, Raffaella; Gambetti, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    Personality can play a crucial role in how people reason and decide. Identifying individual differences related to how we actively gather information and use evidence could lead to a better comprehension and predictability of human reasoning. Recent findings have shown that some personality traits are related to similar decision-making patterns showed by people with mental disorders. We performed research with the aim to investigate delusion-proneness, obsessive-like personality, anxiety (trait and state), and reasoning styles in individuals from the general population. We introduced personality trait and state anxiety scores in a regression model to explore specific associations with: (1) amount of data-gathered prior to making a decision; and (2) the use of confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence. Results showed that all our independent variables were positively or negatively associated with the amount of data collected in order to make simple probabilistic decisions. Anxiety and obsessiveness were the only predictors of the weight attributed to evidence in favour or against a hypothesis. Findings were discussed in relation to theoretical assumptions, predictions, and clinical implications. Personality traits can predict peculiar ways to reason and decide that, in turn, could be involved to some extent in the formation and/or maintenance of psychological disorders.

  19. Relationships of personality traits and stress to gingival status or soft-tissue oral pathology: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneman, M A; Cobb, C; Soriano, F; Burns, S; Schuchman, L

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of personality traits and stress with gingival inflammation and with soft-tissue oral pathology. Personality traits of psychoticism (P), extroversion and introversion (E), and neuroticism (N) were measured with Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ). Stress was measured with a modified organizational and individual assessment survey (OIAS) developed by Hendrix. Military recruits from Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, were examined for soft-tissue oral pathology and gingival status at weeks one (n = 241) and six (n = 61) of basic combat training (BCT). The EPQ and OIAS were administered to 217 recruits during week six of BCT. A discriminant analysis was used to determine correlations among study variables. Significant correlations (P personality traits and various measures of tolerance of stress. Little variance was found between groups originally presenting with or without disease. Only physical stress (P personality traits, stress variables, and gingival inflammation or soft-tissue pathology in recruits with extreme personality characteristics or perception of high physical stress levels in basic combat training.

  20. Personality in speech assessment and automatic classification

    CERN Document Server

    Polzehl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This work combines interdisciplinary knowledge and experience from research fields of psychology, linguistics, audio-processing, machine learning, and computer science. The work systematically explores a novel research topic devoted to automated modeling of personality expression from speech. For this aim, it introduces a novel personality assessment questionnaire and presents the results of extensive labeling sessions to annotate the speech data with personality assessments. It provides estimates of the Big 5 personality traits, i.e. openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Based on a database built on the questionnaire, the book presents models to tell apart different personality types or classes from speech automatically.

  1. Personality traits and individual differences predict threat-induced changes in postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L

    2015-04-01

    This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Gender and Personality Traits Influence Use of Deal Sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Deal sites became widespread, there are numerous both international and local players in the market. The research presented in the paper investigates if gender and personality traits influence use (versus non-use) of deal sites. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits...

  3. Vocational interests assessed at the end of high school predict life outcomes assessed 10 years later over and above IQ and Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Gundula; Rieger, Sven; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2017-07-01

    Vocational interests are important aspects of personality that reflect individual differences in motives, goals, and personal strivings. It is therefore plausible that these characteristics have an impact on individuals' lives not only in terms of vocational outcomes, but also beyond the vocational domain. Yet the effects of vocational interests on various life outcomes have rarely been investigated. Using Holland's RIASEC taxonomy (Holland, 1997), which groups vocational interests into 6 broad domains, the present study examined whether vocational interests are significant predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over and above the Big Five personality traits. For this purpose, a cohort of German high school students (N = 3,023) was tracked over a period of 10 years after graduating from school. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the predictive validity of RIASEC interests and Big Five personality traits. Nine outcomes from the domains of work, relationships, and health were investigated. The results indicate that vocational interests are important predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits. Vocational interests were significant predictors of 7 of the 9 investigated outcomes: full-time employment, gross income, unemployment, being married, having children, never having had a relationship, and perceived health status. For work and relationship outcomes, vocational interests were even stronger predictors than the Big Five personality traits. For health-related outcomes, the results favored the personality traits. Effects were similar across gender for all outcomes-except 2 relationship outcomes. Possible explanations for these effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Extending Big-Five Theory into Childhood: A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship between Big-Five Personality Traits and Behavior Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, David J.; McGhee, Ron L.; Evans, J. Gary

    1999-01-01

    Investigation conducted to link Big-Five personality traits with behavior problems identified in childhood. Results show distinct patterns of behavior problems associated with various personality characteristics. Preliminary data indicate that identifying Big-Five personality trait patterns may be a useful dimension of assessment for understanding…

  5. Impact of gender and personality traits (BFI-10) on trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate if gender and personality traits influence the trust and its application in innovative management. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. A validated...

  6. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  7. A behavioral genetic analysis of callous-unemotional traits and Big Five personality in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ERP responses to person names as a measure of trait inference in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang

    2015-01-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study examines how trait information inferred from behaviors is associated with person names. In linguistic discourses, person names were associated with descriptions of either positive or negative behaviors. In a subsequent explicit evaluation task, the previously described person names were presented in isolation, and the participants were asked to judge the emotional valence of these names. We found that the names associated with positive descriptions elicited a larger positivity in the ERP than the names associated with negative descriptions. The results indicate that the emotional valence of person names attached to person perception can be dynamically influenced by short descriptions of the target person, probably due to trait inference based on the provided behavioral descriptions.

  10. Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Pålsson, Erik; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-05-03

    The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days. Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS. A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.

  11. Personality traits and violent behavior: a comparison between psychopathic and non-psychopathic male murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua Serafim, Antonio; de Barros, Daniel Martins; Bonini Castellana, Gustavo; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2014-11-30

    The relationship between psychopathy and traits of temperament and character in a specific population of criminals, such as murderers, has not been sufficiently investigated. This study assesses the relationship between psychopathy and temperament and character traits in murderers. The sample consisted of 118 men divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (N=40), non-psychopathic murderers (N=40) and 38 non-psychopathic non-criminals (controls). All individuals were evaluated by Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) and The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Psychopathic murderers presented higher scores than the other two groups in PCL-R; both criminal groups presented higher scores than non-psychopathic non-criminals. Psychopathic murderers showed lower scores than non-psychopathic murderers on Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directness and Cooperativeness. There was no difference between murderers groups regarding Novelty Seeking and Self-transcendence. In all TCI personality traits psychopathic and non-psychopathic murderers showed scores lower than controls, except Harm Avoidance for non-psychopathic murderers. In conclusion, most personality traits assessed by TCI were associated with psychopathy, while Novelty Seeking and Self-transcendence were associated with homicidal behavior independently of the psychopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper And Lower Limbs Disability And Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Tahira; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; Rehman, Atiq Ur; Ahmed, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, ptraits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience.

  13. Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Eui Jun Jeong; Hye Rim Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extrav...

  14. Unusual Configurations of Personality Traits Indicate Multiple Patterns of Their Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri; Hřebíčková, Martina; Realo, Anu

    2018-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Five Factor Model (FFM) is a satisfactory description of the pattern of covariations among personality traits, which supposedly fits, more or less adequately, every individual. As an amendment to the FFM, we propose that the customary five-factor structure is only a near-universal, because it does not fit all individuals but only a large majority of them. Evidences reveal a small minority of participants who have an unusual configuration of personality traits, which is clearly recognizable, both in self- and observer-ratings. We identified three types of atypical configurations of personality traits, characterized mainly by a scatter of subscale scores within each of the FFM factors. How different configurations of personality traits are formed, persist, and function needs further investigation. PMID:29515499

  15. Unusual Configurations of Personality Traits Indicate Multiple Patterns of Their Coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Allik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the Five Factor Model (FFM is a satisfactory description of the pattern of covariations among personality traits, which supposedly fits, more or less adequately, every individual. As an amendment to the FFM, we propose that the customary five-factor structure is only a near-universal, because it does not fit all individuals but only a large majority of them. Evidences reveal a small minority of participants who have an unusual configuration of personality traits, which is clearly recognizable, both in self- and observer-ratings. We identified three types of atypical configurations of personality traits, characterized mainly by a scatter of subscale scores within each of the FFM factors. How different configurations of personality traits are formed, persist, and function needs further investigation.

  16. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TO DETERMINE THE PERSONALITY TRAITS, CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN BIPOLAR DISORDER PATIENTS WITH COMORBID ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahalya Thinaharan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and substance use disorder is common. It is difficult to treat bipolar disorder patients with comorbid alcohol use disorder since the disease course is more severe and they have greater difficulties in cognitive functions than those without alcohol use. Whether alcohol negatively affects specific cognitive functions or the deficits are more diffuse in nature is unclear. Alcoholic bipolar patients present with high scores in openness to experience and neuroticism personality traits. Personality to an extent mediates the co-occurrence of substance use in bipolar disorder. Thus, identifying these personality traits in bipolar or substance use disorder patients, will help us to prevent the co-occurrence of the second disorder. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics, personality traits and cognitive functions of patients with bipolar and comorbid alcohol use disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS A sample of 100 patients, 50 with bipolar and alcohol use disorder (cases and 50 with bipolar disorder (controls attending tertiary care hospital outpatient department at Chennai was selected. Alcohol status was assessed using AUDIT (alcohol use disorder identification test and SADQ (severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire. Personality was assessed using NEO-five factor inventory. Cognition was assessed using frontal lobe assessment battery, Stroop test, DSST (digit symbol substitution test and verbal N back test. RESULTS The cases group had more number of hospitalisations and mixed episodes than control group. They also performed poorer on frontal lobe assessment battery, Stroop test and digit symbol substitution test. Duration of alcohol use was associated positively with total number of hospitalisations and number of episodes. The cases group scored significantly higher on the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. CONCLUSION The study confirmed the higher

  18. Personality traits and illness representations as predictors of life satisfaction in hypertensive adolescents and emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Žugelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examined the role of illness representations and personality in hypertensive adolescents’ and emerging adults’ life satisfaction. Even though earlier research showed that illness representations and personality traits predict life satisfaction in paediatric samples suffering from other chronic illnesses, these associations were not yet explored on youth with essential hypertension. The 97 participants were assessed for demographic and medical data, life satisfaction, illness representations (own illness representations – OIR, and perceived important others’ representations about participants’ illness – PIOIR, and personality (self-report and peer-report. Regression analyses indicated that OIR and self-reported personality traits accounted for 24% of the variance in general life satisfaction, 33% of variance in family-related life satisfaction, 25% of variance in friends-related life satisfaction, and 25% of variance in self-related life satisfaction. When entering PIOR illness representations and peer-assessed personality traits as predictors of life satisfaction domains, these predictors accounted for 29% of the variance in general life satisfaction, 23% of variance in family-related life satisfaction, 17% of variance in friends-related life satisfaction, 24% of the variance in the living environment-related life satisfaction, and 20% in self-related life satisfaction. More specifically, the personality traits of agreeableness (self-report, neuroticism (self-report and openness (peer report, as well as the illness representations dimensions (OIR: concern and emotional burden; PIOIR: identity, comprehension, consequences and treatment control of PIOIR, were shown to be the most important predictors of different domains of life satisfaction.

  19. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  20. Features manifestations of personality traits in male handball players of different sexes

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    Dyadechko I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the peculiarities of personality traits of men and women volleyball teams. Established that the same training conditions cause different levels of manifestation of personality traits in men and women. Revealed that the handball players dominate personality traits such as emotional and sensory reactions, artistry, mood changes, and other harmful. At the same time, specific games in the handball forms "masculine" personality traits, which were essential to success in the game. These qualities are as follows: composure, obstinacy, aggressiveness, propensity to take risks, etc. Coaches are encouraged to identify and take into account the quality of individual players, especially in the competitions.

  1. Identification of genetic loci shared between schizophrenia and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeland, Olav B; Wang, Yunpeng; Lo, Min-Tzu; Li, Wen; Frei, Oleksandr; Witoelar, Aree; Tesli, Martin; Hinds, David A; Tung, Joyce Y; Djurovic, Srdjan; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-05-22

    Schizophrenia is associated with differences in personality traits, and recent studies suggest that personality traits and schizophrenia share a genetic basis. Here we aimed to identify specific genetic loci shared between schizophrenia and the Big Five personality traits using a Bayesian statistical framework. Using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on personality traits in the 23andMe cohort (n = 59,225) and schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohort (n = 82,315), we evaluated overlap in common genetic variants. The Big Five personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were measured using a web implementation of the Big Five Inventory. Applying the conditional false discovery rate approach, we increased discovery of genetic loci and identified two loci shared between neuroticism and schizophrenia and six loci shared between openness and schizophrenia. The study provides new insights into the relationship between personality traits and schizophrenia by highlighting genetic loci involved in their common genetic etiology.

  2. The influence of gender and personality traits on the career planning of Swiss medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2003-10-11

    Since the 1990s, as many women as men have been entering and graduating from medical schools in Western countries. Up to date, prospective studies of physicians' career paths are lacking. This paper presents the data of the first assessment of a longitudinal survey of a cohort of Swiss medical school graduates, evaluated with regard to how gender and personality traits contribute to their academic achievement and further career planning. In 2001, 719 graduate students (52.9% females, 47.1% males) returned a postal questionnaire comprising sections on personality traits, career motivation, and career planning. Female graduates scored higher on traits such as helpfulness, relationship consciousness, empathy, family responsibility, and job security. Male students scored higher on traits such as independence, decisiveness, self-confidence, activity, income, and prestige. Women were further advanced in the writing of their thesis (p = 0.04), chose different topics (p extrinsic career motivation predict advanced academic achievement, whereas self-esteem and intrinsic career motivation influence the choice of speciality. The results indicate that women plan their career more purposefully than men, and that not only gender but also personality traits and career motivation play an important role in academic achievement and career planning.

  3. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  4. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor......DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema...

  5. Meta-analysis of Big Five personality traits in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Cunningham, Sara A; Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L

    2018-04-01

    The present meta-analysis synthesizes the emerging literature on the relationship of Big Five personality traits to autism spectrum disorder. Studies were included if they (1) either (a) measured autism spectrum disorder characteristics using a metric that yielded a single score quantification of the magnitude of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and/or (b) studied individuals with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis compared to individuals without an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and (2) measured Big Five traits in the same sample or samples. Fourteen reviewed studies include both correlational analyses and group comparisons. Eighteen effect sizes per Big Five trait were used to calculate two overall effect sizes per trait. Meta-analytic effects were calculated using random effects models. Twelve effects (per trait) from nine studies reporting correlations yielded a negative association between each Big Five personality trait and autism spectrum disorder characteristics (Fisher's z ranged from -.21 (conscientiousness) to -.50 (extraversion)). Six group contrasts (per trait) from six studies comparing individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to neurotypical individuals were also substantial (Hedges' g ranged from -.88 (conscientiousness) to -1.42 (extraversion)). The potential impact of personality on important life outcomes and new directions for future research on personality in autism spectrum disorder are discussed in light of results.

  6. Trichotillomania and personality traits from the five-factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Keuthen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To examine whether personality traits have predictive validity for trichotillomania (TTM diagnosis, pulling severity and control, and hair pulling style.Methods:In study 1, logistic regression was used with TTM cases (n=54 and controls (n=25 to determine if NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI personality domains predicted TTM case vs. control classification. In study 2, hierarchical multiple regression was used with TTM cases (n=164 to determine whether NEO-FFI personality domains predicted hair pulling severity and control as well as focused and automatic pulling styles.Results:TTM case vs. control status was predicted by NEO-FFI neuroticism. Every 1-point increase in neuroticism scores resulted in a 10% greater chance of TTM diagnosis. Higher neuroticism, higher openness, and lower agreeableness were associated with greater pulling severity. Higher neuroticism was also associated with less control over hair pulling. Higher neuroticism and lower openness were associated with greater focused pulling. None of the personality domains predicted automatic hair pulling.Conclusions:Personality traits, especially neuroticism, can predict TTM diagnosis, hair pulling severity and control, and the focused style of pulling. None of the personality traits predicted automatic pulling. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether personality variables predispose to TTM onset, impact disorder course, and/or result from hair pulling behavior.

