WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing organ specific

  1. Development of a culturally specific assessment tool for pelvic organ prolapse in a Mayan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Rachael T; Macri, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition that can significantly affect a woman's life, including her sexual, urinary, and social functioning. In Guatemala, anecdotal evidence suggests that the daily activities of Mayan women contribute to and worsen the degree of pelvic organ prolapse. The objective of this research was to develop a culturally specific assessment tool to better evaluate how pelvic organ prolapse affects the daily activities of Mayan women in rural Guatemala. A survey was created entitled a Culturally Specific Assessment Tool for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (CSAT-POP). The survey was administered to a 19 Mayan women with various degrees of pelvic organ prolapse in Montellano, Guatemala. Participants were asked using a Likert scale about how their pelvic organ prolapse affected their ability to perform 7 culturally specific activities of daily living. The survey was administered through an on-site interpreter who translated the CSAT-POP into Spanish and Quiché. Nineteen women were assessed using the CSAT-POP. Their mean age was 49.2 ± 28 years, and the median parity was 6.8 children (range 1-11). Three culturally specific activities: performing vigorous activities, gathering wood, and carrying water, were identified as the activities most impacted by pelvic organ prolapse. Of the participants, 15-20% were unable to perform these activities on a daily basis. However, preparing food, washing clothes, and caring for children were the activities reported by women with pelvic organ prolapse which required the least amount of assistance. The CSAT-POP identified several activities specific to the rural Mayan community in Guatemala which are difficult to perform with pelvic organ prolapse. By using culturally specific activities of daily living, the CSAT-POP allowed for more relevant assessment, identification, and treatment of women with pelvic organ prolapse in Guatemala.

  2. Halogen-specific total organic halogen analysis: Assessment by recovery of total bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsa, Markus; Allard, Sebastien; Kristiana, Ina; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia A

    2017-08-01

    Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic bromine (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total bromine (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide. The validation of a halogen-specific TOX method based on the mass balance of total bromine has not previously been reported. Very good recoveries of organic halogen from all model compounds were obtained, indicating high or complete conversion of all organic halogen in the model compound solution through to halide in the absorber solution for ion chromatography analysis. The method was also successfully applied to monitor conversion of bromide to TOBr in a groundwater treatment plant. An excellent recovery (101%) of total bromine was observed from the raw water to the post-chlorination stage. Excellent recoveries of total bromine (92%-95%) were also obtained from chlorination of a synthetic water containing dissolved organic matter and bromide, demonstrating the validity of the halogen-specific TOX method for TOBr measurement. The halogen-specific TOX method is an important tool to monitor and better understand the formation of halogenated organic compounds, in particular brominated organic compounds, in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SU-F-I-38: Patient Organ Specific Dose Assessment in Coronary CT Angiograph Using Voxellaized Volume Dose Index in Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallal, Mohammadi Gh.; Riyahi, Alam N.; Graily, Gh. [Tehran University of Medical Scienced(TUMS), School of Medicine, Department of Nedical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Paydar, R. [Iran University of Medical Sciences(IUMS), Allied Medicine Faculty, Department of radiation Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical use of multi detector computed tomography(MDCT) in diagnosis of diseases due to high speed in data acquisition and high spatial resolution is significantly increased. Regarding to the high radiation dose in CT and necessity of patient specific radiation risk assessment, the adoption of new method in the calculation of organ dose is completely required and necessary. In this study by introducing a conversion factor, patient organ dose in thorax region based on CT image data using MC system was calculated. Methods: The geometry of x-ray tube, inherent filter, bow tie filter and collimator were designed using EGSnrc/BEAMnrc MC-system component modules according to GE-Light-speed 64-slices CT-scanner geometry. CT-scan image of patient thorax as a specific phantom was voxellised with 6.25mm3 in voxel and 64×64×20 matrix size. Dose to thorax organ include esophagus, lung, heart, breast, ribs, muscle, spine, spinal cord with imaging technical condition of prospectively-gated-coronary CT-Angiography(PGT) as a step and shoot method, were calculated. Irradiation of patient specific phantom was performed using a dedicated MC-code as DOSXYZnrc with PGT-irradiation model. The ratio of organ dose value calculated in MC-method to the volume CT dose index(CTDIvol) reported by CT-scanner machine according to PGT radiation technique has been introduced as conversion factor. Results: In PGT method, CTDIvol was 10.6mGy and Organ Dose/CTDIvol conversion factor for esophagus, lung, heart, breast, ribs, muscle, spine and spinal cord were obtained as; 0.96, 1.46, 1.2, 3.28. 6.68. 1.35, 3.41 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion: The results showed while, underestimation of patient dose was found in dose calculation based on CTDIvol, also dose to breast is higher than the other studies. Therefore, the method in this study can be used to provide the actual patient organ dose in CT imaging based on CTDIvol in order to calculation of real effective dose(ED) based on organ dose

  4. Organ-specific biomarkers in lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haijing; Zeng, Jinrong; Yin, Jinghua; Peng, Qiao; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Qianjin

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease, which affects multiple organs, including joints, skin, kidneys, heart, hematopoietic system, and nerve system. While the etiopathogenesis of SLE still remains unclear, genetic susceptibilities and aberrant epigenetic modifications are believed to be involved. For precision therapy, it is necessary to assess accurately and objectively organ involvements and disease activity, which is difficult by current clinical laboratory tests. Biomarkers, which are a biologic, genetic, epigenetic or a chemical characteristic and conveniently detectable, serve as measures of disease diagnosis, activity, prognosis, and manifestation prediction, thereby providing instruction for individualized therapy. In addition, biomarkers differ according to different manifestations, since the disease activity index and treatments vary significantly. For example, unlike other non-renal SLE, lupus nephritis requires significant immunosuppressive drugs. Over the past decades, the research on biomarkers in lupus has been strengthened and numerous promising biomarkers have been identified at levels of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. In this review, we summarize the conventional and novel biomarkers in the tissue-specific manner, and discuss their roles in specific organ diagnosis, future manifestation prediction, disease activity assessment and their correlation with histology results. By doing so, it aims to shed a light on individualized treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of Life of Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Burns Using World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II and Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary Elizabeth; Holzer, Charles E; Richardson, Lisa M; Epperson, Kathryn; Ojeda, Sylvia; Martinez, Erin M; Suman, Oscar E; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine long-term psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) in young adult survivors of pediatric burns using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B). Fifty burn survivors 2.5 to 12.5 years postburn (16-21.5 years old; 56% male, 82% Hispanic) completed the WHODAS and BSHS-B. The WHODAS measures health and disability and the BSHS-B measures psychosocial and physical difficulties. Scores were calculated for each instrument, and then grouped by years postburn, TBSA, sex, burn age, and survey age to compare the effects of each. Next, the instruments were compared with each other. The WHODAS disability score mean was 14.4 ± 2.1. BSHS-B domain scores ranged from 3 to 3.7. In general, as TBSA burned increased, QOL decreased. Female burn survivors, survivors burned prior to school entry, and adolescents who had yet to transition into adulthood reported better QOL than their counterparts. In all domains except Participation, the WHODAS consistently identified more individuals with lower QOL than the BSHS-B. Young adult burn survivors' QOL features more disability than their nonburned counterparts, but score in the upper 25% for QOL on the BSHS-B. This analysis revealed the need for long-term psychosocial intervention for survivors with larger TBSA, males, those burned after school entry, and those transitioning into adulthood. Both instruments are useful tools for assessing burn survivors' QOL and both should be given as they discern different individuals. However, the WHODAS is more sensitive than the BSHS-B in identifying QOL issues.

  6. Specification of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Floral organs are specified by the activities of a small group of transcriptional regulators, the floral organ identity factors. Extensive genetic and molecular analyses have shown that these proteins act as master regulators of flower development, and function not only in organ identity determination but also during organ morphogenesis. Although it is now well established that these transcription factors act in higher order protein complexes in the regulation of transcription, the gene expression programmes controlled by them have remained largely elusive. Only recently, detailed insights into their functions have been obtained through the combination of a wide range of experimental methods, including transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Here, we review the progress that has been made in the characterization of the floral organ identity factors from the main model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and we discuss what is known about the processes acting downstream of these regulators. We further outline open questions, which we believe need to be addressed to obtain a more complete view of the molecular processes that govern floral organ development and specification.

  7. Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  9. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  10. DRUG DELIVERY BY ORGAN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOLIPOSOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARUYAMA, K; MORI, A; KENNEL, SJ; WAALKES, MVB; SCHERPHOF, GL; HUANG, L

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition

  11. Variety specificity of soft wheat varieties at organic production

    OpenAIRE

    Ilievski, Mite; Spasova, Dragica; Kukutanov, Risto; Atanasova, Biljana; Jovanov, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Surveys were conducted from 2004/05 to 2007/08 on ten (10) genotypes soft winter wheat. The main objective was to determine the variety specificity on wheat in organic production and to recommend varieties that will suit for organic production. Varieties podobrena orovchanka, lizinka, mila, bistra, orovchanka and olga are best and most stable genotypes for high yield of good quality in organic wheat production. Key words: wheat, organic, varieties, specification, grain

  12. Bacterial genomes: habitat specificity and uncharted organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Trevors, Jack T; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-07-01

    The capability and speed in generating genomic data have increased profoundly since the release of the draft human genome in 2000. Additionally, sequencing costs have continued to plummet as the next generation of highly efficient sequencing technologies (next-generation sequencing) became available and commercial facilities promote market competition. However, new challenges have emerged as researchers attempt to efficiently process the massive amounts of sequence data being generated. First, the described genome sequences are unequally distributed among the branches of bacterial life and, second, bacterial pan-genomes are often not considered when setting aims for sequencing projects. Here, we propose that scientists should be concerned with attaining an improved equal representation of most of the bacterial tree of life organisms, at the genomic level. Moreover, they should take into account the natural variation that is often observed within bacterial species and the role of the often changing surrounding environment and natural selection pressures, which is central to bacterial speciation and genome evolution. Not only will such efforts contribute to our overall understanding of the microbial diversity extant in ecosystems as well as the structuring of the extant genomes, but they will also facilitate the development of better methods for (meta)genome annotation.

  13. The role of non-specific interactions in nuclear organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijer, de S.

    2010-01-01

    The most important organelle in eukaryotic cells is the nucleus. Many processes occurring within the nucleus depend on spatial organization of the nucleus. The spatial organization of the eukaryotic nucleus derives from interactions between its constituents. Both specific interactions, for instance

  14. The Education Policies of International Organizations: Specific Differences and Convergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Lauwerier, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that international organizations play in orienting education reforms and changes, based on an examination of key texts these organizations produced in the 1990s. The analysis shows that some specific trends persist: UNESCO and UNICEF centre their philosophy on a humanistic and child-centered vision of education,…

  15. Modality-specific organization in the representation of sensorimotor sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Arnaud; Massen, Cristina; Heuer, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor representations of movement sequences are hierarchically organized. Here we test the effects of different stimulus modalities on such organizations. In the visual group, participants responded to a repeated sequence of visually presented stimuli by depressing spatially compatible keys on a response pad. In the auditory group, learners were required to respond to auditorily presented stimuli, which had no direct spatial correspondence with the response keys: the lowest pitch corresponded to the leftmost key and the highest pitch to the rightmost key. We demonstrate that hierarchically and auto-organized sensorimotor representations are developed through practice, which are specific both to individuals and stimulus modalities. These findings highlight the dynamic and sensory-specific modulation of chunk processing during sensorimotor learning – sensorimotor chunking – and provide evidence that modality-specific mechanisms underlie the hierarchical organization of sequence representations. PMID:24376432

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2007-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER USAGE BY VEGETABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    ABSTRACT. Vegetables support rural and urban population both in terms of subsistence and income generation. Its cultivation however presents with problems that can be reduced with the use of organic fertilizers. Therefore, there is a need to assess the use of organic fertilizer among vegetable growers as it directly affects ...

  18. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  19. Modality-specific organization in the representation of sensorimotor sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eBoutin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor representations of movement sequences are hierarchically organized. Here we test the effects of different stimulus modalities on such organizations. In the visual group, participants responded to a repeated sequence of visually presented stimuli by depressing spatially compatible keys on a response pad. In the auditory group, learners were required to respond to auditorily presented stimuli, which had no direct spatial correspondence with the response keys: the lowest pitch corresponded to the leftmost key and the highest pitch to the rightmost key. We demonstrate that hierarchically and auto-organised sensorimotor representations are developed through practice, which are specific both to individuals and stimulus modalities. These findings highlight the dynamic and sensory-specific modulation of chunk processing during sensorimotor learning – sensorimotor chunking – and provide evidence that modality-specific mechanisms underlie the hierarchical organization of sequence representations.

  20. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. Presentation at the ICWL 2008 conference. August, 20, 2008, Jinhua, China.

  1. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of new and improvement of existing theoretical and methodological basis of forming and developing the market of organic products, its correspondence to the present-day situation, determination of problems and ways of their solving, introduction in practical activity of Ukrainian enterprises. The main objective of the article is to determine the specific features of forming and developing organic products market in Ukraine, and the perspective directions of its development based on analysis and practice of functioning of such markets in the world. The environmentally sound products market in the world is being analyzed, some information on the countries with the most commodity turnover of organic products, structure of international market of organic products, volumes of sales of organic products in the European countries is provided. As a result of studying the modern trends of economic development the authors reach a conclusion on problems of standard introduction, investigate the European norms and requirements for organic products. The conducted research allows distinguishing the basic features of Ukrainian market of organic products: it quickly grows, which makes it especially appealing for the participants of market relations, however entry into this market requires considerable capital investments and is characterized by high risk; criteria for qualifying products as environmentally sound products are unstructured and unclear. The potential for growth of organic products market in Ukraine is examined.

  2. Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several

  3. Modeling growth of specific spoilage organisms in tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia is an important aquatic fish, but severe spoilage of tilapia is most likely related to the global aquaculture. The spoilage is mostly caused by specific spoilage organisms (SSO). Therefore, it is very important to use microbial models to predict the growth of SSO in tilapia. This study firstly verified Pseudomonas and Vibrio ...

  4. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...... disciplines....

  5. Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Key words: Risk assessment, biosafety, Malaysian Biosafety Act 2007, genetically modified organisms. (GMOs). INTRODUCTION. Nowadays, with ... from the early stages of genetic engineering, legal frameworks were set up to ensure the ..... Since the advances in gene technology have led to speculation ...

  6. Organ site specificity for cancer in chromosomal instability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, A P; Coffey, D S

    1982-08-01

    DNA rearrangement rather than point mutation is an emerging hypothesis for human carcinogenesis. Although there is no direct evidence for this hypothesis, indirect evidence is provided by cancer cytogenetics and genetics. It has been suggested that patients with Bloom's syndrome, a disorder of spontaneous chromosomal rearrangement, develop the common fatal internal cancers and thus that genetic rearrangements, rather than chemical mutagens, cause most internal human cancers. To test this observation, we have derived age- and sex-adjusted cancer incidence rate ratios for specific organ sites in patients with three chromosomal instability disorders (Bloom's syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and dyskeratosis congenita) and have found that the increased incidence of cancer in all three disorders is limited to specific and often uncommon organ sites. We conclude that chromosomal instability disorders do not predispose patients to the common fatal internal cancers. Although DNA rearrangement remains a promising concept in human carcinogenesis, the organ site specificity of cancers associated with Bloom's syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and dyskeratosis congenita cannot be used as evidence to implicate this mechanism.

  7. Structuring of bacterioplankton communities by specific dissolved organic carbon compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Lindh, Markus V; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-09-01

    The main role of microorganisms in the cycling of the bulk dissolved organic carbon pool in the ocean is well established. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if particular bacteria preferentially utilize specific carbon compounds and whether such compounds have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Enrichment experiments in the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and the North Sea (Skagerrak) showed that different low-molecular-weight organic compounds, with a proven importance for the growth of marine bacteria (e.g. amino acids, glucose, dimethylsulphoniopropionate, acetate or pyruvate), in most cases differentially stimulated bacterial growth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 'fingerprints' and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that some bacterial phylotypes that became abundant were highly specific to enrichment with specific carbon compounds (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. B1-A3 with acetate or Psychromonas sp. B3-U1 with glucose). In contrast, other phylotypes increased in relative abundance in response to enrichment with several, or all, of the investigated carbon compounds (e.g. Neptuniibacter sp. M2-A4 with acetate, pyruvate and dimethylsulphoniopropionate, and Thalassobacter sp. M3-A3 with pyruvate and amino acids). Furthermore, different carbon compounds triggered the development of unique combinations of dominant phylotypes in several of the experiments. These results suggest that bacteria differ substantially in their abilities to utilize specific carbon compounds, with some bacteria being specialists and others having a more generalist strategy. Thus, changes in the supply or composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool can act as selective forces structuring bacterioplankton communities. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Clinical features of otolith organ-specific vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Chisato; Suzuki, Sayaka; Kinoshita, Makoto; Egami, Naoya; Sugasawa, Keiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    To elucidate the clinical features and vestibular symptoms of patients with otolith organ dysfunction in the presence of normal function of the semicircular canals. We reviewed the clinical records of 277 consecutive new patients with balance disorders who underwent testing of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and oVEMPs) as well as caloric testing and video head impulse testing (vHIT). We identified 76 patients who showed normal caloric responses and normal vHIT findings in each SCC plane, but abnormal responses in cVEMP and/or oVEMP testing. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) was the most common diagnosis. 37% of patients could not be categorized into any of the established clinical entities that could cause a balance disorder and did not show sensorineural hearing loss. The most common clinical manifestation in the idiopathic cases was recurrent rotatory vertigo with a duration of 1-12 h. The most common diagnosis of otolith organ-specific vestibular dysfunction was BPPV. The most common clinical manifestation in the idiopathic cases was recurrent rotatory vertigo. Specific dysfunction of the otolith organs occurs in association with some of the undiagnosed patients with recurrent rotatory vertigo. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. In F. W. B. Li, J. Zhao, T. K. Shih, R. W. H. Lau, Q. Li & D. McLeod (Eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning - Proceedings of the 7th

  10. Estimation of Specific Effective Energy of Surrounding Organs with Prostate as the Source Organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lim, Chang Seon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Konyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The incidence of prostate cancer has increased rapidly due to such as aging population and western dietary habits and it is the fifth most common cancer among male cancers and the most common cancer in urinary system. Prostate cancer is treated in various ways, but suitable treatments are selected case by case instead of particularly superior treatments chosen. One of them is cancer treatment via irradiation and it is widely available because of its simplicity and outstanding effectiveness; however compromised local selectivity inevitably results in side effects in surrounding tissues like bladder, urethra and rectum. These tough problems have been able to be solved since mid-1980s when radioisotope seeds such as {sup 1}'2{sup 5}I or {sup 103}Pd which could be implanted in the body were produced, and now much less invasive brachytherapy is widely used in the US and Europe. But there is a lack of investigations related to this therapy in Korea. In the present study, we intend to estimate specific effective energy of prostate and surrounding organs using {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd and thus provide basic data of radiation exposure assessments during prostate brachytherapy.

  11. Context, Specificity, and Self-Organization in Auxin Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco, Marta; Kepinski, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Auxin is a simple molecule with a remarkable ability to control plant growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis. The mechanistic basis for this versatility appears to stem from the highly complex nature of the networks regulating auxin metabolism, transport and response. These heavily feedback-regulated and inter-dependent mechanisms are complicated in structure and complex in operation giving rise to a system with self-organizing properties capable of generating highly context-specific responses to auxin as a single, generic signal. PMID:21047914

  12. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects on the structu......Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects......, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA) were realized. Results show damage within the inorganic and the organic matrix; incorporation of sulfur and nitrogen groups, minor reduction of specific aminoacids and changes in collagen integrity were...

  13. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...... to communicate domain-specific knowledge of organic foods to a lay audience....

  14. Organ-Specific and Memory Treg Cells: Specificity, Development, Function, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Iris K.; Campbell, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential for establishing and maintaining self-tolerance, and also inhibit immune responses to innocuous environmental antigens. Imbalances and dysfunction in Treg cells lead to a variety of immune-mediated diseases, as deficits in Treg cell function contribute to the development autoimmune disease and pathological tissue damage, whereas overabundance of Treg cells can promote chronic infection and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the fact that Treg cells themselves are a diverse collection of phenotypically and functionally specialized populations, with distinct developmental origins, antigen-specificities, tissue-tropisms, and homeostatic requirements. The signals directing the differentiation of these populations, their specificities and the mechanisms by which they combine to promote organ-specific and systemic tolerance, and how they embody the emerging property of regulatory memory are the focus of this review. PMID:25076948

  15. Specific Organ Targeted Vestibular Physiotherapy: The Pivot in the Contemporary Management of Vertigo and Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anirban; Barui, Bibhas

    2017-12-01

    Advancements in our understanding of vestibular physiology and how it is changes in different diseases have established that of the three therapeutic approaches to treat disorders of the vestibular system viz. pharmacotherapy, surgery and physical therapy, it is the later i.e., physical therapy which is the most efficacious modality in the management of balance disorders. The futility of vestibular sedatives in the correction of vestibular disorders and in the restoration of balance and the very limited role of surgery has now been recognised. Advancements in vestibulometry now enable us to localise any lesion in the vestibular system with utmost precision and also determine the exact cause of the balance disorder. The site of lesion and the specific organ that is defective can now be very precisely identified. Treatment modalities especially that for physical therapy hence have to be organ specific, and if possible, also disease specific. The study aims at evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapy in the management of balance disorders and also assesses the efficacy of organ targeted physical therapy, a new concept in restoring balance after vestibulometry has identified the offending organ. The study was conducted in the specialised physical therapy unit for balance and gait disorder patients which is a part of Vertigo and Deafness Clinic in Kolkata, India. Special instruments for physical therapy devised by the first author were used for stimulation of specific sense organs in the vestibular labyrinth that were found to be defective in vestibulometry. Specially made Virtual reality programs were used in patients suffering from psychogenic balance disorders. The pre and post therapy status was evaluated by different standard scales to assess balance and dizziness. Very promising results were obtained. Organ targeted physiotherapy where defective sense organs were specifically stimulated showed remarkable improvement in different measures. Virtual reality exercises

  16. A general method to derive robust organ-specific gene expression-based differentiation indices: application to thyroid cancer diagnostic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomás, G; Tarabichi, M; Gacquer, D; Hébrant, A; Dom, G; Dumont, J E; Keutgen, X; Fahey, 3rd, T J; Maenhaut, C; Detours, V

    2012-01-01

    .... Hence, a quantitative assessment of differentiation would be most useful. We propose an unbiased method to derive organ-specific differentiation indices from gene expression data and demonstrate its usefulness in thyroid cancer diagnosis...

  17. Sustainability Assessment Framework for VET Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Moldovan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and innovative approach to assessing Vocational Education and Training (VET organizations institutional sustainability in terms of five key pillars: institutional capacity, environmental, economic, social, and training provision. In the five areas of the proposed new and original sustainability assessment framework, a total of 40 performance indicators are used to make the assessment. The assessment process is based on a novel approach for the couple values for performance and importance of the indicators, by using scales from 1 to 5 for both. There are five performance categories (awareness, measures, action, innovation and excellence and five importance categories for each indicator. The framework is innovative, both by its objective, which consists in impact determining and improvement on environmental, economic, social and quality of the training system and by development of a strategy based on performance indicators that integrates sustainable development. The implementation methodology is based on the newly developed framework and detailed application guidelines are provided. Exact results from a case study carried out and an analysis of the results for the environmental area are presented in order to validate the methodology in action. The results are used to establish a sustainability baseline, to identify possibilities for improvement, and to prioritize implementation.

  18. Organ-specificity of placebo effects on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Karin; Ziep, Dagmar

    2011-10-28

    There is increasing evidence that verbal suggestions accompanying placebo interventions can alter autonomic functions. The underlying mechanisms of these changes are not well understood. However, previous studies point at the specificity of such effects. The aim of the experiment was to lower blood pressure by a placebo intervention and to investigate the specificity of autonomic changes. Forty-five healthy participants received a single administration of an active drug (a homeopathic remedy), an identically-looking placebo drug, or no drug. Active drugs and placebo drugs were administered in a double-blind design and were accompanied by verbal suggestions of a blood-pressure lowering effect. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity, and the electrogastrogram were recorded during 30min before and after the intervention, and changes in situational anxiety were assessed. Results indicated a decrease of systolic blood pressure in the placebo group, as compared to the control group. Diastolic blood pressure levels, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, skin conductance, gastric slow-wave frequency and situational anxiety did not change differentially between groups. In conclusion, the reduction in systolic blood pressure following the placebo intervention could not be attributed to stress relief or anxiety reduction. Rather, results suggest that the placebo intervention specifically reduced systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  20. Organ- and species-specific biological activity of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswandana, R; Pham, B T; van Haaften, W T; Luangmonkong, T; Oosterhuis, D; Mutsaers, H A M; Olinga, P

    2016-04-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a compound found in several plant species, has beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. We investigated the toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects of RA using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from human, mouse, and rat tissue. PCLS and PCIS were cultured up to 48 h in the absence or presence of RA. Gene expression of the inflammatory markers: IL-6, IL-8/CXCL1/KC, and IL-1β, as well as the fibrosis markers: pro-collagen 1a1, heat shock protein 47, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin (Fn2) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were evaluated by qPCR. RA was only toxic in murine PCIS. RA failed to mitigate the inflammatory response in most models, while it clearly reduced IL-6 and CXCL1/KC gene expression in murine PCIS at non-toxic concentrations. With regard to fibrosis, RA decreased the gene levels of Fn2 and PAI-1 in murine PCLS, and Fn2 in murine PCIS. Yet, no effect was observed on the gene expression of fibrosis markers in human and rat PCIS. In conclusion, we observed clear organ- and species-specific effects of RA. RA had little influence on inflammation. However, our study further establishes RA as a potential candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stan

    2006-04-01

    One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

  2. Environmental assessment in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel; Carnero, María Carmen

    2017-12-22

    The aim of this research is to design a multi-criteria model for environmental assessment of health care organizations. This is a model which guarantees the objectivity of the results obtained, is easy to apply, and incorporates a series of criteria, and their corresponding descriptors, relevant to the internal environmental auditing processes of the hospital. Furthermore, judgments were given by three experts from the areas of health, the environment, and multi-criteria decision techniques. From the values assigned, geometric means were calculated, giving weightings for the criteria of the model. This innovative model is intended for application within a continuous improvement process. A practical case from a Spanish hospital is included at the end. Information contained in the sustainability report provided the data needed to apply the model. The example contains all the criteria previously defined in the model. The results obtained show that the best-satisfied criteria are those related to energy consumption, generation of hazardous waste, legal matters, environmental sensitivity of staff, patients and others, and the environmental management of suppliers. On the other hand, those areas returning poor results are control of atmospheric emissions, increase in consumption of renewable energies, and the logistics of waste produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to correct these deficiencies, thus leading to an acceptable increase in the sustainability of the hospital.

  3. Context specificity in the assessment of psychosocial risk at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment. O...

  4. The constitutional influence on organ transplants with specific

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    citizens have given informed consent to be organ donors upon their death. The consent is thus merely presumed and not in any way real, informed consent. If one does not want to be an organ donor, one must make this objection publicly known prior to death, in accordance with the requirements set out by the legislature; ...

  5. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the

  6. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  7. Using a standardized donor ratio to assess the performance of organ procurement organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogis, Sheryl; Hirth, Richard A; Strawderman, Robert L; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Smith, Dean G

    2002-10-01

    To develop a Standardized Donor Ratio (SDR) as an outcome measure for evaluating the effectiveness of organ procurement organizations (OPOs). All deaths by cause in the United States during 1993-1994 as reported in the Vital Mortality Statistics, Multiple Cause of Death files. The OPO-specific data were provided by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Each OPO's expected number of donors was calculated by applying national donation rates to deaths with potential for donation in 24 age, sex, and race cells. The SDR was calculated by dividing the observed number of donors by the expected number. The chi2 tests of the hypothesis that the OPO's performance differed from the national norm of 1.0 were performed. The SDR was compared to the existing performance standard based on the unadjusted number of donors per million live population in the OPO's service area. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression assessed predictors of the SDR. The SDRs ranged from 0.41 to 1.99. Twenty-nine of 64 OPOs had SDRs significantly different than 1.0. The SDRs were positively associated with the percent of white living population and the number of organ types transplanted per transplant center served by the OPO. The SDRs can be used by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), UNOS, and OPOs to target quality improvement initiatives, present more accurate comparisons of OPO performance, and develop public policy on the evaluation of the effectiveness of organ procurement efforts.

  8. Brine organisms and the question of habitat-specific adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.

    1984-01-01

    The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.

  9. ROSC-Pred: web-service for rodent organ-specific carcinogenicity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunin, Alexey; Rudik, Anastasia; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry; Filimonov, Dmitry; Poroikov, Vladimir

    2017-10-23

    Identification of rodent carcinogens is an important task in risk assessment of chemicals. SAR methods were proposed to reduce the number of animal experiments. Most of these methods ignore information about organ-specificity of tumorigenesis. Our study was aimed at the creation of classification models and a freely available online service for prediction of rodent carcinogens considering the species (rats, mice), sex, and tissue-specificity from structural formula of compounds. The data from Carcinogenic Potency Database for 1011 organic compounds evaluated on the standard two-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassay was used for the creation of training sets. Structure-activity relationships models for prediction of rodent organ-specific carcinogenicity were created by PASS software, which was based on Bayesian-like approach and MNA (Multilevel Neighborhoods of Atoms) descriptors. The average prediction accuracy (AUC) for training sets calculated by leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation was 79% and 78.2%, respectively. Freely available on the web at http://www.way2drug.com/ROSC. alexey.lagunin@ibmc.msk.ru. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Specificity of school readiness assessment of children with mental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Klausová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the school readiness assessment of children with mental disability. Thesis is devoted to theoretical knowledge in relation to pre-school age and also specifically for children with mental disability. Thesis describes the school readiness of child and compares foreign and local view on it. It also includes the issue of school readiness of children with mental disability. Furthermore, the thesis focuses on the school readiness assessment and on resources and tools that...

  11. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  12. The assessment and treatment of specific phobias: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grös, Daniel F; Antony, Martin M

    2006-08-01

    Specific phobia is one of the most common and easily treated mental disorders. In this review, empirically supported assessment and treatment procedures for specific phobia are discussed. Exposure-based treatments in particular are highlighted given their demonstrated effectiveness for this condition. The format and characteristics of exposure-based treatment and predictors of treatment response are outlined to provide recommendations for maximizing outcome. In addition, several other treatments for specific phobia are reviewed and critiqued, including cognitive therapy, virtual reality, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, applied tension, and pharmacologic treatments. The review concludes with a discussion of future directions for research.

  13. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  14. Importance of fasting in preparing dogs for abdominal ultrasound examination of specific organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, D A A; Froes, T R

    2014-12-01

    To describe the effect of fasting on the technical success of abdominal ultrasonography specifically in respect of examination of the gall bladder, duodenum, pancreas, adrenal glands and portal vein in dogs. Randomised, prospective study of 150 dogs with a variety of physical characteristics. Animals were divided into two groups of 75 dogs each. Dogs in Group 1 were fasted for 8 to 12 hours before ultrasonographic evaluation and those in Group 2 were not but received food anytime between 10 minutes and 2 hours before the procedure. Intraluminal gas can influence the visibility of organs, but intraluminal gas accumulation occurred independently of fasting status. The assessment of abdominal organs was not affected by whether or not an animal was fasted. Routine fasting of dogs before abdominal ultrasonography is not essential. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  16. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  17. Assessing Cell and Organ Senescence Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Blasco, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal in cancer and aging research is to discriminate the biochemical modifications that happen locally that could account for the healthiness or malignancy of tissues. Senescence is one general antiproliferative cellular process that acts as a strong barrier for cancer progression, playing a crucial role in aging. Here, we focus on the current methods to assess cellular senescence, discriminating the advantages and disadvantages of several senescence biomarkers. PMID:22723221

  18. Can multicriteria assessment tools help build trust into organic products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Freyer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a continuously expanding, globalizing, and industrializing organic market, organic consumers confront increasing complexity in organic product representation, labeling, and information that challenges how they build trust in organic products. We present a conceptual framework to analyze how consumers might build and practice trust in the organic agrifood chain. We asked specifically about the role of multicriteria assessment tools (MCATs for trust building. We identified three consumer trust types: uninformed trust in labels (type 1; informed trust in extensive information, control, and certification (type 2; and informed and engaged trust in forms of close farmer-consumer relationships (type 3. Three concepts of "reflexivity" - unreflective, reflective, self-reflective - are used to explain how these three consumer trust types are operating. We see MCATs as tools accepted and applied mainly by the informed and reflective type. We further examined how reflexivity about two aspects - ethics and systems thinking - in the context of the organic agrifood chain can affect how people trust. Hedonistic, materialistic-oriented consumers might not care about MCATs to deepen their trust in organic, while anthropocentric-oriented consumers were identified as those applying MCATs; eco-centric and holistic-oriented consumers perceive MCATs more as a confinement that limits their self-reflexive and holistic understanding of organic. Awareness of, and interest in, systems thinking by unreflective and uninformed consumer trust types is rather limited; any MCAT is therefore without relevance. The reflective and informed consumer trust type uses a bundle of systems thinking methodologies, and in this context, MCATs would serve as an orientation. The self-reflective, informed, and engaged consumer trust type applies systems theory to learn how to become independent and to better learn how to protect against power interventions; e.g., from industries into the

  19. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J. [ed.] [Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Monmouth, OR (United States); Tiren, S. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Dverstorp, B. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Glynn, P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB`s preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs.

  20. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  1. C3Q: A specification model for web services within virtual organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sargolzaei, M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Fornasiero, R.

    2017-01-01

    Generic representation of web services is targeted, in order to generate machine readable specification of business processes that run at each partner organization within the virtual organization (VO). A holistic and formal service specification model is defined that can then be used unambiguously

  2. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Community Housing Development Organizations § 92.301 Project-specific assistance to community housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office of...

  3. Organ localization: Toward prospective patient-specific organ dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P., E-mail: paul.segars@duke.edu; Rybicki, K.; Norris, Hannah; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: With increased focus on radiation dose from medical imaging, prospective radiation dose estimates are becoming increasingly desired. Using available populations of adult and pediatric patient phantoms, radiation dose calculations can be catalogued and prospectively applied to individual patients that best match certain anatomical characteristics. In doing so, the knowledge of organ size and location is a required element. Here, the authors develop a predictive model of organ locations and volumes based on an analysis of adult and pediatric computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Fifty eight adult and 69 pediatric CT datasets were segmented and utilized in the study. The maximum and minimum points of the organs were recorded with respect to the axial distance from the tip of the sacrum. The axial width, midpoint, and volume of each organ were calculated. Linear correlations between these three organ parameters and patient age, BMI, weight, and height were determined. Results: No statistically significant correlations were found in adult patients between the axial width, midpoint, and volume of the organs versus the patient age or BMI. Slight, positive linear trends were found for organ midpoint versus patient weight (max r{sup 2} = 0.382, mean r{sup 2} = 0.236). Similar trends were found for organ midpoint versus height (max r{sup 2} = 0.439, mean r{sup 2} = 0.200) and for organ volume versus height (max r{sup 2} = 0.410, mean r{sup 2} = 0.153). Gaussian fits performed on probability density functions of the adult organs resulted in r{sup 2}-values ranging from 0.96 to 0.996. The pediatric patients showed much stronger correlations overall. Strong correlations were observed between organ axial midpoint versus age, height, and weight (max r{sup 2} = 0.842, mean r{sup 2} = 0.790; max r{sup 2} = 0.949, mean r{sup 2} = 0.894; and max r{sup 2} = 0.870, mean r{sup 2} = 0.847, respectively). Moderate linear correlations were also observed for organ axial width

  4. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Patry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either the more, the better or not too much and not too little. This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between maximum performance and typical performance is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

  5. Extended specificity studies of mRNA assays used to infer human organ tissues and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, Margreet; Sijen, Titia

    2017-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a technique increasingly applied for the forensic identification of body fluids and skin. More recently, an mRNA-based organ typing assay was developed which allows for the inference of brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney, and skin tissue. When applying this organ typing system in forensic casework for the presence of animal, rather than human, tissue is an alternative scenario to be proposed, for instance that bullets carry cell material from a hunting event. Even though mRNA profiling systems are commonly in silico designed to be primate specific, physical testing against other animal species is generally limited. In this study, human specificity of the organ tissue inferring system was assessed against organ tissue RNAs of various animals. Results confirm human specificity of the system, especially when utilizing interpretation rules considering multiple markers per cell type. Besides, we cross-tested our organ and body fluid mRNA assays against the target types covered by the other assay. Marker expression in the nontarget organ tissues and body fluids was observed to a limited extent, which emphasizes the importance of involving the case-specific context of the forensic samples in deciding which mRNA profiling assay to use and when for interpreting results. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Resources for Facilitators CD-ROM. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This companion to the "Guide for Students" and "Student Workbook" includes the complete set of PowerPoint slides, a PDF of the Facilitator's Guide in PPT (PowerPoint) slide show format, and PDFs of all scoring sheets, handouts and project planning guides needed for the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) process. The Assessing and…

  7. Management and organizational assessments: a review of selected organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, M.V.; Kerwin, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report is part of a larger project designed to assist the NRC in its responsibilities for assessing the management and organization of utilities applying for an operating license for a nuclear power plant. This report reviews the processes and criteria used by other organizations that conduct management and organization audits and evaluations. It was undertaken in order to provide data and a basis for future analysis by taking a comparative perspective. When considering changes in criteria and procedures as the NRC is doing, a standard benchmark is the performance of other organizations that are similarly situated. It was our goal to directly inform the NRC about the activities of other organizations so that a reconsideration of NRC activities could benefit from the perspective of organizations with a longer, broader, and different experience than the NRC has in the management and organization area. Data collected for this report has provided useful information in designing organization and administration guidelines and assessment procedures for consideration by the NRC.

  8. The Social Organization of the High School: School-Specific Aspects of School Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of three New York high schools (rural, suburban, and urban) that developed a model of high school social organization in order to provide a school-specific focus for examining school violence and crime. (JG)

  9. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  10. Farm-specific factors affecting the choice between conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2003-01-01

    Organic dairy farming in the Netherlands is a growing sector. This paper investigates the impact of a number of economic and farm-specific variables on the choice between conventional and organic farming. Based on expected utility maximization, a theoretical framework is developed that explicitly

  11. Implications of Different Worldviews to Assess Soil Organic Carbon Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, S.

    2012-04-01

    Profound shifts have occurred over the last three centuries in which human actions have become the main driver to global environmental change. In this new epoch, the Anthropocene, human-driven changes such as climate and land use change, are pushing the Earth system well outside of its normal operating range causing severe and abrupt environmental change. Changes in land use management and land cover are intricately linked to the carbon cycle, but our knowledge on its spatially and temporally explicit impact on carbon dynamics across different scales is still poorly understood. To elucidate on the magnitude of change in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to human-induced stressors different philosophical worldviews may be considered including (i) empiricism - direct measurements of properties and processes at micro, site-specific or field scales; (ii) metaphysics and ontology - conceptual models to assess soil change (e.g., STEP-AWBH); (iii) epistemology - indirect approaches (e.g., meta-analysis or spectral informed prediction models); (iv) reductionism - e.g., carbon flux measurements; (iv) determinism - mechanistic simulation models and biogeochemical investigations (e.g., Century or DNDC); (v) holism - national or global soil databases and aggregate maps; or (vi) integral - fusing individual, social, economic, cultural and empirical perspectives. The strengths and limitations of each of these philosophical approaches are demonstrated using case examples from Florida and U.S.A. The sensitivity to assess SOC change and uncertainty, backcasting and forecasting ability, scaling potential across space and time domains, and limitations and constraints of different worldviews are discussed.

  12. Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this paper are to critically examine the risk assessment provisions of the Malaysian Biosafety Act (2007), and to compare it with several risk ... with only a brief provision on risk assessment and there is no specific coverage on the socio-economic and ethical aspects as well as the precautionary approach.

  13. Using Web-Based Video as an Assessment Tool for Student Performance in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew; Fredricks, Susan; Dudkin, Elizabeth; Kistler, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the potential for using video responses to specific questions as part of the assessment process in an organic chemistry class. These exercises have been used with a postbaccalaureate cohort of 40 students, learning in an online environment, over a period of four years. A second cohort of 25 second-year students taking the…

  14. Virulence of the maize smut Ustilago maydis is shaped by organ-specific effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lena; Matei, Alexandra; Redkar, Amey; Walbot, Virginia; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2014-10-01

    With the exception of Ustilago maydis, smut fungi infecting monocotyledonous hosts systemically colonize infected plants and cause symptoms exclusively in the inflorescences. Ustilago may disinfects primordia of all aerial organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and results in the formation of large plant tumours. Previously, we have found that U. maydis infection of seedling leaves, adult leaves and tassels causes organ-specific transcriptional changes in both the pathogen and the host. Of particular interest, U. may disgenes encoding secreted proteins are differentially expressed depending on the colonized maize organ. Therefore, we hypothesized that the fungus secretes virulence-related proteins (effectors)that act in an organ-specific manner. Here, we present the identification and functional characterization of 20 presumptive organ-specific U. maydis effector genes. Ustilago maydis deletion strains for these genes were generated and tested for infectivity of maize seedling leaves and tassels. This approach identified 11 effector genes required for the full virulence of U. maydis. In nine cases, virulence was only affected in one of the tested plant organs. These results demonstrate that individual fungal effector proteins contribute to fungal virulence in an organ-specific manner.

  15. Expression-based functional investigation of the organ-specific microRNAs in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Meng

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a pivotal role in plant development. The expression patterns of the miRNA genes significantly influence their regulatory activities. By utilizing small RNA (sRNA high-throughput sequencing (HTS data, the miRNA expression patterns were investigated in four organs (flowers, leaves, roots and seedlings of Arabidopsis. Based on a set of criteria, dozens of organ-specific miRNAs were discovered. A dominant portion of the organ-specific miRNAs identified from the ARGONAUTE 4-enriched sRNA HTS libraries were highly expressed in flowers. Additionally, the expression of the precursors of the organ-specific miRNAs was analyzed. Degradome sequencing data-based approach was employed to identify the targets of the organ-specific miRNAs. The miRNA-target interactions were used for network construction. Subnetwork analysis unraveled some novel regulatory cascades, such as the feedback regulation mediated by miR161, the potential self-regulation of the genes miR172, miR396, miR398 and miR860, and the miR863-guided cleavage of the SERRATE transcript. Our bioinformatics survey expanded the organ-specific miRNA-target list in Arabidopsis, and could deepen the biological view of the miRNA expression and their regulatory roles.

  16. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic......The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework...... description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces...

  17. Assessing Organizational Capability of a Voluntary Organization that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These organizations attached their involvement in CCB as part of their corporate social responsibility-CSR contributions to the society. These NGOs serve as capacity building providers. The major concern is that these NGOs do not have a framework in place to assess their own organizational capability in relations to the ...

  18. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  19. Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.; Hindar, K.

    It was the aim of this NordTest project to propose improvements that prepare us to assess ecological risks to the environment associated with releases of existing and coming GMO cases. The report is separated into three sections. The first describes the frames of ecological risk assessment...... by answers to the following questions: 1) Are the abiotic conditions under which tests for environmental risk assessment have been conducted relevant for the northern settings? 2) Does the inserted traits alter the cold tolerance of the transgenic organism, and if so, is range expansion likely? 3...... of genetically modified plants. This chapter describes both the legislation within the EU and the state of the technology (existing and coming cases). Furthermore, a presentation of the ecological concerns discussed in the report, i.e. invasion, introgression and adverse effects on non-target organisms...

  20. Assessment of business activity of the organizations wholesale trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Alekseevna Soroka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues related to the assessment of business activity of the enterprises in public service sphere. The importance of this problem is in the fact that an assessment of business activity is the basis for optimal management decisions to improve the efficiency of economic activities, sustainable development both of businesses in general and wholesale trade enterprises in particular. Wholesale trade enterprises fulfill a function of sales divisions and departments for the purchase of resources. An assessment of business activity of wholesale trade organizations, circumspected fulfillment of its functions by an organization, formation of complex long-term competitive advantages lead to increased production, restoration of economic connections and inter-regional integration of the consumer market, improve the efficiency of the trading process and sustainable development of the region as a whole

  1. Mental Snapshots: Creating an Organized Plan for Health Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbrook, Susan Curro

    2015-01-01

    Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  3. Assessing the Sustainability Performance of Organic Farms in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M. de Olde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of organic agriculture in Denmark raises the interest of both producers and consumers in the sustainability performance of organic production. The aim of this study was to examine the sustainability performance of farms in four agricultural sectors (vegetable, dairy, pig and poultry using the sustainability assessment tool RISE 2.0. Thirty seven organic farms were assessed on 10 themes, including 51 subthemes. For one theme (water use and 17 subthemes, a difference between sectors was found. Using the thresholds of RISE, the vegetable, dairy and pig sector performed positively for seven themes and the poultry sector for eight themes. The performance on the nutrient flows and energy and climate themes, however, was critical for all sectors. Moreover, the performance on the economic viability theme was critical for vegetable, dairy and pig farms. The development of a tool, including decisions, such as the selection of themes and indicators, reference values, weights and aggregation methods, influences the assessment results. This emphasizes the need for transparency and reflection on decisions made in sustainability assessment tools. The results of RISE present a starting point to discuss sustainability at the farm-level and contribute to an increase in awareness and learning about sustainability.

  4. Organ-specific SPECT activity calibration using 3D printed phantoms for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew P; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M; Hamilton, David; Brown, Richard; Flynn, Alex; Oldfield, Christopher; Page, Emma; Price, Emlyn; Smith, Andrew; Snee, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for molecular radiotherapy require accurate activity quantification. This is commonly derived from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging using a calibration factor relating detected counts to known activity in a phantom insert. A series of phantom inserts, based on the mathematical models underlying many clinical dosimetry calculations, have been produced using 3D printing techniques. SPECT/CT data for the phantom inserts has been used to calculate new organ-specific calibration factors for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The measured calibration factors are compared to predicted values from calculations using a Gaussian kernel. Measured SPECT calibration factors for 3D printed organs display a clear dependence on organ shape for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The observed variation in calibration factor is reproduced using Gaussian kernel-based calculation over two orders of magnitude change in insert volume for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. These new organ-specific calibration factors show a 24, 11 and 8 % reduction in absorbed dose for the liver, spleen and kidneys, respectively. Non-spherical calibration factors from 3D printed phantom inserts can significantly improve the accuracy of whole organ activity quantification for molecular radiotherapy, providing a crucial step towards individualised activity quantification and patient-specific dosimetry. 3D printed inserts are found to provide a cost effective and efficient way for clinical centres to access more realistic phantom data.

  5. Species-specificity of DNA trimer densities in chromosomes and their use in the classification of closely related organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thi Huyen; Nguyen, Duc Luong

    2012-10-01

    16S rDNA sequences are conventionally used for classification of organisms. However, the use of these sequences is sometimes not successful, especially for closely related species. For better classification of these organisms, several methods that are genome sequence-based have been developed. Sequence alignment-based methods are tedious and time-consuming, as they need conserved coding sequences to be identified and deduced prior to sequence alignment. Likewise, method that relies on gene function needs genes to be assessed for function similarity. Other alignment-free methods, which are based on particular genome sequence properties, so far have been complex and not species-specific enough for classification of organisms below genus level. The present study found that the ratios of DNA trimer frequencies to chromosomal length were species-specific. Density of a trimer in a chromosomal sequence was defined as the average frequency of the trimer per 1 kbp. The species-specificity of trimer densities in chromosomes of many closely related bacteria was compared in parallel with 16S rDNA sequences in these same bacteria. The results of these comparisons indicate that trimer densities in chromosomes can be used to simply and efficiently classify the organisms below genus level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Outreach and...--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). DHS previously...

  7. Organ specific gene expression in the regenerating tail of Macrostomum lignano.

    OpenAIRE

    Lengerer, B; Wunderer, J; Pjeta, R; Carta, G; Kao, D; Aboobaker, AA; Beisel, C; Berezikov, E; Salvenmoser, W; Ladurner, P

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial characterization of gene expression is a prerequisite for the understanding of cell-, tissue-, and organ-differentiation. In a multifaceted approach to investigate gene expression in the tail plate of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano, we performed a posterior-region-specific in situ hybridization screen, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of regenerating animals, and functional analyses of selected tail-specific genes. The in situ screen revealed transcripts expr...

  8. RISK ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF PROJECT-ORIENTED ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Варвара Михайловна ПИТЕРСКАЯ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article developed a conceptual approach to identify the risks of innovation considering the development of project-oriented science and technology organizations. Methodical bases of effective decision-making in the process of reforming of the system of innovative development involves the use of a risk-based approach. Based on the assessment of risk situations can be distinguished company with high, medium and low levels of innovation potential.

  9. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike [Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus

  10. Development of the Sports Organization Concussion Risk Assessment Tool (SOCRAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, A; Munjal, V; Virji-Babul, N

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a novel tool-the Sports Organization Concussion Risk Assessment Tool (SOCRAT)-to assist sport organizations in assessing the overall risk of concussion at a team level by identifying key risk factors. We first conducted a literature review to identify risk factors of concussion using ice hockey as a model. We then developed an algorithm by combining the severity and the probability of occurrence of concussions of the identified risk factors by adapting a risk assessment tool commonly used in engineering applications. The following risk factors for ice hockey were identified: age, history of previous concussions, previous body checking experience, allowance of body checking, type of helmet worn and the game or practice environment. These risk factors were incorporated into the algorithm, resulting in an individual risk priority number (RPN) for each risk factor and an overall RPN that provides an estimate of the risk in the given circumstances. The SOCRAT can be used to analyse how different risk factors contribute to the overall risk of concussion. The tool may be tailored to organizations to provide: (1) an RPN for each risk factor and (2) an overall RPN that takes into account all the risk factors. Further work is needed to validate the tool based on real data.

  11. Microarray analysis reveals the actual specificity of enrichment media used for food safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Tanja; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-06-01

    Microbial diagnostic microarrays are tools for simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in food, clinical, and environmental samples. In comparison to classic methods, microarray-based systems have the potential for high throughput, parallelism, and miniaturization. High specificity and high sensitivity of detection have been demonstrated. A microbial diagnostic microarray for the detection of the most relevant bacterial food- and waterborne pathogens and indicator organisms was developed and thoroughly validated. The microarray platform based on sequence-specific end labeling of oligonucleotides and the phylogenetically robust gyrB marker gene allowed a highly specific (resolution on genus and/or species level) and sensitive (0.1% relative and 10(4) CFU absolute sensitivity) detection of the target pathogens. In initial challenge studies of the applicability of microarray-based food analysis, we obtained results demonstrating the questionable specificity of standardized culture-dependent microbiological detection methods. Taking into consideration the importance of reliable food safety assessment methods, comprehensive performance assessment is essential. Results demonstrate the potential of this new pathogen diagnostic microarray to evaluate culture-based standard methods in microbiological food analysis.

  12. Nano-Chemomechanical Assessment of Organic Rich Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, S.; Slim, M. I.; Ferralis, N.; Ulm, F.

    2013-12-01

    Organic rich shales, a rapidly increasing source of fossil fuels, have recently gained significant attention from the geomechanics and geochemistry communities. Despite their importance, the chemomechanical characterization of organic rich shales remains a pressing challenge due to their highly heterogeneous microstructure, complex chemistry, and multiscale mechanical performances. Such complexity requires advanced and innovative characterization tools for a complete understanding of the role played by different constituents in the chemomechnaical properties at multiple scales. In this study, experimental and theoretical microporomechanics have been employed for assessing the microtexture and material invariant properties of clay-dominated organic rich shales at nanometer length scales. A novel experimental methodology consisting of instrumented nanoindenation experiments and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) is developed for the proper chemomechanical characterization of the main constituents of the composite shale material. Combining experimental characterization with micromechanical modeling, the material invariant properties and mesotexture of material main constituents are investigated. The results provide evidence that mature clay-dominated organic rich shale systems exhibit a kerogen stiffening of the mechanical properties of the elementary particles. Such a stiffening effect cannot be explained by classical micromechanics models based on mean-field theories and volume averaging where a property softening would be predicted. Furthermore, it is seen that the presence and chemical composition of organic matter affects mechanical properties of organic rich shales significantly. The role of kerogen maturity, type, and chemical composition on mechanical performance of the material is investigated by incorporating results from Raman Spectroscopy into the analysis. The results of this investigation are used to define a model of the fundamental building

  13. Ambulatory Assessment in Panic Disorder and Specific Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Georg W.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory.…

  14. Organism-specific rRNA capture system for application in next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Kam Li

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing is a powerful tool in studying RNomics. However, the highly abundance of ribosomal RNAs (rRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA have predominated in the sequencing reads, thereby hindering the study of lowly expressed genes. Therefore, rRNA depletion prior to sequencing is often performed in order to preserve the subtle alteration in gene expression especially those at relatively low expression levels. One of the commercially available methods is to use DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to the target RNAs. However, there is always a concern with the non-specific binding and unintended removal of messenger RNA (mRNA when the same set of probes is applied to different organisms. The degree of such unintended mRNA removal varies among organisms due to organism-specific genomic variation. We developed a computer-based method to design probes to deplete rRNA in an organism-specific manner. Based on the computation results, biotinylated-RNA-probes were produced by in vitro transcription and were used to perform rRNA depletion with subtractive hybridization. We demonstrated that the designed probes of 16S rRNAs and 23S rRNAs can efficiently remove rRNAs from Mycobacterium smegmatis. In comparison with a commercial subtractive hybridization-based rRNA removal kit, using organism-specific probes is better in preserving the RNA integrity and abundance. We believe the computer-based design approach can be used as a generic method in preparing RNA of any organisms for next-generation sequencing, particularly for the transcriptome analysis of microbes.

  15. The COA360: a tool for assessing the cultural competency of healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Relosa, Rachel; Sawaya, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau projects that by 2050, non-Hispanic whites will be in the numerical minority. This rapid diversification requires healthcare organizations to pay closer attention to cross-cultural issues if they are to meet the healthcare needs of the nation and continue to maintain a high standard of care. Although scorecards and benchmarking are widely used to gauge healthcare organizations' performance in various areas, these tools have been underused in relation to cultural preparedness or initiatives. The likely reason for this is the lack of a validated tool specifically designed to examine cultural competency. Existing validated cultural competency instruments evaluate individuals, not organizations. In this article, we discuss a study to validate the Cultural Competency Organizational Assessment--360 or the COA360, an instrument designed to appraise a healthcare organization's cultural competence. The Office of Minority Health and the Joint Commission have each developed standards for measuring the cultural competency of organizations. The COA360 is designed to assess adherence to both of these sets of standards. For this validation study, we enlisted a panel of national experts. The panel rated each dimension of the COA360, and the combination of items for each of the scale's 14 dimensions was rated above 4.13 (on 5-point scale). Our conclusion points to the validity of the COA360. As such, it is a valuable tool not only for assessing a healthcare organization's cultural readiness but also for benchmarking its progress in addressing cultural and diversity issues.

  16. Category-Specific Neural Oscillations Predict Recall Organization During Memory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Neal W.; Kahana, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Emily A.; Baltuch, Gordon H.; Litt, Brian; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Sperling, Michael R.; Polyn, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Retrieved-context models of human memory propose that as material is studied, retrieval cues are constructed that allow one to target particular aspects of past experience. We examined the neural predictions of these models by using electrocorticographic/depth recordings and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to characterize category-specific oscillatory activity, while participants studied and recalled items from distinct, neurally discriminable categories. During study, these category-specific patterns predict whether a studied item will be recalled. In the scalp EEG experiment, category-specific activity during study also predicts whether a given item will be recalled adjacent to other same-category items, consistent with the proposal that a category-specific retrieval cue is used to guide memory search. Retrieved-context models suggest that integrative neural circuitry is involved in the construction and maintenance of the retrieval cue. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observe category-specific patterns that rise in strength as multiple same-category items are studied sequentially, and find that individual differences in this category-specific neural integration during study predict the degree to which a participant will use category information to organize memory search. Finally, we track the deployment of this retrieval cue during memory search: Category-specific patterns are stronger when participants organize their responses according to the category of the studied material. PMID:22875859

  17. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  18. Design of a specific quality assessment model for distance education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giorgetti, Carlos G; Romero, Lucila; Vera, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    .... In many cases, this can be put down to the specific demands of accreditation regulations placed on higher education institutions and degree courses, and to the process of continuing improvement...

  19. Assessment of female sexual arousal: response specificity and construct validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Evers, A.

    1995-01-01

    Specificity of vaginal pulse amplitude and vaginal blood volume in reaction to visual sexual stimuli was investigated by comparing responses to sexual, anxiety-inducing, sexually threatening, and neutral film excerpts. Subjective sexual arousal, body sensations, emotional experience, skin

  20. Effect of matrix rigidity on organ-specific capture of tumor cells by flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, P; Shen, X; Tan, P; Yang, L; Liu, W

    2017-04-29

    Accumulating evidences have suggested that tumor metastasis exists prominent organ discrepancy. In this progression, the capture of intravascular tumor cells (TCs) to endothelium in distant tissues and organs plays a decisive role in the organ-specific metastasis formation. However, the mechanism of tumor cells preferentially arrest and adhere to endothelial cells (ECs) of target organ still remains elusive. By using the parallel plate flow chamber and the polyacrylamide gels with different matrix stiffness, we here explored the combined effects of matrix rigidity, shear stress, and chemokine SDF-1 on the capture of circulating tumor cells to ECs in the bloodstream. In addition, the expression and the role of integrin β1 on the tumor cells surface were also detected by SDF-1 treatment. The results show that breast tumor cells MDA-MB-231 display an increasing number of adherent cells on the preferred substrate, which is similar to the matrix rigidity of breast cancer tissue (about 5kPa), under a certain shear stress. Moreover, ECs exacerbates the preferred capture of tumor cells compared with the FN-coated substrate alone. Besides, SDF-1 upregulates the number of adherent tumor cells by responding to matrix stiffness via promoting the expression of integrin β1, which is abolished by blocking of integrin β1. These results may provide a novel point of view for the mechanism of "organ specificity" phenomenon in tumor metastasis, which in turn contribute to a rational development of new drugs for cancer.

  1. Automated abdominal multi-organ segmentation with subject-specific atlas generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Robin; Chu, Chengwen; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku; Rueckert, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    A robust automated segmentation of abdominal organs can be crucial for computer aided diagnosis and laparoscopic surgery assistance. Many existing methods are specialized to the segmentation of individual organs and struggle to deal with the variability of the shape and position of abdominal organs. We present a general, fully-automated method for multi-organ segmentation of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. The method is based on a hierarchical atlas registration and weighting scheme that generates target specific priors from an atlas database by combining aspects from multi-atlas registration and patch-based segmentation, two widely used methods in brain segmentation. The final segmentation is obtained by applying an automatically learned intensity model in a graph-cuts optimization step, incorporating high-level spatial knowledge. The proposed approach allows to deal with high inter-subject variation while being flexible enough to be applied to different organs. We have evaluated the segmentation on a database of 150 manually segmented CT images. The achieved results compare well to state-of-the-art methods, that are usually tailored to more specific questions, with Dice overlap values of 94%, 93%, 70%, and 92% for liver, kidneys, pancreas, and spleen, respectively.

  2. Assessment Methods of Quality of Life of Living Organ Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life of living organ donors in transplantation by questionnaires has increasingly become the subject of clinical studies. However, there are no unified criteria and standard norms of quality of life. Each questionnaire has its own criteria and evaluation scale. This review presents the main general questionnaires that have been applied worldwide for the quality of life assessment of living kidney and liver donors. Special questionnaires used to refine the parameters of quality of life and their coordination with common questionnaires are considered. Optimal questionnaire to detect quality of life in modern research for living organ donors is identified.

  3. [Organ specific ESR features in mouse main organs and ESR application to the model of pancreatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, A; Manabe, T; Tamura, K; Asano, N; Imanishi, K; Yamaki, K; Tobe, T

    1990-02-01

    Nine main organs in the mouse were studied by ESR spectroscopy at 77K. Manganese ions were readily detected in the pancreas, small intestine, stomach and kidney. In particular, the pancreas gave strong ESR signals for the transition metal, suggesting that Mn(II) plays an important role in pancreatic function. All organs reveal different ESR spectra indicating organ specificity. C-centered radical, R-OO radical and C0Q10 or ascorbate radical are stable in the tissue. In the brain, heart and pancreas, N-centered radical heme-NO adduct was detected at 6 and 24 h after excision since common process is involved in tissue degeneration and ESR is sensitive to proteolysis and necrosis of tissues. In endotoxemia and/or CDE-diet-induced pancreatic lesions, R-OO radical and Mn(II) ion were detected in the signal at 77K. By the spin-trapping method (DMPO) at 25 degrees C, DMPO-OH adduct and 3-Line and 6-Line were detected in CDE diet-induced acute pancreatitis. These results suggest that damaged pancreatic tissues are in a highly oxidative environment that probably contains oxygen radicals, and that free radicals are considered to play an important role in the development of pancreatic lesions.

  4. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  5. Assessment of the duration of maternal antibodies specific to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    percentage inhibition (PI) values using the following formula: PI%=100 – (OD in test well/OD in 0% control well)x100. PI% values greater than or equal to 50% were considered as positive. RESULTS. Clinical observations. No specific signs of any diseases were recorded from lambs and ewes during the observation period.

  6. Vulnerability Assessment by Learning Attack Specifications in Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Lopes, Raul H.C.

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach for learning attack specifications that describe attack scenarios. The objective is to find vulnerabilities in computer networks which minimise the cost of an attack with maximum impact. Although we focus on Insider Threat, the proposed approach applies

  7. Experimental Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate Using Room Electromagnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2012-01-01

    to measurement systems, antennas characteristics, diffuse energy properties, and human exposure are investigated. The goal of this paper aims first towards validation of the assessment of the reverberation time in an environment using a virtual MIMO channel system. Secondly, the reverberation time in an adjacent...

  8. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and reference group. PMID:28192464

  9. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants' out-group (e.g., "I like being around non-autistic people" or "I like being around autistic people"), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants' in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p people, I have unusual eye contact"), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority ("non-autistic people") as the implied context and reference group.

  10. Sport-specific power assessment for rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, N; Dickson, T; Blackwell, G; Priestley, S; Fryer, S; Marshall, H; Shearman, J; Hamlin, M; Winter, D; Ellis, G

    2011-09-01

    The popularity of rock climbing has resulted in a growing research base for the sport. However, at present there is a lack of sport-specific measures of performance in the field. The aim of this study was to examine the use of the powerslap test as a sport specific power measure. The participants in this study were categorised into four different ability groups (novice, intermediate, advanced and elite) based on self reported lead grade. Two separate experiments were conducted to determine validity and reliability. The powerslap test was conducted on a revolution board with two variations - wide and narrow grip, for both sides of the body. The test started with the climber hanging at full extension from two holds from which a pull up movement was made releasing one hand to slap a scaled score board above. There was a significant relationship between powerslap scores and climbing ability (Left Wide: r=0.7, Pclimbing performance.

  11. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  12. Teaching organ and tissue donation in medical and nursing education: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Ashley E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Friedman, Erica; Kruegler, Joan

    2009-12-01

    Research on organ donation education is limited by its reliance on convenience samples (ie, small sample sizes and local schools) and its failure to assess methods of instruction on the topic. To describe medical and nursing students' training in organ donation by examining curriculum content and methods of instruction by using a national sample of medical schools and a statewide sample (New York) of nursing schools. Self-report online survey. Nursing and medical deans responsible for curriculum development and evaluation. Participants provided information on the inclusion of specific topics in organ donation, skills related to organ donation, and the declaration of personal donation intentions within their respective educational programs. Methods of instruction on such topics (eg, standardized patients, lectures, small groups) also were assessed. Although many educational programs include an organ donation component, a significant proportion of schools failed to provide instruction on donation consent processes, definitions of brain and cardiac death, and the discussion of organ donation during a routine health care visit. Most schools rely on lectures as the sole method of instruction. Recommendations are made for how deficits in instruction might be addressed through future interventions and education.

  13. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  15. Risk assessment for organic trace compounds in wastewater: comparison of conventional and advanced treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwätter, F; Hannich, C B; Nöthe, T; Oehlmann, J; Fahlenkamp, H

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of organic trace compounds in municipal wastewater was analysed at three German wastewater treatment plants. Additionally, the effects of advanced treatment, membrane filtration, adsorption and oxidation processes were investigated. To assess the ecotoxicity of effluents, a number of tools were used: substance-specific evaluation, case studies for combined effects and risk assessment on the basis of cumulative parameters. The results of the research projects revealed that aquatic environmental risks can be reduced significantly using advanced treatment technologies for wastewater treatment plants.

  16. Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Minguillón, Alex; Sauras Yera, Teresa; Vallejo Calzada, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management. A.F. Minguillón1, T. Sauras1, V.R: Vallejo1. 1 Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Ecología y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Barcelona, Avenida Diagonal 643, 03080 Barcelona, Spain. Soils from arid and semiarid zones are characterized by a low organic matter content from scarce plant biomass and it has been proposed that these soils have a big capacity to carbon sequestration. According to IPCC ARS WG2 (2014) report and WG3 draft, increase carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems has been identified such a potential tool for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. In ecological restoration context improve carbon sequestration is considered a management option with multiple benefits (win-win-win). Our work aims to analyze how the recently developed restoration techniques contributed to increases in terrestial ecosystem carbon storage. Two restoration techniques carried out in the last years have been evaluated. The study was carried out in 6 localities in Valencian Community (E Spain) and organic horizons of two different restoration techniques were evaluated; slash brush and thinning Aleppo pine stands. For each technique, carbon stock and its physical and chemical stability has been analysed. Preliminary results point out restoration zones acts as carbon sink due to (1) the relevant necromass input produced by slash brush increases C stock on the topsoil ;(2) Thinning increase carbon accumulation in vegetation.

  17. Biomimetic strategies to recapitulate organ specific microenvironments for studying breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkhede, Akshay A; Shevde, Lalita A; Rao, Shreyas S

    2017-09-15

    The progression of breast cancer from the primary tumor setting to the metastatic setting is the critical event defining Stage IV disease, no longer considered curable. The microenvironment at specific organ sites is known to play a key role in influencing the ultimate fate of metastatic cells; yet microenvironmental mediated-molecular mechanisms underlying organ specific metastasis in breast cancer are not well understood. This review discusses biomimetic strategies employed to recapitulate metastatic organ microenvironments, particularly, bone, liver, lung and brain to elucidate the mechanisms dictating metastatic breast cancer cell homing and colonization. These biomimetic strategies include in vitro techniques such as biomaterial-based co-culturing techniques, microfluidics, organ-mimetic chips, bioreactor technologies, and decellularized matrices as well as cutting edge in vivo techniques to better understand the interactions between metastatic breast cancer cells and the stroma at the metastatic site. The advantages and disadvantages of these systems are discussed. In addition, how creation of biomimetic models will impact breast cancer metastasis research and their broad utility is explored. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Organ specific gene expression in the regenerating tail of Macrostomum lignano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerer, Birgit; Wunderer, Julia; Pjeta, Robert; Carta, Giada; Kao, Damian; Aboobaker, Aziz; Beisel, Christian; Berezikov, Eugene; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2018-01-15

    Temporal and spatial characterization of gene expression is a prerequisite for the understanding of cell-, tissue-, and organ-differentiation. In a multifaceted approach to investigate gene expression in the tail plate of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano, we performed a posterior-region-specific in situ hybridization screen, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of regenerating animals, and functional analyses of selected tail-specific genes. The in situ screen revealed transcripts expressed in the antrum, cement glands, adhesive organs, prostate glands, rhabdite glands, and other tissues. Next we used RNA-seq to characterize temporal expression in the regenerating tail plate revealing a time restricted onset of both adhesive organs and copulatory apparatus regeneration. In addition, we identified three novel previously unannotated genes solely expressed in the regenerating stylet. RNA interference showed that these genes are required for the formation of not only the stylet but the whole male copulatory apparatus. RNAi treated animals lacked the stylet, vesicula granulorum, seminal vesicle, false seminal vesicle, and prostate glands, while the other tissues of the tail plate, such as adhesive organs regenerated normally. In summary, our findings provide a large resource of expression data during homeostasis and regeneration of the morphologically complex tail regeneration and pave the way for a better understanding of organogenesis in M. lignano. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Specific in situ hybridization of the intracellular organism of porcine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, C J; McOrist, S; Lawson, G H; Collins, J E; Ward, G E

    1994-07-01

    The identity of the intracellular bacteria found in the enterocytes of pigs with proliferative enteropathy was investigated using specific DNA probes to various Campylobacter species and to a novel organism, ileal symbiont intracellularis. The ilea from pigs (Nos. 1-7) that were diagnosed by routine histopathology as having proliferative enteropathy were used. Diagnosis was made on the basis of proliferation of the enterocytes on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and the presence of large numbers of intracellular curved organisms on Warthin-Starry silver-stained sections. Four of these pigs (Nos. 1-4) had the chronic form of the disease, porcine intestinal adenomatosis, and three (Nos. 5-7) had the acute form, proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy. An additional three normal pigs (Nos. 8-10) were obtained from three separate farms with no history of proliferative enteropathy. Frozen ileal sections were examined by in situ hybridization with DNA probes specific for ileal symbiont intracellularis and the three porcine intestinal Campylobacter species, C. coli, C. hyointestinalis, and C. mucosalis. In all seven pigs with either the intestinal adenomatosis or hemorrhagic enteropathy form of the disease, a DNA probe specific for ileal symbiont intracellularis hybridized to localized foci in the apical cytoplasm of ileal enterocytes. These hybridization sites corresponded to the location of intracellular bacteria in silver-stained sections of adjacent tissue. Sections from the three normal pigs tested with this probe and from all pigs tested with the Campylobacter species-specific DNA probes showed no specific hybridization reactions. The identity of the intracellular organism in these diseased pigs is ileal symbiont intracellularis.

  1. Organ-specific alteration in caspase expression and STK3 proteolysis during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Beaudoin, Mélissa; Laroche, Mélissa; Loudghi, Amal; Demers, Marie-Josée; Denault, Jean-Bernard; Grenier, Guillaume; Riechers, Sean-Patrick; Wanker, Erich E; Graham, Rona K

    2016-11-01

    Caspases and their substrates are key mediators of apoptosis and strongly implicated in various physiological processes. As the serine/threonine kinase family is involved in apoptosis and serine/threonine kinase 3 (STK3) is a recently identified caspase-6 substrate, we assessed the expression and cleavage of STK3 in murine peripheral organs and brain regions during the aging process. We also assessed caspase-3, -6, -7, and -8 expression and activity in order to delineate potential mechanism(s) underlying the generation of the STK3 fragments observed and their relation to the apoptotic pathway. We demonstrate for the first time the cleavage of STK3 by caspase-7 and show that STK3 protein levels globally increase throughout the organism with age. In contrast, caspase-3, -6, -7, and -8 expression and activity vary significantly among the different organs analyzed suggesting differential effects of aging on the apoptotic mechanism and/or nonapoptotic functions of caspases throughout the organism. These results further our understanding of the role of caspases and their substrates in the normal aging process and highlight a potential role for STK3 in neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial utilization of amino acids in soil assessed by position-specific labeling and compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, M.; Apostel, C.; Glaser, B.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) organic substances in soil is one of the most important processes in the turnover of organic matter, as all high molecular substances pass this stage during their decomposition. Microbial utilization is the most important process for the transformation of LMWOS in soil and thus is an important process in the turnover of organic matter. Position-specific labeling combined with compound-specific 13C analysis of microbial biomass allows a closer look on the mechanisms of LMWOS transformation in soil. We assessed short-term (3 and 10 days) transformations of the amino acids by adding position-specifically labeled 13C and 15N alanine and glutamic acid to soil in a field experiment. We quantified the microbial utilization of the different functional groups by 13C- and 15N-analysis of microbial biomass with the chloroform-fumigation-extraction method. A more specific look on the utilization of individual C positions by distinct microbial groups was gained by 13C-PLFA analysis. Microbial degradation was fastest with the highly oxidized carboxylic groups of the amino acids, whereas more reduced C positions showed a higher utilization by microbial anabolism. Microbial groups revealed different incorporation of specific C positions into their PLFA. The highest incorporation was reached by the prokaryotic groups, especially the gram-negatives. Whereas alanine was metabolized similar by different microbial groups glutamic acid C showed different utilization of the individual C positions for distinct microbial groups. This may arise from the use of glutamic acid as a general N transport molecule in bacterial metabolism. Hence, position-specifically labeled glutamic acid may act as a tracer of bacterial N metabolism. The application of position-specifically labeled substances opens a new way to investigate the microbial transformations of amino acids in soil. Observing single C atoms and their utilization by

  3. Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare: assessment of specific needs of patients with chronic endocrine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Ariane; Tejedor, Isabelle; Malivoir, Sabine; Polak, Michel; Touraine, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult care is a challenging turning point. The aim was to evaluate the transition process and needs expressed by patients with chronic endocrine conditions at transition in order to ensure program optimization. Prospective assessment of the transition period was conducted through completion of standardized questionnaires given to targeted patients. Two types were created: (1) a general questionnaire (GQ) addressing universal aspects of transition, and (2) a specific questionnaire (SQ) exploring concerns related to each endocrine condition. Three endocrinopathies (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency) were selected for assessment since they present specific challenges requiring characterization. Over the last decade, 244 patients in transition were registered in our department and 153 were included since they presented one of the endocrinopathies selected. A total of 73 subjects completed both the GQ and the SQ. Over 80% of the patients were satisfied with the transition process in terms of organization, accessibility and medical care. The actual age of transition corresponded for most to the age considered by patients as ideal for transition. SQs identified psychosexual issues that must be addressed more systematically. This study identified key elements allowing the creation of an improved transition program tailored for our center and for each endocrine condition studied. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Specific Agency.../IP/SSA EMO, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mail Stop 0640, Arlington, VA 20598-0630. Emailed requests should go...

  5. The live donor assessment tool: a psychosocial assessment tool for live organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Shenoy, Akhil; Braoude, Jenna; Jennings, Tiane; Vaidya, Swapna; Brouwer, Julianna; Haydel, Brandy; Arroyo, Hansel; Thakur, Devendra; Leinwand, Joseph; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial evaluation is an important part of the live organ donor evaluation process, yet it is not standardized across institutions, and although tools exist for the psychosocial evaluation of organ recipients, none exist to assess donors. We set out to develop a semistructured psychosocial evaluation tool (the Live Donor Assessment Tool, LDAT) to assess potential live organ donors and to conduct preliminary analyses of the tool's reliability and validity. Review of the literature on the psychosocial variables associated with treatment adherence, quality of life, live organ donation outcome, and resilience, as well as review of the procedures for psychosocial evaluation at our center and other centers around the country, identified 9 domains to address; these domains were distilled into several items each, in collaboration with colleagues at transplant centers across the country, for a total of 29 items. Four raters were trained to use the LDAT, and they retrospectively scored 99 psychosocial evaluations conducted on live organ donor candidates. Reliability of the LDAT was assessed by calculating the internal consistency of the items in the scale and interrater reliability between raters; validity was estimated by comparing LDAT scores between those with a "positive" evaluation outcome and "negative" outcome. The LDAT was found to have good internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and showed signs of validity: LDAT scores differentiated the positive vs. negative outcome groups. The LDAT demonstrated good reliability and validity, but future research on the LDAT and the ability to implement the LDAT prospectively is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of construction workers’ hydration status using urine specific gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Montazer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study objective was to assess hydration status by measuring USG among construction workers in Iran. Materials and Methods: The study design was comparative and experimental. Sixty participants were randomly selected from the construction workers from a construction campus with a similar type of work, climate and diet and formed 2 groups (individuals exposed to the sun and non-exposed individuals. TWL and USG were measured in both groups on 2 consequent days, at the beginning, mid and end of the work shift. Results: USG test showed that mean USG was 1.0213±0.0054 in the control group and in the exposed group, where it was significantly higher, it amounted to 1.026±0.005. In the exposed group, 38% of workers had a USG level between 1.026-1.030, representing a higher risk of heat illness and impaired performance and 12.72% had a USG level above 1.030 representing a clinically dehydrated status, while this proportion in the control group was 15.2% and 0.58%, respectively. The mean TWL index measure was 215.8±5.2 W/m2 for the control group and 144±9.8 W/m2 for the exposed group, where, again, it was significantly higher. The Pearson correlation measure showed a significant correlation between USG and TWL. Conclusions: Strong correlation between TWL, as an indicator of thermal stress and USG shows that USG can be considered as a predictor of thermal stress. The difference between USG among the exposed and non-exposed workers and the increase in USG during midday work show the sensitivity of this measure in different thermal and climatic conditions, whereas, the high level of dehydration among workers despite acceptable TWL level, shows that heat stress management without considering the real hydration status of workers, is insufficient.

  7. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proekt, Irina; Miller, Corey N; Jeanne, Marion; Fasano, Kayla J; Moon, James J; Lowell, Clifford A; Gould, Douglas B; Anderson, Mark S; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2016-10-03

    Studies of the genetic factors associated with human autoimmune disease suggest a multigenic origin of susceptibility; however, how these factors interact and through which tolerance pathways they operate generally remain to be defined. One key checkpoint occurs through the activity of the autoimmune regulator AIRE, which promotes central T cell tolerance. Recent reports have described a variety of dominant-negative AIRE mutations that likely contribute to human autoimmunity to a greater extent than previously thought. In families with these mutations, the penetrance of autoimmunity is incomplete, suggesting that other checkpoints play a role in preventing autoimmunity. Here, we tested whether a defect in LYN, an inhibitory protein tyrosine kinase that is implicated in systemic autoimmunity, could combine with an Aire mutation to provoke organ-specific autoimmunity. Indeed, mice with a dominant-negative allele of Aire and deficiency in LYN spontaneously developed organ-specific autoimmunity in the eye. We further determined that a small pool of retinal protein-specific T cells escaped thymic deletion as a result of the hypomorphic Aire function and that these cells also escaped peripheral tolerance in the presence of LYN-deficient dendritic cells, leading to highly destructive autoimmune attack. These findings demonstrate how 2 distinct tolerance pathways can synergize to unleash autoimmunity and have implications for the genetic susceptibility of autoimmune disease.

  9. Spatiotemporal allele organization by allele-specific CRISPR live-cell imaging (SNP-CLING).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Philipp G; Barutcu, A Rasim; Shechner, David M; Weiner, Catherine L; Melé, Marta; Rinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Imaging and chromatin capture techniques have provided important insights into our understanding of nuclear organization. A limitation of these techniques is the inability to resolve allele-specific spatiotemporal properties of genomic loci in living cells. Here, we describe an allele-specific CRISPR live-cell DNA imaging technique (SNP-CLING) to provide the first comprehensive insights into allelic positioning across space and time in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. With 3D imaging, we studied alleles on different chromosomes in relation to one another and relative to nuclear substructures such as the nucleolus. We find that alleles maintain similar positions relative to each other and the nucleolus; however, loci occupy unique positions. To monitor spatiotemporal dynamics by SNP-CLING, we performed 4D imaging and determined that alleles are either stably positioned or fluctuating during cell state transitions, such as apoptosis. SNP-CLING is a universally applicable technique that enables the dissection of allele-specific spatiotemporal genome organization in live cells.

  10. Cellular stress and innate inflammation in organ-specific autoimmunity: lessons learned from vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For decades, research in autoimmunity has focused primarily on immune contributions to disease. Yet recent studies report elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells targeted by autoimmunity, implicating cellular stress originating from the target tissue as a contributing factor. A better understanding of this contribution may help to answer important lingering questions in organ-specific autoimmunity, like what factors initiate disease, and what directs its tissue specificity. Vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of the skin, has been the focus of translational research for over 30 years, and both melanocyte stress and immune mechanisms have been thought to be mutually exclusive explanations for pathogenesis. Chemical-induced vitiligo is a unique clinical presentation that reflects the importance of environmental influences on autoimmunity, provides insight into a new paradigm linking cell stress to the immune response, and serves as a template for other autoimmune diseases. In this review I will discuss the evidence for cell stress contributions to a number of autoimmune diseases, the questions that remain, and how vitiligo, an underappreciated example of organ-specific autoimmunity, helps to answer them. PMID:26683142

  11. Modeling position-specific isotope fractionation of organic micropollutants degradation via different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    contaminants [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose an integrated modeling approach to simultaneously predict concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants [4]. The model simulates position......Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments, such as groundwater systems, and are referred......: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model successfully reproduces the multi-element isotope data, and precisely captures the dual element isotope trends, characterizing the different degradation pathways. Besides illustrating the model capability of mechanistic evaluation...

  12. Context-Specific Dimensions of Trust in Manager, Subordinate and Co-Worker in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Erdem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions of trust relationship among managers, subordinates and the co-workers in organizations. Using an original trust questionnaire data has been collected from 550 middle-level managers from organizations operating in different regions of Turkey. Results from both qualitative and quantitative research methods indicate that the dimensions of trust vary in organizational relationships between managers and subordinates and between co-workers and furthermore, that a culture-specific meaning is attributed to its content. This study contributes to trust literature developing three original sub-scales and also it indicates that the meaning of trust in organizational relationships is influenced by cultural context.

  13. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... and heavy metals has been developed during the past two years. The concept is based on guidelines that are made according to considerations of me environment and the treatment plant system, and that encourage the introduction of a cleaner technology and integrated preventive measures. For most organic...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...

  14. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-05-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1-5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1-5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals.

  15. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1–5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1–5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals. PMID:23599274

  16. Age-Related Differences of Organism-Specific Peritonitis Rates: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Nagaaki; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Aoe, Mari; Chikamori, Masatomo; Honda, Tomoko; Ikenouchi, Ayako; Miura, Rika; Sugahara, Mai; Furuse, Satoshi; Saito, Katsunori; Mise, Naobumi

    2016-12-01

    Peritonitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, but its incidence and the distribution of causative organisms vary widely between institutions and age groups. This study was performed to investigate the recent status and risk factors of PD-related peritonitis and to clarify differences between age groups. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 119 PD patients treated at our department between January 2002 and January 2013. We calculated both overall and organism-specific peritonitis rates and also analyzed risk factors. Sixty-three episodes of peritonitis occurred during 261.5 patient-years for an incident rate of 0.24 episodes/patient-year. Multivariate analysis showed that older age (≥65 years) and hypoalbuminemia (peritonitis (P = 0.035 and P = 0.029, respectively). In elderly patients (≥65 years old), the rate of peritonitis due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was 0.17 and 0.08 episodes/patient-year, respectively, and Gram-positive peritonitis was markedly more frequent than in younger patients (peritonitis in elderly patients (0.09 episodes/patient-year) and it had a poor outcome. At our department, the risk of peritonitis was increased in older patients and patients with hypoalbuminemia. The distribution of causative organisms was markedly different between age groups and analysis of organism-specific peritonitis rates helped to identify current problems with our PD program. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  17. Systemic assessment framework of a learning organization's competitive positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to devise an innovative feasible, replicable and comprehensive assessment framework of a learning organization's competitive positioning. Design/methodology/approach: The three characteristics listed above are approached as follows. Feasible refers to being easy and not in need of much resources (time, personnel,.... This is done through early elimination of non-important variables. Replicable is having a well structured methodology based on scientific proven methods. Following this methodology would result in good results that can be explained if needed and replicated if deemed necessary. Comprehensive translates into a holistic set of indices that measure performance as well as organizational learning. Findings and Originality/value: The three attributes (feasible, replicable and comprehensive have become crucial for ensuring any kind of added value for such a methodology that hopes to tackle the modern dynamic business environment and gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications: Such a methodology would require several full contextual applications to be able to set its final design. It entails thorough internal revision of a company's structure. Therefore a great deal of transparency and self-transcendence from the individual involved is a pre-requisite for any chance of success. Originality/value: It offers a systematic way to assess a company's performance/competitive positioning while accounting for the crucial attribute of organizational learning in its makeup.

  18. Assessing the prospects for a return of organisms in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneman, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    An argument has been raised from various perspectives against the Modern Synthesis (MS) in the past two decades: it has forgotten organisms. Niche construction theorists (Odling-Smee et al. 2003), developmental biologists like West-Eberhard (2003) and Evo-Devo elaborated various views which concur on a rehabilitation of the explanatory role of organisms, formerly neglected by an evolutionary science mostly centered on genes. This paper aims at assessing such criticisms by unraveling the specific arguments they use and evaluating how empirical findings may support them. In the first section, I review the usual critiques about the way MS treats organisms and show that the organisms-concerned critique is multifaceted, and I use the controversy about units of selection in order to show that purely conceptual and empirical arguments have been mixed up when organisms were concerned. In the second section, I consider successively the challenges raised to evolutionary MS by structuralist biologists and then the developmentalist challenge mostly raised by Evo-Devo. I distinguish what is purely conceptual among those criticisms and what mostly relies on recent empirical findings about genome activation, inheritance, and epigenetics. The last section discusses another program in MS, namely "evolutionary transitions" research, as enquiry into the emergence of organisms.