  7. CHOOSING TEACHING AS A PROFESSION: INFLUENCE OF BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS ON FALLBACK CAREER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tomšik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality plays a significant role in influencing motivation for choosing a perspective profession. As empirical evidence confirmed, personality traits conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion are in positive correlation with intrinsic motives for choosing teaching as a profession (in negative with personality trait neuroticism, and in negative correlation with extrinsic motivation and fallback career (in positive with personality trait neuroticism. The primary aim of research is to point out the importance of personality traits in career choices via detecting which personality traits are predictors of fallback career. In the research first grade university students (teacher trainees; N = 402 completed the Five Factor Inventory and SMVUP-4-S scale. As results show, Big Five personality traits are in correlation with fallback career and are a significant predictor of fallback career. The Big Five model together explained 17.4% of the variance in fallback career, where personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience and neuroticism has been shown as a statistically significant predictor of fallback career of teacher trainees.

  8. Association between 5-HTTLPR and borderline personality disorder traits among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hankin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic association examination of borderline personality disorder traits (BPD traits in children and adolescents (ages 9-15 using two independent samples of youth recruited from the general community. We tested the a priori hypothesis that the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR would relate specifically to BPD traits in youth. This association was hypothesized based on prior genetic association research with BPD adults and theory positing that emotion dysregulation may be a core risk process contributing to BPD. Youth provided DNA via buccal cells. Both youth and a parent completed self-report measures assessing youth’s BPD traits and depressive symptoms. Results from both Study 1 (N = 242 and an independent replication sample of Study 2 (N = 144 showed that carriers of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR exhibited the highest levels of BPD traits. This relation was observed even after controlling for the substantial co-occurrence between BPD traits and depressive symptoms. This specific association between 5-HTTLPR and BPD traits among youth supports previous genetic associations with adults diagnosed with BPD and provides preliminary support for a developmental extension of etiological risk for BPD among youth.

  9. Relationships Among Avoidant Personality Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Normative Personality Traits: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander-Vatn, Audun; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind

    2018-03-05

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later. Associations between AvPD, SAD, and personality traits were investigated with multivariate biometric analyses. The authors found that AvPD and SAD are differentially related to several personality traits at the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental level. The genetic and environmental liability to AvPD could be fully accounted for by the genetic and environmental factors influencing SAD and personality. The findings may increase current etiological understanding of these disorders and inform future classification and treatment efforts.

  10. Dark and vulnerable personality trait correlates of dimensions of criminal behavior among adult offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Albertson, Emily; Verona, Edelyn

    2017-10-01

    Given the high-level impact of crime, empirical work is needed to identify personality traits, or overarching factors of personality pathology, that may leave individuals more prone to engage in criminal behaviors. This study empirically tested the distinction between the dark personality and vulnerable dark personality spectra (Miller et al., 2010) in a large offender sample and aimed to test how these personality factors relate to criminal dimensions and individual types of crime. Self-report and public record data verified criminal behaviors for 493 (34.7% women) adult offenders, and features of the 2 personality spectra were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and Personality Assessment Inventory: Borderline Scale. Factor analyses supported the distinction between dark and vulnerable dark personality spectra and 3 dimensions of crime (i.e., crimes against property and persons, and drug-related crimes). Findings broadly pointed to trait vulnerabilities within the dark spectra (e.g., callousness) as relevant for criminal versatility and violent crimes against persons (e.g., assault, murder), and impulsive/reactive tendencies within the dark spectra (vulnerable dark) appeared to be particularly important for impulsive property crimes (e.g., theft, robbery) and drug offenses. Results may lend themselves well to refining offender intervention techniques and warrant further examination of the extent to which dark personality spectra coalesce as expected or similarly predict high-impact behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Personality traits and clinical/biochemical course in the first year after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline Venzon; de Castro, Elisa Kern; Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between personality and health is frequently studied in scientific research. This study investigated the clinical/biochemical course of kidney transplant patients based on personality traits. A longitudinal study assessed 114 kidney transplant patients (men = 68 and women = 46) with an average age of 47.72 years (SD = 11.4). Personality was evaluated using the Brazilian Factorial Personality Inventory (BFP/Big Five Model). Clinical variables were analyzed based on patient charts (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hypertension, acute rejection, infection, graft loss, and death). Personality types were assessed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Two groups with personality types were differentiated by psychological characteristics: Cluster 1 - average neuroticism, high surgency, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and low openness; Cluster 2 - high neuroticism, average surgency and agreeableness, average conscientiousness, and low openness. There was no statistically significant difference between the clusters in terms of hypertension, acute infection, graft loss, death, and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) I and II panel reactive antibodies. eGFR was associated with the personality types. Cluster 2 was associated with a better renal function in the 9-month follow-up period after kidney transplantation. In this study, patients from Cluster 2 exhibited higher eGFR 9 months after the transplant procedure compared to those from Cluster 1. Monitoring these patients over a longer period may provide a better understanding of the relationship between personality traits and clinical course during the post-transplant period.

  12. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  13. Genome-wide Association Study of Personality Traits in the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Bae

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits have been shown to be associated with longevity and healthy aging. In order to discover novel genetic modifiers associated with personality traits as related with longevity, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS on personality factors assessed by NEO-FFI in individuals enrolled in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, a study of 583 families (N up to 4595 with clustering for longevity in the United States and Denmark. Three SNPs, in almost perfect LD, associated with agreeableness reached genome-wide significance (p<10-8 and replicated in an additional sample of 1279 LLFS subjects, although one (rs9650241 failed to replicate and the other two were not available in two independent replication cohorts, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the New England Centenarian Study. Based on 10,000,000 permutations, the empirical p-value of 2X10-7 was observed for the genome-wide significant SNPs. Seventeen SNPs that reached marginal statistical significance in the two previous GWASs (p-value < 10-4 and 10-5, were also marginally significantly associated in this study (p-value < 0.05, although none of the associations passed the Bonferroni correction. In addition, we tested age-by-SNP interactions and found some significant associations. Since scores of personality traits in LLFS subjects change in the oldest ages, and genetic factors outweigh environmental factors to achieve extreme ages, these age-by-SNP interactions could be a proxy for complex gene-gene interactions affecting personality traits and longevity.

  14. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-08-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered expressions of schema therapy constructs, which psychotherapists might take advantage of in terms of case formulation and targets of treatment. In turn, schema therapy constructs add theoretical understanding to DSM-5 traits.

  15. Age of Onset of Mood Disorders and Complexity of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ostacoli, L.; Zuffranieri, M.; Cavallo, M.; Zennaro, A.; Rainero, I.; Pinessi, L.; Pacchiana Parravicini, M. V.; Ladisa, E.; Furlan, P. M.; Picci, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the link between the age of onset of mood disorders and the complexity of the personality traits. Methods. 209 patients with major depressive or manic/hypomanic episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I diagnoses and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. 17.2% of the patients had no elevated MCMI-III scores, 45.9% had one peak, and 36.9% had a complex personality disorder wit...

  16. Ten year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Samuel, Douglas B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Method Ten-year rank order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Results Dependability corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of .60–.90 for traits and .25–.65 for personality disorders. Conclusions The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The Five-Factor Theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. PMID:22812532

  17. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Personality disorder assessment: the challenge of construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L A; Livesley, W J; Morey, L

    1997-01-01

    We begin with a review of the data that challenge the current categorical system for classifying personality disorder, focusing on the central assessment issues of convergent and discriminant validity. These data indicate that while there is room for improvement in assessment, even greater change is needed in conceptualization than in instrumentation. Accordingly, we then refocus the categorical-dimensional debate in assessment terms, and place it in the broader context of such issues as the hierarchical structure of personality, overlap and distinctions between normal and abnormal personality, sources of information in personality disorder assessment, and overlap and discrimination of trait and state assessment. We conclude that more complex conceptual models that can incorporate both biological and environmental influences on the development of adaptive and maladaptive personality are needed.

  19. On individual differences in person perception: raters' personality traits relate to their psychopathy checklist-revised scoring tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K; Rufino, Katrina A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Jackson, Rebecca L; Murrie, Daniel C

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the PCL-R, and completed a comprehensive measure of their own personality traits. A priori hypotheses specified that raters' personality traits, and their similarity to psychopathy characteristics, would relate to raters' PCL-R scoring tendencies. As hypothesized, some raters assigned consistently higher scores on the PCL-R than others, especially on PCL-R Facets 1 and 2. Also as hypothesized, raters' scoring tendencies related to their own personality traits (e.g., higher rater Agreeableness was associated with lower PCL-R Interpersonal facet scoring). Overall, findings underscore the need for future research to examine the role of evaluator characteristics on evaluation results and the need for clinical training to address evaluators' personality influences on their ostensibly objective evaluations.

  20. Remembering and knowing personality traits: figure/ground asymmetries in person-related retrieval experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, the effect of category salience on retrieval experience was investigated. In Experiment 1, participants rated typicality or concreteness of personality traits that differed in stereotype reference (i.e., consistent, inconsistent, and neutral in relation to the age stereotype). More remember judgments were given for consistent and inconsistent traits in contrast to neutral traits, thereby indicating a figure/ground asymmetry. In Experiment 2, neutral traits were excluded and a classical figure/ground phenomenon was demonstrated for the retrieval experience of traits (i.e., reversibility of an ambiguous figure after typicality and untypicality ratings). Altogether, the results suggest that metacognitive trait representations depend on principles of figure/ground asymmetries rather than on functional principles of social information processing.

  1. Correlation not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142

  2. Correlation not causation: the relationship between personality traits and political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor.

  3. The mediator effect of personality traits on the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Ryo; Inoue, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Naoki; Suzukawa, Akio; Tanabe, Hajime; Oka, Matsuhiko; Narita, Hisashi; Ito, Koki; Kako, Yuki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that personality traits have a mediator effect on the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder and nonclinical general adult subjects. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that personality traits mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. We used the following questionnaires to evaluate 255 outpatients with schizophrenia: the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, temperament and character inventory, and Patients Health Questionnire-9. Univariate analysis, multiple regression analysis, and structured equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. The relationship between neglect and sexual abuse and the severity of depressive symptoms was mostly mediated by the personality traits of high harm avoidance, low self-directedness, and low cooperativeness. This finding was supported by the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis and the acceptable fit indices of SEM. Thus, our results suggest that personality traits mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. The present study and our previous studies also suggest that this mediator effect could occur independent of the presence or type of mental disorder. Clinicians should routinely assess childhood abuse history, personality traits, and their effects in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Personality trait interactions in parents of patients with borderline personality disorder: a controlled study using the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldi, Filippo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Brambilla, Francesca; Leombruni, Paolo

    2009-01-30

    Family environment is a pathogenic factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the personality traits of patients with BPD and their parents have never been assessed using the same instrument and then examined for relationships. In the present study, we explored the temperament and character traits of BPD patients and their parents to investigate possible interactions. In total, 56 patients with BPD and their parents were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared with 53 control families. Discriminant and correlation analyses indicated that subjects with BPD displayed higher levels of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower levels of self-directedness than control subjects. Their fathers displayed higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness, and their mothers displayed lower levels of self-directedness compared with levels in control parents. In BPD families, temperament and character traits displayed high levels of discriminatory power. Novelty seeking in offspring with borderline personality disorder was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and their fathers' self-transcendence. Self-directedness in borderline offspring was significantly correlated with both their mothers' and fathers' novelty seeking, and their self-transcendence was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The different correlational pattern for borderline and control families is discussed. Characteristic personality patterns were found in BPD offspring and in both parents. The relationship between personality traits of borderline offspring and those of their parents may be related to both genetic transmission and family dynamics. Ramifications for treatment are discussed.

  5. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  6. Impact of gender and personality traits (BFI-10) on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of gender and personality traits on opinion leadership. It tries to partially replicate the study about effect of Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality traits on domain-specific opinion leadership mediated through objective knowledge and generalized opinion leadership...

  7. Associations Between Changes in Normal Personality Traits and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms over 16 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant movement toward conceptualizing borderline personality disorder (BPD) with normal personality traits. However one critical assumption underlying this transition, that longitudinal trajectories of BPD symptoms and normal traits track together, has not been tested. We evaluated the prospective longitudinal associations of changes in five-factor model traits and BPD symptoms over the course of 16 years using parallel process latent growth curve models in 362 patients with BPD (N=290) or other PDs (N=72). Moderate to strong cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were observed between BPD symptoms and Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. This study is the first to demonstrate a longitudinal link between changes in BPD symptoms and changes in traits over an extended interval in a clinical sample. These findings imply that changes in BPD symptoms occur in concert with changes in normal traits, and support the proposed transition to conceptualizing BPD, at least in part, with trait dimensions. PMID:25364942

  8. Parental representations and dimensions of personality: empirical relations and assessment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, A L; Ruiz, M A

    1997-04-01

    Research on the relations between parental representations, personality traits, and psychopathology was discussed with reference to their integration for clinical personality assessment. Empirical results linking parental representations assessed by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior and the Five-Factor Model of personality traits in a young adult population supported the position that parental representations significantly relate to adult personality. Individuals whose parental representations were generally affiliative described themselves as less prone to emotional distress (lower neuroticism); more interpersonally oriented and experiencing of positive emotions (higher extraversion); more peaceable and trustworthy (higher agreeableness); and more dutiful, resourceful, and dependable (higher conscientiousness). Parental representations colored by autonomy granting and autonomy taking were related to higher levels of openness to experience but lower levels of conscientiousness and extraversion in self-descriptions. Assessment implications and an integrative assessment strategy were presented along with a clinical case example.

  9. Trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Phenotypic and genetic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Grant, Julia D.; Maples, Jessica; Trull, Timothy J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of a trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Correlations between the Five-Factor Inventory-BPD composite (FFI-BPD) and explicit measures of BPD were examined across six samples, including undergraduate, community, and clinical samples. The median correlation was .60, which was nearly identical to the correlation between measures of BPD and a BPD composite generated from the full Revised NEO Personality Inventory (i.e., NEO-BPD; r =.61). Correlations between FFI-BPD and relevant measures of psychiatric symptomatology and etiology (e.g., childhood abuse, drug use, depression, and personality disorders) were also examined and compared to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. As expected, the FFI-BPD composite correlated most strongly with measures associated with high levels of Neuroticism, such as depression, anxiety, and emotion dysregulation, and the pattern of correlations generated using the FFI-BPD was highly similar to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. Finally, genetic analyses estimated that FFI-BPD is 44% heritable, which is comparable to meta-analytic research examining genetics associated with BPD, and revealed that 71% of the genetic influences are shared between FFI-BPD and a self-report measure assessing BPD (Personality Assessment Inventory – Borderline subscale; Morey, 1991). Generally, these results support the use of FFI-BPD as a reasonable proxy for BPD, which has considerable implications, particularly for potential gene-finding efforts in large, epidemiological datasets that include the NEO FFI. PMID:25984635

  10. Association between personality traits and Escitalopram treatment efficacy in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võhma, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Tõru, Innar; Aluoja, Anu; Maron, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that personality factors may interact with the development and clinical expression of panic disorder (PD). A greater understanding of these relationships may have important implications for clinical practice and implications for searching reliable predictors of treatment outcome. The study aimed to examine the effect of escitalopram treatment on personality traits in PD patients, and to identify whether the treatment outcome could be predicted by any personality trait. A study sample consisting of 110 outpatients with PD treated with 10-20 mg/day of escitalopram for 12 weeks. The personality traits were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of medication by using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Although almost all personality traits on the SSP measurement were improved after 12 weeks of medication in comparison with the baseline scores, none of these changes reached a statistically significant level. Only higher impulsivity at baseline SSP predicted non-remission to 12-weeks treatment with escitalopram; however, this association did not withstand the Bonferroni correction in multiple comparisons. All patients were treated in a naturalistic way using an open-label drug, so placebo responses cannot be excluded. The sample size can still be considered not large enough to reveal statistically significant findings. Maladaptive personality disposition in patients with PD seems to have a trait character and shows little trend toward normalization after 12-weeks treatment with the antidepressant, while the association between impulsivity and treatment response needs further investigation.