  19. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by...

  20. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  1. Organization of projection-specific interneurons in the spinal cord of the red-eared turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulla Vig; Moldovan, Mihai; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Using differential retrograde axonal tracing, we identified motoneurons (MNs) and projection-specific interneuron (IN) classes in lumbar segment D9 of the adult red-eared turtle spinal cord. We characterized the distribution of these neurons in the transverse plane, and estimated their numbers an...... of aIINs versus dIINs, of aCINs versus dCINs, and of adIINs versus adCINs. The findings are compared to the organization of lumbar spinal INs in other vertebrate species....

  2. Specificity and combinatorial effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in the context of GMO environmental risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eHilbeck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stacked GM crops expressing up to six Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis are today replacing the formerly grown single- transgene GM crop varieties. Stacking of multiple Cry toxins not only increase the environmental load of toxins but also raise the question on how possible interactions of the toxins can be assessed for risk assessment, which is mandatory for GM crops. However, no operational guidelines for a testing strategy or testing procedures exist. From the developers point of view, little data testing for combinatorial effects of Cry toxins is necessary as the range of affected organisms is focused on pest species and no evidence is claimed to exists pointing to combinatorial effects on nontarget organisms. We have examined this rationale critically using information reported in the scientific literature. To do so we address the hypothesis of narrow specificity of Cry toxins subdivided into three underlying different conceptual conditions i 'efficacy' in target pests as indicator for 'narrow specificity', ii lack of reported adverse effects of Cry toxins on nontarget organisms, and iii proposed modes of action of Cry toxins (or the lack thereof as mechanisms underlying the reported activity/efficacy/specificity of Cry toxins. Complementary to this information we evaluate reports about outcomes of combinatorial effect testing of Cry toxins in the scientific literature and relate those findings to the practice of the environmental risk assessment of Bt-corps in general and of stacked Bt-events in particular.

  3. Molecular basis for the specification of floral organs by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Samuel E; O'Maoileidigh, Diarmuid S; Rae, Liina; Kwasniewska, Kamila; Raganelli, Andrea; Hanczaryk, Katarzyna; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2012-08-14

    How different organs are formed from small sets of undifferentiated precursor cells is a key question in developmental biology. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying organ specification in plants, we studied the function of the homeotic selector genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), which control the formation of petals and stamens during Arabidopsis flower development. To this end, we characterized the activities of the transcription factors that AP3 and PI encode throughout flower development by using perturbation assays as well as transcript profiling and genomewide localization studies, in combination with a floral induction system that allows a stage-specific analysis of flower development by genomic technologies. We discovered considerable spatial and temporal differences in the requirement for AP3/PI activity during flower formation and show that they control different sets of genes at distinct phases of flower development. The genomewide identification of target genes revealed that AP3/PI act as bifunctional transcription factors: they activate genes involved in the control of numerous developmental processes required for organogenesis and repress key regulators of carpel formation. Our results imply considerable changes in the composition and topology of the gene network controlled by AP3/PI during the course of flower development. We discuss our results in light of a model for the mechanism underlying sex-determination in seed plants, in which AP3/PI orthologues might act as a switch between the activation of male and the repression of female development.

  4. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiency causes organ-specific autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hase

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID expressed by germinal center B cells is a central regulator of somatic hypermutation (SHM and class switch recombination (CSR. Humans with AID mutations develop not only the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2 associated with B cell hyperplasia, but also autoimmune disorders by unknown mechanisms. We report here that AID-/- mice spontaneously develop tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs in non-lymphoid tissues including the stomach at around 6 months of age. At a later stage, AID-/- mice develop a severe gastritis characterized by loss of gastric glands and epithelial hyperplasia. The disease development was not attenuated even under germ-free (GF conditions. Gastric autoantigen -specific serum IgM was elevated in AID-/- mice, and the serum levels correlated with the gastritis pathological score. Adoptive transfer experiments suggest that autoimmune CD4+ T cells mediate gastritis development as terminal effector cells. These results suggest that abnormal B-cell expansion due to AID deficiency can drive B-cell autoimmunity, and in turn promote TLO formation, which ultimately leads to the propagation of organ-specific autoimmune effector CD4+ T cells. Thus, AID plays an important role in the containment of autoimmune diseases by negative regulation of autoreactive B cells.

  5. Layer-Specific Organization of Local Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connectivity in the Rat Presubiculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yangfan; Barreda Tomás, Federico J.; Klisch, Constantin; Vida, Imre

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously. Network topology showed layer-specific organization of microcircuits consistent with the prevailing distinction of superficial and deep layers. While connections among pyramidal cells were almost absent in superficial layers, deep layers exhibited an excitatory connectivity of 3.9%. In contrast, synaptic connectivity for inhibition was higher in superficial layers though markedly lower than in other cortical areas. Finally, synaptic amplitudes of both excitatory and inhibitory connections showed log-normal distributions suggesting a nonrandom functional connectivity. In summary, our study provides new insights into the microcircuit organization of the presubiculum by revealing area- and layer-specific connectivity rules and sets new constraints for future models of the parahippocampal navigation system. PMID:28334142

  6. Promotion Strategy Specific to Organizations Participating in “Back to School” Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s stationery market records a growth rhythm of about 10-15percent per year. For the beginning of school year 2007-2008, organizations ofthe type forecast a growth of 25%. During the top period, stationery sales growgenerally with about 800-1000 % in comparison with a habitual period of theyear. For distributors, the season of school stationery lasts from July toSeptember, a period where it is accomplished 20-25% of the entire yearturnover. All these events unfold rapidly in a relatively short period of time, 2-3months for distributors and a month for retailers, producing a real storm in theframe of their management. In order to deal with “shopping fury” specific to thetime before the school beginning, organizations of the field are in the positionof applying a series of communication strategies. The purpose of this work is tohighlight a practical example of communication plan specific to organizationsinvolved in “back to school” program.

  7. Molecular evolution constraints in the floral organ specification gene regulatory network module across 18 angiosperm genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Velderrain, Jose; Servin-Marquez, Andres; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2014-03-01

    The gene regulatory network of floral organ cell fate specification of Arabidopsis thaliana is a robust developmental regulatory module. Although such finding was proposed to explain the overall conservation of floral organ types and organization among angiosperms, it has not been confirmed that the network components are conserved at the molecular level among flowering plants. Using the genomic data that have accumulated, we address the conservation of the genes involved in this network and the forces that have shaped its evolution during the divergence of angiosperms. We recovered the network gene homologs for 18 species of flowering plants spanning nine families. We found that all the genes are highly conserved with no evidence of positive selection. We studied the sequence conservation features of the genes in the context of their known biological function and the strength of the purifying selection acting upon them in relation to their placement within the network. Our results suggest an association between protein length and sequence conservation, evolutionary rates, and functional category. On the other hand, we found no significant correlation between the strength of purifying selection and gene placement. Our results confirm that the studied robust developmental regulatory module has been subjected to strong functional constraints. However, unlike previous studies, our results do not support the notion that network topology plays a major role in constraining evolutionary rates. We speculate that the dynamical functional role of genes within the network and not just its connectivity could play an important role in constraining evolution.

  8. Guidelines for assessing the knowledge management maturity of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Kruger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article Kruger and Snyman hypothesized that progressions in knowledge management maturity (from a strategic perspective are directly related to an increased ability to speed up the strategic cycle of imitation, consolidation and innovation. The arguments proposed, however, neglected to supply the reader with a practical toolkit or even a roadmap (a time-related matrix, or questionnaire to successfully measure succession in knowledge management maturity. This article builds on the previous one and proposes a questionnaire consisting of six sections, containing 101 descriptive questions, to enable organizations to test and assess their knowledge management maturity empirically. The development of an instrument to measure knowledge management maturity required adhering to a research design that combined theoretical propositions with practical experimentation. As a point of departure, a knowledge management maturity matrix consisting of seven maturity levels was formulated. All questions contained within the matrix were benchmarked against a survey questionnaire developed by the public management service of the OECD (PUMA and were also pre-tested and validated. This process of refinement led to the formulation of the Knowledge Management Maturity Questionnaire. To avoid any taint of this research being based only on theoretical propositions, the questionnaire was tested by 178 master students of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in nine different industries. The proposed questionnaire provides a bridge between theoretical propositions and practical usability, not only enabling knowledge management practitioners to assess the level of knowledge management maturity reached successfully but, more importantly, also serving as a guideline to institutionalize further and future knowledge management endeavours.

  9. Organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Veith

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric

  10. Extractable and dissolved soil organic nitrogen - A quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.; Kessel, van C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extractable Organic N (EON) or Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON) pools are often analyzed to predict N mineralisation, N leaching, and to evaluate agricultural (nutrient) management practices. Size and characteristics of both pools, however, are strongly influenced by methodology. Quantifying the

  11. The association between hypertension-specific care management processes and blood pressure outcomes in US-based physician organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ken; Smalarz, Amy; Wu, Ning; Boulanger, Luke; Wogen, Jenifer

    2011-01-01

    Care management processes (CMP) may be implemented in health systems to improve chronic disease quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the presence of hypertension-specific CMP and blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients within selected physician organizations in the USA-modified version of the Physician Practice Connection Readiness Survey (PPC-RS), developed by The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), was administered to chief medical officers at 28 US-based physician organizations in 2010. Hypertension-specific survey items were added to the PPC-RS and focused on medication fill compliance, chronic disease management, and patient self-management. Demographic and clinical cross-sectional data from a random sample of 300 hypertensive patients age 18 years or older were collected at each site. Physician site and patient characteristics were reported. Regression models were used to assess the relationship between hypertension-specific physician practices and patient BP control. Eligible patients had at least a 1-year history of care with the physician organization and had an encounter within the past year of data collection. Of the 28 participating sites, most had electronic medical records that handle total functionality (71.4%) and had more than 50 staff members (78.6%). Across all sites, approximately 61% of patients had controlled BP. Regression analyses found that practices that used physician education as an effort to improve medication fill compliance demonstrated improvement in BP control (changes in systolic BP: beta coefficient = -1.366, P = .034; changes in diastolic BP: beta coefficient = -0.859, P = .056). The use of a systematic process to screen or assess patients for hypertension as a risk factor was also found to be associated with improvements in BP control (changes in diastolic BP: beta coefficient = -0.860, P = .006). In addition, physician practices that maintained a list

  12. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgis Staniskis; Romanas Cesnaitis

    2008-01-01

    The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol); and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the as...

  13. Immunochemical studies of an organ-specific thermostable antigen of bovine brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, S.; Milgrom, F.; Swanborg, R. H.

    1969-01-01

    The physical and chemical nature of the bovine brain BE antigen was studied, along with antigenic studies to verify the organ-specificity characteristics. These preparations were found to be quite heterogeneous physico-chemically, containing nucleic acids, carbohydrates, protein and possible lipid constituents. The extinction coefficients were found to be 12.0 (at 280 mμ) and 2.2 (at 540 mμ, biuret). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed three major components, with extrapolated sedimentation coefficients of 8.60S, 2.20S and 1.80S. Electrophoretic analysis showed six (or more) components. Because of the heterogeneity chemical classification of the actual brain-specific antigen was determined by degradative studies, using chymotrypsin and periodate. Based on thermostability, a carbohydrate content of 4.6 per cent, and destruction by dilute chymotrypsin, the brain-specific antigenic component has been tentatively classified as a mucoprotein. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 5 PMID:4306091

  14. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  15. Trust analysis and assessment in virtual organization breeding environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Msanjila, S.S.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Establishing trust relationships among the member organizations in a virtual organization breeding environment (VBE) is a pre-condition for their smooth cooperation. Furthermore, considering that effective creation of virtual organizations (VOs) is the main aim of the VBEs, the measurement of an

  16. Practicing What We Preach: Assessing "Critical Thinking" in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ryan L.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Organic chemistry is often promoted as a course designed to cultivate skill in scientific "ways of thinking." Expert organic chemists perceive their field as one in which plausible answers to complex questions are arrived at through analytical thought processes. They draw analogy between problem solving in organic chemistry and diagnosis…

  17. Whole-Organ Isolation Approach as a Basis for Tissue-Specific Analyses in Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Steffen; Lu, Zhigang; Wilson, R. Alan; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Quack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, second only to malaria. Schistosomes exhibit an exceptional reproductive biology since the sexual maturation of the female, which includes the differentiation of the reproductive organs, is controlled by pairing. Pathogenicity originates from eggs, which cause severe inflammation in their hosts. Elucidation of processes contributing to female maturation is not only of interest to basic science but also considering novel concepts combating schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings To get direct access to the reproductive organs, we established a novel protocol using a combined detergent/protease-treatment removing the tegument and the musculature of adult Schistosoma mansoni. All steps were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bright-field microscopy (BF). We focused on the gonads of adult schistosomes and demonstrated that isolated and purified testes and ovaries can be used for morphological and structural studies as well as sources for RNA and protein of sufficient amounts for subsequent analyses such as RT-PCR and immunoblotting. To this end, first exemplary evidence was obtained for tissue-specific transcription within the gonads (axonemal dynein intermediate chain gene SmAxDynIC; aquaporin gene SmAQP) as well as for post-transcriptional regulation (SmAQP). Conclusions/Significance The presented method provides a new way of getting access to tissue-specific material of S. mansoni. With regard to many still unanswered questions of schistosome biology, such as elucidating the molecular processes involved in schistosome reproduction, this protocol provides opportunities for, e.g., sub-transcriptomics and sub-proteomics at the organ level. This will promote the characterisation of gene-expression profiles, or more specifically to complete knowledge of signalling pathways contributing to differentiation processes, so discovering involved molecules that may

  18. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products. PMID:26239916

  19. Environmental assessment of organic juice imported to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Langer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has given rise to a debate on the environmental impacts during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic orange juice produced by smallholders in Brazil, processed and imported to Denmark, were identified in a case study using a life...... cycle approach. Furthermore, small-scale organic orange production was compared with small-scale conventional and large-scale organic orange production in the case study area in Brazil. Transport was the main contributor (58%) to the global warming potential of organic orange juice from small...... on biodiversity along with the spontaneous vegetation between the organic orange trees and the absence of toxic pesticides. Comparing small-scale with large-scale organic orange production, crop diversity was higher on the small-scale farms, while global warming potential, eutrophication potential and the use...

  20. The reaction of the organism judoka 12-13 years of specific training load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko V.A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information is presented about a spectrum and level of violation of homoeostatic constants of organism of judoists in reply to the specific loadings of training and competition character. Judoists are inspected 12-13 years (n = 44. Before and after training employment registered the indexes of the functional state of neuromuscular vehicle, to oxygen-transport system, neurodynamics, sensory systems and mental capacity. Training employment in the aerobic (57,1%, mixed (20,0% and glicolic (22,9% modes of энергообеспечения results in the different degree of fatigue in the executive and regulator links of the functional system of activity of young judoists.

  1. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  2. International organizations, risk assessment and research-Why, what and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, R Julian

    2017-12-01

    The process of setting radiation protection standards requires the interaction of a number of international and national organizations that in turn require the input of scientific and regulatory experts. Bill Morgan served in an expert capacity for several of these organizations particularly for the application of radiation biology data to risk assessment. He brought great enthusiasm and dedication to these committee efforts. In fact, he really enjoyed this type of service. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), for example, provides comprehensive reviews of the input data for radiation risk assessments. In this context, they do not conduct risk assessments. In Europe, a research component of the risk assessment process is provided by the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI). Specific issue areas are identified for which additional research can aid in reducing uncertainty in risk assessments. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these types of input data to develop nominal cancer risk estimates as input data for establishing dose limits for the public and workers. A similar regulatory role is provided in the US by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The NCRP Reports address the underlying principles for setting regulatory dose limits for the US public and workers; these differ to a limited extent from those of ICRP. The implementation of dose limits is conducted by individual countries but with significant guidance by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Basic Safety Standards. The role of other national and international organizations are discussed in this same framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinins in tobacco: organ-specific changes in cytokinin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelová, Zuzana; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Novák, Ondrej; Motyka, Václav; Pernisová, Markéta; Dabravolski, Siarhei; Didi, Vojtech; Tillack, Isolde; Okleštková, Jana; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina; Haruštiaková, Danka; Conrad, Udo; Janda, Lubomír; Hejátko, Jan

    2017-12-23

    Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones with an organ-specific mode of action. Although the mechanisms controlling the complex networks of cytokinin metabolism are partially known, the role of individual cytokinin types in the maintenance of cytokinin homeostasis remains unclear. Utilizing the overproduction of single-chain Fv antibodies selected for their ability to bind trans-zeatin riboside and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, we post-synthetically modulated cytokinin ribosides, the proposed transport forms of cytokinins. We observed asymmetric activity of cytokinin biosynthetic genes and cytokinin distribution in wild-type tobacco seedlings with higher cytokinin abundance in the root than in the shoot. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinin ribosides further enhanced the relative cytokinin abundance in the roots and induced cytokinin-related phenotypes in an organ-specific manner. The activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase in the roots was strongly up-regulated in response to antibody-mediated formation of the cytokinin pool in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, we only detected a slight decrease in the root cytokinin levels. In contrast, a significant decrease of cytokinins occurred in the shoot. We suggest the roots as the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis in tobacco seedlings. Conversely, cytokinin levels in the shoot seem to depend largely on long-range transport of cytokinin ribosides from the root and their subsequent metabolic activation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Are specific testing protocols required for organic onion varieties? Analysis of onion variety testing under conventional and organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic growers need information on variety performance under their growing conditions. A 4-year onion variety research project was carried out to investigate whether setting up a variety testing system combining conventional and organic variety trials is feasible and efficient rather than

  5. Organ Specificity in Hyperacute Rejection of Canine Heart and Kidney Allografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Osamu; Kondo, Yoshio; Kuramochi, Tsuneo; Grogan, James B.; Cockrell, John V.; Hardy, James D.

    1974-01-01

    To clarify the organ specific nature of hyperacute rejection, 14 puppies were presensitized by multiple skin grafts and spleen cell injections prior to receiving either a heart or kidney allograft from the respective donors. Of this group, 7 received orthotopic heart allografts and 7 received kidney allografts. All heart allografts were rejected between 3 and 28 hours, and all kidneys between 0 and 24 hours as judged by cessation of urine flow from the ureterostomies. In contrast, all 11 animals in a recent series of heart allografts in non-sensitized puppies survived the operation, and rejected between 7 and 17 days. There was a significant correlation in both groups between preoperative cytotoxic antibody titer in the recipient serum and graft survival time. The preoperative titers were all above 1:1,024 but were greatly reduced within 2 hours after transplantation. At the time of rejection, antibody could be eluted from the rejected organs. In contrast to the kidneys, in which 2 of 7 grafts ceased to function immediately after revascularization, all hearts resumed beating and functioned well for at least several hours. At autopsy, the myocardium was pale and edematous and histologically polymorphonuclear leukocytes were prevalent in and around the small vessels and among myofibers. Both IgG and IgM antibody was detected in sarcolemma of the myocardium and to a lesser extent in the intima and adventitia of the small vessels by the fluorescent antibody technique. Biopsies of the rejected kidneys showed polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, typical of hyperacute rejection. Marked fluorescence of IgG and IgM in the glomeruli and peritubular capillaries was observed. This study indicates that both organs rejected hyperacutely in our experimental model and participation of the preformed antibody in effecting this change was strongly suggested. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4600772

  6. Assessment of riverbank filtration using selected organic micropollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Bruenjes, Robert; Lange, Frank Thomas; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Managed riverbank filtration (MRBF) is frequently used as a (pre)treatment step to improve surface water quality for drinking water use. In a managed RBF systems the understanding of flow patterns, mixing processes and groundwater residence times is a key factor to assess the effectiveness of the natural attenuation processes and to secure a good water quality. This study evaluates a suite of organic micropollutants (selected artificial sweeteners, pharmaceuticals and the MRI contrast agent gadolinium) as tracers for river water infiltration into a glaciofluvial aquifer. In particular, the transport behaviour of the selected micropollutants and their suitability to estimate groundwater residence times at a small scale (system is located in a sub-alpine river valley in a rural catchment and the river permanently infiltrates into the aquifer. The aquifer consists of coarse carbonaceous gravel and is characterized by high permeabilities and groundwater flow velocities. The aquifer thickness reaches values of 16m with a saturated thickness of approximately 6m. The field site was instrumented with ten rhizons (Rhizosphere® microfiltration membrane pore water samplers) along a transect in groundwater flow direction to allow for a high spatial and temporal monitoring resolution. The rhizons were installed beneath the river bed and in the aquifer at different depths (7-13 m) and at different distances (20-60 m) to the river. The selected micropollutants were monitored over a period of ten days, water samples were collected as 12h composite samples. In addition to the selected micropollutants also conventional hydrochemical data and stable water isotopes were analyzed. Radon (²²²Rn) was used as a natural occurring tracer to determine groundwater ages. Based on ²²²Rn measurement the residence times were estimated to be below seven days in the transect. Hydrochemical data indicates that groundwater is recharged exclusively by river water infiltration at all depths and

  7. Site specific X-ray induced changes in organic and metal organic compounds and their influence on global radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Desiree Ellen

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effects of specific and global X-ray radiation damage to biological samples and obtain a conclusive model to describe the underlying principles. Based on the systematic studies performed in this work, it was possible to propose two conclusive mechanisms to describe X-ray induced photoreduction and global radiation damage. The influence of chemical composition, temperature and solvent on X-ray induced photoreduction was investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction of two B12 cofactors - cyano- and methylcobalamin - as well as iron(II) and iron(III) complexes. The obtained results revealed that X-ray induced photoreduction is a ligand dependent process, with a redox reaction taking place within the complex. It could further be shown that selective hydrogen abstraction plays an important role in the process of X-ray induced photoreduction. Based on the experimental results of this work, a model to describe X-ray induced photoreduction of metal organic complexes could be proposed. The process of X-ray induced hydrogen abstraction was further investigated in a combined X-ray and neutron diffraction study on the amino acids L-serine and L-alanine, which were used as model compounds for proteins, and the nucleoside deoxythymidine (thymidine) as a model for DNA. A damage mechanism for L-serine could be found. It involves the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, one from the hydroxyl group and one from the adjacent methylene group. Such a hydrogen abstraction results in the formation of a carbonyl group. X-ray diffraction measurements on cyano- and methylcobalamin as well as on three metal amino acid complexes, containing nickel(II) and copper(II), respectively, were conducted to investigate the contribution of X-ray induced photoreduction to global radiation damage. Results from these measurements combined with the results from L-serine, L-alanine and thymidine allowed

  8. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  9. Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Lo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP, sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Sites in Rat Tissues Reveals Organ Specificity and Subcellular Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lundby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity.

  11. Metal-organic gel enhanced fluorescence anisotropy for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Peng, Zhe Wei; Yuan, Dan; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang

    2018-03-01

    In this contribution, we demonstrated that Cu-based metal-organic gel (Cu-MOG) was able to serve as a novel amplification platform for fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for the first time, which was confirmed by the sensitive detection of a common cancer biomarker, prostate specific antigen (PSA). The dye-labeled probe aptamer (PA) product was adsorbed onto the benzimidazole derivative-containing Cu-MOG via electrostatic incorporation and strong π-π stacking interactions, which significantly increased the FA value due to the enlargement of the molecular volume of the PA/Cu-MOG complex. With the introduction of target PSA, the FA value was obviously decreased on account of the specific recognition between PSA and PA which resulted in the detachment of PA from the surface of MOG. The linear range was from 0.5-8 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL. Our work has thus helped to demonstrate promising application of MOG material in the fields of biomolecules analysis and disease diagnosis.

  12. Assessing the Functioning of Schools as Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Ware, William B.; Rose, Roderick A.; Powers, Joelle D.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of current efforts to increase student performance and to close the significant gaps in performance among student subgroups, school researchers and practitioners are paying increasing attention to schools as learning organizations. Unfortunately, the concept of the learning organization is generally vague, and school personnel have…

  13. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Management Systems § 900.45 What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's... tribe or tribal organization. The system shall contain sufficient information to identify contract...-determination contract. (d) Budget controls. The financial management system shall permit the comparison of...

  14. Assessing Mercury and Methylmercury Bioavailability in Sediment Pore Water Using Mercury-Specific Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    FINAL REPORT Assessing Mercury and Methylmercury Bioavailability in Sediment Pore Water Using Mercury -Specific Hydrogels SERDP Project ER-1771...From - To) 2010-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessing Mercury and Methylmercury Bioavailability in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-10-C-0069 Sediment...Using Mercury -Specific DGTs 5b. GRANT NUMBER ER-1771 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER NA 6. AUTHOR(S) Magar, Victor S.*, Steenhaut, Nicholas

  15. Organic wastes as soil amendments - Effects assessment towards soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Mathieu; Chelinho, Sónia; Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Palma, Patrícia; Sousa, José Paulo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago

    2017-05-15

    Using organic wastes, as soil amendments, is an important alternative to landfilling with benefits to soil structure, water retention, soil nutrient and organic matter concentrations. However, this practice should be monitored for its environmental risk due to the frequent presence, of noxious substances to soil organisms. To evaluate the potential of eight organic wastes with different origins, as soil amendments, reproduction tests with four soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Eisenia fetida) were performed using gradients of soil-waste mixtures. Results obtained demonstrated that contaminant concentrations required by current legislation might not be a protective measure for the soil ecosystem, as they do not properly translate the potential toxicity of wastes to soil invertebrates. Some wastes with contaminant loadings below thresholds showed higher toxicity than wastes with contaminants concentrations above legal limits. Also, test organism reproduction was differently sensitive to the selected wastes, which highlights the need to account for different organism sensitivities and routes of exposure when evaluating the toxicity of such complex mixtures. Finally this study shows that when combining chemical and ecotoxicological data, it is possible to postulate on potential sources of toxicity, contributing to better waste management practices and safer soil organic amendment products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Incremental increases in organ retrieval after protocol driven change in an organ procurement organization: a 15-year assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Glen A; Smith, Jason W; Daugherty, Wendy; Threkeld, Tom; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-07-01

    The need for transplantable organs exceeds the available supply. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) have undergone both voluntary and mandated changes to optimize available organs. The data from a single statewide OPO was reviewed from 1993 to 2008 and tracked with implementation of new protocols. During the study, 5548 organs were recovered with 4875 transplanted from 1441 donors (3.38 organs transplanted/donor (OTPD)). The conversion rate (CR) for consent rose from 42 to 72 per cent whereas the average age of donors increased from 33 to 45 years. After implementation of a family support liaison program, a higher performing hospital in the OPO realized an increase in CR from 57 to 97 per cent over 8 years. Implementation of an intensivist program improved OTPD. The number of standard criteria donors and extended criteria donors (ECD) increased. The increase in standard criteria donors yielded a large number of thoracic organs. ECD increased as did the organ discard rate from 8 to 16 per cent. Increases in organ retrieval were noted after incremental changes in OPO protocol. Family support and intensivist programs enhanced CR and OTPD. Increases in the number of ECD were noted with increasing age after the introduction of the intensivist program and an increase in transplant center use of these organs.

  17. Applying Dynamic Assessment Principles to Online Peer Revisions in Written English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouësny, Sylvie; Bradley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent of the applicability of dynamic assessment with respect to peer written student online revisions. More specifically, it observes how groups of Swedish computer engineering students learning English for Specific Purposes engage in cooperative interactions and negotiations with their peers as they work…

  18. Deriving a Set of Privacy Specific Heuristics for the Assessment of PHRs (Personal Health Records).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Riccardo F; Kushniruk, Andre; Barnett, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of personal health record (PHR) platforms becoming more widely available, this research focused on the development of privacy heuristics to assess PHRs regarding privacy. Existing sets of heuristics are typically not application specific and do not address patient-centric privacy as a main concern prior to undergoing PHR procurement. A set of privacy specific heuristics were developed based on a scoping review of the literature. An internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application was evaluated using the derived set of privacy specific heuristics. The proposed set of privacy specific derived heuristics is explored in detail in relation to ISO 29100. The assessment of the internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application indicated numerous violations. These violations were noted within the study. It is argued that the new derived privacy heuristics should be used in addition to Nielsen's well-established set of heuristics. Privacy specific heuristics could be used to assess PHR portal system-level privacy mechanisms in the procurement process of a PHR application and may prove to be a beneficial form of assessment to prevent the selection of a PHR platform with a poor privacy specific interface design.

  19. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  20. Species-specific diversity of a fixed motor pattern: the electric organ discharge of Gymnotus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Rodríguez-Cattaneo

    Full Text Available Understanding fixed motor pattern diversity across related species provides a window for exploring the evolution of their underlying neural mechanisms. The electric organ discharges of weakly electric fishes offer several advantages as paradigmatic models for investigating how a neural decision is transformed into a spatiotemporal pattern of action. Here, we compared the far fields, the near fields and the electromotive force patterns generated by three species of the pulse generating New World gymnotiform genus Gymnotus. We found a common pattern in electromotive force, with the far field and near field diversity determined by variations in amplitude, duration, and the degree of synchronization of the different components of the electric organ discharges. While the rostral regions of the three species generate similar profiles of electromotive force and local fields, most of the species-specific differences are generated in the main body and tail regions of the fish. This causes that the waveform of the field is highly site dependant in all the studied species. These findings support a hypothesis of the relative separation of the electrolocation and communication carriers. The presence of early head negative waves in the rostral region, a species-dependent early positive wave at the caudal region, and the different relationship between the late negative peak and the main positive peak suggest three points of lability in the evolution of the electrogenic system: a the variously timed neuronal inputs to different groups of electrocytes; b the appearance of both rostrally and caudally innervated electrocytes, and c changes in the responsiveness of the electrocyte membrane.

  1. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchante, Catharina; Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Aragüez, Irene; Villarreal, Natalia; Ariza, María T; Martínez, Gustavo A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Civello, Marcos P; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-11-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  2. Future of liver transplantation: non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2011-08-28

    Strategies to fill the huge gap in supply versus demand of human organs include bioartificial organs, growing humanized organs in animals, cell therapy, and implantable bioengineered constructs. Reproducing the complex relations between different cell types, generation of adequate vasculature, and immunological complications are road blocks in generation of bioengineered organs, while immunological complications limit the use of humanized organs produced in animals. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology offer a possibility of generating human, patient-specific organs in non-human primates (NHP) using patient-derived iPSC and NHP-derived iPSC lacking the critical developmental genes for the organ of interest complementing a NHP tetraploid embryo. The organ derived in this way will have the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile as the patient. This approach can be curative in genetic disorders as this offers the possibility of gene manipulation and correction of the patient's genome at the iPSC stage before tetraploid complementation. The process of generation of patient-specific organs such as the liver in this way has the great advantage of making use of the natural signaling cascades in the natural milieu probably resulting in organs of great quality for transplantation. However, the inexorable scientific developments in this direction involve several social issues and hence we need to educate and prepare society in advance to accept the revolutionary consequences, good, bad and ugly.

  3. [ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL RISK AND ITS PREVENTION IN MANUFACTURE OF REFRACTORIES USING ORGANIC BINDER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugova, O G; Roslyĭ, O F; Ust'iantsev, S B

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the occupational chemical risk of new industries and the development of measures for its mitigation is a priority task to ensure chemical safety in Russia. There was performed the assessment of the chemical risk in the manufacture of new types of refractories--periclase-carbon refractories, using organic binder) on the base of data of hygiene studies, indices of morbidity rates in workers and also of the investigation of the impact of such refractory dust on laboratory animals (intratracheal introduction). The main factors for chemical risk to the workers' health are magnesium oxide, volatile products of phenol-formaldehyde resins, silicon-containing dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and in the use of a binder "Carbores"--benzo (a) pyrene and pitch cokes of the carbon dust. In employees of such industry there is recorded the elevated morbidity rate of diseases of upper respiratory rates. Dust of this type has on the body of animals general toxic and mild fibrogenic effect. According to the results of the assessment of the chemical risk measures have been developed for its mitigation in the workplace.

  4. The assessment of information technology maturity in emergency response organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rafael S.; Marcos R. S. Borges; Canos Cerda, José Hilario; Gomes, José Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In emergency response organizations, information technologies are not adequately explored. Sometimes, the mere adoption of new information technologies is not productive, as their efficient use depends on other interrelated technologies and the environment where they are installed. This work describes a model to help organizations understand their capability in respect to the adoption of these technologies. The model also helps the performing of the evaluation from different pe...

  5. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  6. Organic carbon recovery modeling for a rotating belt filter and its impact assessment on a plant-wide scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behera, Chitta Ranjan; Santoro, Domenico; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we perform a systematic plant-wide assessment of the organic carbon recovery concept on wastewater treatment plants by an advanced cellulose recovery enabling technology called rotating belt filter (RBF). To this end, first, an empirical model is developed to describe organic carbon...... not increase the greenhouse gas (N2ON2O) emission. Further sensitivity analysis indicates that the impact of the organic carbon recovery concept depends on the wastewater characteristics, especially the cellulose content and its biodegradability. Overall, the organic carbon recovery technology can be used...... to provide plant specific improvements achieved by maximizing organic carbon recovery in the form of methane gas or enhancing nitrogen removal depending on the treatment plant operation objectives and priorities....

  7. Protocols for conducting Environmental Management Assessments of DOE organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of DOE`s environmental programs, the Office of Environmental Audit conducts Environmental Management Assessments of DOE programs and facilities. These assessments take a broad programmatic view of environmental systems which may cover multiple sites. The focus of the assessment is on the infrastructure, systems, programs, and tools to manage environmental issues, not on the compliance issues themselves. Protocols have been developed to assist in the conduct of Environmental Management Assessments. The protocols are, based on and serve as implementing guidelines for the Environmental Management Section of ``Performance Objectives and Criteria for Conducting DOE Environmental Audits`` (DOE/EH-022). They are intended to provide guidance to the Assessment Team in conducting these reviews.

  8. Investigating event-specific drought attribution using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, L. J.; Gibson, P. B.; Dean, S. M.; Mitchell, D.; Rosier, S.; Frame, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies evaluating anthropogenic influences on the meteorological drivers of drought have found mixed results owing to (1) the complex physical mechanisms which lead to the onset of drought, (2) differences in the characteristics and timescales of drought for different regions of the world, and (3) different approaches to the question of attribution. For a mid-latitude, temperate climate like New Zealand, strongly modulated by oceanic influences, summer droughts last on the order of three months, and are less strongly linked to persistent temperature anomalies than continental climates. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a novel approach for characterizing the meteorological conditions conducive to extreme drought over the North Island of New Zealand, using the January-March 2013 event as a case study. Specifically, we consider the use of self-organizing map (SOM) techniques in a multi-member coupled climate model ensemble to capture changes in daily circulation, between two 41-year periods (1861-1901 and 1993-2033). Comparisons are made with seasonal pressure and precipitation indices. Our results demonstrate robust (>99% confidence) increases in the likelihood of observing circulation patterns like those of the 2013 drought in the recent-climate simulations when compared with the early-climate simulations. Best-guess estimates of the fraction of attributable risk range from 0.2 to 0.4, depending on the metric used and threshold considered. Contributions to uncertainty in these attribution statements are discussed.

  9. Donor-specific tolerance induction in organ transplantation via mixed splenocytes chimerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Kanamoto, A; Takayama, T

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that donor-derived splenocytes can replace recipients' bone marrow and induce donor-specific tolerance (DST). We have also shown the usefulness of the chimeric state for the induction of DST. Further analysis of mixed splenocytes chimera, especially the role of each T cells in mixed splenocytes chimera, is indispensable issue for its clinical use. A chimeric state has been shown to achieve long-term survival in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched grafts. The donor-derived splenocytes can replace recipients' bone marrow and induce DST. The long-term survival of allogeneic skin grafts was achieved without immunosuppressants. In this study we show the role of each T cell type in a splenocyte mixed chimera. This review provides a short summary of our original work, adding some supplemental interpretations. Mixed chimerism is thus considered an attractive approach for the induction of DST without the use of immunosuppressants. In this paper, we summarize some of the findings on mixed splenocyte chimeras and review mixed chimerism in recent organ transplantation. PMID:23656242

  10. Differential role of estrogen receptor isoforms in sex-specific brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchev, Alexandre V; Götz, Franziska; Rohde, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Transient activation of estrogen receptors (ER) in the developing brain during a limited perinatal "window of time" is recognized as a key mechanism of defeminization of neural control of reproductive function and sexual behavior. Two major ER isoforms, alpha and beta, are present in neural circuits that govern ovarian cycle and sexual behavior. Using highly selective ER agonists, this study provides the first evidence for distinct contribution of individual ER isoforms to the process of estrogen dependent defeminization. Neonatal activation of the ERalpha in female rats resulted in abrogation of cyclic ovarian activity and female sexual behavior in adulthood. These effects are associated with male-like alterations in the morphology of the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), as well as refractoriness to estrogen-mediated induction of sexual receptivity. Exposure to an ERbeta-selective agonist induced persistent estrus and had a strong defeminizing effect on the hypothalamic gonadotropin "surge generator" AVPV. However, neonatal ERbeta activation failed to alter female sexual behavior, responsiveness to estrogens and morphometric features of the behaviorally relevant SDN-POA. Thus, although co-present in several brain regions involved in the control of female reproductive function, ER isoforms convey different, and probably not synergistic, chemical signals in the course of neonatal sex-specific brain organization.

  11. Mechanisms That Regulate Peripheral Immune Responses to Control Organ-Specific Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard F. Hoyne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system must balance the need to maintain a diverse repertoire of lymphocytes to be able to fight infection with the need to maintain tolerance to self-proteins. The immune system places strict regulation over the ability of T cells to produce the major T cell growth factor interleukin 2 as this cytokine can influence a variety of immune outcomes. T cells require the delivery of two signals, one through the antigen receptor and a second through the costimulatory receptor CD28. The immune system uses a variety of E3 ubiquitin ligases to target signaling proteins that function downstream of the TCR and CD28 receptors. Mutations in these E3 ligases can lead to a breakdown in immune tolerance and development of autoimmunity. This paper will examine the role of a range of E3 ubiquitin ligases and signaling pathways that influence the development of T-cell effector responses and the development of organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes.

  12. Questionnaires in the assessment of sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, M; Lleberia, J; Pubill, J; Espuña-Pons, M

    2015-04-01

    Integrating sexual health in clinical practice is important. In women with pelvic floor disorders, the evaluation of the anatomical defects, lower urinary tract function and the anorectal function often receives more attention than the sexual function. Review of Medline using defined search terms to identify articles related to sexual health assessment in urogynecology and manual analyses was performed. Only articles published in English or Spanish were included. Only 50% of women attending urogynecological clinics are sexually active. Of those, 60% present with some sort of sexual sexual dysfunction (FSD). Questionnaires and sexuality scales would facilitate discussion of sexual matters between the Health Care professionals and the women, and may increase the likelihood of FSD being diagnosed. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) and the PISQ-IR (IUGA-Revised) are the only female sexual function specific questionnaires currently validated and developed specifically to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse. Furthermore, the PISQ-IR also allows evaluation of the outcomes of women who are not sexually active when requiring urogynecologic care. PISQ-IR is also designed for international validation. In order to use the PISQ-IR in Spain, a proper interpretation and validation of the questionnaire is needed. The evaluation of sexual function through specific questionnaires facilitates the identification of the sexual dysfunctions associated to the pelvic floor disorders. The inclusion of sexuality questionnaires as an outcome measure allows to analyze the impact in the sexual life of women treated for an urogynecological problem. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Organ-on-a-chip for assessing environmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2017-06-01

    Man-made xenobiotics, whose potential toxicological effects are not fully understood, are oversaturating the already-contaminated environment. Due to the rate of toxicant accumulation, unmanaged disposal, and unknown adverse effects to the environment and the human population, there is a crucial need to screen for environmental toxicants. Animal models and in vitro models are ineffective models in predicting in vivo responses due to inter-species difference and/or lack of physiologically-relevant 3D tissue environment. Such conventional screening assays possess limitations that prevent dynamic understanding of toxicants and their metabolites produced in the human body. Organ-on-a-chip systems can recapitulate in vivo like environment and subsequently in vivo like responses generating a realistic mock-up of human organs of interest, which can potentially provide human physiology-relevant models for studying environmental toxicology. Feasibility, tunability, and low-maintenance features of organ-on-chips can also make possible to construct an interconnected network of multiple-organs-on-chip toward a realistic human-on-a-chip system. Such interconnected organ-on-a-chip network can be efficiently utilized for toxicological studies by enabling the study of metabolism, collective response, and fate of toxicants through its journey in the human body. Further advancements can address the challenges of this technology, which potentiates high predictive power for environmental toxicology studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS ...

  15. Brain organization and the origin of insects: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas James

    2009-06-07

    Within the Arthropoda, morphologies of neurons, the organization of neurons within neuropils and the occurrence of neuropils can be highly conserved and provide robust characters for phylogenetic analyses. The present paper reviews some features of insect and crustacean brains that speak against an entomostracan origin of the insects, contrary to received opinion. Neural organization in brain centres, comprising olfactory pathways, optic lobes and a central neuropil that is thought to play a cardinal role in multi-joint movement, support affinities between insects and malacostracan crustaceans.

  16. Investigating organic multilayers by spectroscopic ellipsometry: specific and non-specific interactions of polyhistidine with NTA self-assembled monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Solano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A versatile strategy for protein–surface coupling in biochips exploits the affinity for polyhistidine of the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA group loaded with Ni(II. Methods based on optical reflectivity measurements such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE allow for label-free, non-invasive monitoring of molecule adsorption/desorption at surfaces.Results: This paper describes a SE study about the interaction of hexahistidine (His6 on gold substrates functionalized with a thiolate self-assembled monolayer bearing the NTA end group. By systematically applying the difference spectra method, which emphasizes the small changes of the ellipsometry spectral response upon the nanoscale thickening/thinning of the molecular film, we characterized different steps of the process such as the NTA-functionalization of Au, the adsorption of the His6 layer and its eventual displacement after reaction with competitive ligands. The films were investigated in liquid, and ex situ in ambient air. The SE investigation has been complemented by AFM measurements based on nanolithography methods (nanografting mode.Conclusion: Our approach to the SE data, exploiting the full spectroscopic potential of the method and basic optical models, was able to provide a picture of the variation of the film thickness along the process. The combination of δΔi+1,i(λ, δΨi+1,i(λ (layer-addition mode and δΔ†i',i+1(λ, δΨ†i',i+1(λ (layer-removal mode difference spectra allowed us to clearly disentangle the adsorption of His6 on the Ni-free NTA layer, due to non specific interactions, from the formation of a neatly thicker His6 film induced by the Ni(II-loading of the NTA SAM.

  17. World health organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 as an objective assessment tool for predicting return to work after a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Wen-Chou; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Escorpizo, Reuben; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-06-28

    To analyze whether World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 can be used as an objective assessment tool for predicting the return-to-work status of working-age patients with stroke. We obtained the data on 2963 patients disabled by stroke (age Bank of Persons with Disability for the July 2012-January 2014 period. Of these patients, 119 could return to work, whereas 2844 could not. Demographic data and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 standardized scores of patients with stroke who could return to work and those who could not (return to work and nonreturn-to-work groups, respectively) were analyzed and compared using the chi-squared and independent Student's t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to investigate the prediction accuracy for the return-to-work status, and the optimal cutoff point was determined using the Youden index. Binary logistic regression was employed to determine the predictors of the return-to-work status of patients with stroke. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 scores in all domains were lower in the return-to-work group than in the nonreturn-to-work group. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed moderate accuracy for all domain-specific scores [area under the curve, 0.6-0.8] and good accuracy for the summary scores of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (area under the curve, >0.8). Binary logistic regression revealed that younger age, less severe stroke and standardized World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 summary scores below the cutoff points were predictors of the return to work status of working-age patients disabled by stroke. World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 can be used as an objective assessment tool for predicting the return-to-work status of working-age patients disabled by stroke. This tool can aid in establishing rehabilitation

  18. Environmental assessment of organic soybean (Glycine max.) imported from China to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Yu-Hui, Qiao; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has increased the demand for environmental impact assessments during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic soybeans produced in China and imported to Denmark were identified in a case study using a life cycle assessment approach...

  19. Assessing the role of organic soil amendments in management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of animal manures, cow and chicken manures, and green manures, Mucuna pruriens, Azadirachta indica and Tagetes minuta in root knot nematode suppression. The organic materials were mixed with soil at the rate of 5% (w/w) and placed in 5- kg plastic ...

  20. Thompson's Assessment of Organizations: Universities and the AAUP Salary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Carl J.

    1975-01-01

    The behavior of salaries in 652 colleges and universities over a ten-year period relative to the published AAUP scales is analyzed using four hypotheses developed from Thompson concerning the use of other organizations as reference groups in measuring organizational performance. (Author)

  1. An Information Security Control Assessment Methodology for Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Angel R.

    2014-01-01

    In an era where use and dependence of information systems is significantly high, the threat of incidents related to information security that could jeopardize the information held by organizations is more and more serious. Alarming facts within the literature point to inadequacies in information security practices, particularly the evaluation of…

  2. A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhan Milo A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment of health care interventions exist but it is unclear how the approaches differ. Our aim was to review existing quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment and to develop an organizing framework that clarifies differences and aids selection of quantitative approaches for a particular benefit-harm assessment. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. Our team, consisting of clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, discussed the approaches and identified their key characteristics. We developed a framework that helps investigators select quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment that are appropriate for a particular decisionmaking context. Results Our framework for selecting quantitative approaches requires a concise definition of the treatment comparison and population of interest, identification of key benefit and harm outcomes, and determination of the need for a measure that puts all outcomes on a single scale (which we call a benefit and harm comparison metric. We identified 16 quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. These approaches can be categorized into those that consider single or multiple key benefit and harm outcomes, and those that use a benefit-harm comparison metric or not. Most approaches use aggregate data and can be used in the context of single studies or systematic reviews. Although the majority of approaches provides a benefit and harm comparison metric, only four approaches provide measures of uncertainty around the benefit and harm comparison metric (such as a 95 percent confidence interval. None of the approaches considers the actual joint distribution of benefit and harm outcomes, but one approach considers competing risks when calculating profile-specific event rates. Nine approaches explicitly allow incorporating patient preferences

  3. Evaluating Simulated Primary Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols during MILAGRO: Implications for Assessing Treatments of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Aiken, Allison; Allan, James D.; Alexander, M. L.; Campos, Teresa; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Chapman, Elaine G.; DeCarlo, Peter; de Foy, B.; Gaffney, Jeffrey; de Gouw, Joost A.; Doran, J. C.; Emmons, L.; Hodzic, Alma; Herndon, Scott C.; Huey, L. G.; Jayne, John T.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Kuster, W. C.; Marley, Nancy A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Ochoa, Carlos; Onasch, Timothy B.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Song, Chen; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-08-31

    Simulated primary organic aerosols (POA), as well as other particulates and trace gases, in the vicinity of Mexico City are evaluated using measurements collected during the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaigns. Since the emission inventories and dilution will affect predictions of total organic matter and consequently total particulate matter, our objective is to assess the uncertainties in predicted POA before testing and evaluating the performance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) treatments. Carbon monoxide (CO) is well simulated on most days both over the city and downwind, indicating that transport and mixing processes were usually consistent with the meteorological conditions observed during MILAGRO. Predicted and observed elemental carbon (EC) in the city was similar, but larger errors occurred at remote locations since the CO/EC emission ratios in the national emission inventory were lower than in the metropolitan emission inventory. Components of organic aerosols derived from Positive Matrix Factorization and data from several Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer instruments deployed both at ground sites and on research aircraft are used to evaluate the model. Predicted POA was consistently lower than the measured organic matter at the ground sites, which is consistent with the expectation that SOA should be a large fraction of the total organic matter mass. A much better agreement was found when predicted POA was compared with the sum of "primary anthropogenic" and "primary biomass burning" components on days with relatively low biomass burning, suggesting that the overall magnitude of primary organic particulates released was reasonable. The predicted POA was greater than the total observed organic matter when the aircraft flew directly downwind of large fires, suggesting that biomass burning emission estimates from some large fires may be too high. Predicted total observed organic carbon (TOOC) was

  4. Target organ specific activity of drosophila MRP (ABCC1) moderates developmental toxicity of methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1-4 (ABCC1-4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  5. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas, there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions’ leadership. The most visible recent cases include the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum, with APEC gaining importance regionally and globally. These new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. Taken together, the transformative trends in international relations, the emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, and demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of this model of cooperation among international institutions. This article builds an analytical framework by undertaking three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward a hypothesis for research: to compensate for their inefficiencies, summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. The modes of those institutions’ engagement with other international organizations as reflected in the leaders

  6. World Health Organization Guidelines for Containment of Poliovirus Following Type-Specific Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previsani, Nicoletta; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Tallis, Graham; Jafari, Hamid S

    2015-08-28

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types (type 1, type 2, and type 3), WPV type 2 (WPV2) has been eliminated in the wild since 1999, and WPV type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012. In 2015, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV transmission. On May 25, 2015, all WHO Member States endorsed World Health Assembly resolution 68.3 on full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Plan), and with it, the third Global Action Plan to minimize poliovirus facility-associated risk (GAPIII). All WHO Member States have committed to implementing appropriate containment of WPV2 in essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities* by the end of 2015 and of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) within 3 months of global withdrawal of OPV2, which is planned for April 2016. This report summarizes critical steps for essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities that intend to retain materials confirmed to contain or potentially containing type-specific WPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), or OPV/Sabin viruses, and steps for nonessential facilities† that process specimens that contain or might contain polioviruses. National authorities will need to certify that the essential facilities they host meet the containment requirements described in GAPIII. After certification of WPV eradication, the use of all OPV will cease; final containment of all polioviruses after polio eradication and OPV cessation will minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into a polio-free world.

  7. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-06-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed "toolkits" utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field.

  8. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in groundwater in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chihhao [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Wang, G.-S. [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-C. [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County, Taiwan (China); Ko, C.-H. [School of Forest and Resources Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chunhank@ntu.edu.tw

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risks from exposure to 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in selected groundwater sites in Taiwan. The study employs the multimedia environment pollutant assessment system (MEPAS) model to calculate the specific non-cancer and cancer risks at an exposure level of 1 {mu}g/L of each VOC for a variety of exposure pathways. The results show that the highest specific non-cancer risk is associated with water ingestion of vinyl chloride (VC) and that the highest specific cancer risk is associated with indoor breathing of VC. The three most important exposure pathways for risk assessment for both non-cancer and cancer risks are identified as water ingestion, dermal absorption when showering, and indoor breathing. Excess tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and VC are detected in the groundwater aquifers of one dump site and one factory. However, the study suggests that the pollutants in the contaminated groundwater aquifers do not travel extensively with groundwater flow and that the resulting VOC concentrations are below detectable levels for most of the sampled drinking-water treatment plants. Nevertheless, the non-cancer and cancer risks resulting from use of the contaminated groundwater are found to be hundred times higher than the general risk guidance values. To ensure safe groundwater utilisation, remediation initiatives for soil and groundwater are required. Finally, the study suggests that the current criteria for VOCs in drinking water might not be capable of ensuring public safety when groundwater is used as the primary water supply; more stringent quality criteria for drinking water are proposed for selected VOCs.

  9. Assessment of CT dose to the fetus and pregnant female patient using patient-specific computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-09-08

    This work provides detailed estimates of the foetal dose from diagnostic CT imaging of pregnant patients to enable the assessment of the diagnostic benefits considering the associated radiation risks. To produce realistic biological and physical representations of pregnant patients and the embedded foetus, we developed a methodology for construction of patient-specific voxel-based computational phantoms based on existing standardised hybrid computational pregnant female phantoms. We estimated the maternal absorbed dose and foetal organ dose for 30 pregnant patients referred to the emergency unit of Geneva University Hospital for abdominal CT scans. The effective dose to the mother varied from 1.1 mSv to 2.0 mSv with an average of 1.6 mSv, while commercial dose-tracking software reported an average effective dose of 1.9 mSv (range 1.7-2.3 mSv). The foetal dose normalised to CTDIvol varies between 0.85 and 1.63 with an average of 1.17. The methodology for construction of personalised computational models can be exploited to estimate the patient-specific radiation dose from CT imaging procedures. Likewise, the dosimetric data can be used for assessment of the radiation risks to pregnant patients and the foetus from various CT scanning protocols, thus guiding the decision-making process. • In CT examinations, the absorbed dose is non-uniformly distributed within foetal organs. • This work reports, for the first time, estimates of foetal organ-level dose. • The foetal brain and skeleton doses present significant correlation with gestational age. • The conceptus dose normalised to CTDI vol varies between 0.85 and 1.63. • The developed methodology is adequate for patient-specific CT radiation dosimetry.

  10. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-27

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved.

  11. How to assess exposure of aquatic organisms to manufactured nanoparticles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quik, Joris T.K.; Vonk, Jan Arie; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2011-01-01

    Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable for estim...

  12. Self-Organizing Maps for Fingerprint Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin Aastrup; Tabassi, Elham; Makarov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    machine learning techniques. We train a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster blocks of fingerprint images based on their spatial information content. The output of the SOM is a high-level representation of the finger image, which forms the input to a Random Forest trained to learn the relationship between...... and identification of individuals). Measuring and reporting quality allows processing enhancements to increase probability of detection and track accuracy while decreasing probability of false alarms. Aside from predictive capabilities with respect to the recognition performance, another important design criteria...

  13. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented.

  14. Size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) provides a simple method to calculate organ dose for pediatric CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Bria M.; Brady, Samuel L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org; Kaufman, Robert A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Mirro, Amy E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) with absorbed organ dose, and to develop a simple methodology for estimating patient organ dose in a pediatric population (5–55 kg). Methods: Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing a range of pediatric body habitus were scanned with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dose. Phantom absolute organ dose was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Organ dose correlation factors (CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}) were then multiplied by patient-specific SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. The CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were used to retrospectively estimate individual organ doses from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic pediatric CT examinations, where mean patient weight was 22 kg ± 15 (range 5–55 kg), and mean patient age was 6 yrs ± 5 (range 4 months to 23 yrs). Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm; thus, showing appropriate scalability of the phantoms across the entire pediatric population in this study. IndividualCF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were determined for a total of 23 organs in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7–1.4) and abdominopelvic region (average 0.9; range 0.7–1.3) was near unity. For organ/tissue that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1–0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. A means to estimate patient organ dose was demonstrated. Calculated patient organ dose, using patient SSDE and CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}, was compared to

  15. Multi-element compound specific stable isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds at trace levels in groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Martín, Sara; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Richnow, Hans. H.; Gehre, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater pollution remains one of the major environmental and health concerns. A thorough understanding of sources, sinks and transformation processes of groundwater contaminants is needed to improve risk management evaluation, and to design efficient remediation and water treatment strategies. Isotopic tools provide unique information for an in-depth understanding of the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. During the last decades compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of complex mixtures, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has gained popularity for the characterization and risk assessment of hazardous waste sites and for isotope forensics of organic contaminants. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of organic substances provides a more robust framework for interpretation than the isotope analysis of only one element. One major challenge for application of CSIA is the analysis of trace levels of organic compounds in environmental matrices. It is necessary to inject 1 nmol carbon or 8 nmol hydrogen on column, to obtain an accurate and precise measurement of the isotope ratios, which is between two and three orders of magnitude larger than the amount of compound needed for conventional analysis of compound concentrations. Therefore, efficient extraction and pre-concentration techniques have to be integrated with GC-IRMS. Further research is urgently needed in this field, to evaluate the potential of novel and environmental-friendly sample pre-treatment techniques for CSIA to lower the detection limits and extending environmental applications. In this study, the novel coupling of a headspace autosampler (HS) with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV), allowing large volume injection of headspace samples, is proposed to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. This automatic, fast and solvent free strategy provides a significant increase on the sensitivity of GC-based methods maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation

  16. Organ Dose Assessment and Evaluation of Cancer Risk on Mars Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated on the surface of Mars using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. To account for the radiation transmission through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor. To describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance on the Mars surface at each elevation, the directional cosine distribution is implemented. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is then coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Finally, cancer risks for astronauts exploring Mars can be assessed by applying the NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model with the resultant organ dose estimates. Variations of organ doses and cancer risk quantities on the surface of Mars, which are due to a 16-km elevation range between the Tharsis Montes and the Hellas impact basin, are visualized on the global topography of Mars measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. It is found that cancer incidence risks are about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for male and female astronauts and in breast cancer for female astronauts. The number of safe days, defined by the upper 95% percent confidence level to be below cancer limits, on Mars is analyzed for several Mars mission design scenarios.

  17. Nutrition Labelling is a Trade Policy Issue: Lessons From an Analysis of Specific Trade Concerns at the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, C; Thow, A. M.; Jones, A; Ali, I.; Labonte, R

    2017-01-01

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organ...

  18. Using Academy Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for organization self-assessment and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joyce A; Kent, Sue; Cox, Sharon A; McCauley, Sharon M; Parekh, Janki; Klein, Catherine J

    2014-08-01

    Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for an Organization is a self-assessment tool to measure and evaluate an organization's program, services, and initiatives that identify and distinguish the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) brand as the professional expert in food and nutrition. The Standards of Excellence will serve as a road map to recognize RDNs as leaders and collaborators. Standards of Excellence criteria apply to all practice segments of nutrition and dietetics: health care, education and research, business and industry, and community nutrition and public health. Given the membership's call to action to be recognized for their professional expertise, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee developed four Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for Organizations: Quality of Leadership, Quality of Organization, Quality of Practice, and Quality of Outcomes. Within each standard, specific indicators provide strategies for an organization to demonstrate excellence. The Academy will develop a self-evaluation scoring tool to assist the organization in applying and implementing one or more of the strategies in the Standards of Excellence indicators. The organization can use the self-assessment tool to establish itself as a Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics. The role examples illustrate initiatives RDNs and organizations can take to identify themselves as a Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics. Achieving the Excellence level is an important collaborative initiative between nutrition and dietetics organizations and the Academy to provide increased autonomy, supportive management, respect within peers and community, opportunities for professional development, support for further education, and compensation for the RDN. For purposes of the Standards, "organization" means workplace or practice setting. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. Field scale experiments to assess the effects of offshore wind farms on marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Andrew; Mueller-Blenkle, Christina; McGregor, Peter K.; Andersson, Mathias H.; Metcalfe, Julian; Bendall, Victoria; Sigray, Peter; Wood, Daniel; Wearmouth, Victoria; Thomsen, Frank

    2011-07-01

    Full text: There are different phases in the life of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) that need to be considered in terms of how it interacts with the coastal ecosystem: the survey and construction, operation and decommissioning. Taking these phases and identifying the associated effectors and whether they have an effect on coastal organisms is an important step before going on to determine whether actual impact may occur. Hence, we have developed studies focussing first on assessing the effects on species individuals at an appropriate scale and, subsequently looking at the effect across multiple individuals which could then be used to assess effects at the level of the population, thereby providing evidence for an impact (either positive or negative). To obtain ecologically relevant results at a scale appropriate for OWFs, we have taken the experimental approach, incorporating a treatment and control, into the coastal environment using large underwater netted structures (mesocosms) to provide a more realistic setting. To date, our studies have used the mesocosm approach to increase understanding of two relatively unknown effectors on fish: underwater pile-driving noise (Construction Phase) and Electromagnetic Fields (EMF), associated with the production of the electricity by OWFs (Operational Phase). The approach presented here clearly demonstrates that specific effects of OWFs on fish (and potentially other marine organisms) can be determined at a scale that is ecologically relevant. Furthermore, it that provides an important step in assessing what effectors need to be considered in terms of their possible impacts, thereby moving the research agenda forward whilst also meeting the needs of the stake holders involved with OWF. (Author)

  20. Physical organization of DNA by multiple non-specific DNA-binding modes of integration host factor (IHF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin

    Full Text Available The integration host factor (IHF is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein and an essential co-factor for phage λ site-specific recombination and gene regulation in E. coli. Introduction of a sharp DNA kink at specific cognate sites is critical for these functions. Interestingly, the intracellular concentration of IHF is much higher than the concentration needed for site-specific interactions, suggesting that non-specific binding of IHF to DNA plays a role in the physical organization of bacterial chromatin. However, it is unclear how non-specific DNA association contributes to DNA organization. By using a combination of single DNA manipulation and atomic force microscopy imaging methods, we show here that distinct modes of non-specific DNA binding of IHF result in complex global DNA conformations. Changes in KCl and IHF concentrations, as well as tension applied to DNA, dramatically influence the degree of DNA-bending. In addition, IHF can crosslink DNA into a highly compact DNA meshwork that is observed in the presence of magnesium at low concentration of monovalent ions and high IHF-DNA stoichiometries. Our findings provide important insights into how IHF contributes to bacterial chromatin organization, gene regulation, and biofilm formation.

  1. Calculating the radiological parameters used in non-human biota dose assessment tools using ERICA Tool and site-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, Maria [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece); Florou, Heleny [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Kitis, Georgios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    The substantial complexity in ecosystem-radionuclide interactions is difficult to be represented in terms of radiological doses. Thus, radiological dose assessment tools use typical exposure situations for generalized organisms and ecosystems. In the present study, site-specific data and radioactivity measurements of terrestrial organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) are provided. The retrieved data are used in combination with the ERICA Assessment Tool for calculation of radiological parameters. The process of radionuclide transfer within ecosystem components is represented using concentration ratios (CRs), while for the calculation of dose rates the dose conversion coefficient (DCC) methodology is applied. Comparative assessments are performed between the generic and assessment-specific radiological parameters and between the resulting dose rates. Significant differences were observed between CRs calculated in this study and those reported in the literature for cesium and thorium, which can easily be explained. On the other hand, CRs calculated for radium are in very good agreement with those reported in the literature. The DCCs exhibited some small differences between the reference and the assessment-specific organism due to mass differences. The differences were observed for internal and external dose rates, but they were less pronounced for total dose rates which are typically used in the assessment of radiological impact. The results of the current work can serve as a basis for further studies of the radiological parameters in environments that have not been studied yet. (orig.)

  2. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  3. European experience on application of site-specific ecological risk assessment in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the current state of the development toward a common European framework for site-specific ecological risk assessment (SS-ERA) Although common progression has been slow in the past two years, earlier activities were very promising. Results are presented of a 2001 workshop to

  4. A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka International Airport in Accra, Ghana. ... We conclude that wildlife management to avert the risk of bird strikes could be successfully achieved by adopting both proactive and reactive measures to reduce the presence of problem species at the aerodrome.

  5. Specific antibiotics and nematode trophic groups agree in assessing fungal:bacterial activity in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S; Dam, M; Vestergaard, M

    2012-01-01

    -induced respiration (SIR) inhibition approach. Here we compare fungal contribution to the microbial active biomass assessed by the SIR inhibition method with the contribution of fungal-feeding nematodes to the microbial-feeding nematode community. Four cultivation systems on the same soil that differ in carbon inputs......There are no methods at hand with a long and proven record for assessing the relative contribution of fungi and bacteria to decomposer activity in soil. Whereas a multitude of methods to determine fungal and bacterial biomass are available, activity assays traditionally relied on the substrate...... with a factor two ranked exactly the same with the two methods. A conventionally farmed rotation with low organic input had the lowest fungal fraction, while three organically farmed soils ranked higher....

  6. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  7. Validation of the "World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule for children, WHODAS-Child" in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Scorza

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule for children (WHODAS-Child is a disability assessment instrument based on the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for children and youth. It is modified from the original adult version specifically for use with children. The aim of this study was to assess the WHODAS-Child structure and metric properties in a community sample of children with and without reported psychosocial problems in rural Rwanda.The WHODAS-Child was first translated into Kinyarwanda through a detailed committee translation process and back-translation. Cognitive interviewing was used to assess the comprehension of the translated items. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a group of 64 children. The translated WHODAS-Child was then administered to a final sample of 367 children in southern Kayonza district in rural southeastern Rwanda within a larger psychosocial assessment battery. The latent structure was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was evaluated in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability (Pearson's correlation coefficient. Construct validity was explored by examining convergence between WHODAS-Child scores and mental disorder status, and divergence of WHODAS-Child scores with protective factors and prosocial behaviors. Concordance between parent and child scores was also assessed.The six-factor structure of the WHODAS-Child was confirmed in a population sample of Rwandan children. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability were high (r = .83 and ICC = .88. WHODAS-Child scores were moderately positively correlated with presence of depression (r = .42, p<.001 and post-traumatic stress disorder (r = .31, p<.001 and moderately negatively correlated with prosocial behaviors (r = .47, p<.001. The Kinyarwanda version of the WHODAS-Child was found to be a reliable and acceptable self-report tool

  8. Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Bond

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Climatic effects of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs differ from those of long-lived greenhouse gases, because they occur rapidly after emission and because they depend upon the region of emission. The distinctive temporal and spatial nature of these impacts is not captured by measures that rely on global averages or long time integrations. Here, we propose a simple measure, the Specific Forcing Pulse (SFP, to quantify climate warming or cooling by these pollutants, where we define "immediate" as occurring primarily within the first year after emission. SFP is the amount of energy added to or removed from a receptor region in the Earth-atmosphere system by a chemical species, per mass of emission in a source region. We limit the application of SFP to species that remain in the atmosphere for less than one year. Metrics used in policy discussions, such as total forcing or global warming potential, are easily derived from SFP. However, SFP conveys purely physical information without incurring the policy implications of choosing a time horizon for the global warming potential.

    Using one model (Community Atmosphere Model, or CAM, we calculate values of SFP for black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM emitted from 23 source-region combinations. Global SFP for both atmosphere and cryosphere impacts is divided among receptor latitudes. SFP is usually greater for open-burning emissions than for energy-related (fossil-fuel and biofuel emissions because of the timing of emission. Global SFP for BC varies by about 45% for energy-related emissions from different regions. This variation would be larger except for compensating effects. When emitted aerosol has larger cryosphere forcing, it often has lower atmosphere forcing because of less deep convection and a shorter atmospheric lifetime.

    A single model result is insufficient to capture uncertainty. We develop a best estimate and uncertainties for SFP by combining forcing results from

  9. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

    2010-01-01

    assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed...... (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills pose a smaller risk of groundwater contamination, but the impact potentials estimated still remain a lot higher than estimated in other......The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1...

  10. Review of element-specific data for biosphere assessment BSA-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helin, J.; Ikonen, A.T.K. (Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Hjerpe, T. (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    A literature review on distribution coefficients (Kd) to soil, sediment and suspended matter and on concentration ratios to forest, aquatic and crop plants and to edibles was performed and is documented in this report. The literature data were combined, in some cases involving also site-specific data, using the methods of Bayesian updating. Their application is also explained in the report. Based on the derived data, aggregated concentration ratios (production-weighted average concentration ratio to edibles specific to an ecosystem type) were calculated. Finally, the quality of the established data basis is evaluated. The work provides the 2009 biosphere assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal the in Olkiluoto site, BSA-2009, with the abovementioned parameter values and distributions, but most importantly demonstrates the methodology adopted to combine various data sources and derive such assessment data. It is acknowledged that for many parameters and/or elements the data basis needs improvement by the forthcoming 2012 assessment. (orig.)

  11. The Effects of Computer Graphic Organizers on the Persuasive Writing of Hispanic Middle School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…

  12. The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Caridad H.

    2009-01-01

    Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic…

  13. Nonlinear Optical Macroscopic Assessment of 3-D Corneal Collagen Organization and Axial Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Moritz; Chai, Dongyul; Kriling, Shelsea; NIEN, CHYONG JY; Brown, Donald J.; Jester, Bryan; Juhasz, Tibor; Jester, James V.

    2011-01-01

    Collagen fibers in the anterior cornea are highly intertwined, unlike those in the posterior cornea. This axial gradient corresponds to a decrease in elastic modulus, suggesting that specific fiber organization controls corneal biomechanics and shape.

  14. Assessment of indexing trends with specific and general terms for herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-12-01

    Concepts for medicinal plants are represented by a variety of associated general terms with specific indexing patterns in databases, which may not consistently reflect growth of records. The objectives of this study are to assess the development in databases by identifying general terms that describe herbal medicine with optimal retrieval recall and to identify possible special trends in co-occurrence of specific and general concepts. Different search strategies are tested in cab abstracts, medline and web of science. Specific terms (Origanum and Salvia) are employed. Relevant general terms (e.g. 'Plants, Medicinal', Phytotherapy, Herbal drugs) are identified, along with indexing trends and co-occurrences. Growth trends, in specific (narrower) terms, are similar among databases. General terms, however, exhibit dissimilar trends, sometimes almost opposing one another. Co-occurrence of specific and general terms is changing over time. General terms may not denote definite development of trends as the use of terms differs amongst databases, making it difficult to correctly assess possible numbers of relevant records. Perceived increase can, sometimes, be attributed to an increased occurrence of a more general term alongside the specific one. Thesaurus-controlled databases may yield more hits, because of 'up-posted' (broader) terms. Use of broader terms is helpful as it enhances retrieval of relevant documents. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  15. Assessment of terrigenous organic carbon input to the total organic carbon in sediments from Scottish transitional waters (sea lochs: methodology and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Loh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the assessment of terrestrially derived organic carbon in sediments from two Scottish sea lochs. The results illustrate a smooth decrease in area-specific sediment oxygen uptake rates along a transect of six stations from the head of Loch Creran to the sea, from 18.7 mmol O2m-2d-1 to 6.6 mmol O2m-2d-1. Measurement of the losses on ignition at two temperatures (250°C and 500°C of the sediment fraction from 1–2 cm depth at the same stations enabled the proportion of weight loss that occurred over the high temperature range to be calculated. These show a smooth increase from 0.33 to 0.62. These observations indicate that (a the amount of easily biodegradable organic material in the sediment decreases by two-thirds along the transect and (b the proportion of refractory organic material in the sediment increases along the same transect. This suggests strongly that terrigenous organic material, brought down by the River Creran is a very important fuel for sediment diagenetic processes in this system. Preliminary analyses of the lignin composition of the same sediments indicate the predominance of non-woody gymnosperm tissue. Lignin is used as a proxy for terrigenous allochthonous material. Comparative data for Loch Etive are also presented. Keywords: sedimentary organic carbon, Loch Creran, Loch Etive, oxygen uptake, lignin analysis

  16. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    as a necessary foundation for research assessment across perspectives; (2) openly discuss the choice of perspective, because it is decisive; (3) formulate common goals that can be translated into the different perspectives; and (4) consider assessment of food system sustainability a learning process and design......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values......Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...

  17. Substantial Differences between Organ and Muscle Specific Tracer Incorporation Rates in a Lactating Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One lactating dairy cow received a constant infusion of L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine (450 µmol/min for 96 h. Plasma and milk were collected prior to, during, and after the stable isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after cessation of the infusion the cow was slaughtered. The meat and samples of the various organ tissues (liver, heart, lung, udder, kidney, rumen, small intestine, and colon were collected and stored. Approximately 210 kg of intrinsically labeled beef (bone and fat free with an average L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichment of 1.8±0.1 mole percent excess (MPE was obtained. The various organ tissues differed substantially in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments in the tissue protein bound pool, the highest enrichment levels were achieved in the kidney (11.7 MPE and the lowest enrichment levels in the skeletal muscle tissue protein of the cow (between 1.5-2.4 MPE. The estimated protein synthesis rates of the various organ tissues should be regarded as underestimates, particularly for the organs with the higher turnover rates and high secretory activity, due to the lengthened (96 h measurement period necessary for the production of the intrinsically labeled beef. Our data demonstrates that there are relatively small differences in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments between the various meat cuts, but substantial higher enrichment values are observed in the various organ tissues. We conclude that protein turnover rates of various organs are much higher when compared to skeletal muscle protein turnover rates in large lactating ruminants.

  18. Assessment of the Interstellar Processes Leading to Deuterium Enrichment in Meteoritic Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopic anomalies is the most unequivocal demonstration that meteoritic material contains circumstellar or interstellar components. In the case of organic compounds in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), the most useful isotopic tracer has been deuterium (D). We discuss four processes that are expected to lead to D enrichment in interstellar materials and describe how their unique characteristics can be used to assess their relative importance for the organics in meteorites. These enrichment processes are low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions, low temperature gas-grain reactions, gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes is expected to be associated with distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.), especially in the molecular population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We describe these differences and discuss how they may be used to delineate the various interstellar processes that may have contributed to meteoritic D enrichments. We also briefly discuss how these processes may affect the isotopic distributions in C, 0, and N in the same compounds.

  19. Assessing Bilingual Knowledge Organization in Secondary Science Classrooms =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason S.

    Improving outcomes for English language learners (ELLs) in secondary science remains an area of high need. The purpose of this study is to investigate bilingual knowledge organization in secondary science classrooms. This study involved thirty-nine bilingual students in three biology classes at a public high school in The Bronx, New York City. Methods included an in-class survey on language use, a science content and English proficiency exam, and bilingual free-recalls. Fourteen students participated in bilingual free-recalls which involved a semi-structured process of oral recall of information learned in science class. Free-recall was conducted in both English and Spanish and analyzed using flow-map methods. Novel methods were developed to quantify and visualize the elaboration and mobilization of ideas shared across languages. It was found that bilingual narratives displayed similar levels of organizational complexity across languages, though English recalls tended to be longer. English proficiency was correlated with narrative complexity in English. There was a high degree of elaboration on concepts shared across languages. Finally, higher Spanish proficiency correlated well with greater overlapping elaboration across languages. These findings are discussed in light of current cognitive theory before presenting the study's limitations and future directions of research.

  20. A data-driven modeling approach to identify disease-specific multi-organ networks driving physiological dysregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren D Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple physiological systems interact throughout the development of a complex disease. Knowledge of the dynamics and connectivity of interactions across physiological systems could facilitate the prevention or mitigation of organ damage underlying complex diseases, many of which are currently refractory to available therapeutics (e.g., hypertension. We studied the regulatory interactions operating within and across organs throughout disease development by integrating in vivo analysis of gene expression dynamics with a reverse engineering approach to infer data-driven dynamic network models of multi-organ gene regulatory influences. We obtained experimental data on the expression of 22 genes across five organs, over a time span that encompassed the development of autonomic nervous system dysfunction and hypertension. We pursued a unique approach for identification of continuous-time models that jointly described the dynamics and structure of multi-organ networks by estimating a sparse subset of ∼12,000 possible gene regulatory interactions. Our analyses revealed that an autonomic dysfunction-specific multi-organ sequence of gene expression activation patterns was associated with a distinct gene regulatory network. We analyzed the model structures for adaptation motifs, and identified disease-specific network motifs involving genes that exhibited aberrant temporal dynamics. Bioinformatic analyses identified disease-specific single nucleotide variants within or near transcription factor binding sites upstream of key genes implicated in maintaining physiological homeostasis. Our approach illustrates a novel framework for investigating the pathogenesis through model-based analysis of multi-organ system dynamics and network properties. Our results yielded novel candidate molecular targets driving the development of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and immune dysfunction.

  1. Patient-specific scaling of reference S-values for cross-organ radionuclide S-values: what is appropriate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bolch, W.E. [University of Florida, Departments of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, Gainesville, FL 32611-8300 (United States); Sgouros, G. [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, CRB II 4M61, 1550 Orleans St., Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States); Wessels, B. [Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) formalism assumes reference mass values for the organs (source and target) and the total body. MIRD publication 11 provides guidance on how patient-specific scaling of reference radionuclide S-values are to be performed for the electron component of the emission spectrum. However, guidance on patient-specific scaling of the photon contributions to the S-value is given only for those cases where the source and target organs are either far apart or are the same. The photon component of the S-value is derived from photon-Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs). These are obtained by Monte Carlo calculation of photon transport. The objective of this work is to verify the MIRD 11 guidance and to examine the relationship between photon SAFs and source/target organ mass when the conditions listed above do not apply. Furthermore, the scaling for photon cross-dose to distributed organs is at present not defined due to lack of data for models other than the reference model. The validity of mass scaling for cross irradiation from near and distant photons sources, especially for Red Bone Marrow (RBM) as a target tissue is also investigated. This is achieved by comparing Monte Carlo-derived SAFs for different source organs to RBM across the GSF voxel phantom series. The results show that, for photon energies greater than 100 keV, the SAF of most source organs to RBM need not be corrected for target mass (error < 5%). In contrast to the results obtained for well-defined source organs, the SAF for RBM irradiating RBM gives a deviation of up to 16% across the different GSF voxel phantoms. (authors)

  2. Development of the voxel computational phantoms of pediatric patients and their application to organ dose assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik

    crucial in understanding the radiation risks of the patients undergoing computed tomography. Finally, nuclear medicine simulations were performed by calculating specific absorbed fractions for multiple target-source organ pairs via Monte Carlo simulations. Specific absorbed fractions were calculated for both photon and electron so that they can be used to calculated radionuclide S-values. All of the results were tabulated for future uses and example dose assessment was performed for selected nuclides administered in nuclear medicine.

  3. Interpretation of World Health Organization growth charts for assessing infant malnutrition: a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, UN; Yiwombe, M; Chisepo, P; Cole, TJ; Heikens, GT; Kerac, M

    2014-01-01

    AIMS The study aims to assess the effects of switching from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth references to World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards on health-care workers' decisions about malnutrition in infants aged

  4. Evaluating simulated primary anthropogenic and biomass burning organic aerosols during MILAGRO: implications for assessing treatments of secondary organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fast

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulated primary organic aerosols (POA, as well as other particulates and trace gases, in the vicinity of Mexico City are evaluated using measurements collected during the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO field campaigns. Since the emission inventories, transport, and turbulent mixing will directly affect predictions of total organic matter and consequently total particulate matter, our objective is to assess the uncertainties in predicted POA before testing and evaluating the performance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA treatments. Carbon monoxide (CO is well simulated on most days both over the city and downwind, indicating that transport and mixing processes were usually consistent with the meteorological conditions observed during MILAGRO. Predicted and observed elemental carbon (EC in the city was similar, but larger errors occurred at remote locations since the overall CO/EC emission ratios in the national emission inventory were lower than in the metropolitan emission inventory. Components of organic aerosols derived from Positive Matrix Factorization of data from several Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer instruments deployed both at ground sites and on research aircraft are used to evaluate the model. Modeled POA was consistently lower than the measured organic matter at the ground sites, which is consistent with the expectation that SOA should be a large fraction of the total organic matter mass. A much better agreement was found when modeled POA was compared with the sum of "primary anthropogenic" and "biomass burning" components derived from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF on most days, especially at the surface sites, suggesting that the overall magnitude of primary organic particulates released was reasonable. However, simulated POA from anthropogenic sources was often lower than "primary anthropogenic" components derived from PMF, consistent with two recent reports that these emissions

  5. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zomitsa; PENN, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were investigated. Our students perceived the online homework as one of the more useful course aspects for learning organic chemistry content. We found a modera...

  6. Organic farming without fossil fuels - life cycle assessment of two Swedish cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, C; Kimming, M.; Nordberg, Å.; Baky, A; Hansson, P.-A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic agriculture is dependent on fossil fuels, just like conventional agriculture, but this can be reduced by the use of on-farm biomass resources. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts of different alternatives can be assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA), which we have done in this project. Swedish organic milk production can become self-sufficient in energy by using renewable sources available on the farm, with biogas from manure as the main energy source. Thereby greenhouse...

  7. World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0: An international systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Bracalenti, Marco; Meloni, Fabio; Luciano, Juan V

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review examines research and practical applications of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature. The aims were to establish the extent of international dissemination and use of WHODAS 2.0 and analyze psychometric research on its various translations and adaptations. In particular, we wanted to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factor structure, reliability, and validity of this instrument. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology, we conducted a search for publications focused on "whodas" using the ProQuest, PubMed, and Google Scholar electronic databases. We identified 810 studies from 94 countries published between 1999 and 2015. WHODAS 2.0 has been translated into 47 languages and dialects and used in 27 areas of research (40% in psychiatry). The growing number of studies indicates increasing interest in the WHODAS 2.0 for assessing individual functioning and disability in different settings and individual health conditions. The WHODAS 2.0 shows strong correlations with several other measures of activity limitations; probably due to the fact that it shares the same disability latent variable with them. Implications for Rehabilitation WHODAS 2.0 seems to be a valid, reliable self-report instrument for the assessment of disability. The increasing interest in use of the WHODAS 2.0 extends to rehabilitation and life sciences rather than being limited to psychiatry. WHODAS 2.0 is suitable for assessing health status and disability in a variety of settings and populations. A critical issue for rehabilitation is that a single "minimal clinically important .difference" score for the WHODAS 2.0 has not yet been established.

  8. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Penn, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were…

  9. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  10. Health technology assessment (HTA) organizations: dimensions of the institutional and political framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de

    2016-11-03

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is consolidated as a scientific and technological practice. The aim of this study is to identify HTA organizations from different settings and analyze their relevant dimensions in terms of effectiveness/impact, in order to address the challenges they face in Brazil. Narrative literature review based on data and websites of HTA organizations. There are well-established activity development processes in all organizations. These activities have specific features in their profile, in the process of technology assessment, decision and implementation of technologies that influence their potential impact on health systems. Agencies share in common the challenges of ranking the technologies to be assessed, and the implementation of their recommendations. Technical and political strengthening of the institutionalization of HTA in Brazil may foster scientific, technological and innovation policies, effectively impacting health policies. Resumo: A avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS) está consolidada enquanto prática científica e tecnológica. O objetivo do estudo é identificar organizações de ATS de diferentes contextos e analisá-las de acordo com dimensões relevantes na avaliação de sua efetividade/impacto, buscando contribuir com os desafios enfrentados no contexto nacional. Revisão narrativa da literatura, realizada em bases de dados e web sites de organizações de ATS. Existem processos de desenvolvimento das atividades bem estabelecidos em todas as organizações. Elas apresentam particularidades no seu perfil, nos processos de avaliação, decisão e implementação das tecnologias que influenciam o seu impacto potencial sobre os sistemas de saúde. As agências compartilham os desafios de priorização das tecnologias a serem avaliadas e implementação das suas recomendações. O fortalecimento técnico e político do processo de institucionalização da ATS no contexto nacional poderá contribuir com as pol

  11. A 3-D Mathematical Model to Identify Organ-Specific Risks in Rats During Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    sensors were implanted in the intraperitoneal cavity and were sutured to the peritoneal wall. The transmitters measured core temperature (Tc; 0.25°C) and...Further, the spatial temperature distribution in the various organs could be used to anchor and analyze molecular mediators of heat injury in an

  12. Expression of the organizer specific homeobox gene goosecoid (gsc) in porcine embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.; Pavert, van de S.A.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Boerjan, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The homeobox gene goosecoid is one of the first genes expressed in the organizer region of vertebrates and specifies future dorsal regions along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. Goosecoid (gsc) expression marks the posterior end of the anterior/posterior axis and might be a good marker to

  13. Organ specific gene expression in the regenerating tail of Macrostomum lignano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengerer, Birgit; Wunderer, Julia; Pjeta, Robert; Carta, Giada; Kao, Damian; Aboobaker, Aziz; Beisel, Christian; Berezikov, Eugene; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial characterization of gene expression is a prerequisite for the understanding of cell-, tissue-, and organ-differentiation. In a multifaceted approach to investigate gene expression in the tail plate of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano, we performed a

  14. Identification, characterization and metagenome analysis of oocyte-specific genes organized in clusters in the mouse genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiman Daniel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes specifically expressed in the oocyte play key roles in oogenesis, ovarian folliculogenesis, fertilization and/or early embryonic development. In an attempt to identify novel oocyte-specific genes in the mouse, we have used an in silico subtraction methodology, and we have focused our attention on genes that are organized in genomic clusters. Results In the present work, five clusters have been studied: a cluster of thirteen genes characterized by an F-box domain localized on chromosome 9, a cluster of six genes related to T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma protein 1 (Tcl1 on chromosome 12, a cluster composed of a SPErm-associated glutamate (E-Rich (Speer protein expressed in the oocyte in the vicinity of four unknown genes specifically expressed in the testis on chromosome 14, a cluster composed of the oocyte secreted protein-1 (Oosp-1 gene and two Oosp-related genes on chromosome 19, all three being characterized by a partial N-terminal zona pellucida-like domain, and another small cluster of two genes on chromosome 19 as well, composed of a TWIK-Related spinal cord K+ channel encoding-gene, and an unknown gene predicted in silico to be testis-specific. The specificity of expression was confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization for eight and five of them, respectively. Finally, we showed by comparing all of the isolated and clustered oocyte-specific genes identified so far in the mouse genome, that the oocyte-specific clusters are significantly closer to telomeres than isolated oocyte-specific genes are. Conclusion We have studied five clusters of genes specifically expressed in female, some of them being also expressed in male germ-cells. Moreover, contrarily to non-clustered oocyte-specific genes, those that are organized in clusters tend to map near chromosome ends, suggesting that this specific near-telomere position of oocyte-clusters in rodents could constitute an evolutionary advantage. Understanding the biological

  15. Patient-specific scaling of reference S-values for cross-organ radionuclide S-values: what is appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, W E; Zankl, M; Sgouros, G; Wessels, B

    2007-01-01

    The Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) formalism assumes reference mass values for the organs (source and target) and the total body. MIRD publication 11 provides guidance on how patient-specific scaling of reference radionuclide S-values are to be performed for the electron component of the emission spectrum. However, guidance on patient-specific scaling of the photon contributions to the S-value is given only for those cases where the source and target organs are either far apart or are the same. The photon component of the S-value is derived from photon-Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs). These are obtained by Monte Carlo calculation of photon transport. The objective of this work is to verify the MIRD 11 guidance and to examine the relationship between photon SAFs and source/target organ mass when the conditions listed above do not apply. Furthermore, the scaling for photon cross-dose to distributed organs is at present not defined due to lack of data for models other than the reference model. The validity of mass scaling for cross irradiation from near and distant photons sources, especially for Red Bone Marrow (RBM) as a target tissue is also investigated. This is achieved by comparing Monte Carlo-derived SAFs for different source organs to RBM across the GSF voxel phantom series. The results show that, for photon energies greater than 100 keV, the SAF of most source organs to RBM need not be corrected for target mass (error GSF voxel phantoms.