  11. Effects of Personality Traits, Religiousness/ Spirituality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.

  12. Swiss residents' speciality choices – impact of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the development of health-care services. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goal aspirations on the choice of medical speciality. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 522 fourth-year residents were asked in what speciality they wanted to qualify. They also assessed their career motivation and life goal aspirations. Data concerning personality traits such as sense of coherence, self-esteem, and gender role orientation were collected at the first assessment, four years earlier, in their final year of medical school. Data analyses were conducted by univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and covariance. Results In their fourth year of residency 439 (84.1% participants had made their speciality choice. Of these, 45 (8.6% subjects aspired to primary care, 126 (24.1% to internal medicine, 68 (13.0% to surgical specialities, 31 (5.9% to gynaecology & obstetrics (G&O, 40 (7.7% to anaesthesiology/intensive care, 44 (8.4% to paediatrics, 25 (4.8% to psychiatry and 60 (11.5% to other specialities. Female residents tended to choose G&O, paediatrics, and anaesthesiology, males more often surgical specialities; the other specialities did not show gender-relevant differences of frequency distribution. Gender had the strongest significant influence on speciality choice, followed by career motivation, personality traits, and life goals. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated that career motivation and life goals mediated the influence of personality on career choice. Personality traits were no longer significant after controlling for career motivation and life goals as covariates. The effect of gender remained significant after controlling for personality traits, career motivation and life goals. Conclusion

  13. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  14. Personality traits associated with success in Mexican exporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leticia Gil Gaytan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the personality traits associated with success in exporting by Mexican entrepreneurs in the Guadalajara metropolitan area. The main justification for carrying out this study is Mexico’s need to reduce its current dependence on manufacturing exports using foreign investment and increase the exports of Mexican companies. According to this study, there is association between export success and personality traits in successful Mexican exporters. With the spread of these findings, it is expected that both universities and business organizations will consider these results when selecting students for programs related to international venture.

  15. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  16. Stability of the DSM-5 Section III pathological personality traits and their longitudinal associations with psychosocial functioning in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Calabrese, William R; Rudick, Monica M; Yam, Wern How; Zelazny, Kerry; Williams, Trevor F; Rotterman, Jane H; Simms, Leonard J

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to establish (a) the stability of the DSM-5 Section III personality disorder (PD) traits, (b) whether these traits predict future psychosocial functioning, and (c) whether changes in traits track with changes in psychosocial functioning across time. Ninety-three outpatients (61% female) diagnosed with at least 1 PD completed patient-report measures at 2 time-points (M time between assessments = 1.44 years), including the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and several measures of psychosocial functioning. Effect sizes of rank-order and mean-level change were calculated. In addition, Time 1 traits were used to predict functioning measures at Time 2. Finally, latent change score models were estimated for DSM-5 Section III traits and functioning measures, and correlations among latent change scores were calculated to establish the relationship between change in traits and functional outcomes. Findings demonstrated that the DSM-5 Section III traits were highly stable in terms of normative (i.e., mean-level) change and rank-order stability over the course of the study. Furthermore, traits prospectively predicted psychosocial functioning. However, at the individual level traits and functioning were not entirely static over the study, and change in individuals' functioning tracked with changes in trait levels. These findings demonstrate that the DSM-5 Section III traits are highly stable consistent with the definition of PD, prospectively predictive of psychosocial functioning, and are dynamically associated with functioning over time. This study provides important evidence in support of the DSM-5 Section III PD model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Personality Trait and Facial Expression Filter-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongah Chin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present technical approaches that bridge the gap in the research related to the use of brain-computer interfaces for entertainment and facial expressions. Such facial expressions that reflect an individual's personal traits can be used to better realize artificial facial expressions in a gaming environment based on a brain-computer interface. First, an emotion extraction filter is introduced in order to classify emotions on the basis of the users' brain signals in real time. Next, a personality trait filter is defined to classify extrovert and introvert types, which manifest as five traits: very extrovert, extrovert, medium, introvert and very introvert. In addition, facial expressions derived from expression rates are obtained by an extrovert-introvert fuzzy model through its defuzzification process. Finally, we confirm this validation via an analysis of the variance of the personality trait filter, a k-fold cross validation of the emotion extraction filter, an accuracy analysis, a user study of facial synthesis and a test case game.

  18. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of gender and personality traits (BFI-10) on risk-aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates impact of gender and personality traits on risk-aversion. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Data were collected between December 2016 and January 2017. Big Five Inventory-10 was used to measure personality traits. A validated...

  20. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  1. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002) residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002) residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains) in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  2. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics--correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Springborn, Maria; Lötsch, Jörn; Johnston, Amy N B; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-04-27

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality.

  3. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A national survey into desirable personality traits in anaesthesia trainees in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fauzia Anis; Minai, Fauzia

    2010-03-01

    To explore personality traits considered to be important in selection of trainees by consultant anaesthetists in a developing country. A questionnaire listing 28 traits was sent to 125 consultant anaesthetists. The raters were asked to mark each trait on a scale of 1 to 10, with one being least desirable and 10 as most desirable. Listing of five most desirable and one least desirable trait was also required. The response rate was 79%. The most desirable trait was identified as reliability by 40%, followed by honesty 17%, functionality under stress 9%, punctuality 7%, and discipline 4%. The least desirable trait was considered as resourcefulness (21%), sense of humour (20%), unassuming mannerism (15%), high self esteem (11%), inquisitive (5%) and expedious (5%). Some traits have been identified as more desirable than others for trainees in our country. We plan to assess these in structured behavioural interviews in our residency programme.

  5. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order…

  6. The Impact of Personality Traits on Conflict Management Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Tuna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the personality traits influence the occurrence of conflicts and that the managers have important responsibilities to deal with these conflicts. The subject of this work is to find the relationship between the personal traits of the managers and the conflict management methods that they use. Within this context, a survey was conducted on A group travel agencies and three, four and five star hotels operating in the seven regions of Turkey. Reliability and validity of the scale used to measure the opinions of the 1098 managers has been analyzed and correlation and regression analysis have been conducted. The findings suggest that the managers with dominant, revengeful and cold personal traits employ the management method of domination, that the introvert managers and the managers that can be exploited use the avoidance method and that the altruistic and the extrovert managers employ the accomodation method of conflict management.

  7. Stable self-serving personality traits in recreational and dependent cocaine users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B Quednow

    Full Text Available Chronic cocaine use has been associated with impairments in social cognition, self-serving and antisocial behavior, and socially relevant personality disorders (PD. Despite the apparent relationship between Machiavellianism and stimulant use, no study has explicitly examined this personality concept in cocaine users so far. In the frame of the longitudinal Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, the Machiavellianism Questionnaire (MACH-IV was assessed in 68 recreational and 30 dependent cocaine users as well as in 68 psychostimulant-naïve controls at baseline. Additionally, three closely related personality dimensions from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-cooperativeness, (social reward dependence, and self-directedness-and the screening questionnaire of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II were acquired. At the one-year follow-up, 57 cocaine users and 48 controls were reassessed with the MACH-IV. Finally, MACH-IV scores were correlated with measures of social cognition and interaction (cognitive/emotional empathy, Theory-of-Mind, prosocial behavior and with SCID-II PD scores assessed at baseline. Both recreational and dependent cocaine users showed significantly higher Machiavellianism than controls, while dependent cocaine users additionally displayed significantly lower levels of TCI cooperativeness and self-directedness. During the one-year interval, MACH-IV scores showed high test-retest reliability and also the significant gap between cocaine users and controls remained. Moreover, in cocaine users, higher Machiavellianism correlated significantly with lower levels of cooperativeness and self-directedness, with less prosocial behavior, and with higher cluster B PD scores. However, Machiavellianism was not correlated with measures of cocaine use severity (r<-.15. Both recreational and dependent cocaine users display pronounced and stable Machiavellian personality traits. The lack of

  8. Do gender and personality traits (BFI-10) influence trust? A replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to investigate if gender and personality traits influence rating of these two statement. And if so, if it is possible to account for these factors and to create a robust trust indicator from these two statements after all. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. Findings...... with adding personality traits into the equation. This article is a replication of a previous study. This study uses 1-5 Likert scales while the previous used 1-7 Likert scales, while all the questions/statements stayed the same. The difference is that both measures (not only the first measure) of trust were...

  9. An Analysis of Donald Trump's Political Personality Traits and Policy Orientations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jiwu; Zheng Jianjun; Li Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    As a political leader,US President Trump's personality traits affect his policy orientations and current US foreign policy.The authors analyze Trump's personality in several categories-uninhibited and capricious,dynamic and capable,profit-orientated and self-centered,competitive and persistent,positive and extraverted.The traits of breaking traditions,skill at strategic deception and negotiation,action-motivated implementation,intuitive decision-making,pursuit of respect and interest exchange,and vengefulness will shape his policy and behavioral orientations.Initial study shows Trump to be a political leader with positive personality traits and double-sided dimensions.The analysis offers insight toward understanding the new US executive and his policy direction.

  10. Relationship between Personality Traits and Happiness in Patients with Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babollah Bakhshipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determining the relationship between personality traits and happiness in patients with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods: The design of this study was descriptive (correlational study. The target population of this study was all under-treated patients with major thalassemia in Amirkola thalassemia center in 2011. Among these patients, 150 patients were sampled using simple random sampling method and Morgan's table. The data were analyzed by means of calculating Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis. The patients were asked to complete NEO-five factor Inventory (short form and Oxford happiness inventory. Results: Based on the results, the coefficient of regression analysis of NEO personality factors (big five and happiness was 0.45, which shows a linear relationship between personality factors of NEO and happiness in patients with thalassemia. Thus, there is a statistically significant relationship among personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and happiness. Conclusion: Among personality traits, extroversion, flexibility, agreeableness and conscientiousness had positive statistically meaningful relationship with happiness i.e. patients with lower scores in neuroticism, were happier.

  11. The dopamine transporter gene may not contribute to susceptibility and the specific personality traits of amphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Huang, Chang-Chih; Yen, Che-Hung; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hsin-An; Ho, Pei-Shen; Cheng, Serena; Shih, Mei-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    A substantial amount of evidence suggests that dysfunction of the dopamine transporter may be involved in the pathophysiology of amphetamine dependence (AD). The aim of this study was to examine whether the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) is associated with development of AD and whether this gene influences personality traits in patients with AD. Eighteen polymorphisms of the DAT1 gene were analyzed in a case-control study that included 909 Han Chinese men (568 patients with AD and 341 control subjects). The patients fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AD. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality traits and to examine the association between these traits and DAT1 gene variants. A weak association was found between the rs27072 polymorphism and development of AD, but these borderline associations were unconfirmed by logistic regression and haplotype analysis. Although harm avoidance and novelty seeking scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls, DAT1 polymorphisms did not influence these scores. This study suggests that high harm avoidance and novelty seeking personality traits may be a risk factor for the development of AD. However, the DAT1 gene may not contribute to AD susceptibility and specific personality traits observed in AD among Han Chinese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacob J; Lounsbury, John W

    2011-01-01

    To examine the Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction. Data were collected from 278 instrumentalists (i.e., brass players and percussionists) and color guard performers (e.g., dancers) representing six world class drum and bugle corps. PARTICIPANTS completed three measures: the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory was used to measure the Big Five personality factors: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness; the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire - used to assess somatic and cognitive symptoms of performance anxiety; and the Marching Arts Satisfaction - used to assess for the physical, social, and contextual environments of drum and bugle corps. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed concurrent relationships between the Big Five and performance anxiety with satisfaction. A linear combination of the Big Five traits and Performance Anxiety accounted for 36% of the total variance in satisfaction, with Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Performance Anxiety contributing significant unique variance. The findings of the present study suggest that performers who are extraverted, conscientious, and effective at managing general stress - and performance stress in particular - find a greater sense of satisfaction with their participation in world class drum and bugle corps.

  13. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Outcome of Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurea, A; Fraberger, G; Kolbitsch, P; Lass, R; Schneider, E; Kubista, B; Windhager, R

    2016-01-01

    Ten to twenty percent of patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are dissatisfied with their clinical outcome. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of personality traits on the subjective outcome of TKA. We investigated 80 patients with 86 computer navigated TKAs. We asked for patients satisfaction and divided patients into two groups (satisfied or dissatisfied). 12 personality traits were tested by the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R). Postoperative examination included Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Radiologic investigation was done in all patients. 84% of our patients were satisfied, while 16% were not satisfied. The FPI-R showed statistical significant influence of four personality traits on patient satisfaction: life satisfaction (p = 0.006), performance orientation (p = 0.015), somatic distress (p = 0.001), and emotional stability (p = 0.002). All clinical scores (VAS, WOMAC, and KSS) showed significantly better results in the satisfied patient. Radiological examination showed optimal alignment of all TKAs. There were no complications requiring revision surgery. The results of our study show that personality traits may influence patients satisfaction and clinical outcome after TKA. Therefore patients personality traits may be a useful predictive factor for postoperative satisfaction after TKA.

  14. Effect of the personality traits of the patient on pain perception and attitude toward orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Kadu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits, pain perception, and person′s attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of two groups: Group 1 consisted of 100 treated subjects (50 males, 50 females; average age, 16.07 ± 1.36 years, and Group 2 consisted of 100 untreated subjects (50 males, 50 females; average age, 16.07 ± 1.41 years. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire that included an assessment of patients′ personality profiles, pain expectation for untreated subjects, pain experience for treated subjects, and attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Results: Gender and treatment status did not affect pain perception and attitude of a person toward orthodontic treatment. There was a strong relationship between pain perception and attitude with Pearson′s correlation of 0.367 and P ≤ 0.0001. With one unit increase in attitude there was 0.43 units increase in pain. Patients with high levels of trait neuroticism (P = 0.01 and low levels of trait conscientiousness (P = 0.02 experienced more pain. Patients with high levels of trait conscientiousness showed better attitude (P = 0.01. Conclusion: Personality traits, neuroticism, and conscientiousness have effect on pain perception and attitude of patients toward orthodontic treatment. Patients with better attitude experienced less pain and patients with less pain exhibited better attitude.

  15. Familial and Clinical Correlates in Depressed Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment and risk factors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. Objectives: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. Methods: A retrospective chart review using the Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Instrument for Borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed BPD adolescents with BPD traits and 28 non-BPD depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the C-DIB threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. The Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines was used to determine the presence of BPD. Comparisons analyses were performed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. Results: BPD traits participants outpatients were characterised by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, parent-child relational problem, more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalisation. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, or personality disorders, having siblings, parental disagreement/argument in boys were associated with BPD symptomatologytraits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities were also associated with BPD traits. Discussion: Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in

  16. Personality traits of pharmacy and medical students throughout their course of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordina M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists and medical doctors are two professional groups that very often receive their education and practice in the same environment. However, their approach to patient care and collaboration tends to be different and this may lead to both frustration and conflict which may adversely affect patient care. Personality has been identified as a psychological issue that could contribute to conflict in a work situation. Objective: To study the personality traits of a cohort of students studying pharmacy and medicine at the University of Malta in their first and final year. Methods: The Gordon Personal Profile – Inventory was administered to a cohort of pharmacy and medical students in their first year and once again administered to the same cohort who completed their course of study in their final year. Basic demographic data was also collected. Results: In first year the most pronounced traits for both student groups were those of Emotional Stability and Personal Relations. Over a period of five years, there were shifts in personality traits. In their final year pharmacy students were characterized by high scores for Cautiousness and Personal Relations while medical students exhibited medium scores in Cautiousness and Emotional Stability. Conclusion: The changes in personality traits over the duration of the course were not radical changes but rather that of traits becoming more pronounced.