  16. Assessment of Organ Radiation Dose Associated with Uterine Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomset, O.; Hellesnes, J.; Heimland, N.; Hafsahl, G.; Smith, H.J. [Rikshospitalet Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology and the Interventional Centre

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiation dose to the skin, uterus, and ovaries during uterine artery embolization. Material and Methods: Guided uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata and two types of X-ray equipment with different dose levels were utilized during fluoroscopy in 20 women (ages ranging from 32 to 52 years, body weights from 55 to 68 kg). The first 13 women were treated using a non-pulsed system A, with 3.3 mm Al filtering and, for simplicity, a fixed peak voltage 80 kV. During treatment of the other 7 women, a pulsed system B with 5.4 mm Al filtering and an identical fixed voltage was used. The dose area product (DAP) was recorded. The vaginal dose of the first 13 patients and the peak skin dose of all patients were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). TLDs were placed in the posterior vaginal fornix and on the skin at the beam entrance site. The uterine and ovarian doses were estimated based on the measured skin doses, normalized depth dose, and organ depth values. The effective dose (D eff ) was estimated based on the observed DAP values. The measured vaginal doses and the corresponding estimated uterine doses were compared statistically, as were the DAP values from systems A and B. Results: For system A, the mean fluoroscopic time was 20.9 min (range 12.7-31.1), and for system B 35.9 min (range 16.4-55.4). The mean numbers of angiographic exposures for systems A and B were 82 (range 30-164) and 37 (range 20-72), respectively. The mean peak skin dose for system A was 601.5 mGy (range 279-1030) and for system B 453 mGy (range 257-875). The mean DAP for system A was 88.6 Gy cm{sup 2} (range 41.4-161.0) and for system B 52.5 Gy cm{sup 2} (range 20.1-107.9). Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the DAP values, the DAP for system B being the lower one. The mean estimated effective doses from systems A and B were 32 mSv (range 15.1-58.4) and 22 mSv (range 9-46), respectively. The mean estimated maximum uterine and

  17. Assessment of low-dose radiotoxicity in microorganisms and higher organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, Muhammad Hassan

    2016-01-11

    This work was dedicated to quantify and distinguish the radio- and chemitoxic effects of environmentally relevant low doses of uranium on the metabolism of microorganisms and multicellular organisms by a modern and highly sensitive microcalorimetry. In such low-dose regime, lethality is low or absent. Therefore, quantitative assays based on survival curves cannot be employed, particularly for multicellular organisms. Even in the case of microbial growth, where individual cells may be killed by particle radiation, classical toxicity assessments based on colony counting are not only extremely time-consuming but also highly error-prone. Therefore, measuring the metabolic activity of the organism under such kinds of conditions would give an extremely valuable quantitative measure of viability that is based on life cell monitoring, rather than determining lethality at higher doses and extrapolating it to the low dose regime. The basic concept is simple as it relies on the metabolic heat produced by an organism during development, growth or replication as an inevitable byproduct of all biochemical processes. A metabolic effect in this concept is defined as a change in heat production over time in the presence of a stressor, such as a heavy metal. This approach appeared to be particular versatile for the low dose regime. Thus, the thesis attempted in this case to measure the enthalpy production of a bacterial population as a whole to derive novel toxicity concepts. In the following chapters, an introduction about the properties of ionizing radiation will be briefly presented, in addition to a review about the isothermal calorimetry and its application in studying the bacterial growth. Later in chapter 2, the effect of uranium on the metabolic activity of three different bacterial strains isolated form a uranium mining waste pile together with a reference strain that is genetically related to them will be investigated. Due to the lack of published dedicated calibration

  18. Accuracy of specific BIVA for the assessment of body composition in the United States population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Buffa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA is a technique for the assessment of hydration and nutritional status, used in the clinical practice. Specific BIVA is an analytical variant, recently proposed for the Italian elderly population, that adjusts bioelectrical values for body geometry. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the accuracy of specific BIVA in the adult U.S. population, compared to the 'classic' BIVA procedure, using DXA as the reference technique, in order to obtain an interpretative model of body composition. DESIGN: A cross-sectional sample of 1590 adult individuals (836 men and 754 women, 21-49 years old derived from the NHANES 2003-2004 was considered. Classic and specific BIVA were applied. The sensitivity and specificity in recognizing individuals below the 5(th and above the 95(th percentiles of percent fat (FMDXA% and extracellular/intracellular water (ECW/ICW ratio were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Classic and specific BIVA results were compared by a probit multiple-regression. RESULTS: Specific BIVA was significantly more accurate than classic BIVA in evaluating FMDXA% (ROC areas: 0.84-0.92 and 0.49-0.61 respectively; p = 0.002. The evaluation of ECW/ICW was accurate (ROC areas between 0.83 and 0.96 and similarly performed by the two procedures (p = 0.829. The accuracy of specific BIVA was similar in the two sexes (p = 0.144 and in FMDXA% and ECW/ICW (p = 0.869. CONCLUSIONS: Specific BIVA showed to be an accurate technique. The tolerance ellipses of specific BIVA can be used for evaluating FM% and ECW/ICW in the U.S. adult population.

  19. Site-specific probabilistic ecological risk assessment of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated tidal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) was identified as discharging to Penrhyn Estuary, an intertidal embayment of Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water in Penrhyn Estuary identified an unacceptable hazard to marine organisms posed by VCHs. Given the limitations of hazard assessments, the present study conducted a higher-tier, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment using the joint probability curve (JPC) method that accounted for variability in exposure and toxicity profiles to quantify risk (delta). Risk was assessed for 24 scenarios, including four areas of the estuary based on three exposure scenarios (low tide, high tide, and both low and high tides) and two toxicity scenarios (chronic no-observed-effect concentrations [NOEC] and 50% effect concentrations [EC50]). Risk (delta) was greater at low tide than at high tide and varied throughout the tidal cycle. Spatial distributions of risk in the estuary were similar using both NOEC and EC50 data. The exposure scenario including data combined from both tides was considered the most accurate representation of the ecological risk in the estuary. When assessing risk using data across both tides, the greatest risk was identified in the Springvale tributary (delta=25%)-closest to the source area-followed by the inner estuary (delta=4%) and the Floodvale tributary (delta=2%), with the lowest risk in the outer estuary (delta=0.1%), farthest from the source area. Going from the screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) to the probabilistic ERA changed the risk from unacceptable to acceptable in 50% of exposure scenarios in two of the four areas within the estuary. The probabilistic ERA provided a more realistic assessment of risk than the screening-level hazard assessment. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  20. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score for Evaluating Organ Failure and Outcome of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Obstetric Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Antonio; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Souza, Joao P.; Sousa, Maria H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM). Design. Retrospective study of diagnostic validation. Setting. An obstetric intensive care unit (ICU) in Brazil. Population. 673 women with SMM. Main Outcome Measures. mortality and SOFA score. Methods. Organ failure was evaluated according to maximum score for each one of its six components. The total maximum SOFA score was calculated using the poorest result of each component, reflecting the maximum degree of alteration in systemic organ function. Results. highest total maximum SOFA score was associated with mortality, 12.06 ± 5.47 for women who died and 1.87 ± 2.56 for survivors. There was also a significant correlation between the number of failing organs and maternal mortality, ranging from 0.2% (no failure) to 85.7% (≥3 organs). Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) confirmed the excellent performance of total maximum SOFA score for cases of SMM (AUC = 0.958). Conclusions. Total maximum SOFA score proved to be an effective tool for evaluating severity and estimating prognosis in cases of SMM. Maximum SOFA score may be used to conceptually define and stratify the degree of severity in cases of SMM. PMID:22454600

  1. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score for Evaluating Organ Failure and Outcome of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Obstetric Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score in cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM. Design. Retrospective study of diagnostic validation. Setting. An obstetric intensive care unit (ICU in Brazil. Population. 673 women with SMM. Main Outcome Measures. mortality and SOFA score. Methods. Organ failure was evaluated according to maximum score for each one of its six components. The total maximum SOFA score was calculated using the poorest result of each component, reflecting the maximum degree of alteration in systemic organ function. Results. highest total maximum SOFA score was associated with mortality, 12.06 ± 5.47 for women who died and 1.87 ± 2.56 for survivors. There was also a significant correlation between the number of failing organs and maternal mortality, ranging from 0.2% (no failure to 85.7% (≥3 organs. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC confirmed the excellent performance of total maximum SOFA score for cases of SMM (AUC = 0.958. Conclusions. Total maximum SOFA score proved to be an effective tool for evaluating severity and estimating prognosis in cases of SMM. Maximum SOFA score may be used to conceptually define and stratify the degree of severity in cases of SMM.

  2. Organizational cultural competence in community health and social service organizations: how to conduct a self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarria, Marcela; Beaulac, Julie; Bélanger, Alexandre; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to address the significant socio-cultural changes in the population demographics of the United States (US) and Canada, organizations are increasingly seeking ways of improving their level of cultural competence. Evaluating organizational cultural competence is essential to address the needs of ethnic and cultural minorities. Yet, research related to organizational cultural competence is relatively new. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature with a specific focus on: (1) identifying the key standards that define culturally competent community health and social service organizations; and (2) outlining the core elements for evaluating cultural competence in a health and social service organization. Furthermore, issues related to choosing self-assessment tools and conducting an evaluation will be explored.

  3. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  4. Total organic halogen (TOX) in human urine: A halogen-specific method for human exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Kimura, Susana; Zheng, Weiwei; N Hipp, Taylor; M Allen, Joshua; D Richardson, Susan

    2017-08-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are a complex mixture of compounds unintentionally formed as a result of disinfection processes used to treat drinking water. Effects of long-term exposure to DBPs are mostly unknown and were the subject of recent epidemiological studies. However, most bioanalytical methods focus on a select few DBPs. In this study, a new comprehensive bioanalytical method has been developed that can quantify mixtures of organic halogenated compounds, including DBPs, in human urine as total organic chlorine (TOCl), total organic bromine (TOBr), and total organic iodine (TOI). The optimized method consists of urine dilution, adsorption to activated carbon, pyrolysis of activated carbon, absorption of gases in an aqueous solution, and halide analysis with ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Spike recoveries for TOCl, TOBr, and TOI measurements ranged between 78% and 99%. Average TOCl, TOBr, and TOI concentrations in five urine samples from volunteers who consumed tap water were 1850, 82, and 21.0μg/L as X-, respectively. Volunteers who consumed spring water (control) had TOCl, TOBr, and TOI average concentrations in urine of 1090, 88, and 10.3μg/L as X-, respectively. TOCl and TOI in the urine samples from tap water consumers were higher than the control. However, TOBr was slightly lower in tap water urine samples compared to mineral water urine samples, indicating other sources of environmental exposure other than drinking water. A larger sample population that consumes tap water from different cities and mineral water is needed to determine TOCl, TOBr, and TOI exposure from drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Control of reproductive floral organ identity specification in Arabidopsis by the C function regulator AGAMOUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÓMaoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Wuest, Samuel E; Rae, Liina; Raganelli, Andrea; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwasniewska, Kamila; Das, Pradeep; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The floral organ identity factor AGAMOUS (AG) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, where it is involved in the formation of the reproductive floral organs as well as in the control of meristem determinacy. To obtain insights into how AG specifies organ fate, we determined the genes and processes acting downstream of this C function regulator during early flower development and distinguished between direct and indirect effects. To this end, we combined genome-wide localization studies, gene perturbation experiments, and computational analyses. Our results demonstrate that AG controls flower development to a large extent by controlling the expression of other genes with regulatory functions, which are involved in mediating a plethora of different developmental processes. One aspect of this function is the suppression of the leaf development program in emerging floral primordia. Using trichome initiation as an example, we demonstrate that AG inhibits an important aspect of leaf development through the direct control of key regulatory genes. A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked antagonistic, as well as independent activities.

  6. Cognitive map recall test: A new specific test to assess topographical disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Virginie; Maurer, Roland

    2016-11-02

    Topographical disorientation, the inability to orient in a well-known environment, is a very incapacitating syndrome. Despite its relatively high frequency after a right cerebral lesion, there is currently no specific neuropsychological test to assess it. We propose a completely new test, with preliminary normative data, assessing the subjects' ability to recall allocentric spatial information from their cognitive map. The subjects are asked to mentally compare distances and directions between landmarks in their familiar environment. This necessitates creating an individual version of the test tailored to every participant's knowledge. This task was proposed to 53 patients with a right lesion and a control group (N = 133). We evaluated performance at comparing distances and directions, and the impact of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, and education). Results show that a right cerebral lesion leads to difficulties in evoking and comparing allocentric spatial information, and more specifically in judging directions. Furthermore, the results show an impact of age, but not gender nor education, on recalling information from a cognitive map. Although there are some intrinsic difficulties (for example in creating patient-specific versions of the test), preliminary normative data indicate that this original test is workable and provides important information in assessing topographical disorientation in clinical practice.

  7. A quantitative method for the specific assessment of caspase-6 activity in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Savill, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant activation of caspase-6 has recently emerged as a major contributor to the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Huntington disease. Commercially available assays to measure caspase-6 activity commonly use the VEID peptide as a substrate. However these methods...... are not well suited to specifically assess caspase-6 activity in the presence of other, confounding protease activities, as often encountered in cell and tissue samples. Here we report the development of a method that overcomes this limitation by using a protein substrate, lamin A, which is highly specific...... for caspase-6 cleavage at amino acid 230. Using a neo-epitope antibody against cleaved lamin A, we developed an electrochemiluminescence-based ELISA assay that is suitable to specifically detect and quantify caspase-6 activity in highly apoptotic cell extracts. The method is more sensitive than VEID...

  8. Guidelines for the assessment and acceptance of potential brain-dead organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Garcia, Valter Duro; Souza, Rafael Lisboa de; Franke, Cristiano Augusto; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Birckholz, Viviane Renata Zaclikevis; Machado, Miriam Cristine; Almeida, Eliana Régia Barbosa de; Machado, Fernando Osni; Sardinha, Luiz Antônio da Costa; Wanzuita, Raquel; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo Soares; Costa, Gerson; Braatz, Vera; Caldeira Filho, Milton; Furtado, Rodrigo; Tannous, Luana Alves; Albuquerque, André Gustavo Neves de; Abdala, Edson

    2016-09-01

    Organ transplantation is the only alternative for many patients with terminal diseases. The increasing disproportion between the high demand for organ transplants and the low rate of transplants actually performed is worrisome. Some of the causes of this disproportion are errors in the identification of potential organ donors and in the determination of contraindications by the attending staff. Therefore, the aim of the present document is to provide guidelines for intensive care multi-professional staffs for the recognition, assessment and acceptance of potential organ donors.

  9. Individuals versus organisms versus populations in the definition of ecological assessment endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Glenn W; Norton, Susan B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2005-11-01

    Discussions and applications of the policies and practices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in ecological risk assessment will benefit from continued clarification of the concepts of assessment endpoints and of levels of biological organization. First, assessment endpoint entities and attributes can be defined at different levels of organization. Hence, an organism-level attribute, such as growth or survival, can be applied collectively to a population-level entity such as the brook trout in a stream. Second, assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment are often mistakenly described as "individual level," which leads to the idea that such assessments are intended to protect individuals. Finally, populations play a more important role in risk assessments than is generally recognized. Organism-level attributes are used primarily for population-level assessments. In addition, the USEPA and other agencies already are basing management decisions on population or community entities and attributes such as production of fisheries, abundance of migratory bird populations, and aquatic community composition.

  10. Agreement between the methods: Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment and the nutritional assessment of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Fabiana S; Oliveira, Cássia M; Hattori, Wallisen T; Teixeira, Kely R

    2017-11-12

    To assess the agreement between the results of the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment questionnaire, adapted for children and adolescents of the Brazilian population, and the nutritional status assessment method through growth curves and the classification of the World Health Organization in a pediatric hospital service. This was an analytical, quantitative, cross-sectional study. During the data collection period, the nutritional status of all patients from 0 to 12 years of age, admitted to the pediatric unit of a university hospital, was concomitantly assessed according to the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment and World Health Organization curves. To determine the assessment and agreement between these methods, the Kappa and Kendall coefficients were used, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Sixty-one children participated, with a predominance of males. It was observed that the highest frequency of equivalent results occurred among the group classified as well nourished, and that only the height/age variable showed a close agreement between the methods. Additionally, there was a good correlation only for the weight/height variable between the assessment tools used. Due to the low agreement between the methods, the combination of both may be beneficial for the nutritional assessment of pediatric patients, collaborating with the early diagnosis of nutritional alterations and facilitating the use of adequate dietary therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was developed by the WHO’s Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements. To ascertain the international dissemination level of for WHODAS II’s utilization and, at the same time, analyse the studies regarding the psychometric validation of the WHODAS II translation and adaptation in other languages and geographical contests. Particularly, our goal is to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factorial structure, the reliability, and the validity of this instrument. International literature was researched through the main data bases of indexed scientific production: the Cambridge Scientific Abstracts – CSA, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from 1990 through to December 2008.The following search terms were used:“whodas”, in the field query, plus “title” and “abstract”.The WHODAS II has been used in 54 studies, of which 51 articles are published in international journals, 2 conference abstracts, and one dissertation abstract. Nevertheless, only 7 articles are published in journals and conference proceedings regarding disability and rehabilitation. Others have been published in medical and psychiatric journals, with the aim of indentifying comorbidity correlations in clinical diagnosis concerning patients with mental illness. Just 8 out of 51 articles have studied the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II. The

  12. Micro-organism for the production of stereo-specific s, s-2,3-butanediol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    lactic acid bacterium, under aerobic conditions in the presence of a source of iron-containing porphyrin or a source of metal ions (Fe3+/Fe2+). The lactic acid bacterium is genetically modified to express heterologous genes encoding enzymes catalysing the stereo-specific synthesis of (S,S)-2,3-butanediol...

  13. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O

    1996-01-01

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely...

  14. Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2012-01-01

    that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle...

  15. Spatial Organization of the Cytoskeleton enhances Cargo Delivery to Specific Target Areas on the Plasma Membrane of Spherical Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc.) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell's specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity...

  16. Development and organization of polarity-specific segregation of primary vestibular afferent fibers in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Kamel, Suzan; Wong, Elaine; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    A striking feature of vestibular hair cells is the polarized arrangement of their stereocilia as the basis for their directional sensitivity. In mammals, each of the vestibular end organs is characterized by a distinct distribution of these polarized cells. We utilized the technique of post-fixation transganglionic neuronal tracing with fluorescent lipid soluble dyes in embryonic and postnatal mice to investigate whether these polarity characteristics correlate with the pattern of connections between the endorgans and their central targets; the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum. We found that the cerebellar and brainstem projections develop independently from each other and have a non-overlapping distribution of neurons and afferents from E11.5 on. In addition, we show that the vestibular fibers projecting to the cerebellum originate preferentially from the lateral half of the utricular macula and the medial half of the saccular macula. In contrast, the brainstem vestibular afferents originate primarily from the medial half of the utricular macula and the lateral half of the saccular macula. This indicates that the line of hair cell polarity reversal within the striola region segregates almost mutually exclusive central projections. A possible interpretation of this feature is that this macular organization provides an inhibitory side-loop through the cerebellum to produce synergistic tuning effects in the vestibular nuclei. The canal cristae project to the brainstem vestibular nuclei and cerebellum, but the projection to the vestibulocerebellum originates preferentially from the superior half of each of the cristae. The reason for this pattern is not clear, but it may compensate for unequal activation of crista hair cells or may be an evolutionary atavism reflecting a different polarity organization in ancestral vertebrate ears.

  17. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-06

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb.

  18. Size-specific, scanner-independent organ dose estimates in contiguous axial and helical head CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kyle; Bostani, Maryam; Cagnon, Chris; Zankl, Maria; Sepahdari, Ali R; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2014-12-01

    AAPM Task Group 204 introduced size-specific dose estimates for pediatric and adult patients undergoing body CT examinations. This investigation extends that work to head CT exams by using Monte Carlo simulations to develop size-specific, scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients. Using eight patient models from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms, dose to the brain and lens of the eye was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contiguous axial and helical scans for 64-slice multidetector CT scanners from four major manufacturers. For each patient model and scan mode, scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients were calculated by normalizing organ dose by scanner-specific 16 cm CTDIvol values and averaging across all scanners. Head size was measured using both geometric and attenuation-based size metrics. Head perimeter and effective diameter (ED), both geometric size metrics, were measured directly from the GSF data at the first slice superior to the eyes. Because the GSF models' pixel data are provided in terms of organ identification numbers instead of CT numbers, an indirect estimate of water equivalent diameter (WED), an attenuation-based size metric, was determined based on the relationships between WED and both ED and perimeter for a sample of patient data. Correlations between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and the various patient size metrics were then explored. The analysis of the patient data revealed a best-fit linear relationship (R(2) of 0.87) between ED and WED across a wide variety of patient sizes. Using this relationship along with ED determined from the GSF data, WED was estimated for each GSF model. An exponential relationship between CTDIvol normalized organ dose and WED was observed for both contiguous axial and helical scanning. For head perimeter and ED measured directly from the GSF data, an exponential relationship between CTDIvol normalized organ dose and patient size was

  19. Pre-Existing Carbon Structure and Its Effect on Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Small Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to measure site-specific isotopes in organic molecules allows for better understanding of the mechanisms of their biosynthetic and/or catagenic formation and destruction. Here we examine for site-specific isotopic composition of propane from natural and synthetic sources using novel instruments and techniques gas source mass spectrometry 1, and discuss the possible relationship of our findings to recent independent evidence from NMR measurements for the isotopic structures of long-chain alkanes2. A recent NMR study2 demonstrates that n-alkanes can be divided into three groups according to their site-specific carbon isotope structure: long (C16+) even carbon number, long (C17+) odd carbon number , and short (C11-C15). We modeled the isotopic site-specific composition of propane derived from these three distinct groups. If propane is cleaved from such long-chain hydrocarbons without fractionation, the long odd-numbered and the shorter alkanes would produce propane with an average terminal position 6-7‰ lighter than the center position, while the long even-numbered chain compounds would produce propane with a terminal position averaging around 7‰ heavier than the center. If, instead the fractionation associated with cleaving propane from such parent molecules is ~10‰ (as seems likely), then these average terminal — center differences should be decreased by ~5 ‰ (i.e., to -11-12 and +1-2 ‰, respectively). We will compare these predictions with our previous demonstrations of the changes in bulk and site specific compositions in propane due to isotope exchange equilibria, diffusion and conventional models of kerogen 'cracking', and will use these models as a framework for interpreting the observed site-specific isotopic compositions of propane from diverse natural gas deposits. 1. Piasecki, A. et al. Site-Specific Carbon Isotope Measurement of Organics by Gas Source Mass Spectrometry. Mineralogical Magazine 77, (2013). 2. Gilbert, A., Yamada, K

  20. Cell-specific STORM superresolution imaging reveals nanoscale organization of cannabinoid signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Szilárd I.; Szabadits, Eszter; Pintér, Balázs; Woodhams, Stephen G.; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Balla, Gyula Y.; Nyilas, Rita; Varga, Csaba; Lee, Sang-Hun; Matolcsi, Máté; Cervenak, Judit; Kacskovics, Imre; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sagheddu, Claudia; Melis, Miriam; Pistis, Marco; Soltesz, Ivan; Katona, István

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in neuroscience is to determine the nanoscale position and quantity of signaling molecules in a cell-type-, and subcellular compartment-specific manner. We therefore developed a novel approach combining cell-specific physiological and anatomical characterization with superresolution imaging, and studied the molecular and structural parameters shaping the physiological properties of synaptic endocannabinoid signaling in the mouse hippocampus. We found that axon terminals of perisomatically-projecting GABAergic interneurons possess increased CB1 receptor number, active-zone complexity, and receptor/effector ratio compared to dendritically-projecting interneurons, in agreement with higher efficiency of cannabinoid signaling at somatic versus dendritic synapses. Furthermore, chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration, which reduces cannabinoid efficacy on GABA release, evoked dramatic CB1-downregulation in a dose-dependent manner. Full receptor recovery required several weeks after cessation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment. These findings demonstrate that cell-type-specific nanoscale analysis of endogenous protein distribution is possible in brain circuits, and identify novel molecular properties controlling endocannabinoid signaling and cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25485758

  1. A pragmatic assessment of government support for organic agriculture in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duram, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a pragmatic approach, this paper provides an analysis of government support for organic farming in Ireland. Varying levels of encouragement and programmes are provided to farmers in their conversion from conventional to organic production, and in their maintenance of organic production. As support policies vary across regions and are linked to European Union legislation, it is challenging to document the many types of support in place. This paper investigates relevant technical, financial, and policy support available to organic farmers in Ireland. As an exploratory study, it develops an assessment of Ireland within eight key categories of organic agricultural support: policy, leadership, technical support, financial support, research, education and information, marketing and promotion, and future outlook. Information and data from the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF), the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority (Teagasc), and other government and semi-governmental agencies were utilized to assess the level of support in each category. This assessment provides key findings which will allow policymakers, organizations and citizens to better understand the current situation and set a path for the future development of organic farming in Ireland.

  2. PR gene families of citrus: their organ specific-biotic and abiotic inducible expression profiles based on ESTs approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia A. Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In silico expression profiles, of the discovered 3,103 citrus ESTs putatively encoding for PR protein families (PR-1 to PR-17, were evaluated using the Brazil citrus genome EST CitEST/database. Hierarchical clustering was displayed to identify similarities in expression patterns among citrus PR-like gene families (PRlgf in 33 selected cDNA libraries. In this way, PRlgf preferentially expressed by organ and citrus species, and library conditions were highlighted. Changes in expression profiles of clusters for each of the 17 PRlgf expressed in organs infected by pathogens or drought-stressed citrus species were displayed for relative suppression or induction gene expression in relation to the counterpart control. Overall, few PRlgf showed expression 2-fold higher in pathogen-infected than in uninfected organs, even though the differential expression profiles displayed have been quite diverse among studied species and organs. Furthermore, an insight into some contigs from four PRlgf pointed out putative members of multigene families. They appear to be evolutionarily conserved within citrus species and/or organ- or stress-specifically expressed. Our results represent a starting point regarding the extent of expression pattern differences underlying PRlgf expression and reveal genes that may prove to be useful in studies regarding biotechnological approaches or citrus resistance markers.

  3. Assessment of short-term memory in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E

    2010-12-15

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.

  4. Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Benbrook

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that organically produced food has lower risks of pesticide contamination than food that is not organically produced. However, organically produced food is not entirely free of pesticide residues. A large, high-quality U.S. Department of Agriculture database reports pesticide residues in several dozen organic and conventionally grown foods on an annual basis, and supports detailed analyses of the frequency of residues in conventional and organic food, the number of residues found in an average sample of food, residue levels, and potential dietary risk. These data are used to estimate pesticide dietary exposures and relative risk levels, and to assess the impacts of the current pesticide-related provisions of the National Organic Program (NOP rule. Fraud appears to be rare based on the available data. Most prohibited residues found in organic produce are detected at levels far below the residues typically found in food grown with pesticides. Relatively high-risk residues are more common in imported foods—both organic and conventional—compared to domestically grown food. The authors conclude that incorporating relative dietary risk into the organic standard would be a more precautionary, risk-based approach than targeting enforcement to organic foods found to contain 5% or more of the applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA tolerance.

  5. Identification of brain-specific and imprinted small nucleolar RNA genes exhibiting an unusual genomic organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaillé, Jérôme; Buiting, Karin; Kiefmann, Martin; Lalande, Marc; Brannan, Camilynn I.; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    We have identified three C/D-box small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and one H/ACA-box snoRNA in mouse and human. In mice, all four snoRNAs (MBII-13, MBII-52, MBII-85, and MBI-36) are exclusively expressed in the brain, unlike all other known snoRNAs. Two of the human RNA orthologues (HBII-52 and HBI-36) share this expression pattern, and the remainder, HBII-13 and HBII-85, are prevalently expressed in that tissue. In mice and humans, the brain-specific H/ACA box snoRNA (MBI-36 and HBI-36, respectively) is intron-encoded in the brain-specific serotonin 2C receptor gene. The three human C/D box snoRNAs map to chromosome 15q11–q13, within a region implicated in the Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), which is a neurogenetic disease resulting from a deficiency of paternal gene expression. Unlike other C/D box snoRNAs, two snoRNAs, HBII-52 and HBII-85, are encoded in a tandemly repeated array of 47 or 24 units, respectively. In mouse the homologue of HBII-52 is processed from intronic portions of the tandem repeats. Interestingly, these snoRNAs were absent from the cortex of a patient with PWS and from a PWS mouse model, demonstrating their paternal imprinting status and pointing to their potential role in the etiology of PWS. Despite displaying hallmarks of the two families of ubiquitous snoRNAs that guide 2′-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation of rRNA, respectively, they lack any telltale rRNA complementarity. Instead, brain-specific C/D box snoRNA HBII-52 has an 18-nt phylogenetically conserved complementarity to a critical segment of serotonin 2C receptor mRNA, pointing to a potential role in the processing of this mRNA. PMID:11106375

  6. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m{sup 2} /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized.

  7. Integrated transcriptome catalogue and organ-specific profiling of gene expression in fertile garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Rina; Faigenboim, Adi; Shemesh Mayer, Einat; Ben Michael, Tomer; Gershberg, Chen; Kimhi, Sagie; Esquira, Itzhak; Rohkin Shalom, Sarit; Eshel, Dani; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Sherman, Amir

    2015-01-22

    Garlic is cultivated and consumed worldwide as a popular condiment and green vegetable with medicinal and neutraceutical properties. Garlic cultivars do not produce seeds, and therefore, this plant has not been the subject of either classical breeding or genetic studies. However, recent achievements in fertility restoration in a number of genotypes have led to flowering and seed production, thus enabling genetic studies and breeding in garlic. A transcriptome catalogue of fertile garlic was produced from multiplexed gene libraries, using RNA collected from various plant organs, including inflorescences and flowers. Over 32 million 250-bp paired-end reads were assembled into an extensive transcriptome of 240,000 contigs. An abundant transcriptome assembled separately from 102,000 highly expressed contigs was annotated and analyzed for gene ontology and metabolic pathways. Organ-specific analysis showed significant variation of gene expression between plant organs, with the highest number of specific reads in inflorescences and flowers. Analysis of the enriched biological processes and molecular functions revealed characteristic patterns for stress response, flower development and photosynthetic activity. Orthologues of key flowering genes were differentially expressed, not only in reproductive tissues, but also in leaves and bulbs, suggesting their role in flower-signal transduction and the bulbing process. More than 100 variants and isoforms of enzymes involved in organosulfur metabolism were differentially expressed and had organ-specific patterns. In addition to plant genes, viral RNA of at least four garlic viruses was detected, mostly in the roots and cloves, whereas only 1-4% of the reads were found in the foliage leaves. The de novo transcriptome of fertile garlic represents a new resource for research and breeding of this important crop, as well as for the development of effective molecular markers for useful traits, including fertility and seed production

  8. [Branch-specific detection of phenols and assessment of ground water solubility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, F; Kerndorff, H; Kühn, S

    2000-01-01

    There are about 500 technically relevant phenolic compounds such as cresols, chlorophenols or nitrophenols. It is most preferable to determine phenols as single compounds via gas chromatography. Further, phenols can also be assayed as photometrically as an overall parameter (Phenolindex): however, no conclusions about specific compounds can be drawn from this type of test. Also this method is not as reliable for an hazard assessment as gas chromatography. First, not all phenols, for instance resorcinol or 1-naphthol can be determined with this method. Second, phenolic groups in humic substances, which do not constitute a threat for groundwater, are determined alongside environmentally relevant phenols using this method. In most cases, it is possible to deduce which phenols can be expected in the groundwater of contaminated sites from the type of industrial usage, such as chlorophenols and pulp bleaching or nitrophenols and the production of explosives. Phenols are formed during coal combustion for instance at cokemanufactures or gasworks. They are important raw materials for the chemical industry from which resins, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, pigments, explosives, and stabilizers are produced. During the 80's phenol, cresols, nonylphenols, anisidines, aminophenols, dihydroxybenzenes, and naphthols were manufactured in amounts exceeding 10,000 t/a. Also, phenolic compounds are used as additives in many areas for example as solvents in the electric industry, in sawmills, papermanufacture, electroplating of metal sheets, as photographic developers, as textile dyes, or for the tanning of hydes. Due to the formation and use of phenols at industrial sites, groundwater contaminations are possible via infiltration through the unsaturated zone. Especially at gasworks and ammunition factories, groundwater contaminations with phenols have become known. In the vicinity of railway tracks and associated facillities contaminations due to the use of pesticides or mineral oils

  9. Organization of receptive language-specific cortex before and after left temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataraia, E; Billingsley-Marshall, R L; Castillo, E M; Breier, J I; Simos, P G; Sarkari, S; Fitzgerald, M; Clear, T; Papanicolaou, A C

    2005-02-08

    To examine brain activation associated with receptive language in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) before and after an anterior temporal lobectomy using magnetoencephalography (MEG), and to evaluate which patients were most likely to show a change in the lateralization and localization of the mechanisms supporting receptive language and if such changes were associated with neuropsychological function. Twelve patients with left TLE underwent preoperative Wada testing, and pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing and MEG language mapping. The anatomic location of receptive language-related activity sources observed with MEG was determined by coregistering MEG data with structural MRI scans. Language laterality indices were calculated based on the number of reproducible activity sources in each hemisphere. The proximity of language-specific activity sources to Wernicke's area was also examined. Although the small sample size precluded formal statistical analyses, patients with atypical (bilateral) hemispheric dominance preoperatively were more likely than patients with typical (left-hemisphere) dominance to show evidence of increased right hemisphere participation in language functions after surgery. Patients with left hemispheric dominance preoperatively were more likely to show intrahemispheric changes involving a slight inferior shift of the putative location of Wernicke's area. Patients with bilateral representation tended to perform worse on neuropsychological test measures obtained both pre- and postoperatively. Interhemispheric functional reorganization of language-specific areas may occur in patients undergoing left anterior temporal lobectomy. Intrahemispheric reorganization may take place even when the resection does not directly impinge upon Wernicke's area.

  10. PHF6 regulates phenotypic plasticity through chromatin organization within lineage-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M; Bartlebaugh, Jordan M E; Liu, Yunpeng; Sánchez-Rivera, Francisco J; Bhutkar, Arjun; Weintraub, Abraham S; Buenrostro, Jason D; Cheng, Christine S; Regev, Aviv; Jacks, Tyler E; Young, Richard A; Hemann, Michael T

    2017-05-15

    Developmental and lineage plasticity have been observed in numerous malignancies and have been correlated with tumor progression and drug resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that enable such plasticity to occur. Here, we describe the function of the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) in leukemia and define its role in regulating chromatin accessibility to lineage-specific transcription factors. We show that loss of Phf6 in B-cell leukemia results in systematic changes in gene expression via alteration of the chromatin landscape at the transcriptional start sites of B-cell- and T-cell-specific factors. Additionally, Phf6KO cells show significant down-regulation of genes involved in the development and function of normal B cells, show up-regulation of genes involved in T-cell signaling, and give rise to mixed-lineage lymphoma in vivo. Engagement of divergent transcriptional programs results in phenotypic plasticity that leads to altered disease presentation in vivo, tolerance of aberrant oncogenic signaling, and differential sensitivity to frontline and targeted therapies. These findings suggest that active maintenance of a precise chromatin landscape is essential for sustaining proper leukemia cell identity and that loss of a single factor (PHF6) can cause focal changes in chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning that render cells susceptible to lineage transition. © 2017 Soto-Feliciano et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Organ-specific rates of cellular respiration in developing sunflower seedlings and their bearing on metabolic scaling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years ago Max Kleiber described what has become known as the "mouse-to-elephant" curve, i.e., a log-log plot of basal metabolic rate versus body mass. From these data, "Kleiber's 3/4 law" was deduced, which states that metabolic activity scales as the three fourths-power of body mass. However, for reasons unknown so far, no such "universal scaling law" has been discovered for land plants (embryophytes). Here, we report that the metabolic rates of four different organs (cotyledons, cotyledonary hook, hypocotyl, and roots) of developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings grown in darkness (skotomorphogenesis) and in white light (photomorphogenesis) differ by a factor of 2 to 5 and are largely independent of light treatment. The organ-specific respiration rate (oxygen uptake per minute per gram of fresh mass) of the apical hook, which is composed of cells with densely packaged cytoplasm, is much higher than that of the hypocotyl, an organ that contains vacuolated cells. Data for cell length, cell density, and DNA content reveal that (1) hook opening in white light is caused by a stimulation of cell elongation on the inside of the curved organ, (2) respiration, cell density and DNA content are much higher in the hook than in the stem, and (3) organ-specific respiration rates and the DNA contents of tissues are statistically correlated. We conclude that, due to the heterogeneity of the plant body caused by the vacuolization of the cells, Kleiber's law, which was deduced using mammals as a model system, cannot be applied to embryophytes. In plants, this rule may reflect scaling phenomena at the level of the metabolically active protoplasmic contents of the cells.

  12. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Leloup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures.

  13. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (farm consisted of 309 acres and 57 milking cows, on which most of the forage was homegrown but grains were purchased (73% of farms). Among the greatest challenges identified by the farmers were obtaining a steady, fair price for milk (85% respondents); determining dry matter intake for animals on pasture (76%); and controlling nuisance flies (89%). Needs for additional research included organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a foundation for future research

  14. Specific biomolecule corona is associated with ring-shaped organization of silver nanoparticles in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Daniela; Guttmann, Peter; Büchner, Tina; Werner, Stephan; Laube, Gregor; Hornemann, Andrea; Tarek, Basel; Schneider, Gerd; Kneipp, Janina

    2013-09-01

    We correlate the localization of silver nanoparticles inside cells with respect to the cellular architecture with the molecular information in the vicinity of the particle surface by combining nanoscale 3D cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The interaction of the silver nanoparticle surface with small molecules and biopolymers was monitored by SERS in vitro over time in living cells. The spectra indicate a stable, time-independent surface composition of silver nanoparticles, despite the changing environment in the endosomal structure. Cryo-SXT reveals a characteristic ring-shaped organization of the silver nanoparticles in endosomes of different cell types. The ring-like structures inside the endosomes suggest a strong association among silver particles and with membrane structures. The comparison of the data with those obtained with gold nanoparticles suggests that the interactions between the nanoparticles and with the endosomal component are influenced by the molecular composition of the corona.We correlate the localization of silver nanoparticles inside cells with respect to the cellular architecture with the molecular information in the vicinity of the particle surface by combining nanoscale 3D cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The interaction of the silver nanoparticle surface with small molecules and biopolymers was monitored by SERS in vitro over time in living cells. The spectra indicate a stable, time-independent surface composition of silver nanoparticles, despite the changing environment in the endosomal structure. Cryo-SXT reveals a characteristic ring-shaped organization of the silver nanoparticles in endosomes of different cell types. The ring-like structures inside the endosomes suggest a strong association among silver particles and with membrane structures. The comparison of the data with those obtained with gold nanoparticles suggests that the

  15. Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Lin; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated. In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  17. Field Assessment and Specification Review for Roller-Integrated Compaction Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roller-integrated compaction monitoring (RICM technologies provide virtually 100-percent coverage of compacted areas with real-time display of the compaction measurement values. Although a few countries have developed quality control (QC and quality assurance (QA specifications, broader implementation of these technologies into earthwork construction operations still requires a thorough understanding of relationships between RICM values and traditional in situ point test measurements. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (a an overview of two technologies, namely, compaction meter value (CMV and machine drive power (MDP; (b a comprehensive review of field assessment studies, (c an overview of factors influencing statistical correlations, (d modeling for visualization and characterization of spatial nonuniformity; and (e a brief review of the current specifications.

  18. Development of a site specific environmental radiation assessment model for Youngkwang NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yang Geun; Song, Myung Jae; Shon, Soon Hwan; Shin, Sang Woon; Lee, Gap Bock; Yang, Kyung Hwa [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Pyung; Kim, Jeong Kyu; Shin, Dae Yoon; Kim, Hyun Ku; Lee, Kyung Jin [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    During the normal operation of nuclear power plants, a very small amount of radionuclide materials is released to the environment. The radionuclide releases to the environment may give rise to some additional radiation dose through a number of pathways. With a few exception, radionuclide transports are highly dependent on the environmental conditions such as topological features, atmospheric and oceanic conditions and socio-environmental characteristics, etc. The dose calculation in Korea are presently being performed using the models in US NRC Reg. Guide. However, these models which were originally released by the US NRC in 1977 are inadequate to deal with environmental movement of radionuclides in consideration of complex terrain, tidal condition of the Yellow Sea, and Youngkwang site specific conditions. KEPRI has developed the models to consider the site specific characteristics around Youngkwang NPPs, to give the realistic dose assessment, and to improve assurance and reliability in public dose calculation. (author). 41 figs., 70 refs.

  19. Disorder-specific emotional imagery for differential and quantitative assessment of agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten-Rita; Bandelow, Borwin; Neumann, Charlott; Obst, Katrin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Visual emotional stimulation is supposed to elicit psycho-vegetative reactions, which are similar to as the ones elicited by exposure to actual experience. Visual stimulation paradigms have been widely used in studies on agoraphobia with and without panic disorder. However, the applied imagery has hardly ever been disorder- and subject- specific. 51 patients with an ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnosis of agoraphobia with or without panic disorder (PDA) and matching healthy controls have been examined. Subjects were confronted with 146 picture showing characteristic agoraphobic situations (high places, narrow places, crowds, public transport facilities, or wide places) or pictures associated with acute physical emergency (panic) situations, which had been pre-selected by anxiety experts. Participants were asked to rate emotional arousal induced by the respective images on the Self- Assessment Manikin scale (SAM). Data on PDA severity (PAS) depressive symptoms (MADRS) and sociodemographic data were recorded. Saliva cortisol levels were measured before and after exposure in a second test applying the individually mostly feared stimuli combined with emotionally neutral pictures for every single patient. 117 of the PDA-specific images were rated significantly more fear-eliciting by patients than by healthy individuals. Sub-categorization into agoraphobia clusters showed differential effects of clusters with regard to gender distribution, severity of PDA and cortisol secretion during exposure. In this study disorder specific and individual characteristics of agoraphobia were assessed for use in future trials applying emotional imagery. It could be used for the differential assessment of PDA and associated neurobiological and psychological phenomena and in neuroimaging paradigms.

  20. Identification of specific language impairment in bilingual children: I. Assessment in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Ronald B; Peña, Elizabeth D; Bedore, Lisa M; Bohman, Thomas M; Mendez-Perez, Anita

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to derive cut scores for English testing for use in identifying specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children who were learning English as a second language. In a 1-gate design, 167 children received comprehensive language assessments in English and Spanish during their first-grade year. The reference standard was identification by a team of expert bilingual speech-language pathologists. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to identify the optimal prediction model for SLI. The original, English EpiSLI criteria (Tomblin, Records, & Zhang, 1996) yielded a sensitivity of .95 and a specificity of .45 (LR+ = 1.73, LR- = 0.11, and AUC = .79) for our bilinguals. Revised cutoff scores yielded a sensitivity of .86 and a specificity of .68 (LR+ = 2.67, LR- = 0.21, and AUC = .77). An optimal prediction model yielded a sensitivity of .81 and a specificity of .81 (LR+ = 4.37, LR- = 0.23 and AUC = .85). The results of English testing could be used to make a reasonably accurate diagnostic decision for bilingual children who had attended public school for at least 1 year and were using English at least 30% of the time.

  1. Randomised clinical trial: an assessment of acupuncture on specific meridian or specific acupoint vs. sham acupuncture for treating functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T T; Yu, S Y; Li, Y; Liang, F R; Tian, X P; Zheng, H; Yan, J; Sun, G J; Chang, X R; Zhao, L; Wu, X; Zeng, F

    2012-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disease without an established optimal treatment. To determine (i) the effect of acupuncture in relieving FD symptoms and improving life quality; (ii) the effect difference between acupoint and non-acupoint; and (iii) the effect difference among different acupoints. A total of 712 eligible patients were included and randomly assigned to six groups (Group A: specific acupoints of the stomach meridian; Group B: non-specific acupoints of the stomach meridian; Group C: specific acupoints of alarm and transport points; Group D: specific acupoints of the gallbladder meridian; Group E: sham acupuncture of non-acupoints; and Group F: itopride). A treatment period of 4 weeks (continuous five sessions per week), and a follow-up period of 12 weeks were arranged. The outcomes were the (i) patients' response, (ii) symptoms improvement measured using the Symptom Index of Dyspepsia and (iii) quality-of-life improvement based on Nepean Dyspepsia Index. All groups had an improvement in dyspepsia symptoms and the QoL at the end of treatment, and the improvement was sustained for 4 weeks and 12 weeks. The overall response rate was significantly higher in acupuncture group A (70.69%), and lower in sham acupuncture group (34.75%), compared with itopride and other acupuncture groups. Similarly, the difference in symptoms and QoL improvement was significant between group A and the other acupuncture groups. Acupuncture is effective in the treatment of functional dyspepsia, and is superior to non-acupoint puncture. The benefit of acupuncture relies on acupoint specificity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effect of organ enhancement and habitus on estimation of unenhanced attenuation at contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT: concepts for individualized and organ-specific spectral iodine subtraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chad M; Gupta, Rajan T; Paulson, Erik K; Neville, Amy M; Bashir, Mustafa R; Merkle, Elmar M; Boll, Daniel T

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether habitus and organ enhancement influence iodine subtraction and should be incorporated into spectral subtraction algorithms. This study included 171 patients. In the unenhanced phase, MDCT was performed with single-energy acquisition (120 kVp, 250 mAs) and in the parenchymal phase with dual-energy acquisitions (80 kVp, 499 mAs; 140 kVp, 126 mAs). Habitus was determined by measuring trunk diameters and calculating circumference. Iodine subtraction was performed with input parameters individualized to muscle, fat, and blood ratio. Attenuation of the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and aorta was assessed in truly and virtually unenhanced image series. Pearson analysis was performed to correlate habitus with the input parameters. Analysis of truly unenhanced and virtually unenhanced images was performed with the Student t test; magnitude of variation was evaluated with Bland-Altman plots. Correction strategies were derived from organ-specific regression analysis of scatterplots of truly unenhanced and virtually unenhanced attenuation and implemented in a pixel-by-pixel approach. Analysis of individual organ correction and truly unenhanced attenuation was performed with the Student t test. The correlations between habitus and blood ratio (r = 0.694) and attenuation variation of fat at 80 kVp (r = -0.468) and 140 kV (r = -0.454) were confirmed. Although overall mean attenuation differed by no more than 10 HU between truly and virtually unenhanced scans overall, these differences varied by organ and were large in individual patients. Paired comparisons of truly and virtually unenhanced measurements differed significantly for liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and aortic blood pool (p habitus-based correction strategies were applied (p > 0.38 for all comparisons). Habitus and organ enhancement influence virtually unenhanced imaging and should be incorporated into spectral subtraction algorithms.

  3. Technical Note: Evaluation of individual ultraviolet radiation dosimeter sensitivity and specificity for assessing shade use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L

    2017-09-01

    The effects of solar or UV radiation on livestock are often evaluated in research focused on heat stress, dermatological conditions, and other topics, with radiation measurements recorded by instrumentation at a field or local weather station for a general geographical location. Individual sensors would be valuable for quantifying an individual animal's exposure, especially as they move about in a heterogeneous environment. Individual commercially available UV dosimeters were evaluated for specificity and sensitivity and found to be potentially valuable research tools for assessing and comparing the UV radiation exposure of individual animals.

  4. Drug-specific quality indicators assessing outpatient antibiotic use among French general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Lions, Caroline; Ventelou, Bruno; Verger, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Quality indicators assessing the use of antibiotics among general practitioners (GPs) would be useful to target antibiotic stewardship interventions. We adapted to an individual GP level a set of 12 drug-specific quality indicators of outpatient antibiotic use in Europe developed by the European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption project. We performed a cross-sectional study analysing reimbursement data on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in adults in south-eastern France in 2009. Substantial heterogeneity in antibiotic prescribing among French GPs was observed, and opportunity to improve antibiotic prescribing can be identified.

  5. Organization of human ACAT-2 gene and its cell-type-specific promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B L; Qi, W; Yang, X Y; Chang, C C; Zhu, J Q; Chang, T Y; Li, B L

    2001-03-30

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) plays important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Two ACAT genes exist in mammals. We report here the genomic organization of human ACAT-2 gene and analysis of its promoter activity in various cell lines. The human ACAT-2 gene spans over 18 kb and contains 15 exons. Three transcription start sites and one poly(A) site are identified by the 5'/3'-RACE. In addition, the human ACAT-2 gene is linked to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP-6) gene in a head-to-tail manner with a small intergenic region of about 1.2 kb. The 5'-flanking region of human ACAT-2 gene contains many potential cis-acting elements for multiple transcriptional regulatory factors but lacks TATA and CCAAT boxes. Using promoter-luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrate the transcriptional activity of ACAT-2 gene promoter is high in Caco-2 cells, especially after these cells become postconfluent and behave as intestinal enterocytes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Programming Pluripotent Precursor Cells Derived from Xenopus Embryos to Generate Specific Tissues and Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Borchers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus embryos provide a rich source of pluripotent cells that can be differentiated into functional organs. Since the molecular principles of vertebrate organogenesis appear to be conserved between Xenopus and mammals, this system can provide useful guidelines for the directional manipulation of human embryonic stem cells. Pluripotent Xenopus cells can be easily isolated from the animal pole of blastula stage Xenopus embryos. These so called “animal cap” cells represent prospective ectodermal cells, but give rise to endodermal, mesodermal and neuro-ectodermal derivatives if treated with the appropriate factors. These factors include evolutionary conserved modulators of the key developmental signal transduction pathways that can be supplied either by mRNA microinjection or direct application of recombinant proteins. This relatively simple system has added to our understanding of pancreas, liver, kidney, eye and heart development. In particular, recent studies have used animal cap cells to generate ectopic eyes and hearts, setting the stage for future work aimed at programming pluripotent cells for regenerative medicine.

  7. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-09-24

    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling.

  8. Light climate and dissolved organic carbon concentration influence species-specific changes in fish zooplanktivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Baglini, Katherine; Jones, Stuart E.; Kelly, Patrick T.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Zwart, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lakes reduces light penetration and limits fish production in low nutrient lakes, reportedly via reduced primary and secondary production. Alternatively, DOC and light reductions could influence fish by altering their visual feeding. Previous studies report mixed effects of DOC on feeding rates of zooplanktivorous fish, but most investigators tested effects of a single concentration of DOC against clear-water, turbid, or algal treatments. We used a controlled laboratory study to quantify the effects of a DOC gradient (3–19 mg L−1) on average light climate and the zooplankton feeding rate of 3 common, north temperate fishes. Light availability, which was inversely related to DOC concentration, had a positive and linear effect on zooplankton consumption by juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), explaining 22% and 28% of the variation in consumption, respectively. By contrast, zooplankton feeding rates by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were best predicted by a nonlinear, negative influence of light (R2 = 0.13). In bluegill feeding trials we found a general trend for positive selection of larger zooplankton (Cladocera and Chaoboridae); however, the light climate did not influence the selection of prey type. Largemouth bass selected for larger-bodied zooplankton, with weak evidence that selectivity for large Cladocera changed from negative to neutral selection based on electivity values across the light gradient. Our results suggest that the effect of DOC on the light climate of lakes may directly influence fish zooplanktivory and that this influence may vary among fish species.

  9. Dominant Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator AIRE Are Associated with Common Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Bergithe E; Hellesen, Alexander; Erichsen, Martina M; Bratland, Eirik; Vardi, Ayelet; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kemp, E Helen; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Viken, Marte K; Weetman, Anthony P; Fleishman, Sarel J; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Sewell, W A C; Sozaeva, Leila S; Zayats, Tetyana; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Orlova, Elizaveta M; Haavik, Jan; Johansson, Stefan; Knappskog, Per M; Løvås, Kristian; Wolff, Anette S B; Abramson, Jakub; Husebye, Eystein S

    2015-06-16

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene is crucial for establishing central immunological tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in AIRE cause a rare autosomal-recessive disease, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), distinguished by multi-organ autoimmunity. We have identified multiple cases and families with mono-allelic mutations in the first plant homeodomain (PHD1) zinc finger of AIRE that followed dominant inheritance, typically characterized by later onset, milder phenotypes, and reduced penetrance compared to classical APS-1. These missense PHD1 mutations suppressed gene expression driven by wild-type AIRE in a dominant-negative manner, unlike CARD or truncated AIRE mutants that lacked such dominant capacity. Exome array analysis revealed that the PHD1 dominant mutants were found with relatively high frequency (>0.0008) in mixed populations. Our results provide insight into the molecular action of AIRE and demonstrate that disease-causing mutations in the AIRE locus are more common than previously appreciated and cause more variable autoimmune phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rituximab therapy reduces organ-specific T cell responses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Nancy L; Cravens, Petra; Hussain, Rehana; Harp, Christopher T; Cummings, Matthew; de Pilar Martin, Maria; Ben, Li-Hong; Do, Julie; Lyons, Jeri-Anne; Lovette-Racke, Amy; Cross, Anne H; Racke, Michael K; Stüve, Olaf; Shlomchik, Mark; Eagar, Todd N

    2011-02-16

    Recent clinical trials have established B cell depletion by the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody Rituximab as a beneficial therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of Rituximab on T cell responses remains largely unexplored. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in mice that express human CD20, Rituximab administration rapidly depleted peripheral B cells and strongly reduced EAE severity. B cell depletion was also associated with diminished Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) and a reduction in T cell proliferation and IL-17 production during recall immune response experiments. While Rituximab is not considered a broad immunosuppressant, our results indicate a role for B cells as a therapeutic cellular target in regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses in specific tissues.

  11. Rituximab therapy reduces organ-specific T cell responses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Monson

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have established B cell depletion by the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody Rituximab as a beneficial therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of Rituximab on T cell responses remains largely unexplored. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of MS in mice that express human CD20, Rituximab administration rapidly depleted peripheral B cells and strongly reduced EAE severity. B cell depletion was also associated with diminished Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH and a reduction in T cell proliferation and IL-17 production during recall immune response experiments. While Rituximab is not considered a broad immunosuppressant, our results indicate a role for B cells as a therapeutic cellular target in regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses in specific tissues.

  12. Quantifying Natural Organic Matter with Calorimetry - assessing system complexity to build a central view C stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, G. C.; Bower, J.; Henneberry, Y.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the status and stability of natural organic matter (NOM) is central to understanding the flux, attenuation and function of C in the biosphere. A diversity of stabilizing factors (climate, mineralogy, chemical recalcitrance) have required a range of analytical approaches and methods that are site or discipline specific making unified assessments difficult. Aggregated, these efforts support our working models of NOM as a dynamic body but, overall, lack analytical simplicity and reproducibility. In particular, the robustness and resolution to assess NOM across systems of increasing complexity is lacking. Calorimetry has been central to chemistry and material science characterizing a broad range of organic and inorganic materials and their mixtures illustrating composition, purity and stability. Differential scanning calorimetry - thermogravimetry (DSC-TG) provides the flexibility and resolution to quantify the complexity found within NOM with precise quantification of material mass loss (TG) and energetic (DSC) under controlled atmospheric and heating conditions. DSC-TG is data rich providing a range of qualitative and quantitative metrics: peak shape, exothermic energy yield, mass loss, and determination of enthalpy, to characterize NOM stability from low (dissolved organic carbon - DOC) through high (compost and soils) molecular weights (MW) at increasing levels of organo-metallic complexity. Our research investigates the influence of biochemical recalcitrance and its alteration by oxides employing three natural systems of varying complexity as experimental models: aquatic - DOC and DOC with metal flocculants (low MW - low complexity), compost - processed with and without metal oxides (mixed MW - increasing complexity) and forest soils - under varying management and litter inputs (mixed MW - most complexity). Samples were analyzed by DSC-TG (zero-air - 20 C/min - ambient to > 800C) and assessed for three temperature/exothermic reaction regions (200

  13. Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N.; Koukol, Robert C.; Kazarians, Gayane A.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Morales, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    There are specific NASA requirements for source-specific encapsulated microbial density for encapsulated organisms in non-metallic materials. Projects such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that use large volumes of non-metallic materials of planetary protection concern pose a challenge to their bioburden budget. An optimized and adapted destructive hardware technology employing a commercial blender was developed to assess the embedded bioburden of thermal paint for the MSL project. The main objective of this optimization was to blend the painted foil pieces in the smallest sizes possible without excessive heating. The small size increased the surface area of the paint and enabled the release of the maximum number of encapsulated microbes. During a trial run, a piece of foil was placed into a blender for 10 minutes. The outside of the blender was very hot to the touch. Thus, the grinding was reduced to five 2-minute periods with 2-minute cooling periods between cycles. However, almost 20% of the foil fraction was larger (>2 mm). Thus, the largest fractions were then put into the blender and reground, resulting in a 71% increase in particles less than 1 mm in size, and a 76% decrease in particles greater than 2 mm in size. Because a repeatable process had been developed, a painted sample was processed with over 80% of the particles being sterile tray where they were sized, cut, and cleaned. Each section was then weighed and placed into a sterile Waring Laboratory Blender. Samples were processed on low speed. The ground-up samples were then transferred to a 500-mL bottle using a sterile 1-in. (.2.5-cm) trim brush. To each of the bottles sterile planetary protection rinse solution was added and a modified NASA Standard Assay (NASA HBK 6022) was performed. Both vegetative and spore plates were analyzed.

  14. Organic compounds assessed in Neuse River water used for public supply near Smithfield, North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Michelle C.

    2012-01-01

    Organic compounds studied in a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of water samples from the Neuse River and the public supply system for the Town of Smithfield, North Carolina, generally are manmade and include pesticides, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. Of the 277 compounds assessed, a total of 113 compounds were detected in samples collected approximately monthly during 2002–2005 at the drinking-water intake for the town's water-treatment plant on the Neuse River. Fifty-two organic compounds were commonly detected (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water and (or) finished water. The diversity of compounds detected suggests a variety of sources and uses, including wastewater discharges, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others. Only once during the study did an organic compound concentration exceed a human-health benchmark (benzo[a]pyrene). A human-health benchmark is a chemical concentration specific to water above which there is a risk to humans, however, benchmarks were available for only 18 of the 42 compounds with detected concentrations greater than 0.1 micrograms per liter. On the basis of this assessment, adverse effects to human health are assumed to be negligible.

  15. Neck and back pain specific outcome assessment questionnaires in the Spanish language: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Donald R; Lopez, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Accurate measurement of functional improvement in clinical practice is becoming increasingly recognized as essential in demonstrating whether patients are deriving meaningful benefit from care. Several simple questionnaires have been developed for this purpose. The majority of these have been developed in English. In North America, there is a growing need for clinical tools, including outcome assessment tools that are available in the Spanish language. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding spine-specific outcome assessment questionnaires that are available in Spanish and to examine the evidence on their clinical utility. Systematic review. The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and MANTIS databases were searched for any studies on the topic of outcome assessment questionnaires in the Spanish language. Relevant articles were reviewed, and the data on reliability, validity, time to completion, and any other properties of the questionnaire was extracted. The search strategy identified 287 articles, of which 10 were deemed relevant. With regard to neck pain, data were found regarding Spanish translations of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Core Outcome Measure for neck pain. With regard to low back pain, data were found regarding Spanish translations of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), and the North American Spine Society-American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons questionnaire. Several reliable and valid outcome assessment questionnaires are available in the Spanish language. All were originally developed in English. It appears from the data reviewed that the most useful instruments are the NDI for neck pain patients and the ODI and RMQ for low back pain patients. The current trend is for the development of culturally adapted versions of these questionnaires that are specific to a particular country or region. Copyright © 2013

  16. Organ-Specific Gene Expression Changes in the Fetal Liver and Placenta in Response to Maternal Folate Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jill A; Xie, Long; Adriaens, Michiel; Evelo, Chris T; Ford, Dianne; Mathers, John C

    2016-10-22

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that the in utero environment can have profound implications for fetal development and later life offspring health. Current theory suggests conditions experienced in utero prepare, or "programme", the fetus for its anticipated post-natal environment. The mechanisms responsible for these programming events are poorly understood but are likely to involve gene expression changes. Folate is essential for normal fetal development and inadequate maternal folate supply during pregnancy has long term adverse effects for offspring. We tested the hypothesis that folate depletion during pregnancy alters offspring programming through altered gene expression. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed diets containing 2 mg or 0.4 mg folic acid/kg for 4 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. At 17.5 day gestation, genome-wide gene expression was measured in male fetal livers and placentas. In the fetal liver, 989 genes were expressed differentially (555 up-regulated, 434 down-regulated) in response to maternal folate depletion, with 460 genes expressed differentially (250 up-regulated, 255 down-regulated) in the placenta. Only 25 differentially expressed genes were common between organs. Maternal folate intake during pregnancy influences fetal gene expression in a highly organ specific manner which may reflect organ-specific functions.

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for building 878, manufacturing science and technology, organization 14100.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klossner, Kristin Ann

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a preliminary assessment carried out for activities and operations at Sandia National Laboratories Building 878, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Organization 14100. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate processes being carried out within the building to determine ways to reduce waste generation and resource use. The ultimate purpose of this assessment is to analyze and prioritize processes within Building 878 for more in-depth assessments and to identify projects that can be implemented immediately.

  18. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Density Real-Time PCR-Based in Vivo Toxicogenomic Screen to Predict Organ-Specific Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo G. Puskas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study our objective was to extend in vivo toxicogenomic screening from analyzing one or a few tissues to multiple organs, including heart, kidney, brain, liver and spleen. Nanocapillary quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR was used in the study, due to its higher throughput, sensitivity and reproducibility, and larger dynamic range compared to DNA microarray technologies. Based on previous data, 56 gene markers were selected coding for proteins with different functions, such as proteins for acute phase response, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, heat-shock response, cell cycle/apoptosis regulation and enzymes which are involved in detoxification. Some of the marker genes are specific to certain organs, and some of them are general indicators of toxicity in multiple organs. Utility of the nanocapillary QRT-PCR platform was demonstrated by screening different references, as well as discovery of drug-like compounds for their gene expression profiles in different organs of treated mice in an acute experiment. For each compound, 896 QRT-PCR were done: four organs were used from each of the treated four animals to monitor the relative expression of 56 genes. Based on expression data of the discovery gene set of toxicology biomarkers the cardio- and nephrotoxicity of doxorubicin and sulfasalazin, the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of rotenone, dihydrocoumarin and aniline, and the liver toxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene could be confirmed. The acute heart and kidney toxicity of the active metabolite SN-38 from its less toxic prodrug, irinotecan could be differentiated, and two novel gene markers for hormone replacement therapy were identified

  20. High-density real-time PCR-based in vivo toxicogenomic screen to predict organ-specific toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Gabriella; Farago, Nora; Feher, Liliana Z; Nagy, Lajos I; Kulin, Sandor; Kitajka, Klara; Bito, Tamas; Tubak, Vilmos; Katona, Robert L; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G

    2011-01-01

    Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study our objective was to extend in vivo toxicogenomic screening from analyzing one or a few tissues to multiple organs, including heart, kidney, brain, liver and spleen. Nanocapillary quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used in the study, due to its higher throughput, sensitivity and reproducibility, and larger dynamic range compared to DNA microarray technologies. Based on previous data, 56 gene markers were selected coding for proteins with different functions, such as proteins for acute phase response, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, heat-shock response, cell cycle/apoptosis regulation and enzymes which are involved in detoxification. Some of the marker genes are specific to certain organs, and some of them are general indicators of toxicity in multiple organs. Utility of the nanocapillary QRT-PCR platform was demonstrated by screening different references, as well as discovery of drug-like compounds for their gene expression profiles in different organs of treated mice in an acute experiment. For each compound, 896 QRT-PCR were done: four organs were used from each of the treated four animals to monitor the relative expression of 56 genes. Based on expression data of the discovery gene set of toxicology biomarkers the cardio- and nephrotoxicity of doxorubicin and sulfasalazin, the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of rotenone, dihydrocoumarin and aniline, and the liver toxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene could be confirmed. The acute heart and kidney toxicity of the active metabolite SN-38 from its less toxic prodrug, irinotecan could be differentiated, and two novel gene markers for hormone replacement therapy were identified, namely fabp4 and pparg

  1. Feature-Specific Organization of Feedback Pathways in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Carey Y L; Peach, John P; Bennett, Corbett; Vega, Roxana M; Hestrin, Shaul

    2018-01-08

    Higher and lower cortical areas in the visual hierarchy are reciprocally connected [1]. Although much is known about how feedforward pathways shape receptive field properties of visual neurons, relatively little is known about the role of feedback pathways in visual processing. Feedback pathways are thought to carry top-down signals, including information about context (e.g., figure-ground segmentation and surround suppression) [2-5], and feedback has been demonstrated to sharpen orientation tuning of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) [6, 7]. However, the response characteristics of feedback neurons themselves and how feedback shapes V1 neurons' tuning for other features, such as spatial frequency (SF), remain largely unknown. Here, using a retrograde virus, targeted electrophysiological recordings, and optogenetic manipulations, we show that putatively feedback neurons in layer 5 (hereafter "L5 feedback") in higher visual areas, AL (anterolateral area) and PM (posteromedial area), display distinct visual properties in awake head-fixed mice. AL L5 feedback neurons prefer significantly lower SF (mean: 0.04 cycles per degree [cpd]) compared to PM L5 feedback neurons (0.15 cpd). Importantly, silencing AL L5 feedback reduced visual responses of V1 neurons preferring low SF (mean change in firing rate: -8.0%), whereas silencing PM L5 feedback suppressed responses of high-SF-preferring V1 neurons (-20.4%). These findings suggest that feedback connections from higher visual areas convey distinctly tuned visual inputs to V1 that serve to boost V1 neurons' responses to SF. Such like-to-like functional organization may represent an important feature of feedback pathways in sensory systems and in the nervous system in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  4. The exon-level biomarker SLC39A14 has organ-confined cancer-specificity in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Anita; Bakken, Anne Cathrine; Ågesen, Trude H; Lind, Guro E; Nesbakken, Arild; Nordgård, Oddmund; Brackmann, Stephan; Rognum, Torleiv O; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2012-09-15

    An alternative transcript variant of SLC39A14, caused by pre-mRNA splicing, was recently suggested as a biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). In our study, we have validated the cancer-specific splicing pattern of the mutually exclusive exons 4A and 4B in altogether 244 colorectal tissue samples. Exon-specific quantitative RT-PCR analyses across 136 Stage I-IV CRC samples and 44 normal colonic mucosa samples showed complete cancer-specificity, as well as 94% sensitivity of SLC39A14-exon4B relative to SLC39A14-exon4A expression. However, across 20 samples from a range of healthy tissues, 18 expressed the CRC variant. This was true also for ten benign lymph nodes, demonstrating that the cancer-specificity is mainly confined to the colon and rectum. Hence, clinical use of SLC39A14-exon4B as a detection marker for CRC other than in samples taken from the bowel wall is diminished. Prognostic value by detection of metastasis to lymph nodes is also abated, elucidating an important pitfall to biomarker discovery. However, analyses of ten nondysplastic biopsies from patients with active inflammatory bowel disease showed negative results in seven samples and only weakly positive results in three samples, suggesting value of SLC39A14-exon4B as a marker to distinguish CRC from other pathologic conditions of the colon. In conclusion, the SLC39A14-exon4B transcript variant is a CRC biomarker with high sensitivity and organ-confined specificity. Further use of the transcript and its encoded protein isoform should be explored in an organ-confined context. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Keane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.

  6. Risk assessment for release of genetically modified organisms: a virus to reduce the fertility of introduced wild mice, Mus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C K

    2002-01-01

    Risk assessment is a key task in developing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) intended for release into the environment. A risk assessment protocol is described, focusing on genetically modified biological control agents intended to reduce fertility in mammalian pests. The protocol is being applied to development of an immunocontraceptive murine cytomegalovirus vaccine intended to reduce the frequency and extent of costly troublesome plagues of introduced house mice, Mus domesticus, in southern Australia. Success of the agent, including regulatory approval for release to target populations, will depend on demonstrated biosafety, on the biophysical consequences of releasing the agent, and on public perceptions of the consequences and ongoing risks. The proposed risk assessment protocol addresses biosafety and the biophysical and social risks. It elicits perceptions of interaction and risk from the project scientists and from representatives of interested or affected sectors of society. The perceptions are documented for examination interactively in subsequent socially inclusive formal risk assessments. Representatives of the relevant social sectors participate with the scientists, iteratively if needed, in a workshop to assess the risks of releasing the particular GMO into the environment, using a formal inductive procedure, GENHAZ, designed specifically for assessment and management of the risks of GMOs. Use of this protocol is intended to precede and complement risk assessment and risk management procedures specified by gene technology legislation and regulations.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Competency Assessment of Organ Donation Coordinators in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Xie, W; Luo, J; Deng, X

    The organ donation coordinator is indispensable in the process of organ donation and transplantation. The competency of coordinators is closely related to the organ donation rate. 1) To construct a competency assessment system for organ donation coordinators; and 2) to evaluate the competency level of coordinators in Hunan province. We constructed the competency model framework for coordinators based on the McClelland competency model and then extracted and screened the competency indicators by interview and Delphi methods. Next, we determined the weight of the indicators by an analytic hierarchy process method. Finally, we evaluated the competency level of 42 coordinators in Hunan province with the use of our assessment system. 1) We constructed the competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators, which included 6 dimensions and 21 competency indicators. 2) The average competency score of 42 coordinators was 79.43 ± 8.51. Five coordinators were at qualified level (11.9%), 18 at moderate level (42.9%), 12 at good level (25.6%), and 7 at excellent level (16.7%). 1) This competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators will provide scientific evidence for human resource management in health institutions. 2) The organ donation coordinators in Hunan were qualified, but their number was insufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  9. Assessing Transplant Attitudes: Understanding Minority Men's Perspectives on the Multifarious Barriers to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S

    2017-08-01

    African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.

  10. Mammalian HP1 Isoforms Have Specific Roles in Heterochromatin Structure and Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Bosch-Presegué

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HP1 is a structural component of heterochromatin. Mammalian HP1 isoforms HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ play different roles in genome stability, but their precise role in heterochromatin structure is unclear. Analysis of Hp1α−/−, Hp1β−/−, and Hp1γ−/− MEFs show that HP1 proteins have both redundant and unique functions within pericentric heterochromatin (PCH and also act globally throughout the genome. HP1α confines H4K20me3 and H3K27me3 to regions within PCH, while its absence results in a global hyper-compaction of chromatin associated with a specific pattern of mitotic defects. In contrast, HP1β is functionally associated with Suv4-20h2 and H4K20me3, and its loss induces global chromatin decompaction and an abnormal enrichment of CTCF in PCH and other genomic regions. Our work provides insight into the roles of HP1 proteins in heterochromatin structure and genome stability.

  11. Flow cytometric assessment of specific leucine incorporation in the open Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarmin, A.; van Wambeke, F.; Catala, P.; Courties, C.; Lebaron, P.

    2011-02-01

    The surface of the Mediterranean Sea is a low-phosphate-low-chlorophyll marine area where marine heterotrophic prokaryotes significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycles of all biogenic elements such as carbon, notably through the mineralization of dissolved organic compounds. Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates were determined in early summer in the open stratified Mediterranean Sea. The bulk leucine incorporation rate was on average 5 ± 4 pmol leu l-1 h-1 (n=30). Cell-specific 3H-leucine incorporation rates were assayed using flow cytometry coupled to cell sorting. Heterotrophic prokaryotes (Hprok) were divided into cytometric groups according to their side scatter and green fluorescence properties: high nucleic acid containing cells (HNA) with high scatter (HNA-hs) and low scatter (HNA-ls) and low nucleic acid containing cells (LNA). Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates of these cytometric groups ranged from 2 to 54, 0.9 to 11, and 1 to 12 × 10-21 mol cell-1 h-1, respectively. LNA cells represented 45 to 63% of the Hprok abundance, and significantly contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation rates, from 12 to 43%. HNA/LNA ratios of cell-specific leucine incorporation were on average 2.0 ± 0.7 (n=30). In surface layers (from 0 m down to the deep chlorophyll depth, DCM), cell-specific rates of HNA-hs were elevated (7 and 13 times greater than LNA and HNA-ls, respectively). Nevertheless, on average HNA-hs (26%) and LNA (27%) equally contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation in these layers. Prochlorococcus cells were easily sorted near the DCM and displayed cell-specific leucine incorporation rates ranging from 3 to 55 × 10-21 mol leu cell-1 h-1, i.e. as high as HNA-hs'. These sorted groups could therefore be defined as key-players in the process of leucine incorporation into proteins. The mixotrophic features of certain photosynthetic prokaryotes and the high contribution of LNA cells to leucine incorporation within the microbial

  12. Flow cytometric assessment of specific leucine incorporation in the open Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talarmin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the Mediterranean Sea is a low-phosphate-low-chlorophyll marine area where marine heterotrophic prokaryotes significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycles of all biogenic elements such as carbon, notably through the mineralization of dissolved organic compounds. Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates were determined in early summer in the open stratified Mediterranean Sea. The bulk leucine incorporation rate was on average 5 ± 4 pmol leu l−1 h−1 (n=30. Cell-specific 3H-leucine incorporation rates were assayed using flow cytometry coupled to cell sorting. Heterotrophic prokaryotes (Hprok were divided into cytometric groups according to their side scatter and green fluorescence properties: high nucleic acid containing cells (HNA with high scatter (HNA-hs and low scatter (HNA-ls and low nucleic acid containing cells (LNA. Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates of these cytometric groups ranged from 2 to 54, 0.9 to 11, and 1 to 12 × 10-21 mol cell−1 h−1, respectively. LNA cells represented 45 to 63% of the Hprok abundance, and significantly contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation rates, from 12 to 43%. HNA/LNA ratios of cell-specific leucine incorporation were on average 2.0 ± 0.7 (n=30. In surface layers (from 0 m down to the deep chlorophyll depth, DCM, cell-specific rates of HNA-hs were elevated (7 and 13 times greater than LNA and HNA-ls, respectively. Nevertheless, on average HNA-hs (26% and LNA (27% equally contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation in these layers. Prochlorococcus cells were easily sorted near the DCM and displayed cell-specific leucine incorporation rates ranging from 3 to 55 × 10-21 mol leu cell−1 h−1, i.e. as high as HNA-hs'. These sorted groups could therefore be defined as key-players in the process of leucine incorporation into proteins. The

  13. Assessing performance of Botswana's public hospital system: the use of the World Health Organization Health System Performance Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna; Gauld, Robin Dc; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2014-09-01

    Very few studies have assessed performance of Botswana public hospitals. We draw from a large research study assessing performance of the Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH) to evaluate the performance of public hospital system using the World Health Organization Health Systems Performance Assessment Framework (WHO HSPAF). We aimed to evaluate performance of Botswana public hospital system; relate findings of the assessment to the potential for improvements in hospital performance; and determine the usefulness of the WHO HSPAF in assessing performance of hospital systems in a developing country. This article is based on data collected from document analysis, 54 key informants comprising senior managers and staff of the MoH (N= 40) and senior officers from stakeholder organizations (N= 14), and surveys of 42 hospital managers and 389 health workers. Data from documents and transcripts were analyzed using content and thematic analysis while data analysis for surveys was descriptive determining proportions and percentages. The organizational structure of the Botswana's public hospital system, authority and decision-making are highly centralized. Overall physical access to health services is high. However, challenges in the distribution of facilities and inpatient beds create inequities and inefficiencies. Capacity of the hospitals to deliver services is limited by inadequate resources. There are significant challenges with the quality of care. While Botswana invested considerably in building hospitals around the country resulting in high physical access to services, the organization and governance of the hospital system, and inadequate resources limit service delivery. The ongoing efforts to decentralize management of hospitals to district level entities should be expedited. The WHO HSPAF enabled us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public hospital system. Though relatively new, this approach proved useful in this study.

  14. Placental Nano-vesicles Target to Specific Organs and Modulate Vascular Tone In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mancy; Stanley, Joanna L; Chen, Q; James, Joanna L; Stone, Peter R; Chamley, Larry W

    2017-11-01

    How do nano-vesicles extruded from normal first trimester human placentae affect maternal vascular function? Placental nano-vesicles affect the ability of systemic mesenteric arteries to undergo endothelium- and nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent vasodilation in vivo in pregnant mice. Dramatic cardiovascular adaptations occur during human pregnancy, including a substantial decrease in total peripheral resistance in the first trimester. The human placenta constantly extrudes extracellular vesicles that can enter the maternal circulation and these vesicles may play an important role in feto-maternal communication. Human placental nano-vesicles were administered into CD1 mice via a tail vein and their localization and vascular effects at 30 min and 24 h post-injection were investigated. Nano-vesicles from normal first trimester human placentae were collected and administered into pregnant (D12.5) or non-pregnant female mice. After either 30 min or 24 h of exposure, all major organs were dissected for imaging (n = 7 at each time point) while uterine and mesenteric arteries were dissected for wire myography (n = 6 at each time point). Additional in vitro studies using HMEC-1 endothelial cells were also conducted to investigate the kinetics of interaction between placental nano-vesicles and endothelial cells. Nano-vesicles from first trimester human placentae localized to the lungs, liver and kidneys 24 h after injection into pregnant mice (n = 7). Exposure of pregnant mice to placental nano-vesicles for 30 min in vivo increased the vasodilatory response of mesenteric arteries to acetylcholine, while exposure for 24 h had the opposite effect (P nano-vesicles did not affect the function of uterine arteries or mesenteric arteries from non-pregnant mice. Placental nano-vesicles rapidly interacted with endothelial cells via a combination of phagocytosis, endocytosis and cell surface binding in vitro. N/A. As it is not ethical to administer labelled placental nano-vesicles to

  15. Occurrence of fumonisins in Catalonia (Spain) and an exposure assessment of specific population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Marín, S; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and B₂ (FB₂) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum and common contaminants of cereal crops. The objectives of this study were to (1) study the occurrence of fumonisins in Catalonia (north-eastern region of Spain) and (2) assess the exposure of the Catalonian population to these mycotoxins. Contamination data was provided by a wide survey where 928 individual samples were pooled to analyse 370 composite samples. Fumonisins were extracted and purified using immunoaffinity columns and determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The raw consumption data came from a nutritional study specifically designed to assess the dietary intake of the main foodstuffs related to fumonisin contamination for all population age groups. In addition, two specific groups were selected with respect to maize consumption: immigrants and celiac sufferers. Contamination and consumption data were combined by simulation using an essentially parametric-parametric (P-P) method. The P-P method draws sampling values from distribution functions fitted to consumption and contamination datasets. Moreover, to quantify the accuracy and reliability of the statistical estimates, we built related confidence intervals using a Pseudo-Parametric bootstrap method. The results of this study show that fumonisins are commonly found in some commodities on the Catalonian market, such as beer, corn snacks and ethnic foods; however, the values were well below the permitted maximum EU levels. The most exposed group were infants followed by immigrants but, in all cases, they were below the TDI of 2 µg/kg bw/day.

  16. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (−)-(E)-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-β-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (−)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (−)-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils. PMID:22682202

  17. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmisch, Sandra; Krause, Sandra T; Kunert, Grit; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg; Köllner, Tobias G

    2012-06-08

    The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-β-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (-)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (-)-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

  18. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmisch Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS, the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita. Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (−-(E-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1, (+-germacrene A (MrTPS3, (E-β-ocimene (MrTPS4 and (−-germacrene D (MrTPS5. A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (−-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and Biodistribution Assessment of a Near Infrared-Labeled PSMA-Specific Small Molecule in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy L. Kovar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and often requires surgery. Use of near infrared (NIR technologies to perform image-guided surgery may improve accurate delineation of tumor margins. To facilitate preclinical testing of such outcomes, here we developed and characterized a PSMA-targeted small molecule, YC-27. IRDye 800CW was conjugated to YC-27 or an anti-PSMA antibody used for reference. Human 22Rv1, PC3M-LN4, and/or LNCaP prostate tumor cells were exposed to the labeled compounds. In vivo targeting and clearance properties were determined in tumor-bearing mice. Organs and tumors were excised and imaged to assess probe localization. YC-27 exhibited a dose dependent increase in signal upon binding. Binding specificity and internalization were visualized by microscopy. In vitro and in vivo blocking studies confirmed YC-27 specificity. In vivo, YC-27 showed good tumor delineation and tissue contrast at doses as low as 0.25 nmole. YC-27 was cleared via the kidneys but bound the proximal tubules of the renal cortex and epididymis. Since PSMA is also broadly expressed on the neovasculature of most tumors, we expect YC-27 will have clinical utility for image-guided surgery and tumor resections.

  20. Disregarding population specificity: its influence on the sex assessment methods from the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotěrová, Anežka; Velemínská, Jana; Dupej, Ján; Brzobohatá, Hana; Pilný, Aleš; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Forensic anthropology has developed classification techniques for sex estimation of unknown skeletal remains, for example population-specific discriminant function analyses. These methods were designed for populations that lived mostly in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Their level of reliability or misclassification is important for practical use in today's forensic practice; it is, however, unknown. We addressed the question of what the likelihood of errors would be if population specificity of discriminant functions of the tibia were disregarded. Moreover, five classification functions in a Czech sample were proposed (accuracies 82.1-87.5 %, sex bias ranged from -1.3 to -5.4 %). We measured ten variables traditionally used for sex assessment of the tibia on a sample of 30 male and 26 female models from recent Czech population. To estimate the classification accuracy and error (misclassification) rates ignoring population specificity, we selected published classification functions of tibia for the Portuguese, south European, and the North American populations. These functions were applied on the dimensions of the Czech population. Comparing the classification success of the reference and the tested Czech sample showed that females from Czech population were significantly overestimated and mostly misclassified as males. Overall accuracy of sex assessment significantly decreased (53.6-69.7 %), sex bias -29.4-100 %, which is most probably caused by secular trend and the generally high variability of body size. Results indicate that the discriminant functions, developed for skeletal series representing geographically and chronologically diverse populations, are not applicable in current forensic investigations. Finally, implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  1. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, M. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2011-06-21

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  2. [Change in the constructive metabolism and ultrastructural organization of Bacillus cereus cells under the influence of a specific autoregulatory factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'-Regisman, G I; Duda, V I; Kozlova, A N; Duzha, M V; Mitiushina, L L

    1979-01-01

    It has been found for the first time that an increase in the concentration of a specific autoregulatory factor in the medium is responsible for the hypometabolic state of vegetative cells; no principal cellular biopolymers are synthesized at this state (DNA, RNA, proteins and phospholipids), and no cellular structures are degraded. When the culture reverses to vegetative growth observed in the same medium, synthesis of the biopolymers is intensified and changes are detected in the ultrastructural organization of the cellular membranous apparatus, the cytoplasm, the nucleoide and the cell wall.

  3. Responsiveness of five condition-specific and generic outcome assessment instruments for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verra Martin L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitivity to change of five outcome instruments for effect measurement in chronic pain. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 273 chronic pain patients were assessed on the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS for pain, the Short Form 36 (SF-36, the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ. Responsiveness was quantified by effect size (ES and standardized response mean (SRM before and after a four week in-patient interdisciplinary pain program and compared by the modified Jacknife test. Results The MPI measured pain more responsively than the SF-36 (ES: 0.85 vs 0.72, p = 0.053; SRM: 0.72 vs 0.60, p = 0.027 and the pain NRS (ES: 0.85 vs 0.62, p Conclusion The MPI was most responsive in all comparable domains followed by the SF-36. The pain-specific MPI and the generic SF-36 can be recommended for comprehensive and specific bio-psycho-social effect measurement of health and quality-of-life in chronic pain.