  17. A study on relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality traits among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Internet addiction is less researched entity in developing countries. There has been an explosive growth in the use of internet worldwide including India in the last decade. Aims: To study the relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality characteristics among medical students. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional observational study carried out on 140 medical students. Subjects and Methods: All the students were taken randomly. Assessment of sociodemographic details was done with the help of  semi-structured pro forma, and internet addiction test and big five inventory were used to assess internet addictive behavior and personality traits. Statistical Analysis Used: For comparison of dichotomous variables, Chi-square test was used. Correlation and linear regression were applied to see association. Data analysis was done with the help of  statistical software SPSS 23. 0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences by IBM Corporation. Results: Mean score of internet addiction scale among medical students was 33.94 (standard deviation 13.592. It was found that higher neuroticism (β =0.242, P = 0.004 and less extroversion (β = −0.210, P = 0.011 displayed significant associations with internet addictive behavior. Conclusions: Neurotic individuals tend to experience increased levels of stress and interpersonal conflict because of this personality trait. Internet addictive behavior was lower on extroversion traits because they are more in social activities, making friend easily, and cheerful.

  18. Psychophysiological responses to competition and the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binboga, Erdal; Guven, Senol; Catıkkaş, Fatih; Bayazıt, Onur; Tok, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychophysiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and personality traits in young taekwondo athletes. A total of 20 male and 10 female taekwondo athletes (mean age = 18.6 years; ± 1.8) volunteered for the study. The Five Factor Personality Inventory and the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure personality and cognitive state anxiety. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured twice, one day and approximately one hour prior to the competition, to determine psychophysiological arousal. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. Several "Big Five" facets were related to the EDA delta scores that were measured both one day and one hour before the competition. Two stepwise regressions were conducted to examine whether personality traits could significantly predict both EDA delta scores. The final model, containing only neuroticism from the Big Five factors, can significantly explain the variations in the EDA delta scores measured one day before the competition. Agreeableness can significantly explain variations in the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. No relationship was found between cognitive anxiety and the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. In conclusion, personality traits, especially agreeableness and neuroticism, might be useful in understanding arousal responses to competition.

  19. Iranian and Swedish adolescents: differences in personality traits and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose.Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being.Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being.Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well

  20. Personality Traits as Factors Affecting E-Book Adoption among College Students: Does Personality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkaliza Bt Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic materials such as e-book have become increasingly accepted as learning tools in the classroom nowadays. This study investigated the relationships between the big five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extroversion with e-book adoption among college students. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Results revealed statistically significant relationships between the personality traits (conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion and e-book adoption. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  1. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  2. The effects of personality traits on academic burnout in Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Choi, Young Jun; Chae, Han

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that personality traits play an important role in academic burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate how Cloninger's temperament and character traits explain academic burnout in a highly competitive environment of medical school. A total of 184 Korean medical students participated in the survey. The Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory was measured around the beginning of the semester and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey at the end of the semester. The correlations and stepwise regression analysis were conducted to explain the association between personality traits and academic burnout. In addition, latent profile analysis and profile analysis were employed to distinguish and explain differences of personality traits among latent academic burnout subgroups. The higher harm avoidance of temperament and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness of character predicted the subscales of academic burnout in medical students. The Temperament and Character Inventory personality profile of high, middle, and low latent burnout subgroups were significantly different. This study showed that personality might account for the burnout level in medical education. The importance of character dimension for modulating the effects of temperament traits on academic burnout was discussed for future research.

  3. Do personality traits predict first onset in depressive and bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether personality traits predict onset of the first depressive or manic episode (the vulnerability hypothesis) and whether personality might be altered by the mood disorder (the scar hypothesis). A systematic review of population-based and high-risk studies concerning...... personality traits and affective disorder in adults was conducted. Nine cross-sectional high-risk studies, seven longitudinal high-risk studies and nine longitudinal population-based studies were found. Most studies support the vulnerability hypothesis and there is evidence that neuroticism is a premorbid...... risk factor for developing depressive disorder. The evidence for the scar hypothesis is sparse, but the studies with the strongest design showed evidence for both hypotheses. Only few studies of bipolar disorder were found and the association between personality traits and bipolar disorder is unclear...

  4. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment. 

  5. Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of pressure exerted on ... create the psychological profiles of the personality of athletes practising individual and ... There are differences between the sport disciplines where pressure is ...

  6. Personality traits of Australian nurses and doctors: challenging stereotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Eley, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    This study compared temperament and character traits of Australian registered nurses and general practitioners. A cross-sectional quantitative design used the Temperament and Character Inventory. Total sample size was 426. Only main effects were detected. Nurses were higher in the temperament traits of Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependence, lower in the character traits of Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness but higher in Self-Transcendence compared with the sample of doctors. Differences in personality profiles between registered nurses and general practitioners might challenge existing stereotypes between these professions. Further exploration of traits exclusive to and shared among health professions would supplement a broad conceptualization of specialities and support the enhancement of appropriate training and career counselling. Awareness of one's temperament and character can lead to a clearer understanding of how they function in the workplace and might encourage reflection on and insight into the implications of their personality and career plans. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians: results of a multi-center observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied

  8. [Mobbing: between personality traits and organizational-managerial characteristics of the occupational environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Platania, Chiara Anna; Di Rosa, Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; De Luca, Annamaria; Barresi, Gaetano; Di Nola, Carmelina; Cacciola, Anna

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The relationship between stressful events in the workplace and their effect on health is the subject of numerous studies where the phenomenon of"Mobbing" has become of increasing interest in Social Psychiatry and Occupational Medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between mobbing, occupational stress and personality structure in a group of persons who consulted the "Work Adaptation Disorders Centre" at the Institute of Occupational Medicine between December 2008 and June 2010 for mobbing-related issues. Referring to Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terrorization (LIPT), H. Ege, Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), it has been possible to assess situations of harassment, the sources and the effects of work stress, as well as personality traits in the study group. The results showed that high levels of occupational stress and inadequate coping strategies can lead to depressive, hysterical and paranoid manifestations. Although the relationship between mobbing, occupational stress and personality traits still remains controversial, there is an association between perception of adverse behaviour and mental health, regardless of the subject's ability to cope with stressful life events. The data seem to confirm that the prevention of bullying must be implemented by the work organization and by handling interpersonal conflicts in the work context.

  9. A Novel Adaptive Conditional Probability-Based Predicting Model for User’s Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the pervasive increase in social media use, the explosion of users’ generated data provides a potentially very rich source of information, which plays an important role in helping online researchers understand user’s behaviors deeply. Since user’s personality traits are the driving force of user’s behaviors, hence, in this paper, along with social network features, we first extract linguistic features, emotional statistical features, and topic features from user’s Facebook status updates, followed by quantifying importance of features via Kendall correlation coefficient. And then, on the basis of weighted features and dynamic updated thresholds of personality traits, we deploy a novel adaptive conditional probability-based predicting model which considers prior knowledge of correlations between user’s personality traits to predict user’s Big Five personality traits. In the experimental work, we explore the existence of correlations between user’s personality traits which provides a better theoretical support for our proposed method. Moreover, on the same Facebook dataset, compared to other methods, our method can achieve an F1-measure of 80.6% when taking into account correlations between user’s personality traits, and there is an impressive improvement of 5.8% over other approaches.

  10. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  11. The Connections between Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian A. McCabe; Jennifer K. Vrabel; Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2017-01-01

    An alternative model of pathological personality traits was recently developed in an effort to address the challenges associated with the categorical model of personality disorder classification (e.g., high rates of comorbidity, minimal overlap with modern conceptualizations of personality structure). More specifically, this alternative model provides a dimensional framework through which personality disorders can be understood in terms of their level of impairment in personality functioning....

  12. Homophily in an Anonymous Online Community: Sociodemographic Versus Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Chung, Da Young

    2017-06-01

    In what traits do people interact with others who are similar to them in completely anonymous online communication? Can those traits contribute to greater exchange of opinion and information across the sociodemographic boundaries that often limit interaction between social strata? To answer this question concerning online homophily, we combined survey data on 7,287 users (aged 18 and above) of a Korean online dating advice platform with their behavioral data from June 2015 to August 2015 and explored whether advice exchange occurred between users with similar sociodemographic and personality traits. On this platform, two types of interactions occurred as follows: (1) responses to a randomly distributed problem submitted by an advice seeker and (2) the seeker's indication of approval of any of the responses given. The study found that (1) a receiver was more likely to respond to problems submitted by seekers of a comparable age and that (2) seekers were more likely to approve of a response if the seeker and receiver had similar educational backgrounds. By contrast, homophily based on personality traits was not observed even though some personality traits significantly affected the likelihood of both response and approval. Our findings suggest that online communication may breed sociodemographic homophily, whether based on age or education, more than expected or intended while not easily fostering alternative forms of homophily, such as personality homophily, which can potentially cut across borders dividing sociodemographic groups.

  13. Associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Shi, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Empathy promotes positive physician-patient communication and is associated with improved patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. It has been suggested that personality traits should be taken into consideration in programs designed to enhance empathy in medical education due to the association found between personality and empathy among medical students. However, the associations between empathy and big five personality traits in medical education are still underrepresented in the existing literature and relevant studies have not been conducted among medical students in China, where tensions in the physician-patient relationship have been reported as outstanding problems in the context of China's current medical reform. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical university in Northeast China in June 2016. Self-reported questionnaires including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) and demographic characteristics were distributed. A total of 530 clinical medical students became our final subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of big five personality traits on empathy. Results of this study showed that big five personality traits accounted for 19.4%, 18.1%, 30.2% of the variance in three dimensions of empathy, namely, perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress, respectively. Specifically, agreeableness had a strong positive association with empathic concern (β = 0.477, Ppersonal distress (β = 0.526, Ppersonal distress (β = -0.160, Pbig five personality traits were important predictors of self-reported measures of both cognitive and affective empathy among Chinese medical students. Therefore, individualized intervention strategies based on personality traits could be integrated into programs to

  14. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  15. Clinicians' Judgments of the Clinical Utility of Personality Disorder Trait Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Cristina; Sleep, Chelsea E; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) was a five-domain, 25-dimensional trait model that would have constituted a significant part of the diagnostic criteria for each personality disorder. A primary concern with respect to the proposal was that clinicians might find such an approach to be unacceptable. This study provides results from three independent data collections that compared clinicians' clinical utility ratings for each iteration of the DSM-5 dimensional trait assignments, along with an alternative list of traits derived from the Five Factor Form (FFF). The clinicians considered the final trait assignments that were posted for the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizoid personality disorders to be significantly less acceptable than the original assignments. They also considered the FFF trait assignments to be preferable to the DSM-5 final postings with respect to the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and histrionic personality disorders. The implications of these results for future editions of the diagnostic manual are discussed.

  16. A structured interview for the assessment of the Five-Factor Model of personality: facet-level relations to the axis II personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T J; Widiger, T A; Burr, R

    2001-04-01

    The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment.

  17. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Key personality traits of sales managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W; Foster, Nancy A; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W

    2014-01-01

    Sales managers are crucial for producing positive sales outcomes for companies. However, there has been a relative dearth of scholarly investigations into the personal attributes of sales managers. Such information could prove important in the recruitment, selection, training needs identification, career planning, counseling, and development of sales managers. Drawing on Holland's vocational theory, we sought to identify key personality traits that distinguish sales managers from other occupations and are related to their career satisfaction. The main sample was comprised of a total of 978 sales managers employed in a large number of companies across the United States (along with a comparison sample drawn from 79,512 individuals from other professional occupations). Participants completed an online version of Resource Associates' Personal Style Inventory as well a measure of career satisfaction. Our sample of 978 sales managers had higher levels of Assertiveness, Customer Service Orientation, Extraversion, Image Management, Optimism, and Visionary Style; and lower levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Intrinsic Motivation, Openness, and Tough-Mindedness than a sample of 79,512 individuals in a variety of other occupations. Nine of these traits were significantly correlated with sales managers' career satisfaction. Based on the results, a psychological profile of sales managers was presented as were implications for their recruitment, selection, training, development, and mentoring.

  19. The incremental validity of communication styles over personality traits for leader outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Pieper, A.; de Vries, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits and communication styles are interlinked, as evidenced by high convergent correlations. Nevertheless, communication styles may have a stronger conceptual link to leader outcomes than broad personality traits do, as they are represented by a subset of behavior that is specifically

  20. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics--correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Croy

    Full Text Available Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124 completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality.

  1. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič; Helena R. Slobodskaya; Gennady G. Knyazev

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years) in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small...

  2. ICD-11 and DSM-5 personality trait domains capture categorical personality disorders: Finding a common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Sellbom, Martin; Skjernov, Mathias; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-05-01

    The five personality disorder trait domains in the proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition are comparable in terms of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism/Dissociality and Disinhibition. However, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model includes a separate domain of Anankastia, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model includes an additional domain of Psychoticism. This study examined associations of International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domains, simultaneously, with categorical personality disorders. Psychiatric outpatients ( N = 226) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Interview and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domain scores were obtained using pertinent scoring algorithms for the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Associations between categorical personality disorders and trait domains were examined using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Both the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition domain models showed relevant continuity with categorical personality disorders and captured a substantial amount of their information. As expected, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model was superior in capturing obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model was superior in capturing schizotypal personality disorder. These preliminary findings suggest that little information is 'lost' in a transition to trait domain

  3. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly

  4. Relationship between personality traits and perceived internalized stigma in bipolar patients and their treatment partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassirnia, Anahita; Briggs, Jessica; Kopeykina, Irina; Mednick, Amy; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor

    2015-12-15

    Internalized stigma of mental disorders has significant negative outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between personality traits and internalized stigma of mental disorders in bipolar patients and their treatment partners. Five different questionnaires were utilized in this study: (1) Demographic data questionnaire, (2) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for personality traits, (3) Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) for stigma, (4) Self Report Manic Inventory (SRMI) for mania and (5) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. The scores of personality traits were combined to create externalizing and internalizing personality trait scores. Results showed that patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners both experienced internalized stigma of mental health disorders. There was a significant positive correlation between internalized stigma and internalizing personality traits, but not externalizing traits. In a multi-variate regression analysis, internalizing personality trait score was found to be a significant predictor of internalized stigma. In conclusion, patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners perceive higher level of internalized stigma of mental disorders if they have internalizing personality traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits is associated to increased suicidal ideation in nonclinical young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Raynal, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The co-occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is not rare and has been linked to increased suicidality. Despite this significant comorbidity between ASD and BPD, no study had examined the co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits in the general population. The aim of the present study was to examine the co-occurrence of autistic and borderline traits in a non-clinical sample of young adults and its influence on the levels of suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology. Participants were 474 college students who completed self-report questionnaires. Data were analysed using correlation and cluster analyses. Borderline personality traits and autistic traits were weakly correlated. However, cluster analysis yielded four groups: a low traits group, a borderline traits group, an autistic traits group, and a group characterized by high levels of both traits. Cluster analysis revealed that autistic and borderline traits can co-occur in a significant proportion of young adults. The high autistic and borderline traits group constituted 17% of the total sample and had higher level of suicidal ideation than the borderline traits group, despite similar levels of depressive symptoms. This result suggests that the higher suicidality observed in patients with comorbid ASD and BPD may extent to non-clinical individuals with high levels of co-occurrent autistic and borderline traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604 of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.

  7. PP-2 ABNORMAL PERSONALITY TRAITS IN CHILDREN WITH AEROPHAGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Jayawickrama, Nirodha; Gulegoda, Ishani Chathurika; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to study the personality types in children with aerophagia. A cross sectional survey was conducted in 8 randomly selected schools in 4 randomly selected provinces Sri Lanka. From each school, all cchildren aged 13-18 years were selected after obtaining written consent from parents, school administration and provincial education office. Assent was obtained from all children recruited. Date were collected using a self-administered questionnaire administered under examination setting to ensure confidentiality and privacy. Questionnaire contained previously translated and validated Rome III questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal diseases (self-administered form for children above 10 years) and childhood personality assessment questionnaire. Trained research assistants were present during filling the questionnaire to provide assistance and to verify doubts. Aerophagia was defined using the Rome III criteria. Severities of individual symptoms were recorded in 100 mm visual analogue scale. A total of 1069 questionnaires were distributed and all of them were returned and included in analysis [males 508 (47.5%), mean age 15.3 years, SD 1.8 years years]. One hundred and thirty six (12.7%) fulfilled Rome III criteria for aerophagia and 933 children without aerophagia were considered as controls. Nineteen (13.8%) children with aerophagia and 71 (7.6%) controls had personality scores above the international cut-off value (105) for abnormal personality (p = 0.01). Children with aerophagia had significantly higher scores for different personality traits than controls; including hostility and aggression (13.2 vs. 12.2 in controls, p = 0.006), negative self-esteem (11.0 vs. 9.9, p personality score (92.1 vs. 87.7, p = 001). In children with aerophagia, scores obtained for severity of bloating correlated with scores obtained for hostility and aggression (r = 0.22, p = 0.02). Children with aerophagia has abnormal

  8. Borderline personality disorder and related traits in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William H

    2009-05-01

    Persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related traits appear in many forensic psychiatry settings. Their clinical hallmarks affecting judgment, insight, impulsivity, motivations, and regulation of emotions, as well as their frequently chaotic lives (internal and external), inaccurate perceptions, rationalizations, and comorbid syndromes can have a marked effect on many civil, criminal, and institutional (eg, corrections) issues. Individuals with BPD are overrepresented in civil, criminal, and child custody forensic situations. The character psychopathology of these individuals is substantial, but is often not obvious to laypersons, including lawyers, judges, and jurors. The presence of BPD rarely affects basic responsibility for the person's actions, nor does it usually compromise most forms of competency. Function, not diagnosis, is the key arbiter of forensic relevance. BPD is associated with an increase in the likelihood of doctor-patient problems, including patient complaints and lawsuits that may not be deserved. Forensic professionals evaluating persons with BPD and related traits should be aware of personal and professional bias, particularly that associated with true countertransference.

  9. Stress strengthens memory of first impressions of others' positive personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-01-26

    Encounters with strangers bear potential for social conflict and stress, but also allow the formation of alliances. First impressions of other people play a critical role in the formation of alliances, since they provide a learned base to infer the other's future social attitude. Stress can facilitate emotional memories but it is unknown whether stress strengthens our memory for newly acquired impressions of other people's personality traits. To answer this question, we subjected 60 students (37 females, 23 males) to an impression-formation task, viewing portraits together with brief positive vs. negative behavior descriptions, followed by a 3-min cold pressor stress test or a non-stressful control procedure. The next day, novel and old portraits were paired with single trait adjectives, the old portraits with a trait adjective matching the previous day's behavior description. After a filler task, portraits were presented again and subjects were asked to recall the trait adjective. Cued recall was higher for old (previously implied) than the novel portraits' trait adjectives, indicating validity of the applied test procedures. Overall, recall rate of implied trait adjectives did not differ between the stress and the control group. However, while the control group showed a better memory performance for others' implied negative personality traits, the stress group showed enhanced recall for others' implied positive personality traits. This result indicates that post-learning stress affects consolidation of first impressions in a valence-specific manner. We propose that the stress-induced strengthening of memory of others' positive traits forms an important cue for the formation of alliances in stressful conditions.

  10. Stress strengthens memory of first impressions of others' positive personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lass-Hennemann

    Full Text Available Encounters with strangers bear potential for social conflict and stress, but also allow the formation of alliances. First impressions of other people play a critical role in the formation of alliances, since they provide a learned base to infer the other's future social attitude. Stress can facilitate emotional memories but it is unknown whether stress strengthens our memory for newly acquired impressions of other people's personality traits. To answer this question, we subjected 60 students (37 females, 23 males to an impression-formation task, viewing portraits together with brief positive vs. negative behavior descriptions, followed by a 3-min cold pressor stress test or a non-stressful control procedure. The next day, novel and old portraits were paired with single trait adjectives, the old portraits with a trait adjective matching the previous day's behavior description. After a filler task, portraits were presented again and subjects were asked to recall the trait adjective. Cued recall was higher for old (previously implied than the novel portraits' trait adjectives, indicating validity of the applied test procedures. Overall, recall rate of implied trait adjectives did not differ between the stress and the control group. However, while the control group showed a better memory performance for others' implied negative personality traits, the stress group showed enhanced recall for others' implied positive personality traits. This result indicates that post-learning stress affects consolidation of first impressions in a valence-specific manner. We propose that the stress-induced strengthening of memory of others' positive traits forms an important cue for the formation of alliances in stressful conditions.

  11. Personality traits in companion dogs-Results from the VIDOPET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Wallis, Lisa; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig; Riemer, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Individual behavioural differences in pet dogs are of great interest from a basic and applied research perspective. Most existing dog personality tests have specific (practical) goals in mind and so focused only on a limited aspect of dogs' personality, such as identifying problematic (aggressive or fearful) behaviours, assessing suitability as working dogs, or improving the results of adoption. Here we aimed to create a comprehensive test of personality in pet dogs that goes beyond traditional practical evaluations by exposing pet dogs to a range of situations they might encounter in everyday life. The Vienna Dog Personality Test (VIDOPET) consists of 15 subtests and was performed on 217 pet dogs. A two-step data reduction procedure (principal component analysis on each subtest followed by an exploratory factor analysis on the subtest components) yielded five factors: Sociability-obedience, Activity-independence, Novelty seeking, Problem orientation, and Frustration tolerance. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and validity measures demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability and adequate internal consistency of all factors. Moreover the test showed good temporal consistency when re-testing a subsample of dogs after an average of 3.8 years-a considerably longer test-retest interval than assessed for any other dog personality test, to our knowledge. The construct validity of the test was investigated by analysing the correlations between the results of video coding and video rating methods and the owners' assessment via a dog personality questionnaire. The results demonstrated good convergent as well as discriminant validity. To conclude, the VIDOPET is not only a highly reliable and valid tool for measuring dog personality, but also the first test to show consistent behavioural traits related to problem solving ability and frustration tolerance in pet dogs.

  12. Do gender and personality traits (BFI-10) influence self-perceived innovativeness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Innovativeness is a useful trait in many walks of life. The aim of this paper is to investigate if gender and personality traits influence rating of self-perceived innovativeness. There are two versions of the dependent variable used - innovativeness in the eyes of others, and innovativeness in one......'s own opinion. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. Findings are that conscientiousness influences self-perceived innovativeness in the eyes of others, and openness to experience influences self-perceived innovativeness in one's own opinion. Conscientiousness also influences...

  13. The influences of family environment on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.

  14. The relevance of personality traits in impulsivity-related disorders: From substance use disorders and gambling disorder to bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Hakansson, Anders; Fagundo, Ana B; Bolao, Ferran; Valdepérez, Ana; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Penelo, Eva; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Rigol-Cuadras, Assumpta; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity-compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype. Methods The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity. Results Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.

  15. The relevance of personality traits in impulsivity-related disorders: From substance use disorders and gambling disorder to bulimia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Hakansson, Anders; Fagundo, Ana B.; Bolao, Ferran; Valdepérez, Ana; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Penelo, Eva; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Rigol-Cuadras, Assumpta; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype. Methods The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity. Results Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness. PMID:28838248

  16. Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Wassenaar, Moniek J. E.; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with psychopathology, personality changes, and cognitive dysfunction. It is unknown whether, and to what extent, these effects are present after long-term cure of acromegaly. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathology, personality traits, and cognitive

  17. Heritability estimates of the Big Five personality traits based on common genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, R A; Pluess, M

    2015-07-14

    According to twin studies, the Big Five personality traits have substantial heritable components explaining 40-60% of the variance, but identification of associated genetic variants has remained elusive. Consequently, knowledge regarding the molecular genetic architecture of personality and to what extent it is shared across the different personality traits is limited. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix residual maximum likelihood analysis (GREML), we here estimated the heritability of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness for experience) in a sample of 5011 European adults from 527,469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. We tested for the heritability of each personality trait, as well as for the genetic overlap between the personality factors. We found significant and substantial heritability estimates for neuroticism (15%, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.04) and openness (21%, s.e. = 0.08, P Big Five personality traits using the GREML approach. Findings should be considered exploratory and suggest that detectable heritability estimates based on common variants is shared between neuroticism and openness to experiences.

  18. Brand personality traits: the Chilean Pension Fund Administrators case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Escobar Farfán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean pension fund industry is largely questioned by public; therefore it becomes essential to work on a strategy to enhance brand’s credibility and positioning. This study objective is to analyze and build a brand personality scale to identify consumer’s perception. An exploratory study aided by qualitative tools was carried out to track those brand’s personality traits not considered in Latorre, Martínez and Sotelo (2016. As a result, 38 personality traits have been evidenced in the pension fund administrators industry, some of which are specific to this industrial sector, such as transparency and ambition. This study findings come to complement the five dimensions identified by Aaker (1997 and subsequently validated by Latorre, Martínez y Sotelo (2016.

  19. The Heritability of Cluster B Personality Disorders Assessed both by Personal Interview and Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for ...

  20. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Speech spectrum's correlation with speakers' Eysenck personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    Full Text Available The current study explored the correlation between speakers' Eysenck personality traits and speech spectrum parameters. Forty-six subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They were instructed to verbally answer the questions shown on a computer screen and their responses were recorded by the computer. Spectrum parameters of /sh/ and /i/ were analyzed by Praat voice software. Formant frequencies of the consonant /sh/ in lying responses were significantly lower than that in truthful responses, whereas no difference existed on the vowel /i/ speech spectrum. The second formant bandwidth of the consonant /sh/ speech spectrum was significantly correlated with the personality traits of Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism, and the correlation differed between truthful and lying responses, whereas the first formant frequency of the vowel /i/ speech spectrum was negatively correlated with Neuroticism in both response types. The results suggest that personality characteristics may be conveyed through the human voice, although the extent to which these effects are due to physiological differences in the organs associated with speech or to a general Pygmalion effect is yet unknown.

  2. Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, S O; Andrews, B P

    1996-06-01

    Research on psychopathology has been hindered by persisting difficulties and controversies regarding its assessment. The primary goals of this set of studies were to (a) develop, and initiate the construct validation of, a self-report measure that assesses the major personality traits of psychopathy in noncriminal populations and (b) clarify the nature of these traits via an exploratory approach to test construction. This measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), was developed by writing items to assess a large number of personality domains relevant to psychopathy and performing successive item-level factor analyses and revisions on three undergraduate samples. The PPI total score and its eight subscales were found to possess satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In four studies with undergraduates, the PPI and its subscales exhibited a promising pattern of convergent and discriminant validity with self-report, psychiatric interview, observer rating, and family history data. In addition, the PPI total score demonstrated incremental validity relative to several commonly used self-report psychopathy-related measures. Future construct validation studies, unresolved conceptual issues regarding the assessment of psychopathy, and potential research uses of the PPI are outlined.

  3. Time perspective: its link to personality traits, age, and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kairys, Antanas

    2010-01-01

    In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, psychological studies on time perspective are still making their first steps. Currently, no theoretical paradigm is extensive enough to serve well as a basis for further fundamental and applied research in this field. The goal of this study was to explore the link between time perspective and personality traits in different gender and age groups. To analyse time perspective and personality traits, two independent studies were carried out (N=636 in ...

  4. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    OpenAIRE

    Davod Ghaderi; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...

  5. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  6. Psychopathy and interests: Implications of psychopathic personality traits for vocational and avocational preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Madeline G; Watts, Ashley L; Murphy, Brett A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2018-06-21

    General personality traits and interests, both vocational and avocational, have long been considered intertwined constructs. Nevertheless, the linkages between personality disorder features, such as psychopathy, and interests are poorly understood. This study bridges this gap by examining how psychopathic traits relate to vocational and avocational interests, and to what extent these associations are distinctive to psychopathy as opposed to a broader pattern of general and abnormal personality traits. In a sample of 426 community participants, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Fearless Dominance features of psychopathy were associated with interest in a broad swath of vocational and avocational interests, whereas Self-Centered Impulsivity features were associated with realistic, artistic, enterprising, and conventional interests; most zero-order associations were in the small to medium range. Coldheartedness and the factors derived from the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale were largely unrelated to interests, although there were several notable exceptions. Narcissistic traits, as well as HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness) Honesty-Humility, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, were also related broadly to interests. The patterns of interests associated with personality disorder traits may ultimately bear practical implications for interventions as individuals seek out positions or hobbies that suit their traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Are personality traits associated with white-coat and masked hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Scuteri, Angelo; Strait, James; Sutin, Angelina R; Meirelles, Osorio; Marongiu, Michele; Orru, Marco; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cucca, Francesco; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety and other psychological dispositions are thought to be associated with blood pressure. This study tests whether personality traits have long-term associations with masked and white-coat effects. A community-based sample of 2838 adults from Sardinia (Italy) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and 7 years later, blood pressure was assessed in the clinic and with ambulatory monitoring. Logistic regressions were used to test whether anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness predicted the white-coat and masked hypertension phenomena. Age, sex, and antihypertensive medication use were tested as moderators. Significant interactions were found between personality traits and antihypertensive medications in predicting masked and white-coat effects. Only among those taking antihypertensive medication, higher anxiety was associated with a higher risk of pseudo-resistant hypertension due to white-coat effect (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.91) and higher conscientiousness was associated with a lower risk of masked uncontrolled hypertension (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.99). There were no significant interactions with age or sex. Among those on antihypertensive medications, anxious individuals were more likely to have pseudo-resistant hypertension due to white-coat effect and less conscientious individuals were at increased risk of masked uncontrolled hypertension. Particularly among anxious and less conscientious individuals, ambulatory monitoring may improve the tailoring of pharmacological treatments.

  8. The Relationships among Attachment Style, Personality Traits, Interpersonal Competency, and Facebook Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Wright, Stephen L.; Hudiburgh, Lynette M.

    2012-01-01

    Among emerging adult populations, the increasingly prevalent use of online social media, such as Facebook, and its relationship to individual personality traits and interpersonal relationships are of growing interest to researchers. The current study sought to investigate how attachment style, personality traits based on the Five Factor Model, and…

  9. Gender differences in child/adolescent personality traits: Slovene and Russians compared:

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, Gennady G.; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Zupančič, Maja

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years) in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small and...

  10. Using Personality Traits to Construct Linear Growth Models of Mental Health in Family Members of Individuals With Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...