  4. Burn injury-specific home safety assessment: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Arshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of injury specific home safety investigation and to examine the home safety status focused on burn related safety in a rural population in the North-West of Iran. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 rural households of rural Meshkinshahr, Iran. Cluster sampling method was used in 38 clusters with 7 households in each cluster. Clusters were selected on a probability proportional to size (PPS basis using the available health census database called D-Tarh. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package STATA 8. RESULTS: Possible risks were explored in fields of house structure; cooking and eating attitudes and behaviors; cooking appliances, specific appliances such as picnic gas burners, valors (traditional heaters, samovars (traditional water boilers, and air-heating appliances. Many safety concerns were explored needing to draw the attention of researchers and public health policy makers. CONCLUSION: Injury specific home safety surveys are useful and may provide useful information for safety promotion interventions.

  5. A quantitative method for the specific assessment of caspase-6 activity in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar E Ehrnhoefer

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of caspase-6 has recently emerged as a major contributor to the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Huntington disease. Commercially available assays to measure caspase-6 activity commonly use the VEID peptide as a substrate. However these methods are not well suited to specifically assess caspase-6 activity in the presence of other, confounding protease activities, as often encountered in cell and tissue samples. Here we report the development of a method that overcomes this limitation by using a protein substrate, lamin A, which is highly specific for caspase-6 cleavage at amino acid 230. Using a neo-epitope antibody against cleaved lamin A, we developed an electrochemiluminescence-based ELISA assay that is suitable to specifically detect and quantify caspase-6 activity in highly apoptotic cell extracts. The method is more sensitive than VEID-based assays and can be adapted to a high-content imaging platform for high-throughput screening. This method should be useful to screen for and characterize caspase-6 inhibitor compounds and other interventions to decrease intracellular caspase-6 activity for applications in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. A quantitative method for the specific assessment of caspase-6 activity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Savill, Jane; Nguyen, Yen T N; Ladha, Safia; Cao, Li-Ping; Dullaghan, Edie; Hayden, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant activation of caspase-6 has recently emerged as a major contributor to the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Huntington disease. Commercially available assays to measure caspase-6 activity commonly use the VEID peptide as a substrate. However these methods are not well suited to specifically assess caspase-6 activity in the presence of other, confounding protease activities, as often encountered in cell and tissue samples. Here we report the development of a method that overcomes this limitation by using a protein substrate, lamin A, which is highly specific for caspase-6 cleavage at amino acid 230. Using a neo-epitope antibody against cleaved lamin A, we developed an electrochemiluminescence-based ELISA assay that is suitable to specifically detect and quantify caspase-6 activity in highly apoptotic cell extracts. The method is more sensitive than VEID-based assays and can be adapted to a high-content imaging platform for high-throughput screening. This method should be useful to screen for and characterize caspase-6 inhibitor compounds and other interventions to decrease intracellular caspase-6 activity for applications in neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Intelligence and specific cognitive functions in intellectual disability: implications for assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Marco O; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-12-04

    Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability. Data support a model of intelligence consisting of distinct but related processes. Persons with intellectual disability with the same IQ level have different cognitive profiles, based on varying factors involved in aetiopathogenesis. Limitations of functioning and many biopsychological factors associated with intellectual disability are more highly correlated with impairments of specific cognitive functions than with overall IQ. The current model of intelligence, based on IQ, is of limited utility for intellectual disability, given the wide range and variability of cognitive functions and adaptive capacities. Assessing level of individual impairment in executive and specific cognitive functions may be a more useful alternative. This has considerable implications for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and for the cultural attitude towards intellectual disability in general.

  8. Life cycle toxicity assessment of pesticides used in integrated and organic production of oranges in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, Ronnie; Sanjuán, Neus

    2011-02-01

    The relative impacts of 25 pesticides including acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and post-harvest fungicides, used in the production of oranges in Spain were assessed with current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) tools. Chemical specific concentrations were combined with pesticide emission data and information on chemical toxicity to assess human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. As a case study, the relative impacts of two orange production systems in the region of Valencia, integrated pest management (IP) and organic production (OP), were assessed. The evaluation of active ingredients showed that on average acaricides have the highest human toxicity impact scores, while for freshwater ecotoxicity insecticides show the highest impact. In both impact categories the lowest impact scores were calculated for herbicides. In the production of 1 kg of orange fruits, where several kinds of pesticides are combined, results show that post-harvest fungicides can contribute more than 95% to the aggregate human toxicity impacts. More than 85% of aquatic ecotoxicity is generated by fungicides applied before harvest. The potential to reduce impacts on freshwater ecosystems is seven orders of magnitude, while impacts on human health can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Hence, this stresses the importance of a careful pre-selection of active ingredients. In both impact categories, organic production represents the least toxic pest-control method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic chloramines in drinking water: An assessment of formation, stability, reactivity and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Zuo Tong; Linge, Kathryn L; Busetti, Francesco; Joll, Cynthia A

    2016-04-15

    Although organic chloramines are known to form during the disinfection of drinking water with chlorine, little information is currently available on their occurrence or toxicity. In a recent in vitro study, some organic chloramines (e.g. N-chloroglycine) were found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic even at micromolar concentrations. In this paper, the formation and stability of 21 different organic chloramines, from chlorination of simple amines and amino acids, were studied, and the competition between 20 amino acids during chlorination was also investigated. For comparison, chlorination of two amides was also conducted. The formation and degradation of selected organic chloramines were measured using either direct UV spectroscopic or colorimetric detection. Although cysteine, methionine and tryptophan were the most reactive amino acids towards chlorination, they did not form organic chloramines at the chlorine to precursor molar ratios that were tested. Only 6 out of the 21 organic chloramines formed had a half-life of more than 3 h, although this group included all organic chloramines formed from amines. A health risk assessment relating stability and reactivity data from this study to toxicity and precursor abundance data from the literature indicated that only N-chloroglycine is likely to be of concern due to its stability, toxicity and abundance in water. However, given the stability of organic chloramines formed from amines, more information about the toxicity and precursor abundance for these chloramines is desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High prevalence of organ specific autoantibodies in Indian type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, Channabasappa; Kolly, Anish; Pulikkal, Annie; Kumar, K M Prasanna

    2017-07-26

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is frequently associated with other autoimmune conditions such as autoimmune thyroiditis, coeliac disease (CD) and Addison's disease. There are sparse data on the prevalence of antibodies against these conditions in Indian patients with T1D. This study aims to evaluate prevalence of these T1D associated autoantibodies in Indian patients. Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with T1D were recruited from the Bangalore Diabetes Hospital and the Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre (VIMS) for the study. Participants diagnosed with diabetes before the age of 18 years, as per the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, and who were classified as T1D based on clinical grounds were recruited for the study. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO) and IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) were estimated in all the patients. 21-Hydroxylase antibody (21-OHAb) were estimated in 170 patients. All assays were done by commercial immunoassay. Eighty-eight unrelated age-matched healthy controls were chosen for comparison. The mean age of T1D patients was 14.33 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.88 years. Anti-TPO was positive in 43 (16.7%) patients with T1D as compared to 3 (3.4%) in controls. IgA tTG was positive in 12 (4.65%) patients with T1D and was absent in controls. 21-OHAb was positive in two (1.1%) patients with T1D and was absent in controls. Both patients who had positive 21-OHab had the other two antibodies. Five patients had positive anti-TPO and IgA-tTG antibodies. Anti-TPO antibody was the most prevalent antibody in patients with T1D. Anti-TPO and IgA-tTG antibodies were significantly higher than in the control population. Further studies will be required to assess the clinical significance of these positive antibodies.

  11. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Marine Ecotoxicology Research Station; Long, E.R. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); MacDonald, D.D. [MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., Ladysmith, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  12. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes spread on land: Towards a proposal of a suitable test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Chabot, Laure; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    The land spreading of organic wastes in agriculture is a common practice in Europe, under the regulation of the Directive 86/278/EEC. One of the objectives of this Directive is to prevent harmful effects of organic wastes on soil, plants and animals. Despite this regulatory framework, there is still a lack of harmonized ecotoxicological test strategy to assess the environmental hazard of such wastes. The aim of this study was to provide a first step towards the a priori ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes before their land use. For that purpose, nine different organic wastes were assessed using direct (i.e. terrestrial tests) and indirect (i.e. tests on water eluates) approaches, for a total of thirteen endpoints. Then, multivariate analyzes were used to discriminate the most relevant test strategy, among the application rates and bioassays used. From our results, a draft of test strategy was proposed, using terrestrial bioassays (i.e. earthworms and plants) and a concentration range between one and ten times the recommended application rates of organic wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Specifications in the application form for environmental assessment of wood preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucks, U.J. [ed.

    2000-09-01

    In 1990 the former Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) jointly elaborated a catalogue of test requirements necessary for assessing the impact of wood preservatives on man and environment. Based on several years of experience, a revision was deemed necessary. Complying with the provisions of the Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market, which have to be transposed into national laws, the regulatory bodies BAM, BgVV and UBA, in cooperation with industry and academia (IUCT), developed an amended application form for wood preservatives. The provisions laid down there include different sets of data for wood preservatives, depending on the intended uses/hazard classes, e.g. physico-chemical and ecotoxicological properties, data on exposure, fate and behaviour in the environment and on waste management. The tests should be conducted according to standardized test protocols. Next to the list of data requirements explanations and justifications are given on why the data are needed and how they contribute to the risk assessment. Furthermore, recommendations are given on which test guidelines should preferably be followed to generate the data. In addition, annex I includes a proposal for a test guideline on how to screen leachates from preservative-treated wood surfaces for their ecotoxic potential to aquatic organisms. (orig.)

  15. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forbes

    Full Text Available Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD; sodium fluoride (FD; stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1; or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC, a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  16. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakia M I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6 and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46 that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45. Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed.

  17. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K.; McBain, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  18. A Model of Institutional Creative Change for Assessing Universities as Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Universities, like students, differ in their ability to learn and to recreate themselves. In this article, I present a 3-part model of institutional creative change for assessing universities as learning organizations that can move creatively into the future. The first part, prerequisites, deals with actual ability to change creatively and belief…

  19. MR assessment of end-organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Linda Danielle van

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on assessing end-organ damage in individuals with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We performed cross sectional and intervention studies to investigate the contribution of obesity,

  20. Justification of CT for Individual Health Assessment of Asymptomatic Persons: A World Health Organization Consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, J.; Perez, M. Marza; Friberg, E.G.; Prokop, M.; Jung, S.E.; Griebel, J.; Ebdon-Jackson, S.

    2016-01-01

    An international expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of the meeting was to review the use of CT in examining asymptomatic people. This is often referred to as individual health assessment (IHA). IHA was identified as a global phenomenon

  1. Assessment of the bacterial organisms in water from a lead-zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) bulk water samples collected from a lead-zinc mining pit in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria over a period of 2 years were used to assess the bacterial population of the mining pit water. Nine bacterial organisms, which included Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Escherichia coli, ...

  2. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...In a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified Persons to assess and enforce minimum penalties for violations of the Horse Protection Act. This document corrects an error in that final rule.

  3. Assessment of Stress Risks and Learning Opportunities in the Work Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.D.; Peeters, M.H.H.; Vaas, F.; Dhondt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Organizational innovation and recent European legislation on work organization require instruments, to be used by practitioners, for the assessment of jobs and the redesign of the structure of the division of labour. In The Netherlands the so-called WEBA-instrument (conditions for well-being at

  4. Assessing stakeholder's experience and sensitivity on key issues for the economic growth of organic aquaculture production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembo, Giuseppe; Jokumsen, Alfred; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2018-01-01

    , and specifically, of the aquaculture system. A survey focused on the current EU regulatory framework was carried out to elicit stakeholders’ preferences, knowledge and experience on key issues for the development of organic aquaculture, supported by science-based regulations. The survey was completed by 65...... stakeholders belonging to several categories, and it was supported by the implementation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Stakeholders’ preferences were elicited on organic production methods and control systems, the quality of the environment and organic products, fish health and welfare. The views...... expressed by the participants revealed both competence and awareness, despite the complexity of the subject. Several ideas and useful suggestions emerged regarding unresolved technical issues. In addition, the need for a targeted communication strategy on the quality of organic aquaculture products...

  5. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2014-01-01

    Organic food systems are based on a complex of value criteria that often are not explicitly considered when agents think, communicate, and make decisions concerning organic food. Multicriteria assessment (MCA) refers to a group of tools that help the user to tackle such highly complex issues....... The question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We...... discuss an economic, a psychosocial, and a relational perspective on motivation and MCA. Using the example of a consumer assessing and choosing products in the supermarket, the economic conception of motivation offers a focus on decision-making processes. The psychosocial approach to motivation draws...

  6. Specific esophagogram to assess functional outcomes after Heller's myotomy and Dor's fundoplication for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukali, E; Gouvas, N; Tsiaoussis, J; Pechlivanides, G; Zervakis, N; Mantides, A; Xynos, E

    2011-09-01

    Esophageal emptying assessed at the 'timed barium' esophagogram correlates well with symptomatic outcomes after pneumatic dilation for esophageal achalasia, although 30% of patients with satisfactory outcome exhibit partial improvement in emptying. The aim of the study was to investigate any correlation of esophageal emptying to symptomatic response after laparoscopic Heller's myotomy and Dor's fundoplication. 'Bread and barium' (transit time of a barium opaque bread bolus) and 'timed barium' (height of esophageal barium column 5 minutes after ingestion of 200-250 mL of barium suspension) esophagogram was used to assess esophageal emptying in 73 patients with esophageal achalasia before 1 and 5 years (31 cases) after laparoscopic myotomy and anterior fundoplication. Symptoms assessment was based to a specific score. At 1-year follow-up, excellent and good symptomatic results were obtained in 95% of the cases. Esophageal maximum diameter, esophageal transit time, and esophageal barium column were significantly correlated to each other and to symptom score postoperatively (P < 0.001). Complete and partial (<90% and 50-90% postoperative reduction in barium column, respectively) emptying was seen in 55% and 31% of patients with excellent result. Patients with a pseudodiverticulum postoperatively had a more delayed esophageal emptying than those without. Symptomatic outcome and esophageal emptying did not deteriorate at 5-year follow-up. Esophageal emptying assessed by 'barium and bread' and 'timed barium' esophagogram correlated well with symptomatic outcome after laparoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia. Complete symptomatic relief does not necessarily reflect complete esophageal emptying. Outcomes do not deteriorate by time. Because of wide availability, esophagogram can be applied in follow-up of postmyotomy patients in conjunction with symptomatic evaluation. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the

  7. Development of a watershed-based geospatial groundwater specific vulnerability assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Mansoor A; Sahar, Liora

    2014-09-01

    This study assesses and characterizes the vulnerability of unregulated groundwater systems to microbial contamination in 18 counties in the state of Georgia using a contamination risk screening strategy based on watershed characteristics and elements of the Safe Drinking Water Act's Wellhead Protection program. Environmental data sources analyzed include septic systems, elevation, land use and land cover data, soil, vegetation coverage, demographics, and livestock. A geospatial overlay/index modeling approach was developed to identify areas of higher vulnerability for groundwater pollution by taking into consideration watershed land use, hydrology, and topography (LHT). Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of model variables. The results of the model were validated by using field data and output from U.S. EPA's DRASTIC model, a widely used intrinsic vulnerability assessment tool. The validation showed a higher risk of microbial contamination for wells located in a high to medium LHT vulnerability zones. LHT provided a clear distribution of satisfactory and unsatisfactory wells in the three vulnerability zones; however, the majority of wells (>75%), with both satisfactory and unsatisfactory test results, are located in medium DRASTIC vulnerability zone. This difference between LHT and DRASTIC can be attributed to the microbial contamination specific factors incorporated into LHT index. It is concluded that although inclusion of potential contamination sources on adjacent land uses in the vulnerability assessment framework adds to the complexity of the processes involved in a vulnerability assessment, such inclusion provides a meaningful perspective to groundwater protection efforts as an effective screening tool. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Rapid assessment of malaria transmission using age-specific sero-conversion rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveta Stewart

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission intensity is a crucial determinant of malarial disease burden and its measurement can help to define health priorities. Rapid, local estimates of transmission are required to focus resources better but current entomological and parasitological methods for estimating transmission intensity are limited in this respect. An alternative is determination of antimalarial antibody age-specific sero-prevalence to estimate sero-conversion rates (SCR, which have been shown to correlate with transmission intensity. This study evaluated SCR generated from samples collected from health facility attendees as a tool for a rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity.The study was conducted in north east Tanzania. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 were measured by indirect ELISA. Age-specific antibody prevalence was analysed using a catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood to generate SCR. A pilot study, conducted near Moshi, found SCRs for AMA-1 were highly comparable between samples collected from individuals in a conventional cross-sectional survey and those collected from attendees at a local health facility. For the main study, 3885 individuals attending village health facilities in Korogwe and Same districts were recruited. Both malaria parasite prevalence and sero-positivity were higher in Korogwe than in Same. MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 SCR rates for Korogwe villages ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.07 to 0.21 respectively. In Same district there was evidence of a recent reduction in transmission, with SCR among those born since 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.002 to 0.008 and AMA-1 0.005 to 0.014 ] being 5 to 10 fold lower than among individuals born prior to 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.02 to 0.04 and AMA-1 0.04 to 0.13]. Current health facility specific estimates of SCR showed good correlations with malaria incidence rates in infants in a contemporaneous clinical trial (MSP-1(19 r(2 = 0.78, p<0.01 & AMA-1 r

  9. Spatio-temporal re-organization of replication foci accompanies replication domain consolidation during human pluripotent stem cell lineage specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Korey A; Elefanty, Andrew G; Stanley, Edouard G; Gilbert, David M

    2016-09-16

    Lineage specification of both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is accompanied by spatial consolidation of chromosome domains and temporal consolidation of their replication timing. Replication timing and chromatin organization are both established during G1 phase at the timing decision point (TDP). Here, we have developed live cell imaging tools to track spatio-temporal replication domain consolidation during differentiation. First, we demonstrate that the fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (Fucci) system is incapable of demarcating G1/S or G2/M cell cycle transitions. Instead, we employ a combination of fluorescent PCNA to monitor S phase progression, cytokinesis to demarcate mitosis, and fluorescent nucleotides to label early and late replication foci and track their 3D organization into sub-nuclear chromatin compartments throughout all cell cycle transitions. We find that, as human PSCs differentiate, the length of S phase devoted to replication of spatially clustered replication foci increases, coincident with global compartmentalization of domains into temporally clustered blocks of chromatin. Importantly, re-localization and anchorage of domains was completed prior to the onset of S phase, even in the context of an abbreviated PSC G1 phase. This approach can also be employed to investigate cell fate transitions in single PSCs, which could be seen to differentiate preferentially from G1 phase. Together, our results establish real-time, live-cell imaging methods for tracking cell cycle transitions during human PSC differentiation that can be applied to study chromosome domain consolidation and other aspects of lineage specification.

  10. Bio-luminescent imaging and characterization of organ-specific metastasis of human cancer in NOD/SCID mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Nicole A. L.; Murakami, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Many clinical evidences demonstrate that the sites of distant metastasis are not random and certain malignant tumors show a tendency to develop metastases in specific organs (e.g., brain, liver, and lungs). However, an appropriate animal model to characterize the metastatic nature of transplantable human cancer cell lines has not been reported well. Recent advances in bio-luminescent imaging (BLI) technologies have facilitated the quantitative analysis of various cellular processes in vivo. To visualize the fate of tumor progression in the living mice, we are constructing a luciferaseexpressing human cancer cell library (including melanoma, colon, breast, and prostate cancer). Herein we demonstrate that the BLI technology in couple with a fine ultrasonic guidance realizes cancer cell-type dependent metastasis to the specific organs. For example, some melanoma cell lines showed frequent metastasis to brain, lungs, and lymph nodes in the mouse model. Notably, reflecting the clinical features of melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer, some of the cell lines showed preferential metastasis to the brain. Moreover, these cellular resources for BLI allow a high throughput screening for potential anti-cancer drugs. Thus, this BLI-mediated additional strategy with the luciferase-expressing cancer cell resources should promote many translational studies for human cancer therapy.

  11. Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  12. Comparative genomic organization and tissue-specific transcription of the duplicated fabp7 and fabp10 genes in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Manoj B; Wright, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    A whole-genome duplication (WGD) early in the teleost fish lineage makes fish ideal organisms to study the fate of duplicated genes and underlying evolutionary trajectories that have led to the retention of ohnologous gene duplicates in fish genomes. Here, we compare the genomic organization and tissue-specific transcription of the ohnologous fabp7 and fabp10 genes in medaka, three-spined stickleback, and spotted green pufferfish to the well-studied duplicated fabp7 and fabp10 genes of zebrafish. Teleost fabp7 and fabp10 genes contain four exons interrupted by three introns. Polypeptide sequences of Fabp7 and Fabp10 show the highest sequence identity and similarity with their orthologs from vertebrates. Orthology was evident as the ohnologous Fabp7 and Fabp10 polypeptides of teleost fishes each formed distinct clades and clustered together with their orthologs from other vertebrates in a phylogenetic tree. Furthermore, ohnologous teleost fabp7 and fabp10 genes exhibit conserved gene synteny with human FABP7 and chicken FABP10, respectively, which provides compelling evidence that the duplicated fabp7 and fabp10 genes of teleost fishes most likely arose from the well-documented WGD. The tissue-specific distribution of fabp7a, fabp7b, fabp10a, and fabp10b transcripts provides evidence of diverged spatial transcriptional regulation between ohnologous gene duplicates of fabp7 and fabp10 in teleost fishes.

  13. Evaluating the effects of protective ventilation on organ-specific cytokine production in porcine experimental postoperative sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Jesper; Lipcsey, Miklós; Larsson, Anders; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2015-05-10

    Protective ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) and higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces the negative additive effects of mechanical ventilation during systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We hypothesised that protective ventilation during surgery would affect the organ-specific immune response in an experimental animal model of endotoxin-induced sepsis-like syndrome. 30 pigs were laparotomised for 2 hours (h), after which a continuous endotoxin infusion was started at 0.25 micrograms × kg(-1) × h(-1) for 5 h. Catheters were placed in the carotid artery, hepatic vein, portal vein and jugular bulb. Animals were randomised to two protective ventilation groups (n = 10 each): one group was ventilated with VT 6 mL × kg(-1) during the whole experiment while the other group was ventilated during the surgical phase with VT of 10 mL × kg(-1). In both groups PEEP was 5 cmH2O during surgery and increased to 10 cmH2O at the start of endotoxin infusion. A control group (n = 10) was ventilated with VT of 10 mL × kg(-1) and PEEP 5 cm H20 throughout the experiment. In four sample locations we a) simultaneously compared cytokine levels, b) studied the effect of protective ventilation initiated before and during endotoxemia and c) evaluated protective ventilation on organ-specific cytokine levels. TNF-alpha levels were highest in the hepatic vein, IL-6 levels highest in the artery and jugular bulb and IL-10 levels lowest in the artery. Protective ventilation initiated before and during endotoxemia did not differ in organ-specific cytokine levels. Protective ventilation led to lower levels of TNF-alpha in the hepatic vein compared with the control group, whereas no significant differences were seen in the artery, portal vein or jugular bulb. Variation between organs in cytokine output was observed during experimental sepsis. We see no implication from cytokine levels for initiating protective ventilation before endotoxemia. However, during endotoxemia

  14. Differential binding of the lectins Griffonia simplicifolia I and Lycopersicon esculentum to microvascular endothelium: organ-specific localization and partial glycoprotein characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, G A; Palade, G E; Milici, A J

    1990-02-01

    The lectins Griffonia simplicifolia I and Lycopersicon esculentum were used to assess the presence of endothelium-specific glycoproteins in the microvasculature of the rat myocardium, diaphragm and superficial cerebral cortex. Organs fixed by intravascular perfusion were processed to obtain semithin (0.5 micron) and thin (less than 0.1 micron) frozen sections that were reacted with biotinylated lectin followed by streptavidin conjugated to Texas Red, for semithin sections, or by streptavidin conjugated to 5-nm colloidal gold particles, for thin sections. Lycopersicon esculentum lectin exclusively labeled the endothelium of all small vessels in all three microvascular beds; it did not bind to components of either the parenchyma or the extracellular matrix. Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin exclusively labeled the endothelium of the entire microvasculature in the myocardium and diaphragm, but marked primarily pericytes in the cerebral microvasculature. It did not label any parenchymal or interstitial organ component. At the electron microscope level, the lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I labeling was associated with the plasmalemma proper and especially with plasmalemmal vesicles and their introits, and Lycopersicon esculentum lectin bound primarily to the luminal plasmalemma in the microvascular beds of the myocardium and diaphragm. In the cerebral cortex, labeling of the microvasculature was clearly different: Griffonia simplicifolia I bound primarily to pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells whereas Lycopersicon esculentum labeled only the microvascular endothelium. Lysates prepared from the myocardium, diaphragm and cerebral cortex were processed through Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin affinity separation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the fraction obtained. A number of putative endothelium-specific glycoproteins was detected and found to differ qualitatively and quantitatively from organ to organ

  15. Molecularly organic/inorganic hybrid hollow mesoporous organosilica nanocapsules with tumor-specific biodegradability and enhanced chemotherapeutic functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Chen, Yu; Lin, Han; Yu, Luodan; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Liying; Zhu, Yufang; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-05-01

    Based on the intrinsic features of high stability and unique multifunctionality, inorganic nanoparticles have shown remarkable potentials in combating cancer, but their biodegradability and biocompatibility are still under debate. As a paradigm, this work successfully demonstrates that framework organic-inorganic hybridization can endow the inorganic mesoporous silica nanocarriers with unique tumor-sensitive biodegradability and high biocompatibility. Based on a "chemical homology" mechanism, molecularly organic-inorganic hybridized hollow mesoporous organosilica nanocapsules (HMONs) with high dispersity and sub-50 nm particle dimension were constructed in mass production. A physiologically active disulfide bond (SS) was directly incorporated into the silica framework, which could break up upon contacting the reducing microenvironment of tumor tissue and biodegrade accordingly. Such a tumor-specific biodegradability is also responsible for the tumor-responsive drug releasing by the fast biodegradation and disintegration of the framework. The ultrasmall particle size of HMONs guarantees their high accumulation into tumor tissue, thus causing the high chemotherapeutic outcome. This research provides a paradigm that framework organic-inorganic hybridization can endow the inorganic nanocarrier with unique biological effects suitable for biomedical application, benefiting the development of novel nanosystems with the unique bio-functionality and performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell’s specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  17. Assessment of genotoxic effects of flumorph by the comet assay in mice organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Zhao, Q; Zhang, Y; Ning, J

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the genotoxic effects of flumorph in various organs (brain, liver, spleen, kidney and sperm) of mice. The DNA damage, measured as comet tail length (µm), was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The comet assay is a sensitive assay for the detection of genotoxicity caused by flumorph using mice as a model. Statistically significant increases in comet assay for both dose-dependent and duration-dependent DNA damage were observed in all the organs assessed. The organs exhibited the maximum DNA damage in 96 h at 54 mg/kg body weight. Brain showed maximum DNA damage followed by spleen > kidney > liver > sperm. Our data demonstrated that flumorph had induced systemic genotoxicity in mammals as it caused DNA damage in all tested vital organs, especially in brain and spleen.

  18. Mapping soil organic carbon content and composition across Australia to assess vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscarra Rossel, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    We can effectively monitor soil condition—and develop sound policies to offset the emissions of greenhouse gases—only with accurate data from which to define baselines. Currently, estimates of soil organic C for countries or continents are either unavailable or largely uncertain because they are derived from sparse data, with large gaps over many areas of the Earth. Here, we derive spatially explicit estimates, and their uncertainty, of the distribution and stock of organic C content and composition in the soil of Australia. The composition of soil organic C may be characterized by chemical separation or physical fractionation based on either particle size or particle density (Skjemstad et al., 2004; Gregorich et al., 2006; Kelleher&Simpson, 2006; Zimmermann et al., 2007). In Australia, for example, Skjemstad et al. (2004) used physical separation of soil samples into 50-2000 and assess the vulnerability of soil organic C to for instance climate change.

  19. Transcript profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis roots and shoots discovers largely similar but also organ-specific responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Wolfram G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant hormone cytokinin regulates growth and development of roots and shoots in opposite ways. In shoots it is a positive growth regulator whereas it inhibits growth in roots. It may be assumed that organ-specific regulation of gene expression is involved in these differential activities, but little is known about it. To get more insight into the transcriptional events triggered by cytokinin in roots and shoots, we studied genome-wide gene expression in cytokinin-treated and cytokinin-deficient roots and shoots. Results It was found by principal component analysis of the transcriptomic data that the immediate-early response to a cytokinin stimulus differs from the later response, and that the transcriptome of cytokinin-deficient plants is different from both the early and the late cytokinin induction response. A higher cytokinin status in the roots activated the expression of numerous genes normally expressed predominantly in the shoot, while a lower cytokinin status in the shoot reduced the expression of genes normally more active in the shoot to a more root-like level. This shift predominantly affected nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins. An organ-specific regulation was assigned to a number of genes previously known to react to a cytokinin signal, including root-specificity for the cytokinin hydroxylase gene CYP735A2 and shoot specificity for the cell cycle regulator gene CDKA;1. Numerous cytokinin-regulated genes were newly discovered or confirmed, including the meristem regulator genes SHEPHERD and CLAVATA1, auxin-related genes (IAA7, IAA13, AXR1, PIN2, PID, several genes involved in brassinosteroid (CYP710A1, CYP710A2, DIM/DWF and flavonol (MYB12, CHS, FLS1 synthesis, various transporter genes (e.g. HKT1, numerous members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family, genes involved in light signalling (PhyA, COP1, SPA1, and more than 80 ribosomal genes. However, contrasting with the fundamental difference of

  20. Transcript profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis roots and shoots discovers largely similar but also organ-specific responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The plant hormone cytokinin regulates growth and development of roots and shoots in opposite ways. In shoots it is a positive growth regulator whereas it inhibits growth in roots. It may be assumed that organ-specific regulation of gene expression is involved in these differential activities, but little is known about it. To get more insight into the transcriptional events triggered by cytokinin in roots and shoots, we studied genome-wide gene expression in cytokinin-treated and cytokinin-deficient roots and shoots. Results It was found by principal component analysis of the transcriptomic data that the immediate-early response to a cytokinin stimulus differs from the later response, and that the transcriptome of cytokinin-deficient plants is different from both the early and the late cytokinin induction response. A higher cytokinin status in the roots activated the expression of numerous genes normally expressed predominantly in the shoot, while a lower cytokinin status in the shoot reduced the expression of genes normally more active in the shoot to a more root-like level. This shift predominantly affected nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins. An organ-specific regulation was assigned to a number of genes previously known to react to a cytokinin signal, including root-specificity for the cytokinin hydroxylase gene CYP735A2 and shoot specificity for the cell cycle regulator gene CDKA;1. Numerous cytokinin-regulated genes were newly discovered or confirmed, including the meristem regulator genes SHEPHERD and CLAVATA1, auxin-related genes (IAA7, IAA13, AXR1, PIN2, PID), several genes involved in brassinosteroid (CYP710A1, CYP710A2, DIM/DWF) and flavonol (MYB12, CHS, FLS1) synthesis, various transporter genes (e.g. HKT1), numerous members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family, genes involved in light signalling (PhyA, COP1, SPA1), and more than 80 ribosomal genes. However, contrasting with the fundamental difference of the growth response of

  1. Improving assessment of congenital heart disease through rapid patient specific modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathleen; Farrar, Genevieve; Cowan, Brett; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Occleshaw, Christopher; Pontre, Beau; Perry, James; Hegde, Sanjeet; Omens, Jeffrey; McCulloch, Andrew; Young, Alistair

    2016-08-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect, with an incidence of 75 in every 1000 births. As a result of improved interventions, 90% of people with congenital heart disease now survive to adulthood. They must undergo regular imaging to assess their biventricular (left and right ventricular) function. Analysis of the images is problematic due to the large variety of shapes and complex geometry. In this paper we extend a biventricular modeling method to improve the analysis of MR images from congenital heart disease patients. We used a subdivision surface method to create three customizable exemplars, representing common manifestations of anatomy, and incorporated these as priors into an interactive biventricular customization procedure. The CHD-specific priors were tested on 60 cases representing a variety of congenital heart diseases for which the gold standard manual contours were available. The introduction of multiple priors showed a significant decrease in analysis time while maintaining good correlation between the two methods (R2 >.82).

  2. Y-12 site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.B.; Hunt, R.J.; Manrod, W.E. III

    1995-09-29

    A site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment were performed for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The main purpose of these studies was to use the results of the analyses for evaluating the safety of the performance category -1, -2, and -3 facilities against the natural phenomena seismic hazards. Earthquake response was determined for seven (7), one dimensional soil columns (Fig. 12) using two horizontal components of the PC-3 design basis 2000-year seismic event. The computer program SHAKE 91 (Ref. 7) was used to calculate the absolute response accelerations on top of ground (soil/weathered shale) and rock outcrop. The SHAKE program has been validated for horizontal response calculations at periods less than 2.0 second at several sites and consequently is widely accepted in the geotechnical earthquake engineering area for site response analysis.

  3. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  4. Temporal Variability of Source-Specific Solvent-Extractable Organic Compounds in Coastal Aerosols over Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an analysis of ambient aerosols in a southeastern coastal city of China (Xiamen in order to assess the temporal variability in the concentrations and sources of organic aerosols (OA. Molecular-level measurements based on a series of solvent extractable lipid compounds reveal inherent heterogeneity in OA, in which the concentration and relative contribution of at least three distinct components (terrestrial plant wax derived, marine/microbial and fossil fuel derived organic matter (OM exhibited distinct and systematic temporal variability. Plant wax lipids and associated terrestrial OM are influenced by seasonal variability in plant growth; marine/microbial lipids and associated marine OM are modulated by sea spill and temperature change, whereas fossil fuel derived OM reflects the anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuels originated from petroleum-derived sources and its temporal variation is strongly controlled by meteorological conditions (e.g., the thermal inversion layer, which is analogous to other air organic pollutions. A comparative study among different coastal cities was applied to estimate the supply of different sources of OM to ambient aerosols in different regions, where it was found that biogenic OM in aerosols over Xiamen was much lower than that of other cities; however, petroleum-derived OM exhibited a high level of contribution with a higher concentration of unresolved complex matters (UCM and higher a ratio between UCM and resolved alkanes (UCM/R.

  5. Haemodynamic impact of stent implantation for lateral tunnel Fontan stenosis: a patient-specific computational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Elaine; McElhinney, Doff B; Restrepo, Maria; Valente, Anne M; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2016-01-01

    The physiological importance of the lateral tunnel stenosis in the Fontan pathway for children with single ventricle physiology can be difficult to determine. The impact of the stenosis and stent implantation on total cavopulmonary connection resistance has not been characterized, and there are no clear guidelines for intervention. Methods and results A computational framework for haemodynamic assessment of stent implantation in patients with lateral tunnel stenosis was developed. Cardiac magnetic resonances images were reconstructed to obtain total cavopulmonary connection anatomies before stent implantation. Stents with 2-mm diameter increments were virtually implanted in each patient to understand the impact of stent diameter. Numerical simulations were performed in all geometries with patient-specific flow rates. Exercise conditions were simulated by doubling and tripling the lateral tunnel flow rate. The resulting total cavopulmonary connection vascular resistances were computed. A total of six patients (age: 14.4 ± 3.1 years) with lateral tunnel stenosis were included for preliminary analysis. The mean baseline resistance was 1.54 ± 1.08 WU · m(2) and dependent on the stenosis diameter. It was further exacerbated during exercise. It was observed that utilising a stent with a larger diameter lowered the resistance, but the resistance reduction diminished at larger diameters. Using a computational framework to assess the severity of lateral tunnel stenosis and the haemodynamic impact of stent implantation, it was observed that stenosis in the lateral tunnel pathway was associated with higher total cavopulmonary connection resistance than unobstructed pathways, which was exacerbated during exercise. Stent implantation could reduce the resistance, but the improvement was specific to the minimum diameter.

  6. Organ-specific external dose coefficients and protective apron transmission factors for historical dose reconstruction for medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L

    2011-07-01

    While radiation absorbed dose (Gy) to the skin or other organs is sometimes estimated for patients from diagnostic radiologic examinations or therapeutic procedures, rarely is occupationally-received radiation absorbed dose to individual organs/tissues estimated for medical personnel; e.g., radiologic technologists or radiologists. Generally, for medical personnel, equivalent or effective radiation doses are estimated for compliance purposes. In the very few cases when organ doses to medical personnel are reconstructed, the data is usually for the purpose of epidemiologic studies; e.g., a study of historical doses and risks to a cohort of about 110,000 radiologic technologists presently underway at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. While ICRP and ICRU have published organ-specific external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) (i.e., absorbed dose to organs and tissues per unit air kerma and dose equivalent per unit air kerma), those factors have been published primarily for mono-energetic photons at selected energies. This presents two related problems for historical dose reconstruction, both of which are addressed here. It is necessary to derive conversion factor values for (1) continuous distributions of energy typical of diagnostic medical x-rays (bremsstrahlung radiation), and (2) energies of particular radioisotopes used in medical procedures, neither of which are presented in published tables. For derivation of DCCs for bremsstrahlung radiation, combinations of x-ray tube potentials and filtrations were derived for different time periods based on a review of relevant literature. Three peak tube potentials (70 kV, 80 kV, and 90 kV) with four different amounts of beam filtration were determined to be applicable for historic dose reconstruction. The probabilities of these machine settings were assigned to each of the four time periods (earlier than 1949, 1949-1954, 1955-1968, and after 1968). Continuous functions were fit to each set of discrete values of the

  7. The Role of Condition-Specific Preference-Based Measures in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Ara, Roberta; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    A condition-specific preference-based measure (CSPBM) is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is specific to a certain condition or disease and that can be used to obtain the quality adjustment weight of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for use in economic models. This article provides an overview of the role and the development of CSPBMs, and presents a description of existing CSPBMs in the literature. The article also provides an overview of the psychometric properties of CSPBMs in comparison with generic preference-based measures (generic PBMs), and considers the advantages and disadvantages of CSPBMs in comparison with generic PBMs. CSPBMs typically include dimensions that are important for that condition but may not be important across all patient groups. There are a large number of CSPBMs across a wide range of conditions, and these vary from covering a wide range of dimensions to more symptomatic or uni-dimensional measures. Psychometric evidence is limited but suggests that CSPBMs offer an advantage in more accurate measurement of milder health states. The mean change and standard deviation can differ for CSPBMs and generic PBMs, and this may impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CSPBMs have a useful role in HTA where a generic PBM is not appropriate, sensitive or responsive. However, due to issues of comparability across different patient groups and interventions, their usage in health technology assessment is often limited to conditions where it is inappropriate to use a generic PBM or sensitivity analyses.

  8. Zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire to assess college women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Janet M; Zotter, Deanne U

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been reported in individuals with eating disorders, the risks of which increase during the adolescent and early adult years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific for zinc-rich foods was tested for its usefulness in identifying problematic eating behaviour tendencies in college-age women. Ninety-two female students enrolled in a university introductory psychology course volunteered to complete demographic information, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a zinc-specific FFQ (ZnFFQ). Relationships among estimated zinc intakes, food/lifestyle habits, and eating attitude variables were examined. Twenty-five women had estimated intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc. Individuals in the highest zinc intake group (over twice the RDA) had a tendency to score higher on the EAT-26 and the bulimia subscale. Vegetarians also scored high on the EAT-26. Although our data are limited, the ZnFFQ should be studied further to determine whether it could play a useful role in identifying individuals at risk for bulimia. The ZnFFQ is a simple, non-confrontational assessment tool and may be a helpful starting point for identifying women with unhealthy eating habits.

  9. Specific developed phantoms and software to assess radiological equipment image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear; Mayo, P., E-mail: p.mayo@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain); Rodenas, F., E-mail: frodenas@mat.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Campayo, J.M., E-mail: j.campayo@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales S.A.U (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The use of radiographic phantoms specifically designed to evaluate the operation of the radiographic equipment lets the study of the image quality obtained by this equipment in an objective way. In digital radiographic equipment, the analysis of the image quality can be automatized because the acquisition of the image is possible in different technologies that are, computerized radiography or phosphor plate and direct radiography or detector. In this work we have shown an application to assess automatically the constancy quality image in the image chain of the radiographic equipment. This application is integrated by designed radiographic phantoms which are adapted to conventional, dental equipment and specific developed software for the automatic evaluation of the phantom image quality. The software is based on digital image processing techniques that let the automatic detection of the different phantom tests by edge detector, morphological operators, threshold histogram techniques, etc. The utility developed is enough sensitive to the radiographic equipment of operating conditions of voltage (kV) and charge (mAs). It is a friendly user programme connected with a data base of the hospital or clinic where it has been used. After the phantom image processing the user can obtain an inform with a resume of the imaging system state with accepting and constancy results. (author)

  10. Model Checking Techniques for Assessing Functional Form Specifications in Censored Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Larry F; Cai, Tianxi

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we develop model checking techniques for assessing functional form specifications of covariates in censored linear regression models. These procedures are based on a censored data analog to taking cumulative sums of "robust" residuals over the space of the covariate under investigation. These cumulative sums are formed by integrating certain Kaplan-Meier estimators and may be viewed as "robust" censored data analogs to the processes considered by Lin, Wei & Ying (2002). The null distributions of these stochastic processes can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be graphically compared with a few realizations from the Gaussian process. We also develop formal test statistics for numerical comparison. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether an apparent trend seen in a residual plot reects model misspecification or natural variation. We illustrate the methods with a well known dataset. In addition, we examine the finite sample performance of the proposed test statistics in simulation experiments. In our simulation experiments, the proposed test statistics have good power of detecting misspecification while at the same time controlling the size of the test.

  11. Assessment of indoor levels of volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide in schools in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, Layla

    2018-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3-C6), aromatic (C6-C9), halogenated (C1-C7), and oxygenated (C2-C9) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait. The concentrations of indoor air pollutants revealed hot spots (science preparation rooms, science laboratories, arts and crafts classes/paint rooms, and woodworking shops/decoration rooms where local sources contributed to the buildup of pollutants in each school. The most abundant VOC pollutant was chlorodifluoromethane (R22; ClF2CH), which leaked from air conditioning (AC) systems due to improper operation and maintenance. The other copious VOCs were alcohols and acetone at different locations due to improper handling of the chemicals and their excessive uses as solvents. Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were measured, and these levels reflected the performance of HVAC systems; a specific rate or lack of ventilation affected the IAQ. Recommendations are proposed to mitigate the buildup of indoor air pollutants at school sites. Indoor air quality in elementary schools has been a subject of extreme importance due to susceptibility and sensibility of children to air pollutants. The schools were selected based on their surrounding environment especially downwind direction from the highly industrialized zone in Kuwait. Extensive sampling from different sites in four schools for comprehensive VOCs and

  12. Assessing the risk of non-compliance in UK organic agriculture: An econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Padel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to provide an analysis of the risk factors influencing non-compliance in UK organic farming. The paper uses a formal econometric model of risk analysis to provide empirical evidence on the determinants of non-compliance in organic farming. A panel of data from the archives of the largest control body in the UK for 2007-2009 is used, and specific analyses are performed for two types of non-compliances. A zero inflated count data model is used for the estimation, taking into a...