  11. Association of the Polygenic Scores for Personality Traits and Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Azmeraw T.; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Jenkins, Gregory; Whaley, Ryan M.; Barman, Poulami; Batzler, Anthony; Altman, Russ B.; Arolt, Volker; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Chen, Chia-Hui; Domschke, Katharina; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K.; Hong, Chen-Jee; Illi, Ari; Ji, Yuan; Kampman, Olli; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Leinonen, Esa; Liou, Ying-Jay; Mushiroda, Taisei; Nonen, Shinpei; Skime, Michelle K.; Wang, Liewei; Kato, Masaki; Liu, Yu-Li; Praphanphoj, Verayuth; Stingl, Julia C.; Bobo, William V.; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Kubo, Michiaki; Klein, Teri E.; Weinshilboum, Richard M.; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2018-01-01

    Studies reported a strong genetic correlation between the Big Five personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, personality traits are thought to be associated with response to antidepressants treatment that might partly be mediated by genetic factors. In this study, we examined whether polygenic scores (PGSs) derived from the Big Five personality traits predict treatment response and remission in patients with MDD who were prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In addition, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on these traits to identify genetic variants underpinning the cross-trait polygenic association. The PGS analysis was performed using data from two cohorts: the Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS, n = 529) and the International SSRI Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ISPC, n = 865). The cross-trait GWAS meta-analyses were conducted by combining GWAS summary statistics on SSRIs treatment outcome and on the personality traits. The results showed that the PGS for openness and neuroticism were associated with SSRIs treatment outcomes at p trait GWAS meta-analyses, we identified eight loci associated with (a) SSRIs response and conscientiousness near YEATS4 gene and (b) SSRI remission and neuroticism eight loci near PRAG1, MSRA, XKR6, ELAVL2, PLXNC1, PLEKHM1, and BRUNOL4 genes. An assessment of a polygenic load for personality traits may assist in conjunction with clinical data to predict whether MDD patients might respond favorably to SSRIs. PMID:29559929

  12. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits: A positron emission tomography brain study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Siggaard Stenbæk

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R brain availability, which has recently become possible to image with Positron Emission Tomography (PET. This is particularly relevant since availability of 5-HT4R has been shown to adapt to synaptic levels of 5-HT and thus offers information about serotonergic tone in the healthy brain. In 69 healthy participants (18 females, the associations between personality traits assessed with the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R and regional cerebral 5-HT4R binding in neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC were investigated using linear regression models. The associations between each of the five personality traits and a latent variable construct of global 5-HT4R levels were also evaluated using latent variable structural equation models. We found no significant associations between the five NEO personality traits and regional 5-HT4R binding (all p-values > .17 or the latent construct of global 5-HT4R levels (all p-values > .37. Our findings indicate that NEO personality traits and 5-HT4R are not related in healthy participants. Under the assumption that global 5-HT4R levels index 5-HT tone, our data also suggest that 5-HT tone per se is not directly implicated in normal personality traits.

  13. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits: A positron emission tomography brain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Hansen, Nanna; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) brain availability, which has recently become possible to image with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This is particularly relevant since availability of 5-HT4R has been shown to adapt to synaptic levels of 5-HT and thus offers information about serotonergic tone in the healthy brain. In 69 healthy participants (18 females), the associations between personality traits assessed with the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and regional cerebral 5-HT4R binding in neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were investigated using linear regression models. The associations between each of the five personality traits and a latent variable construct of global 5-HT4R levels were also evaluated using latent variable structural equation models. We found no significant associations between the five NEO personality traits and regional 5-HT4R binding (all p-values > .17) or the latent construct of global 5-HT4R levels (all p-values > .37). Our findings indicate that NEO personality traits and 5-HT4R are not related in healthy participants. Under the assumption that global 5-HT4R levels index 5-HT tone, our data also suggest that 5-HT tone per se is not directly implicated in normal personality traits.

  14. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...

  15. Role of personality traits in cocaine craving throughout an outpatient psychosocial treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ismael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.

  16. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  17. Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloks, H; Hoek, HW; Callewaert, [No Value; van Furth, E

    A longitudinal prospective design with four assessments was used to examine the stability of personality traits and their relation to recovery in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (N = 35), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (N = 37), bulimia nervosa (N = 47), and eating disorder not

  18. The Investigation of Construct Validity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5 Personality Traits on Iranian sample with Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza Khodaie; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5) conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs). More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. This study was on a sample of 346 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline PD (n = 130), and nonclinical subjects (n = 94). Participants randomly selected from prisoners, out-patient, and in-patient clients. Participants were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II, DSM-5 Personality Trait Rating Form (Clinician's PTRF) were used to diagnosis of PD and to assessment of pathological traits. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution for DSM-5 personality traits. Results showed that DSM-5 has adequate construct validity in Iranian sample with antisocial and borderline PDs. Factors similar in number with the other studies, but different in the content. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five homogeneous components of antisocial and borderline PDs. That may represent personality, behavioral, and affective features central to the disorder. Furthermore, the present study helps understand the adequacy of DSM-5 dimensional approach to evaluation of personality pathology, specifically on Iranian sample.

  19. The investigation of construct validity of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 personality traits on iranian sample with antisocial and borderline personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5 conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs. More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. Methods: This study was on a sample of 346 individuals with antisocial (n = 122 and borderline PD (n = 130, and nonclinical subjects (n = 94. Participants randomly selected from prisoners, out-patient, and in-patient clients . Participants were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II, DSM-5 Personality Trait Rating Form (Clinician′s PTRF were used to diagnosis of PD and to assessment of pathological traits. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Results: Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution for DSM-5 personality traits. Results showed that DSM-5 has adequate construct validity in Iranian sample with antisocial and borderline PDs. Factors similar in number with the other studies, but different in the content. Conclusions: Exploratory factor analysis revealed five homogeneous components of antisocial and borderline PDs. That may represent personality, behavioral, and affective features central to the disorder. Furthermore, the present study helps understand the adequacy of DSM-5 dimensional approach to evaluation of personality pathology, specifically on Iranian sample.

  20. Neuroticism personality trait is associated with Quality of Life in patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lampros; Samartzis; Stavros; Dimopoulos; Christos; Manetos; Varvara; Agapitou; Athanasios; Tasoulis; Eleni; Tseliou; Iraklis; Pozios; Elisavet; Kaldara; John; Terrovitis; Serafim; Nanas

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate Quality of life(QoL) in chronic heart failure(CHF) in relation to Neuroticism personality trait and CHF severity.METHODS: Thirty six consecutive, outpatients with Chronic Heart Failure(6 females and 30 males, mean age: 54 ± 12 years), with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 45% at optimal medical treatment at the time of inclusion, were asked to answer the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire(KCCQ) for Quality ofLife assessment and the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory for personality assessment. All patients un-derwent a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle-ergometer, in order to access CHF severity. A multivariate linear regression analysis us-ing simultaneous entry of predictors was performed to examine which of the CHF variables and of the person-ality variables were correlated independently to QoL scores in the two summary scales of the KCCQ, namely the Overall Summary Scale and the Clinical Summary Scale.RESULTS: The Neuroticism personality trait score had a significant inverse correlation with the Clinical Sum-mary Score and Overall Summary Score of the KCCQ(r =-0.621, P < 0.05 and r =-0.543, P < 0.001, respec-tively). KCCQ summary scales did not show significant correlations with the personality traits of Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Mul-tivariate linear regression analysis using simultaneous entry of predictors was also conducted to determine the best linear combination of statistically significant univari-ate predictors such as Neuroticism, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak, for predicting KCCQ Clinical Summary Score. The results show Neuroticism(β =-0.37, P < 0.05), VE/VCO2 slope(β =-0.31, P < 0.05) and VO2 peak(β = 0.37, P < 0.05) to be independent predictors of QoL. In multivariate regression analysis Neuroticism(b =-0.37, P < 0.05), the slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide output during exercise,(VE/VCO2 slope)(b =-0.31, P < 0.05) and peak oxygen uptake

  1. Personality traits affect teaching performance of attending physicians: results of a multi-center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; van Aken, Marcel A G; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.05, Pwork on development paths of attending physicians in medical education.

  2. A self-report measure for the ICD-11 dimensional trait model proposal: The personality inventory for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2018-02-01

    Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model. Item selection and scale construction proceeded through 3 initial data collections assessing potential item performance. Two subsequent studies were conducted for scale validation. In Study 1, the PiCD was evaluated in a sample of 259 MTurk participants (who were or had been receiving mental health treatment) with respect to 2 measures of general personality structure: The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and the 5-Dimensional Personality Test. In Study 2, the PiCD was evaluated in an additional sample of 285 participants with respect to 2 measures of maladaptive personality traits: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and the Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorders. Study 3 provides an item-level exploratory structural equation model with the combined samples from Studies 1 and 2. The results are discussed with respect to the validity of the measure and the potential benefits for future research in having a direct, self-report measure of the ICD-11 trait proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Association Between Personality Traits and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez-Polo, Cristina

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among subjects with typical, atypically positive, and atypically negative personality trait scores within the five basic dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). A total of 235 subjects not seeking dental treatment were recruited from the families and acquaintances of dental students from the University of Salamanca. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to capture the impact on their OHRQoL. The Neouroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory Revised was applied to assess personality profiles. People were classified as having negatively atypical, typical, or positively atypical (PAP) personality, depending on whether the sum of the Z scores was 1, respectively. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, and logistic regression test were used for the statistical analyses. The sample was comprised of highly educated adults (aged 18-80 years) with good oral health habits. PAP subjects suffered significantly more in the dimension of psychologic discomfort (0.6 ± 0.7) than did their counterparts (0.3 ± 0.6), but the global impact in OHRQoL was comparable. Personality was weakly correlated with OHIP-14. The perception of dental treatment needs was found to be the major predictor of the impact on OHRQoL, but the number of negatively atypical deviated personality traits and the agreeableness raw score also had an effect. The risk of perceiving an impact on OHRQoL is significantly higher in individuals perceiving treatment needs and increases proportionally to the number of negatively atypical personality traits.

  4. Predicting early academic achievement: The role of higher-versus lower-order personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupančič Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the role of children’s (N = 193 individual differences and parental characteristics at the beginning of the first year of schooling in predicting students’ attainment of academic standards at the end of the year. Special attention was paid to children’s personality as perceived by the teachers’ assistants. Along with parents’ education, parenting practices and first-graders’ cognitive ability, the incremental predictive power of children’s higher-order (robust personality traits was compared to the contribution of lower-order (specific traits in explaining academic achievement. The specific traits provided a somewhat more accurate prediction than the robust traits. Unique contributions of maternal authoritative parenting, children’s cognitive ability, and personality to academic achievement were established. The ratings of first-graders’ conscientiousness (a higher-order trait improved the prediction of academic achievement based on parenting and cognitive ability by 12%, whereas assistant teacher’s perceived children’s intelligence and low antagonism (lower-order traits improved the prediction by 17%.

  5. Personality assessment and feline–keepers relationship in lions (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal personality is a growing research area due to the increasing evidence of the impact that it has on welfare, health and management of animals in captivity (Freeman and Gosling, 2010. Testing and improving existent methodologies, as well as develop new ones, to outline animal personality is an important step towards welfare, health and longevity of captive animals (Phillips, 2007; Whitham and Wielebnowski, 2013. Lions (Panthera leo were chosen for this study because the species is understudied compared to other felidae species in personality matters and because it displays a vast, diverse and well known behaviour repertoire (Schaller, 1973. Behavioural observations were conducted on the seven African lions housed in ZSL Whipsnade zoo. Keeper-animal interactions were recorded and a personality questionnaire was given to the keepers in order to rate 28 personality traits (Chadwick, 2014. Sociogram, composite sociality index (CSI and spread of participation index (SPI were also used to assess personality traits (Stanton 2015. Data gathered in this pilot study was successfully used to produce ID like personality traits profiles for all animals, to delineate personality traits, outline the unique characteristics of each subject. A sociogram consent to access and validate the dyad solitary/social and a SPI to understand each animal enclosure usage and relate it to the trait triad affiliate/fearful/aggressive towards humans. We believe this approach is promising and could be applied to investigate keeper-animal interactions also in other species. The limitation of this study is the sample size of the animal considered; in future research we hope to test other animals in order to validate the methodologies.

  6. Do gender and personality traits (BFI-10) influence self-perceived opinion leadership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    . This approach would require to identify opinion leaders. This paper investigates whether gender and personality traits can predict opinion leadership. Methodology/methods: The paper can be perceived as a replication in a loose sense of the term, since it replicates only a part of a previously published model...... and in one's own opinion (two variables). Generalized linear models (GLM) and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient are used to analyze data. Scientific aim: The aim of the paper is to estimate impact of gender and personality traits on opinion leadership. Findings: Extraversion is the personality...... trait closest related to opinion leadership regardless whether it is self-perceived in the eyes of others or in one's own opinion. Opinion leadership in one's own opinion can be predicted even using neuroticism, and conscientiousness. The three traits are consistent with previous findings. Unlike...

  7. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  8. Correlations of hopelessness with motivation and personality traits among Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, K

    1995-06-01

    Correlations for 628 children in Grades 2, 4, 5, and 6 of scores on hopelessness with measures of motivation for learning and personality traits were investigated. Hopelessness scores significantly correlated with lower scores on motivation. Also, hopelessness scores were significantly correlated with scores on personality traits of schizothymia, nervousness, and self-uncertainty.

  9. Self-other agreement of personality judgments in job interviews: exploring the effects of trait, gender, age and social desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederström, Mikael; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-10-01

    The article investigated agreement between self-reports and stranger ratings of personality. A sample of 139 real-life job applicants was interviewed by expert psychologists upon entrance to the assessment center. The applicants provided self-descriptions on 15 personality factors, and the psychologists rated the same traits of each target based on their impressions in the interview. The results demonstrated that professional judges can reach a substantial self-other agreement (SOA) on several traits even when the targets are strangers, and that the trait being judged, the target's gender, age and social desirability have an effect on the level of agreement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder : Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, CJM

    2000-01-01

    Four groups of patients with social phobia (SP) were compared with regard to psychopathologic characteristics, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Fifteen persons with discrete social phobia without any personality disorder (DSP), 28 persons with generalized social phobia

  12. Belgrade adolescent personality inventory: Bridging the gap between personality assessment in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality inventories for assessment and study temperament and character of adolescents, an age critical for the finalisation of both normal and pathological mental development, have not been specifically developed. In this paper, we introduce a new personality inventory based on Cloninger's Psychobiological model of personality to assess adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age (the Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory - BAPI, which bridges the gap between personality assessment in children and adults. The BAPI is a 46-item Likert scale inventory derived from previous studies using the TCI and JTCI on the Serbian sample. The psychometric properties of the BAPI were tested on the sample of 535 secondary school students in Serbia, aged 15 to 16. In order to assess the fit of the model, the Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed. The differences between sexes were analysed by MANOVA, while the Latent class analysis (LCA was applied in order to identify different adaptation profiles among adolescents. The BAPI scales had a satisfactory internal consistency (.66 - .80. considering the small number of items (5-6 in each scale. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA generally supported the main dimensions of temperament and character, as postulated by Cloninger. The only exception was Novelty Seeking, which best fitted a two-factor solution, Explorative curiosity and Impulsivity, separating the 'good' (curious, inquisitive, creative and 'bad' (impulsive, impatient, disorderly facets of this trait. Such polarity of Novelty Seeking could be specific for personality development and behaviour disorders in adolescence. The LCA differentiated the personality profiles of well-adapted adolescents from those at risk for maladaptation that manifested low character traits, lack of Persistence and high Novelty seeking Impulsivity subscale. The results support the construct validity of the BAPI and thus provide the basis for its practical application

  13. Infertility Stress: The Role of Coping Strategies, Personality Trait, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rashidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.

  14. Cultural Aspects in Symptomatology, Assessment, and Treatment of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa F; Keng, Shian-Ling; Ridolfi, Maria Elena; Arbabi, Mohammad; Grenyer, Brin F S

    2018-03-26

    This review discusses cultural trends, challenges, and approaches to assessment and treatment of personality traits and disorders. Specific focus include current developments in the Asian, Italian, Iranian, and Australian societies, as well as the process of acculturation, following moves between cultures with the impact on healthy and disordered personality function. Each culture with its specific history, dimensions, values, and practices influences and gears the individual and family or group in unique ways that affect personality functioning. Similarly, each culture provides means of protection and assimilation as well as norms for acceptance and denunciations of specific behaviors and personality traits. The diagnosis of personality disorders and their treatment need to take into consideration the individual in the context of the culture and society in which they live. Core personality problems, especially emotion dysregulation and interpersonal functioning are specifically influenced by cultural norms and context.

  15. Gender and personality traits' (BFI-10) effect on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olexova, Cecilia; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Opinion leadership used to be perceived as a highly domain-specific trait but it was found to be multi-faceted, i.e. individuals are influential independent of a specific subject area. Another term is generalized opinion leadership. Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits on domain...

  16. Consensual validation of personality traits across cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Urbánek, Tomáš; McCrae, R. ,R.; Costa, P. T.; Martin, T. A.; Oryol, V. E.; Rukavishnikov, A. A.; Senin, I. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2004), s. 179-201 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Cross - cultural * Personality traits * Self/other agreement Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.325, year: 2004

  17. Exploring personality traits and well-being among pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-school and primary school teachers are directly involved in the education of children. In addition to teachers’ competences, the quality of their work is significantly influenced by their psychological well-being. It is therefore important to focus on their well-being as well as on personality traits they have. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction, happiness, optimism and personality traits of pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia. Participants and procedure The study was conducted on a sample of 103 pre-school teachers and 117 primary school teachers who completed self-evaluated scales on personality traits, life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. Results The results demonstrated high levels of all personality traits in both samples. High levels of life satisfaction were positively associated with happiness and optimism. Personality traits were also positively associated with life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. There were no differences in life satisfaction, happiness, optimism or personality traits between pre-school and primary school teachers, except for openness to experience being higher in pre-school teachers. Emotional stability was a significant predictor of teachers’ well-being. Conclusions The results have significant implications for improvement of teaching practice at primary school and pre-school levels. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ personality traits and their well-being for the quality of their work with children.

  18. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Grados, Marco A.; Reti, Irving M.; Eaton, William W.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample. Methods 374 white participants were assessed by clinical psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Associations between dimensions of each DSM-IV personality disorder and the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the 5HTTLPR were evaluated using nonparametric tests and regression models. Results The s allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with higher avoidant personality trait scores in the whole sample. Males with the s allele had a significantly lower likelihood of higher obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) trait scores, whereas females with the s allele were likely to have higher OCPD personality trait scores. Conclusion This paper provides preliminary data on the relationship between personality disorders and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The relationship of the s allele and avoidant PD is consistent with findings of a nonspecific relationship of this polymorphism to anxiety and depressive disorders. Concerning the unusual sexual dimorphic result with OCPD, several hypotheses are presented. These findings need further replication, including a more detailed study of additional variants in SERT. PMID:21450307

  19. Stereotypes of Age Differences in Personality Traits: Universal and Accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; De Fruyt, Filip; Jussim, Lee; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kourilova, Sylvie; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claduio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. PMID:23088227

  20. Validity of observer ratings of the five-factor model of personality traits: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, In-Sue; Wang, Gang; Mount, Michael K

    2011-07-01

    Conclusions reached in previous research about the magnitude and nature of personality-performance linkages have been based almost exclusively on self-report measures of personality. The purpose of this study is to address this void in the literature by conducting a meta-analysis of the relationship between observer ratings of the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and overall job performance. Our results show that the operational validities of FFM traits based on observer ratings are higher than those based on self-report ratings. In addition, the results show that when based on observer ratings, all FFM traits are significant predictors of overall performance. Further, observer ratings of FFM traits show meaningful incremental validity over self-reports of corresponding FFM traits in predicting overall performance, but the reverse is not true. We conclude that the validity of FFM traits in predicting overall performance is higher than previously believed, and our results underscore the importance of disentangling the validity of personality traits from the method of measurement of the traits.

  1. Agreeable Smellers and Sensitive Neurotics – Correlations among Personality Traits and Sensory Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Springborn, Maria; Lötsch, Jörn; Johnston, Amy N. B.; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality. PMID:21556139

  2. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits of Women's College Students in Relation to Early Departure from College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah E.; Scepansky, James A.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits of coeducational students have been shown to correlate with early withdrawal intention from college (Lounsbury, Saudargas, & Gibson, 2004). The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits as well as seven narrow personality traits in relation to withdrawal intention among 103 female…

  3. Interpretation bias towards vague faces in individuals with paranoid personality disorder traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Doustkam

    2017-10-01

     Conclusion: Individuals with paranoid personality traits have more biases than normal individuals in terms of interpreting vague faces. The results of this study indicated the importance of attention to cognitive biases among individuals with paranoid personality traits or paranoid personality disorder because such biases can significantly influence behavioral patterns in individuals, and consequently degrade their functioning. Also, bias towards the processing of negative signs appears to be the most important cognitive element is involved in interpersonal relationships.

  4. Association between a promoter dopamine D2 receptor gene variant and the personality trait detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Cichon, Sven; Gustavsson, J Petter; Grünhage, Frank; Forslund, Kaj; Mattila-Evenden, Marja; Rylander, Gunnar; Asberg, Marie; Farde, Lars; Propping, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M

    2003-04-01

    Personality traits have shown considerable heritable components. Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor density, as determined by positron-emission tomography, has been associated with detached personality, as assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality. A putative functional promoter polymorphism in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2), -141C ins/del, has been associated with dopamine D(2) receptor density. In this study healthy subjects (n = 235) who filled in at least one of several personality questionnaires (Karolinska Scales of Personality, Swedish Universities Scales of Personality, Health-relevant Five-factor Personality Inventory, and Temperament and Character Inventory) were analyzed with regard to the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant. There was an association (p =.001) between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and Karolinska Scales of Personality Detachment scale, indicating higher scores in subjects with the -141C del variant. There were also associations between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and a number of Karolinska Scales of Personality and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Neuroticism-related scales, but of these only Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Lack of Assertiveness scale (p =.001) survived correction for multiple testing. These results add further support for the involvement of dopamine D(2) receptor in certain personality traits. The results should be treated with caution until replicated.

  5. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming

    2017-04-01

    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate). © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Unusual configurations of personality traits indicate multiple patterns of their coalescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allik, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Realo, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, únor (2018), s. 1-14, č. článku 187. ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-14387S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality traits * five-factor model * trait configurations * NEO PI-R/3 * personality mutants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016

  7. Can DSM-IV borderline personality disorder be diagnosed via dimensional personality traits? Implications for the DSM-5 personality disorder proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Nolf, Kimberly; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    The proposal for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5;American Psychiatric Association, in preparation) involves, in part, the use of elevated scores on dimensional personality traits. For instance, the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the DSM-5 will require evidence of self- and interpersonal impairment as well as elevated scores on traits of emotional lability, anxiousness, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility. Using a sample of individuals from the community (N = 134), half of whom were receiving psychiatric treatment, we tested whether the summation of relevant personality trait scores, using data derived from a measure of the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM), would result in a construct that corresponds to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) BPD construct as scored by expert consensus ratings. The DSM-IV and FFM BPD scores were significantly correlated (r = .60) and generated highly similar patterns of relations (ricc = .84) with key constructs from BPD's nomological network. These data should serve to allay concerns that the DSM-5's new diagnostic approach will be detrimental to the identification of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The role of personality traits in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Brajković, Lovorka; Ivezić, Ena; Topić, Radmila; Jakovljević, Miro

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that although exposure to potentially traumatic events is common, development of PTSD is relatively rare, which is one of the reasons PTSD still remains a controversial psychiatric entity. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research on the role of personality traits in the vulnerability, resilience, posttraumatic growth and expressions associated with PTSD. Personality based approach represents a dimensional aspect of the transdisciplinary integrative model of PTSD. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Complete from 1980 (the year PTSD was first included in the DSM) and 2012 (the year the literature search was performed). Manual examination of secondary sources such as the reference sections of selected articles and book chapters were also conducted. Most of the reviewed studies dealing with personality traits as vulnerability and protective factors for PTSD examined the relationship between basic personality dimensions and severity of symptoms of PTSD. These studies have applied three types of methodological designs: cross-sectional, post-trauma and pre-trauma longitudinal studies, with latter being the least common option. Finding that appears relatively consistent is that PTSD is positively related to negative emotionality, neuroticism, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking and self-transcendence, as well as to trait hostility/anger and trait anxiety. On the other hand, PTSD symptoms are negatively associated with extraversion, conscientiousness, self-directedness, the combination of high positive and low negative emotionality, as well as with hardiness and optimism, while posttraumatic growth shows inverse relation to most of these traits. Furthermore, a number of studies have confirmed the existence of three distinct personality-based subtypes of PTSD: internalizing, externalizing and low pathology PTSD. These findings may help in further uncovering etiological mechanisms and

  9. The relationship between five-factor model and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-fifth edition personality traits on patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mahdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza Khodaie; Lotfi, Mozhgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that new criteria of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) were resulted from five-factor model (FFM), there is a small amount of studies that investigate the relations between proposed personality traits and FFM. Also, cross-cultural study in this field continuously would be needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the FFM and DSM-5 ASPD pathological traits. This study was a cross-sectional study design. The participants consisted of 122 individuals with ASPD that selected from prisoners (73.0%), outpatients (18.0%), and inpatients (9.0%). They were recruited from Tehran Prisoners, and Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, since 2013-2014. The Sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders-Personality Questionnaire, NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised, and DSM-5 personality trait rating form were used to diagnosis and assessment of personality disorder. Pearson correlation has been used for data analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. The results indicate that neuroticism (N) has positive significant relationship with hostility (r = 0.33, P < 0.01), manipulativeness (r = 0.25, P < 0.01), deceitfulness (r =.23, P < 0.01), impulsivity (r = 0.20, P < 0.05), and negative relation with risk taking (r = -0.23, P < 0.01). Also, there was significant relationship between extraversion (E) with manipulativeness (r = 0.28, P < 0.01) and deceitfulness (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). Agreeableness and conscientiousness have negative significant relation with DSM-5 traits. In addition, results showed that there is positive significant relationship between FFM and DSM-5 personality traits with DSM-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ASPD symptoms (P < 0.01). Except manipulativeness, deceitfulness, and

  10. The relationship between five-factor model and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-fifth edition personality traits on patients with antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that new criteria of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5 were resulted from five-factor model (FFM, there is a small amount of studies that investigate the relations between proposed personality traits and FFM. Also, cross-cultural study in this field continuously would be needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the FFM and DSM-5 ASPD pathological traits. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study design. The participants consisted of 122 individuals with ASPD that selected from prisoners (73.0%, outpatients (18.0%, and inpatients (9.0%. They were recruited from Tehran Prisoners, and Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, since 2013-2014. The Sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders-Personality Questionnaire, NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised, and DSM-5 personality trait rating form were used to diagnosis and assessment of personality disorder. Pearson correlation has been used for data analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: The results indicate that neuroticism (N has positive significant relationship with hostility (r = 0.33, P < 0.01, manipulativeness (r = 0.25, P < 0.01, deceitfulness (r =.23, P < 0.01, impulsivity (r = 0.20, P < 0.05, and negative relation with risk taking (r = −0.23, P < 0.01. Also, there was significant relationship between extraversion (E with manipulativeness (r = 0.28, P < 0.01 and deceitfulness (r = 0.32, P < 0.01. Agreeableness and conscientiousness have negative significant relation with DSM-5 traits. In addition, results showed that there is positive significant relationship between FFM and DSM-5 personality traits with DSM-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR ASPD symptoms (P < 0

  11. Complex relationships among personality traits, job characteristics, and work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.T.; Feij, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the additive, mediating, and moderating effects of personality traits and job characteristics on work behaviors. Job applicants (N = 161) completed personality questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, achievement motivation, and experience seeking.

  12. Personality traits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Luchetti, Martina; Albanese, Emiliano; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the association between five factor model personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and risk of dementia, cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND), and conversion from CIND to dementia in a large national cohort. Participants from the Health and Retirement Study (N > 10,000) completed a personality scale in 2006-2008 and their cognitive status was tracked for up to 8 years using the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICSm). Adjusting for age, sex, education, race, and ethnicity, lower conscientiousness and agreeableness and higher neuroticism were independently associated with increased risk of dementia. These associations remained significant after adjusting for other risk factors for dementia, including income, wealth, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and blood biomarkers. These associations were not modified by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and education, suggesting that the associations of personality with risk of dementia were similar across demographic groups. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were also associated with risk of CIND. Low conscientiousness predicted conversion from CIND to dementia. Using brief assessments of personality and cognition, we found robust evidence that personality is associated with risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in a large national sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality traits among burnt out and non-burnt out health-care personnel at the same workplaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gabriella; Persson, Birgitta; Eriksson, Sture; Norberg, Astrid; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2009-10-01

    Stress-related illnesses, such as burnout, have increased over the last decade, but not everyone at the same workplace develops burnout, suggesting that individual factors may contribute to this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of personality traits among two groups of health-care personnel from the same workplaces, one group on sick leave due to medically-assessed burnout, and one group with no indication of burnout, respectively. Fourteen psychiatric- (n = 7) and elderly (n = 7)-care units, located in one specific area in a municipality in northern Sweden, participated in this questionnaire-based study. The participants (n = 40), on sick leave due to medically-assessed burnout (n = 20), and those with no indication of burnout (n = 20), respectively, completed Cattell's 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire between February and December 2004. Conventional statistical methods and partial least square regression were used to analyze data. The results showed that the burnout group had lower scores regarding emotional stability and higher scores regarding anxiety than the non-burnout group, but the results also showed a wide variation of personality traits within groups. The most important indicators for belonging to the burnout group were 'openness to changes' and 'anxiety', and for belonging to the non-burnout group, 'emotional stability', 'liveliness', 'privateness' (i.e. forthright or discreet), and 'tension'. The result indicates complex interactions between personality traits and the context in which the individual lives. It seems to be important to increase our awareness of when personality traits may constitute opportunities versus risks in dealing with one's existing circumstances.

  14. The combined contribution of personality, family traits, and reckless driving intentions to young men's risky driving: What role does anger play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taubman – Ben-Ari, Orit; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy

    2016-01-01

    of 163 young male drivers, who also completed self-report instruments tapping traits and perceptions. Personality traits were assessed near in time to receipt of the driving license, and actual risky driving and driving-related variables were measured 9–12 months after licensure to examine relatively......The study investigated the relation between the risky driving behavior of young male drivers and their personality traits, familial attitudes and conduct in respect to road safety, intentions to drive recklessly, and driving anger. In-vehicle data recorders were used to measure the actual driving...... stable driving behavior and attitudes. Findings indicate that (a) young male drivers’ personality traits and tendencies play a major role in predicting risky behavior; (b) intentions to drive recklessly are translated into actual behavior; and (c) the parental role is extremely relevant and counteracts...

  15. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Deriving ICD-11 personality disorder domains from dsm-5 traits: initial attempt to harmonize two diagnostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Kongerslev, M; Simonsen, E; Krueger, R F; Mulder, R

    2017-07-01

    The personality disorder domains proposed for the ICD-11 comprise Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia, which are reasonably concordant with the higher-order trait domains in the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders. We examined (i) whether designated DSM-5 trait facets can be used to describe the proposed ICD-11 trait domains, and (ii) how these ICD-11 trait features are hierarchically organized. A mixed Danish derivation sample (N = 1541) of 615 psychiatric out-patients and 925 community participants along with a US replication sample (N = 637) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Sixteen PID-5 traits were designated to cover features of the ICD-11 trait domains. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyzes showed that the designated traits were meaningfully organized in the proposed ICD-11 five-domain structure as well as other recognizable higher-order models of personality and psychopathology. Model fits revealed that the five proposed ICD-11 personality disorder domains were satisfactorily resembled, and replicated in the independent US sample. The proposed ICD-11 personality disorder domains can be accurately described using designated traits from the DSM-5 personality trait system. A scoring algorithm for the ICD-11 personality disorder domains is provided in appendix. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Personality traits, interpersonal identity, and relationship stability : Longitudinal linkages in late adolescence and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Branje, S.T.J.; Teppers, E.; Goossens, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are characterized by important changes in personality, changes toward a more stable identity, and the establishment of intimate relationships. We examined the role of personality traits in establishing intimate relationships, the interplay between personality traits

  18. Correlates of daily leisure-time physical activity in a community sample: Narrow personality traits and practical barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Yancy, William S; Denissen, Jaap J A; Kühnel, Anja; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies examining correlates of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have identified personality factors that are correlated with LTPA and practical factors that impede LTPA. The purpose of the present study was to test how several narrow traits predict daily reports of LTPA and to test whether traits that predict LTPA moderate the effects of practical barriers. 1192 participants completed baseline measures of personality, then reported their LTPA and several situational and environmental factors daily for 25 days. We used generalized estimating equations to measure how personality traits, practical barriers, and interactions between these factors affected (1) the odds of engaging in LTPA and (2) the duration of daily LTPA. Higher standing on Activity and Discipline and lower standing on Assertiveness predicted greater odds of engaging in LTPA and longer duration of LTPA, and higher standing on Aesthetics predicted shorter duration of LTPA. Poor weather conditions and less leisure time were associated with less LTPA, and effects of these barriers were generally greater among participants 30 and older. In participants older than 30, poor weather was associated with less LTPA among those with lower standing on Activity but was not associated with LTPA among those high in Activity. Despite Discipline's overall positive association with LTPA, less leisure time and less routineness were greater barriers for those high in Discipline. Assessing narrow personality traits could help target LTPA interventions to individual patients' needs and could help identify important new personality dynamics that affect LTPA.

  19. Online Social Network Users’ Attitudes toward Personality Traits Predict Behaviour of their Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Shchebetenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research considers attitudes toward personality traits in online social network (OSN Vkontakte users’ behaviour. Users’ friends’ activity on a given user’s profile was supposed to be affected by attitudes toward traits of the latter. Within a broader context, the role of metacognitive type of characteristic adaptations as a key element of the five-factor theory of personality is studied. Accordingly, along with attitudes toward traits, other metacognitive characteristic adaptations are examined (e.g. dispositional efficiency, reflected trait, and reflected attitude toward a trait. 1030 undergraduates participated in the study. The research results confirm that extraversion is the most important predictor of OSN behavior among other personality traits. The information presented in this research is obtained using behavioural data instead of more convenient self-reports. Moreover, these behavioural data characterise other users’ (friends’ behaviour while addressing a certain user’s profile. Positive attitudes toward each Big Five traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience separately affected the number of “Likes” of the avatars representing users’ photographs. Furthermore, revealed correlations between traits and “Likes” were subsequently eliminated by the attitudes toward respective traits. Positive attitudes toward conscientiousness predicted the increase of friends’ number unlike trait conscientiousness. Positive attitude toward agreeableness predicted the increase of the number of posts written by friends on user’s wall unlike trait agreeableness. Attitudes toward traits are argued to affect social environment governed by an individual: one may select those social relationships and partners that fit better one’s attitudes toward traits. This, in turn, may affect actions of other people towards the given individual including those of online behaviour.

  20. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality: Gender-Invariant Linkages Across Different Measures of the Big Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples ( N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

  1. Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

  2. Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-Count and Empathy Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Dåderman, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive…

  3. A study on the effects of personality traits on building effective relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shahab Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effects of five big personality traits on development of effective communication among middle level managers of the first private Iranian bank, Bank Eghtesade Novin, in city of Tehran, Iran. To measure the effects of five big personality traits, the study uses a questionnaire developed by Jackson (1974 [Jackson, D. N. (1974. Personality research form manual. Research Psychologists Press.]. In addition, to measure the impacts of effective communication we use another questionnaire. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alphas for two mentioned questionnaires were calculated as 0.92 and 0.74, respectively. The implementation of Pearson test as well as regression analysis have revealed that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between four personality traits, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and effective communication. In addition, there was a negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and effective communication.

  4. Addictive behaviors and personality traits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, Donato; Saroldi, Marta; Bechon, Elisa; Sterpone, Sara Chiara Maria; Zullo, Giuseppina

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral addictions refer to repeated dysfunctional behaviors that do not involve the ingestion of addictive substances. Studies on the association between behavioral addictions and personality traits have noted in individuals with problematic behaviors a high proclivity toward impulsivity and sensation-seeking and a low predisposition to harm avoidance. The majority of these studies have focused on adults, while far fewer have involved adolescents. The study population was 109 high school students (age range 15-18 years) in Turin, Italy. Participants completed an assessment that comprised a demographic questionnaire and 3 self-report questionnaires: the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Multidimensional Questionnaire for Adolescents (QMA). A gender-related difference in the risk of developing an addictive behavior was observed, with a significantly higher percentage of risk seen for several addiction tendencies among the males. Statistically significant correlations emerged between some personality determinants and certain addictive behaviors. The study pinpoints epidemiological indicators for the extent of this growing problem among adolescents. The findings have implications for identifying protection factors and risk factors for addictive behaviors and related psychiatric disorders, and the development of primary prevention strategies derived from such factors.

  5. Acquaintance ratings of the Big Five personality traits: incremental validity beyond and interactive effects with self-reports in the prediction of workplace deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Donald H; McLarty, Benjamin D; Bing, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    It is widely established that the Big Five personality traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability are antecedents to workplace deviance (Berry, Ones, & Sackett, 2007). However, these meta-analytic findings are based on self-reported personality traits. A recent meta-analysis by Oh, Wang, and Mount (2011) identified the value of acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of job performance. The current investigation extends prior work by comparing the validities of self- and acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of workplace deviance across 2 studies. We also hypothesized and tested an interactive, value-added integration of self- with acquaintance-reported personality using socioanalytic personality theory (R. T. Hogan, 1991). Both studies assessed self- and acquaintance-rated Big Five traits, along with supervisor-rated workplace deviance. However, the studies varied the measures of workplace deviance, and the 2nd study also included a self-rated workplace deviance criterion for additional comparison. Across both studies, the traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness were strong predictors of workplace deviance, and acquaintance-reported personality provided incremental validity beyond self-reports. Additionally, acquaintance-reported conscientiousness and agreeableness moderated the prediction of workplace deviance by interacting with the corresponding self-reported traits. Implications for personality theory and measurement are discussed along with applications for practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  7. Childhood Maltreatment as Predictor of Pathological Personality Traits Using PSY-5 in an Adult Psychiatric Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Park, Soo Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Extant literature indicates that childhood maltreatment is significantly associated with personality disorders. With the recent call for a more dimensional approach to understanding personality and pathological personality traits, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the experience of childhood maltreatment is associated with pathological personality traits as measured by the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5). We analyzed data from 557 adult psychiatric patients with diverse psychiatric diagnoses, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and anxiety disorders. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the degree to which childhood maltreatment explained the five trait dimensions after controlling for demographic variables, presence of psychotic symptoms, and degree of depressive symptoms. Childhood maltreatment significantly predicted all of the five trait dimensions of the PSY-5. This suggests that childhood maltreatment may negatively affect the development of an adaptive adjustment system, thereby potentially contributing to the emergence of pathological personality traits.

  8. Specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction as predictors of the presence and severity of personality disorders in a clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction in relation to the presence and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders in a Dutch

  9. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter.

  10. Toward understanding the relationship between personality and well-being states and traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Carly; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2018-04-06

    Although there is a robust connection between dispositional personality traits and well-being, relatively little research has comprehensively examined the ways in which all Big Five personality states are associated with short-term experiences of well-being within individuals. To address three central questions about the nature of the relationship between personality and well-being states: First, to what extent do personality and well-being states covary within individuals? Second, to what extent do personality and well-being states influence one another within individuals? Finally, are these within-person relationships moderated by dispositional personality traits and well-being? Two experience sampling studies (N = 161 and N = 146) were conducted over two weeks. Across both studies all Big Five personality states were correlated with short term experiences of well-being within individuals. Individuals were more extraverted, emotionally stable, conscientious, agreeable and open in moments when they experienced higher well-being (greater self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect and less negative affect). Moreover, personality and well-being states dynamically influenced one another over time within individuals and these associations were not generally moderated by dispositional traits or well being. Behaviour and well-being are inter-connected within the context of the Big Five model of personality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2017-05-01

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  12. Mammographer personality traits – elements of the optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-07

    Nov 7, 2014 ... competency, good communication skills and the ability to limit patient anxiety and ... personality traits in mammographers in order of importance .... 1 (trust) is high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911 and inter- item reliability ...

  13. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  14. Utility of DSM-5 section III personality traits in differentiating borderline personality disorder from comparison groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Bo, S; Simonsen, E

    2016-09-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent diagnosis in mental health care and includes a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms. As the field of personality disorder (PD) research moves to emphasize dimensional traits in its operationalization, it is important to determine how the alternative DSM-5 Section III personality trait dimensions differentiates such features in BPD patients versus comparison groups. To date, no study has attempted such validation. The current study examined the utility of the DSM-5 trait dimensions in differentiating patients with the categorical DSM-IV/5 diagnosis of BPD (n=101) from systematically matched samples of other PD patients (n=101) and healthy controls (n=101). This was investigated using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results indicated that Emotional Lability, Risk Taking, and Suspiciousness uniquely differentiated BPD patients from other PD patients, whereas Emotional Lability, Depressivity, and Suspiciousness uniquely differentiated BPD patients from healthy controls. Emotional Lability is in particular a key BPD feature of the proposed Section III model, whereas Suspiciousness also augments essential BPD features. Provided that these findings are replicated cross-culturally in forthcoming research, a more parsimonious traits operationalization of BPD features is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the theory of planned behaviour is insufficient in capturing all the antecedents of physical activity participation and that continuation intentions or personality traits may improve the predictive validity of the model. The present study examined the combined effects of continuation intentions and personality traits on health behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. To examine these effects, 180 university students (N = 180, Male = 87, Female = 93, Age = 19.14 years, SD = 0.94) completed self-report measures of the theory of planned behaviour, personality traits and continuation intentions. After 5 weeks, perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and actual participation in physical activities were assessed. Results supported discriminant validity between continuation intentions, conscientiousness and extroversion and indicated that perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation after controlling for personality effects, past behaviour and other variables in the theory of planned behaviour. In addition, results indicated that conscientiousness moderated the effects of continuation intentions of failure on physical activity such that continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation among conscientious and not among less conscientious individuals. These findings suggest that the effects of continuation intentions on health behaviour are contingent on personality characteristics.

  16. Correlates of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Everyday Life:Results from a Large Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott O Lilienfeld

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N=3398, we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence. Psychopathic traits, especially those linked to fearless dominance, were positively and moderately associated with holding leadership and management positions, as well as high-risk occupations. In addition, psychopathic traits were positively associated with political conservatism, lack of belief in God, and living in Europe as opposed to the United States, although the magnitudes of these statistical effects were generally small in magnitude. Our findings offer preliminary evidence that psychopathic personality traits display meaningful response penetration into daily functioning, and raise provocative questions for future research.

  17. Association of the Polygenic Scores for Personality Traits and Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeraw T. Amare

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies reported a strong genetic correlation between the Big Five personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD. Moreover, personality traits are thought to be associated with response to antidepressants treatment that might partly be mediated by genetic factors. In this study, we examined whether polygenic scores (PGSs derived from the Big Five personality traits predict treatment response and remission in patients with MDD who were prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. In addition, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWASs on these traits to identify genetic variants underpinning the cross-trait polygenic association. The PGS analysis was performed using data from two cohorts: the Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS, n = 529 and the International SSRI Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ISPC, n = 865. The cross-trait GWAS meta-analyses were conducted by combining GWAS summary statistics on SSRIs treatment outcome and on the personality traits. The results showed that the PGS for openness and neuroticism were associated with SSRIs treatment outcomes at p < 0.05 across PT thresholds in both cohorts. A significant association was also found between the PGS for conscientiousness and SSRIs treatment response in the PGRN-AMPS sample. In the cross-trait GWAS meta-analyses, we identified eight loci associated with (a SSRIs response and conscientiousness near YEATS4 gene and (b SSRI remission and neuroticism eight loci near PRAG1, MSRA, XKR6, ELAVL2, PLXNC1, PLEKHM1, and BRUNOL4 genes. An assessment of a polygenic load for personality traits may assist in conjunction with clinical data to predict whether MDD patients might respond favorably to SSRIs.

  18. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  19. Assessment of maladaptiveness: a core issue in the diagnosing of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, P; Gustavsson, P J; Mattila-Evenden, M; Asberg, M

    1999-01-01

    Although an operationalized and commonly accepted definition of maladaptiveness is lacking, the delineation of personality traits as being adaptive or maladaptive is essential in diagnosing personality disorders (PDs). A way to explore the meaning of maladaptiveness is to compare how patients from all DSM-III-R PDs relate to different traits and dimensions of various dimensional models of personality. In the present study, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were used in a sample of 94 psychiatric outpatients who were assessed according to severity of maladaption and according to type of predominant cluster type of deviant traits. Only one of four factors of the scores of the KSP subscales, "Interpersonal Aversiveness," was related to degree of maladaption, indicating high detachment, suspicion, irritability, dysphoria, and low socialization as core features of maladaptiveness. Three subscales of the KSP Socialization were all associated with maladaptiveness. However, one subscale, "Childhood Adjustment," was also related to the predominant cluster type of personality pathology.

  20. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Samuels, Jack F; Riddle, Mark A; Joseph Bienvenu, O; Grados, Marco A; Reti, Irving M; Eaton, William W; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-09-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample. 374 white participants were assessed by clinical psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Associations between dimensions of each DSM-IV personality disorder and the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the 5HTTLPR were evaluated using non-parametric tests and regression models. The s allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with higher avoidant personality trait scores in the whole sample. Males with the s allele had a significantly lower likelihood of higher obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) trait scores, whereas females with the s allele were likely to have higher OCPD personality trait scores. This paper provides preliminary data on the relationship between personality disorders and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The relationship of the s allele and avoidant PD is consistent with findings of a nonspecific relationship of this polymorphism to anxiety and depressive disorders. Concerning the unusual sexual dimorphic result with OCPD, several hypotheses are presented. These findings need further replication, including a more detailed study of additional variants in SERT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parenting behaviours associated with the development of adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Liu, Lydia; Cohen, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the associations of beneficial parenting behaviours with adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits that persist into adulthood among individuals in the community. Families (n = 669) participating in the Children in the Community Study were interviewed during the childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood of the offspring at the mean ages of 6, 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Twelve types of beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviour, reported by offspring at the mean age of 16 years, were associated with elevated offspring personality resiliency, at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years, and with low offspring personality disorder trait levels. These longitudinal associations remained significant when histories of childhood behaviour problems and parental psychiatric disorder were controlled statistically. Similar linear (that is, dose-dependent) associations were observed between the number of beneficial parenting behaviours during childhood and adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Maternal and paternal behaviours were independently associated with both adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits. Beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviours may promote the development of adaptive offspring personality traits that endure into adulthood, and they may be prospectively associated with reduced levels of maladaptive offspring traits. These associations may not be attributable to childhood behaviour problems or parental psychiatric disorders, and they may be equally evident during early and middle adulthood.

  2. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  3. The Internet's effect on personality traits: An important casualty of the "Internet addiction" paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition. Methods A narrative assessment of the literature was conducted, focusing on the Internet's effects on personality traits as revealed in studies of Internet users. Results Impulsivity, narcissism, and aggression are some of the personality traits that seem to be nurtured by the Internet, with possible negative offline consequences. Discussion Ignoring the Internet's subtle effects on personality as we embrace an addiction model that implies severe pathology makes the majority of Internet users feel de