  13. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  14. Risk assessment based prioritization of 200 organic micropollutants in 4 Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Maja; Ginebreda, Antoni; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damia

    2015-01-15

    The use of chemicals is continuously growing both in total amount as well as in a number of different substances, among which organic chemicals play a major role. Owing to the growing public awareness on the need of protecting both ecosystems and human health from the risks related to chemical pollution, an increasing attention has been drowned to risk assessment and prioritization of organic pollutants. In this context, the aims of this study were (a) to perform an environmental risk assessment for 200 organic micropollutants including both regulated and emerging contaminants (pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal care products, perflourinated compounds and various industrial organic chemicals) monitored in four rivers located in the Mediterranean side of the Iberian Peninsula, namely, the Ebro, Llobregat, Júcar and Guadalquivir rivers; and (b) to prioritize them for each of the four river basins studied, taking into account their observed concentration levels together with their ecotoxicological potential. For this purpose, a prioritization approach has been developed and a resulting ranking index (RI) associated with each compound. Ranking index is based on the measured concentrations of the chemical in each river and its ecotoxicological potential (EC50 values for algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). Ten compounds were identified as most important for the studied rivers: pesticides chlorpyriphos, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, dichlofenthion, prochloraz, ethion carbofuran and diuron and the industrial organic chemicals nonylphenol and octylphenol that result from the biodegration of polyethoxylated alkyphenol surfactants. Also, further research into chronic toxicity of emerging contaminants is advocated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the effect of the time since transition to organic farming on plants and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Dennis; Andersson, Georg K S; Ockinger, Erik; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bengtsson, Jan

    2011-06-01

    1.Environmental changes may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions, abundances or diversity. In order to estimate the effects of, for example, land-use changes caused by agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, information on the time-lag between the application of the scheme and the responses of organisms is essential.2.We examined the effects of time since transition (TST) to organic farming on plant species richness and butterfly species richness and abundance. Surveys were conducted in cereal fields and adjacent field margins on 60 farms, 20 conventional and 40 organic, in two regions in Sweden. The organic farms were transferred from conventional management between 1 and 25 years before the survey took place. The farms were selected along a gradient of landscape complexity, indicated by the proportion of arable land, so that farms with similar TST were represented in all landscape types. Organism responses were assessed using model averaging.3.Plant and butterfly species richness was c.20% higher on organic farms and butterfly abundance was about 60% higher, compared with conventional farms. Time since transition affected butterfly abundance gradually over the 25-year period, resulting in a 100% increase. In contrast, no TST effect on plant or butterfly species richness was found, indicating that the main effect took place immediately after the transition to organic farming.4.Increasing landscape complexity had a positive effect on butterfly species richness, but not on butterfly abundance or plant species richness. There was no indication that the speed of response to organic farming was affected by landscape complexity.5.Synthesis and applications. The effect of organic farming on diversity was rapid for plant and butterfly species richness, whereas butterfly abundance increased gradually with time since transition. If time-lags in responses to AESs turn out to be common, long-term effects would need to be

  16. The Danish Organic Action Plan 2020: assessment method and baseline status of organic procurement in public kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina N; Lassen, Anne D; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-01

    With political support from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, organic public procurement in Denmark is expected to increase. In order to evaluate changes in organic food procurement in Danish public kitchens, reliable methods are needed. The present study aimed to compare organic food procurement measurements by two methods and to collect and discuss baseline organic food procurement measurements from public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Comparison study measuring organic food procurement by applying two different methods, one based on the use of procurement invoices (the Organic Cuisine Label method) and the other on self-reported procurement (the Dogme method). Baseline organic food procurement status was based on organic food procurement measurements and background information from public kitchens. Public kitchens participating in the six organic food conversion projects funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 during 2012 and 2013. Twenty-six public kitchens (comparison study) and 345 public kitchens (baseline organic food procurement status). A high significant correlation coefficient was found between the two organic food procurement measurement methods (r=0·83, Pprocurement was found to be 24 % when including measurements from both methods. The results indicate that organic food procurement measurements by both methods were valid for the baseline status report of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Baseline results in Danish public kitchens suggest there is room for more organic as well as sustainable public procurement in Denmark.

  17. Specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues across adulthood: evaluation by mechanistic model of resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimian; Ying, Zhiliang; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Zhang, Junyi; Schautz, Britta; Later, Wiebke; Heymsfield, Steven B; Müller, Manfred J

    2010-12-01

    The specific resting metabolic rates (K(i); in kcal · kg(-1 )· d(-1)) of major organs and tissues in adults were suggested by Elia (in Energy metabolism: tissue determinants and cellular corollaries. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1992) to be as follows: 200 for liver, 240 for brain, 440 for heart and kidneys, 13 for skeletal muscle, 4.5 for adipose tissue, and 12 for residual organs and tissues. However, Elia's K(i) values have never been fully evaluated. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the applicability of Elia's K(i) values across adulthood and to explore the potential influence of age on the K(i) values. A new approach was developed to evaluate the K(i) values of major organs and tissues on the basis of a mechanistic model: REE = Σ(K(i) × T(i)), where REE is whole-body resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry, and T(i) is the mass of individual organs and tissues measured by magnetic resonance imaging. With measured REE and T(i), marginal 95% CIs for K(i) values were calculated by stepwise univariate regression analysis. An existing database of nonobese, healthy adults [n = 131; body mass index (in kg/m²) middle-age, n = 51), and > 50 y (n = 37). Elia's K(i) values were within the range of 95% CIs in the young and middle-age groups. However, Elia's K(i) values were outside the right boundaries of 95% CIs in the >50-y group, which indicated that Elia's study overestimated K(i) values by 3% in this group. Age-adjusted K(i) values for adults aged >50 y were 194 for liver, 233 for brain, 426 for heart and kidneys, 12.6 for skeletal muscle, 4.4 for adipose tissue, and 11.6 for residuals. The general applicability of Elia's K(i) values was validated across adulthood, although age adjustment is appropriate for specific applications.

  18. Assessment and control of chemical risk from organic vapors for attendants in a gas station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ehmig Santillán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research comprises monitoring, assessment and recommendations for chemical risk originating from organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene of fuel (super and extra gasoline to which attendants at a gas station are exposed. Given the concentration measured of organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene the chemical risk to which attendants are exposed in the supply area is acceptable. Control measures are recommended to ensure healthy working conditions for gas station attendants and also to avoid occurrence of occupational diseases in the medium or long term

  19. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  20. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  1. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock of Temperate Coniferous Forests in Northern Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood A. Dar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Soil organic carbon (SOC estimation in temperate forests of the Himalaya is important to estimate their contribution to regional, national and global carbon stocks. Physico chemical properties of soil were quantified to assess soil organic carbon density (SOC and SOC CO2 mitigation density at two soil depths (0-10 and 10-20 cms under temperate forest in the Northern region of Kashmir Himalayas India. The results indicate that conductance, moisture content, organic carbon and organic matter were significantly higher while as pH and bulk density were lower at Gulmarg forest site. SOC % was ranging from 2.31± 0.96 at Gulmarg meadow site to 2.31 ± 0.26 in Gulmarg forest site. SOC stocks in these temperate forests were from 36.39 ±15.40 to 50.09 ± 15.51 Mg C ha-1. The present study reveals that natural vegetation is the main contributor of soil quality as it maintained the soil organic carbon stock. In addition, organic matter is an important indicator of soil quality and environmental parameters such as soil moisture and soil biological activity change soil carbon sequestration potential in temperate forest ecosystems.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12186International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15; page: 161-178

  2. A new European plant-specific emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds for use in atmospheric transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new European plant-specific emission inventory for isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated VOC (OVOC, on a spatial resolution of 0.089×0.089 degrees, for implementation in atmospheric transport models. The inventory incorporates more accurate data on foliar biomass densities from several litterfall databases that became available in the last years for the main tree species in Europe. A bioclimatic correction factor was introduced to correct the foliar biomass densities of trees and crops for the different plant growth conditions that can be found in Pan-Europe. Long-term seasonal variability of agriculture and forest emissions was taken into account by implementing a new growing season concept. The 2004–2005 averaged annual total biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions for the Pan-European domain are estimated to be about 12 Tg with a large contribution from the OVOC class of about 4.5 Tg and from monoterpenes of about 4 Tg. Annual isoprene emissions are found to be about 3.5 Tg, insensitive to the chosen emission algorithm. Emissions of OVOC were found to originate to a large extent from agriculture. Further experiments on crop emissions should be carried out to check the validity of the applied standard emission factors. The new inventory aims at a fully transparent and verifiable aggregation of detailed land use information and at the inclusion of plant-specific emission data. Though plant-specific land use data is available with relatively high accuracy, a lack of experimental biomass densities and emission data on terpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated VOC, in particular for agricultural plants, currently limits the setup of a highly accurate plant-specific emission inventory.

  3. Development and Validation of a Disease-Specific Questionnaire to Assess Patient-Reported Symptoms in Polycystic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijenhuis, Myrte K; Gevers, Tom J G; Hogan, Marie C; Kamath, Patrick S; Wijnands, Titus F M; van den Ouweland, Ralf C P M; Edwards, Marie E; Sloan, Jeff A; Kievit, Wietske; Drenth, Joost P H

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of polycystic liver disease (PLD) focuses on symptom improvement. Generic questionnaires lack sensitivity to capture PLD-related symptoms, a prerequisite to determine effectiveness of therapy. We developed and validated a disease-specific questionnaire that assesses symptoms in PLD (PLD-Q). We identified 16 PLD-related symptoms (total score 0-100 points) by literature review and interviews with patients and clinicians. The developed PLD-Q was validated in Dutch (n = 200) and United States (US; n = 203) PLD patients. We assessed the correlation of PLD-Q total score with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) symptom scale, global health visual analogue scale (VAS) of EQ-5D, and liver volume. To test discriminative validity, we compared PLD-Q total scores of patients with different PLD severity stages (Gigot classification) and PLD-Q total scores of PLD patients with general controls and polycystic kidney disease patients without PLD. Reproducibility was tested by comparing original test scores with 2-week retest scores. In total, 167 Dutch and 124 US patients returned the questionnaire. Correlation between PLD-Q total score and EORTC symptom scale (The Netherlands [NL], r = 0.788; US, r = 0.811) and global health VAS (NL, r = -0.517; US, r = -0.593) was good. There was no correlation of PLD-Q total score with liver volume (NL, r = 0.138; P = 0.236; US, r = 0.254; P = 0.052). Gigot type III individuals scored numerically higher than type II patients (NL, 46 vs. 40; P = 0.089; US, 48 vs. 36; P = 0.055). PLD patients scored higher on the PLD-Q total score than general controls (NL, 42 vs. 17; US, 40 vs. 13 points) and polycystic kidney disease patients without PLD (22 points). Reproducibility of PLD-Q was excellent (NL, r = 0.94; US, 0.96). PLD-Q is a valid, reproducible, and sensitive disease-specific questionnaire that can be used to assess PLD-related symptoms in clinical care and future research. (Hepatology 2016;64:151-160).

  4. The left-right Pitx2 pathway drives organ-specific arterial and lymphatic development in the intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Aparna; Welsh, Ian C.; Sivakumar, Aravind; Gludish, David W.; Shilvock, Abigail R.; Noden, Drew M.; Kurpios, Natasza A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The dorsal mesentery (DM) is the major conduit for blood and lymphatic vessels in the gut. The mechanisms underlying their morphogenesis are challenging to study and remain unknown. Here we show that arteriogenesis in the DM begins during gut rotation and proceeds strictly on the left side, dependent on the Pitx2 target gene Cxcl12. Although competent Cxcr4-positive angioblasts are present on the right, they fail to form vessels and progressively emigrate. Surprisingly, gut lymphatics also initiate in the left DM and arise only after – and dependent on – arteriogenesis, implicating arteries as drivers of gut lymphangiogenesis. Our data begin to unravel the origin of two distinct vascular systems and demonstrate how early L-R molecular asymmetries are translated into organ-specific vascular patterns. We propose a dual origin of gut lymphangiogenesis, where prior arterial growth is required to initiate local lymphatics that only subsequently connect to the vascular system. PMID:25482882

  5. Specific migration of IRGASTAB 17 MOK and DBP from rigid and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride into organic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the determination of the specific migration of an plasticizer and an organotin heat stabilizer (IRGASTAB 17 MOK from plasticized and rigid (PVC into organic liquids hexane and ethanol simulating fatty food. The migration test conditions were 10 days at 40°C and 2 hours at 70°C. FTIR and UV-Visible at 490 nm spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to investigate the migration phenomena. The influence of various parameters such as temperature, time of contact and the nature of food simulant were considered. The results show that plasticizer accelerates the heat stabilizer migration. On the other hand that gas chromatography could be substituted by FTIR spectroscopy to investigate the DBP migration phenomena. It is a simple, low cost and rapid method which can be used.

  6. Spatio-temporal re-organization of replication foci accompanies replication domain consolidation during human pluripotent stem cell lineage specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Korey A.; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Stanley, Edouard G.; Gilbert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lineage specification of both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is accompanied by spatial consolidation of chromosome domains and temporal consolidation of their replication timing. Replication timing and chromatin organization are both established during G1 phase at the timing decision point (TDP). Here, we have developed live cell imaging tools to track spatio-temporal replication domain consolidation during differentiation. First, we demonstrate that the fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (Fucci) system is incapable of demarcating G1/S or G2/M cell cycle transitions. Instead, we employ a combination of fluorescent PCNA to monitor S phase progression, cytokinesis to demarcate mitosis, and fluorescent nucleotides to label early and late replication foci and track their 3D organization into sub-nuclear chromatin compartments throughout all cell cycle transitions. We find that, as human PSCs differentiate, the length of S phase devoted to replication of spatially clustered replication foci increases, coincident with global compartmentalization of domains into temporally clustered blocks of chromatin. Importantly, re-localization and anchorage of domains was completed prior to the onset of S phase, even in the context of an abbreviated PSC G1 phase. This approach can also be employed to investigate cell fate transitions in single PSCs, which could be seen to differentiate preferentially from G1 phase. Together, our results establish real-time, live-cell imaging methods for tracking cell cycle transitions during human PSC differentiation that can be applied to study chromosome domain consolidation and other aspects of lineage specification. PMID:27433885

  7. Tumor-Specific Expression of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides: Transporters as Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Buxhofer-Ausch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the organic anion transporter family (OATP mediate the transmembrane uptake of clinical important drugs and hormones thereby affecting drug disposition and tissue penetration. Particularly OATP subfamily 1 is known to mediate the cellular uptake of anticancer drugs (e.g., methotrexate, derivatives of taxol and camptothecin, flavopiridol, and imatinib. Tissue-specific expression was shown for OATP1B1/OATP1B3 in liver, OATP4C1 in kidney, and OATP6A1 in testis, while other OATPs, for example, OATP4A1, are expressed in multiple cells and organs. Many different tumor entities show an altered expression of OATPs. OATP1B1/OATP1B3 are downregulated in liver tumors, but highly expressed in cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, breast, prostate, and lung. Similarly, testis-specific OATP6A1 is expressed in cancers in the lung, brain, and bladder. Due to their presence in various cancer tissues and their limited expression in normal tissues, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP6A1 could be a target for tumor immunotherapy. Otherwise, high levels of ubiquitous expressed OATP4A1 are found in colorectal cancers and their metastases. Therefore, this OATP might serve as biomarkers for these tumors. Expression of OATP is regulated by nuclear receptors, inflammatory cytokines, tissue factors, and also posttranslational modifications of the proteins. Through these processes, the distribution of the transporter in the tissue will be altered, and a shift from the plasma membrane to cytoplasmic compartments is possible. It will modify OATP uptake properties and, subsequently, change intracellular concentrations of drugs, hormones, and various other OATP substrates. Therefore, screening tumors for OATP expression before therapy should lead to an OATP-targeted therapy with higher efficacy and decreased side effects.

  8. An international survey of the public engagement practices of health technology assessment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Many jurisdictions are moving toward greater public involvement in health technology assessment (HTA) processes. This study aims to provide a broad, cross-sectional indication of the extent and methods of public engagement in HTA, with a focus on which public are engaged, by what mechanisms, and the purpose of public engagement. An international Web-based survey of 217 organizations involved in HTA was undertaken. Contact e-mail addresses for targeted organizations were identified from the Internet. Individuals from 39 (18%) of the contacted organizations completed a survey. The majority (67%) of responding HTA organizations undertake public engagement activities, predominantly involving lay representatives of organized groups (81%), and to a lesser extent individual patients/consumers (54%) or citizens/community members (54%). For organizations undertaking public engagement, mechanisms based on communication or consultation were the most common, although some organizations have used or intend to use participatory approaches, particularly the Citizens' Jury (8%) or Consensus Council (20%) methods. Respondents identified with a number of rationales and barriers for undertaking public engagement. This survey provides further insight into the public engagement approaches that are used by HTA organizations in practice. In particular, it suggests a limited adoption of participatory methods to date, and interest in the use of social media. Study findings require further confirmation, due to limitations related to survey response. There is considerable opportunity for further research into pragmatic, robust, and meaningful approaches to public engagement to strengthen HTA policy and decision-making frameworks. An agenda for future research evolving from the survey responses is proposed. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Scientific Opinion on outline proposals for assessment of exposure of organisms to substances in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel to prepare a revision of the Guidance Document on persistence in soil (SANCO/9188VI/1997 of 12 July 2000) as scientific knowledge in this field has evolved in recent years. Therefore the Panel started the development of a revised methodology...... for the assessment of exposure of soil organisms. Based on a previous opinion of the Panel, the methodology is developed both for the concentration in total soil and the concentration in the soil pore water. The aim of the exposure assessment is the spatial 90th percentile of the exposure concentration (maximum...... in time) in the intended area of use in each of the three regulatory zones. The assessment of this percentile will include the uncertainty of substance and soil properties. The exposure assessment methodology is a function of (i) the type of crop (annual, pasture, permanent or rice), (ii) the tillage...

  10. To Assess the Rate for Affecting the Structural Dimensions of Governmental Organizations on their Agility (Case Study: Isfahan Province Jihad Agriculture Organization)

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi Fatemeh; Rashidpoor Ali; Alinaghiyan Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This research has been performed in the direction of making agile the governmental organizations at Isfahan Province Jihad Agriculture Organization. In this research the structural dimensions were eight dimensions (formalization, specialization, standardization, hierarchy of authorities, complexity, centralization, professionalism, personnel rations). In order to assess the variables for testing the research hypotheses, a standard questionnaire was built in the dimension of the organizational...

  11. Assessing soil constituents and labile soil organic carbon by midinfrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    signal. This also means that it should be advantageous for soil analysis because of its highly opaque nature. However, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS to soil characterization and investigation is still required into its potential to determine soil organic carbon (SOC......) regressionwas used to correlate the collected FTIR-PAS spectra with the proportion of soil organic carbon mineralised after 238 days of incubation at 15 C and pF 2 (C238d) taken as an indicator of the labile fraction of SOC. Results showed that it is possible to predict total organic carbon content, total......) degradability. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterisation of the labile fraction of SOC and more classical soil parameters, such as carbon and clay content, for a range of 36 soils collected from various field experiments in Denmark. Partial least squares (PLS...

  12. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Zollars, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  13. Early assessment of feasibility and technical specificities of transoral robotic surgery using the da Vinci Xi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorphe, Philippe; Von Tan, Jean; El Bedoui, Sophie; Hartl, Dana M; Auperin, Anne; Qassemyar, Quentin; Moya-Plana, Antoine; Janot, François; Julieron, Morbize; Temam, Stephane

    2017-12-01

    The latest generation Da Vinci® Xi™ Surgical System Robot released has not been evaluated to date in transoral surgery for head and neck cancers. We report here the 1-year results of a non-randomized phase II multicentric prospective trial aimed at assessing its feasibility and technical specificities. Our primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of transoral robotic surgery using the da Vinci® Xi™ Surgical System Robot. The secondary objective was to assess peroperative outcomes. Twenty-seven patients, mean age 62.7 years, were included between May 2015 and June 2016 with tumors affecting the following sites: oropharynx (n = 21), larynx (n = 4), hypopharynx (n = 1), parapharyngeal space (n = 1). Eighteen patients were included for primary treatment, three for a local recurrence, and six for cancer in a previously irradiated field. Three were reconstructed with a FAMM flap and 6 with a free ALT flap. The mean docking time was 12 min. "Chopsticking" of surgical instruments was very rare. During hospitalization following surgery, 3 patients experienced significant bleeding between day 8 and 9 that required surgical transoral hemostasis (n = 1) or endovascular embolization (n = 2). Transoral robotic surgery using the da Vinci® Xi™ Surgical System Robot proved feasible with technological improvements compared to previous generation surgical system robots and with a similar postoperative course. Further technological progress is expected to be of significant benefit to the patients.

  14. The formation and development of corporate culture of learning organization: efficiency assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Tolstykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of digitalization of the economy, its integration with the policy society questions of formation and development of corporate culture of the learning organisation are of particular relevance. Digital transformation of business dictates the need for the emergence and development of learning organizations, creating and preserving knowledge. In this situation, the openness of issues of assessment of efficiency of processes of formation and development defines the importance of the proposed research. Corporate culture is regarded by most scholars as the most important internal resource of the organization, able to provide her with stability in a crisis and give impetus to the development and transition to qualitatively different levels of the life cycle. This position assumes that a strong corporate culture should be aimed at building a learning organization, able to quickly adapt to changes in the external and internal environment. This article examines the issue of assessment of efficiency of corporate culture; it is shown that in addition to the empirical, sociological methods and qualitative approach to evaluation, is acceptable investment approach. This option appears when you use the aggregate target-oriented and project management methods, which allows in a systematic manner to carry out the formation and development of corporate culture. The assessment should be subject to software development activities and (or development of the corporate culture of a learning organization. In evidence to draw conclusions on the example of agricultural companies, a calculation of the economic efficiency of the program of formation of corporate culture of a learning organization. Calculation of net discounted income, the net present value of the project, profitability index, project profitability, payback period. This confirms the social and economic effects of the proposed program on the formation of corporate culture of independent

  15. All the adult stem cells, where do they all come from? An external source for organ-specific stem cell pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, N B

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and maintain the ability to differentiate into mature lineages. Whereas the "stemness" of embryonic stem cells is not discussed, the primitiveness of a stem cell type within adult organisms is not well determined. Data presently available are either inconclusive or controversial regarding two main topics: maintenance or senescente of the adult stem cell pool; and pluripotentiality of the cells. While programmed senescence or apoptosis following uncorrected mutations represent no problem for mature cells, the maintenance of the stem cell pool itself must be assured. Two different mechanisms can be envisaged for that. In the first mechanism, which is generally accepted, stem cells originate during ontogeny along with the organ which they are responsible for, and remain there during all the lifespan of the organism. Several observations derived from recent reports allow the suggestion of a second mechanism. These observations include: organ-specific stem cells are senescent; adult stem cells circulate in the organism; stem cell niches are essential for the existence and function of stem cells; adult stem cells can present lineage markers; embryo-like, pluripotent stem cells are present in adult organisms, as shown by the development of teratomas, tumors composed of derivatives of the three germ layers; and the fact that the gonads may be a reservoir of embryo-like, pluripotent stem cells in adult organisms. The second mechanism for the maintenance of adult stem cells compartments implies a source external to the organ they belong, consisting of pluripotent, embryo-like cells of unrestricted life span, presenting efficient mechanisms for avoiding or correcting mutations and capable to circulate in the organism. According to this model, primitive stem cells exist in a specific organ in adult organisms. They undergo asymmetrical divisions, which originate one "true" stem cell and another one which enters the pool of adult stem cells, circulating

  16. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  17. World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade Facilitation: Assessing the Level of Ambition and Likely Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    At the Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) held in Bali on 3–6 December 2013, the ministers agreed upon the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation (ATF). This paper assesses the level of ambition of the ATF from two angles. First, the use of softening language in each provision is examined. Second, the final agreement is compared against the draft text prepared before the Bali conference. Then, the paper considers the likely legal, economic, capacity-building, and ...

  18. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment and withholding or withdrawing life support from critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Nolla; León, Mariá A; Ibáñez, Jordi; Díaz, Rosa M; Merten, Alfredo; Gahete, Francesc

    1998-01-01

    Background: We studied the incidence of withholding or withdrawing therapeutic measures in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, as well as the possible implications of sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) in the decision-making process and the ethical conflicts emerging from these measures. Methods: The patients (n = 372) were placed in different groups: those surviving 1 year after ICU admission (S; n = 301), deaths at home (DH; n = 2), deaths in the hospital after ICU discharge (DI...

  19. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Læssøe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic food systems are based on a complex of value criteria that often are not explicitly considered when agents think, communicate, and make decisions concerning organic food. Multicriteria assessment (MCA refers to a group of tools that help the user to tackle such highly complex issues. The question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We discuss an economic, a psychosocial, and a relational perspective on motivation and MCA. Using the example of a consumer assessing and choosing products in the supermarket, the economic conception of motivation offers a focus on decision-making processes. The psychosocial approach to motivation draws attention to the influence of cognitive structures and experience-based emotional drivers. Finally, the relational approach stresses that motivation is situated in the relations between agents. We discuss how the three perspectives converge and diverge regarding the purpose of using an MCA tool, the scope of the MCA, the strategic focus, and challenges and potentials associated with an MCA tool. Through this multiple-perspective approach, the general idea of MCA is expanded and elaborated to refine the design of an MCA tool for organic food systems.

  20. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2010-11-04

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal in drinking water treatment and wastewater reuse schemes. However, there is a need to develop assessment tools to help implement MAR as an effective barrier in attenuating different OMPs including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors. In this study, guidelines were developed for different classes of organic micropollutants, in which removal efficiencies of these compounds are determined as a function of travel times and distances. Moreover, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) based model was proposed to predict the removals of organic micropollutants by MAR. The QSAR approach is especially useful for compounds with little information about their fate during soil passage. Such an assessment framework for organic micropollutant removal is useful for adapting MAR as a multi-objective (-contaminant) barrier and understanding different classes of compounds during soil passage and the determination of post treatment requirements for MAR. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  1. Assessing the functional diversity of herbivorous reef fishes using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tietbohl, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Herbivorous coral reef fishes play an important role in helping to structure their environment directly by consuming algae and indirectly by promoting coral health and growth. These fishes are generally separated into three broad groups: browsers, grazers, and excavators/scrapers, with these groupings often thought to have a fixed general function and all fishes within a group thought to have similar ecological roles. This categorization assumes a high level of functional redundancy within herbivorous fishes. However, recent evidence questions the use of this broad classification scheme, and posits that there may actually be more resource partitioning within these functional groupings. Here, I use a compound-specific stable isotope approach (CSIA) to show there appears to be a greater diversity of functional roles than previously assumed within broad functional groups. The δ13C signatures from essential amino acids of reef end-members (coral, macroalgae, detritus, and phytoplankton) and fish muscle were analyzed to investigate differences in resource use between fishes. Most end-members displayed clear isotopic differences, and most fishes within functional groups were dissimilar in their isotopic signature, implying differences in the resources they target. No grazers closely resembled each other isotopically, implying a much lower level of functional redundancy within this group; scraping parrotfish were also distinct from excavating parrotfish and to a lesser degree distinct between scrapers. This study highlights the potential of CSIA to help distinguish fine-scale ecological differences within other groups of reef organisms as well. These results question the utility of lumping nominally herbivorous fishes into broad groups with assumed similar roles. Given the apparent functional differences between nominally herbivorous reef fishes, it is important for managers to incorporate the diversity of functional roles these fish play.

  2. [Preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for specific capture of glycoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Mao, Jie; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2013-06-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolith was developed via the "thiol-ene" click reaction. A thiol group-modified silica monolith was first synthesized via the sol-gel process by the in situ co-condensation with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as precursors. Then 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) was covalently immobilized on the hybrid monolith via the "thiol-ene" click reaction to form AAPBA-silica hybrid affinity monolith. The reaction conditions for the preparation of AAPBA-silica hybrid affinity monolith were optimized, including the ratio of TMOS to MPTMS, the contents of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and methanol. The morphology and mechanical stability of the boronate affinity monolith were characterized and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained boronate affinity hybrid monolith exhibited excellent specificity toward the nucleosides containing cis-diols under neutral conditions. It was further applied to the specific capture of the glycoproteins ovalbumin and horseradish peroxidase. The method is novel and reliable, which has a great potential for the preparation of different kinds of the boronate affinity monoliths.

  3. Electrochemiluminescent immunosensing of prostate-specific antigen based on silver nanoparticles-doped Pb (II) metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongmin; Li, Xiaojian; Yan, Tao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2016-05-15

    In this work, silver nanoparticles-doped Pb (II) metal-organic framework (Ag-MOF) was prepared and exploited as a luminescence probe for the development of label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensing scheme for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The β-cyclodextrin based MOF, Pb-β-cyclodextrin (Pb(II)-β-CD) shows excellent ECL behavior and unexpected reducing capacity towards silver ions. Silver nanoparticles could massively form on the surface of Pb(II)-β-CD (Ag@Pb(II)-β-CD) without use any additional reducing agent, while the ECL behavior of Pb(II)-β-CD still was well retained. The Ag@Pb(II)-β-CD was used as a substrate material to modify glass carbon electrodes and formed a sensing platform for the fabricating ECL immunosensor. The presence of silver nanoparticles enables the facile immobilization of capturing antibody of PSA. The specific binding of PSA onto the electrode surface induces the decrease of ECL signals. A linear range of 0.001-50 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.34 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3) was obtained after the optimization of experimental conditions. This simply fabricated immunosensor exhibits good stability, accuracy and acceptable reproducibility, which suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of economic efficiency of conventional and organic agricultural enterprises in a chosen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Brožová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is aimed at assessing the economic efficiency of organically farming agricultural enterprises in a chosen region of the Czech Republic. The results recorded in the organic farming sector were confronted both with conventional agriculture and FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network enterprises in the respective region. Economic efficiency has been evaluated firstly by means of a production base (equity, assets, and liabilities. Secondly, profit indicators (operating profit, accounting profit have been employed while monitoring the share of profitable and loss-making farms. Different profitability ratios were calculated per one hectare of farmland in order to provide a thorough comparison with conventional farming. Last but not least, the research strived to assess the overall economic and financial situation of agricultural enterprises by means of the following ratios: profitability, liquidity, indebtedness, interest coverage and total assets turnover. Following the research findings, several suggestions related to the database improvement and subsequent profitability assessment in the sector were formulated. The findings presented in the paper were obtained as a result of the Research Program titled Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and Their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agri-food Systems of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports number VZ MSM 6046070906 and Grant No. 20121057 of the Internal Grant Agency titled Organic Farming – Map Portal Presentation Opportunities.

  5. Apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments: An integrated molecular and compound-specific stable isotope approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Richard J., E-mail: Richard.J.Cooper@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Hiscock, Kevin M.; Disdle, Paul [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Krueger, Tobias [IRI THESys, Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Rawlins, Barry G. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    We present a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments via a coupled molecular and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of long-chain leaf wax n-alkane biomarkers using a Bayesian mixing model. Leaf wax extracts of 13 plant species were collected from across two environments (aquatic and terrestrial) and four plant functional types (trees, herbaceous perennials, and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} graminoids) from the agricultural River Wensum catchment, UK. Seven isotopic (δ{sup 13}C{sub 27}, δ{sup 13}C{sub 29}, δ{sup 13}C{sub 31}, δ{sup 13}C{sub 27–31}, δ{sup 2}H{sub 27}, δ{sup 2}H{sub 29}, and δ{sup 2}H{sub 27–29}) and two n-alkane ratio (average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI)) fingerprints were derived, which successfully differentiated 93% of individual plant specimens by plant functional type. The δ{sup 2}H values were the strongest discriminators of plants originating from different functional groups, with trees (δ{sup 2}H{sub 27–29} = − 208‰ to − 164‰) and C{sub 3} graminoids (δ{sup 2}H{sub 27–29} = − 259‰ to − 221‰) providing the largest contrasts. The δ{sup 13}C values provided strong discrimination between C{sub 3} (δ{sup 13}C{sub 27–31} = − 37.5‰ to − 33.8‰) and C{sub 4} (δ{sup 13}C{sub 27–31} = − 23.5‰ to − 23.1‰) plants, but neither δ{sup 13}C nor δ{sup 2}H values could uniquely differentiate aquatic and terrestrial species, emphasizing a stronger plant physiological/biochemical rather than environmental control over isotopic differences. ACL and CPI complemented isotopic discrimination, with significantly longer chain lengths recorded for trees and terrestrial plants compared with herbaceous perennials and aquatic species, respectively. Application of a comprehensive Bayesian mixing model for 18 streambed sediments collected between September 2013 and March 2014 revealed considerable temporal variability in the

  6. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Specific Products in Secondary Particulate Organic Matter Formed by Photo-Oxidation of Toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irei, S.; Rudolph, J.; Huang, L.; Auld, J.; Hastie, D.

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory experiments for stable carbon isotope studies of secondary particulate organic matter (POM) in the gas-phase were conducted. Secondary POM was generated using a 2.5 L flow reactor or an 8 m3 smog chamber. The initial mixing ratio of toluene and the initial toluene/NO ratio were 20 ppmV - 40 ppmV and 4 - 8 for the flow reactor experiments and ~0.5 ppmV and 0.3 - 2 for the smog chamber experiments, respectively. The flow reactor experiments were made without seed particles, while the smog chamber experiments were done with ammonium sulfate seed particles. Using these different experimental set-ups/conditions, POM generated under different extent of toluene consumption was collected on filters for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis as well as for the stable carbon isotope analysis of total POM carbon. For the compound specific analysis, the collected filter samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were then concentrated under a gentle flow of pure nitrogen gas. The concentrated extracts were derivatized using N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetoamide (BSTFA). The derivatives were qualitatively and quantitatively/isotopically analyzed by GC-MS and GC-C-IRMS, respectively. The qualitative analysis by the GC-MS identified 7 nitromonohydroxy/nitrodihydroxy aromatic compounds in the POM extracts. The results from the compound-specific stable carbon analysis show that, for 6 out of the 7 identified products, the isotope ratios were the similar to that of the total POM carbon, which is predictable using the kinetic isotope effect of the initial toluene+OH reaction, the initial isotope ratio of toluene, and fraction of toluene consumed (Irei et al., 2006). In this presentation, comparison of these observations with the reaction mechanisms postulated by others will be discussed. Reference Flow reactor studies for stable carbon isotopic composition of secondary particulate organic matter generated by toluene/OH radical

  7. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md Kamrul Huda

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+ from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied.The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs.The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible

  8. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  9. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Xie, Yunhe; Schuemann, Jan; Yock, Torunn; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation-induced second cancer risks for in-field and out-of-field organs and tissues for pencil beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattering proton therapy (PPT) and assess the impact of adding patient-specific apertures to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam scanning for pediatric brain tumor patients. Five proton therapy plans were created for each of three pediatric patients using PPT as well as PBS with two spot sizes (average sigma of ~17 mm and ~8 mm at isocenter) and choice of patient-specific apertures. The lifetime attributable second malignancy risks for both in-field and out-of-field tissues and organs were compared among five delivery techniques. The risk for in-field tissues was calculated using the organ equivalent dose, which is determined by the dose volume histogram. For out-of-field organs, the organ-specific dose equivalent from secondary neutrons was calculated using Monte Carlo and anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. We find that either for small spot size PBS or for large spot size PBS, a patient-specific aperture reduces the in-field cancer risk to values lower than that for PPT. The reduction for large spot sizes (on average 43%) is larger than for small spot sizes (on average 21%). For out-of-field organs, the risk varies only marginally by employing a patient-specific aperture (on average from  -2% to 16% with increasing distance from the tumor), but is still one to two orders of magnitude lower than that for PPT. In conclusion, when pencil beam spot sizes are large, the addition of apertures to sharpen the penumbra decreases the in-field radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. There is a slight increase in out-of-field cancer risk as a result of neutron scatter from the aperture, but this risk is by far outweighed by the in-field risk benefit from using an aperture with a large PBS spot size. In general, the risk for developing a second malignancy in out-of-field organs for PBS remains

  11. 41 CFR 102-79.75 - May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on... antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on major pedestrian... space, upon approval from GSA, may assess fees for antenna placements against public service...

  12. Assessment of soil organic carbon stocks under future climate and land cover changes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigini, Yusuf; Panagos, Panos

    2016-07-01

    Soil organic carbon plays an important role in the carbon cycling of terrestrial ecosystems, variations in soil organic carbon stocks are very important for the ecosystem. In this study, a geostatistical model was used for predicting current and future soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Europe. The first phase of the study predicts current soil organic carbon content by using stepwise multiple linear regression and ordinary kriging and the second phase of the study projects the soil organic carbon to the near future (2050) by using a set of environmental predictors. We demonstrate here an approach to predict present and future soil organic carbon stocks by using climate, land cover, terrain and soil data and their projections. The covariates were selected for their role in the carbon cycle and their availability for the future model. The regression-kriging as a base model is predicting current SOC stocks in Europe by using a set of covariates and dense SOC measurements coming from LUCAS Soil Database. The base model delivers coefficients for each of the covariates to the future model. The overall model produced soil organic carbon maps which reflect the present and the future predictions (2050) based on climate and land cover projections. The data of the present climate conditions (long-term average (1950-2000)) and the future projections for 2050 were obtained from WorldClim data portal. The future climate projections are the recent climate projections mentioned in the Fifth Assessment IPCC report. These projections were extracted from the global climate models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The results suggest an overall increase in SOC stocks by 2050 in Europe (EU26) under all climate and land cover scenarios, but the extent of the increase varies between the climate model and emissions scenarios. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwww of... - Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart... 1 Table 1 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for...

  14. The Pediatric Version of the Eating Assessment Tool: a caregiver administered dyphagia-specific outcome instrument for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; Demir, Numan; Karaduman, Aynur Ayşe; Belafsky, Peter Charles

    2017-05-05

    To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pediatric version of the caregiver administered Eating Assessment Tool. The study included developmental phase and reported content, criterion validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool. Literature review and the original Eating Assessment Tool were used for line-item generation. Expert consensus assessed the items for content validity over two Delphi rounds. Fifty-one healthy children to obtain normative data and 138 children with cerebral palsy to evaluate test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and criterion validity were included. The Penetration-Aspiration Scale was used to assess criterion validity. All items were found to be necessary. Content validity index was 0.91. The mean score of Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool for healthy children and children with cerebral palsy was 0.26 ± 1.83 and 19.5 ± 11, respectively. The internal consistency was high with Cronbach's alpha =0.87 for test and retest. An excellent correlation between the Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool and Penetration-Aspiration score for liquid and pudding swallowing was found (p 4 demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.3% and specificity of 98.8% to predict penetration/aspiration. The Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool was shown to be a valid and reliable tool to determine penetration/aspiration risk in children. Implications for rehabilitation The pediatric eating assessment tool: a new dyphagia-specific outcome survey for children. The Pediatric Version of the Eating Assessment Tool is a dysphagia specific, parent report outcome instrument to determine penetration/aspiration risk in children. The Pediatric Version of the Eating Assessment Tool has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and criterion-based validity. The Pediatric Version of the Eating Assessment Tool may be utilized as a clinical instrument to assess the need for further instrumental

  15. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Jang, Mi-Sun; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel; Gwinner, Wilfried; Lehner, Frank; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Haller, Hermann; Wacker, Frank; Gueler, Faikah; Hueper, Katja

    2017-07-14

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. • Renal cortical T1 relaxation times are prolonged after solid organ transplantation. • Cortical T1 values increase with higher stages of renal function impairment. • Corticomedullary difference decreases with higher stages of renal function impairment. • Renal cortical T1 relaxation time and corticomedullary difference correlate with renal function. • T1 mapping may be helpful for non-invasive assessment of post-operative renal pathology.

  16. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: assessing variability in CT dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Olav; Li, Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-11-01

    The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED(adj)). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED(adj) between scanner models and across institutions. No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p = 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED(adj) that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates that were not adjusted by patient size

  17. Risk management & organizational uncertainty implications for the assessment of high consequence organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-02-23

    Post hoc analyses have demonstrated clearly that macro-system, organizational processes have played important roles in such major catastrophes as Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Exxon Valdez, Chernobyl, and Piper Alpha. How can managers of such high-consequence organizations as nuclear power plants and nuclear explosives handling facilities be sure that similar macro-system processes are not operating in their plants? To date, macro-system effects have not been integrated into risk assessments. Part of the reason for not using macro-system analyses to assess risk may be the impression that standard organizational measurement tools do not provide hard data that can be managed effectively. In this paper, I argue that organizational dimensions, like those in ISO 9000, can be quantified and integrated into standard risk assessments.

  18. Digital soil mapping in assessment of land suitability for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Kentchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Jolokhava, Tamar; Meskhi, Tea

    2017-04-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) is a fast-developing sub discipline of soil science which gets more importance along with increased availability of spatial data. DSM is based on three main components: the input in the form of field and laboratory observational methods, the process used in terms of spatial and non-spatial soil inference systems, and the output in the form of spatial soil information systems, which includes outputs in the form of rasters of prediction along with the uncertainty of prediction. Georgia is one of the countries who are under the way of spatial data infrastructure development, which includes soil related spatial data also. Therefore, it is important to demonstrate the capacity of DSM technics for planning and decision making process, in which assessment of land suitability is a major interest for those willing to grow agricultural crops. In that term land suitability assessment for establishing organic farms is in high demand as market for organically produced commodities is still increasing. It is the first attempt in Georgia to use DSM to predict areas with potential for organic farming development. Current approach is based on risk assessment of soil pollution with toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr) and prediction of bio-availability of those elements to plants on example of the region of Western Georgia, where detailed soil survey was conducted and spatial database of soil was created. The results of the study show the advantages of DSM at early stage assessment and depending on availability and quality of the input data, it can achieve acceptable accuracy.

  19. A framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure in mitigating urban flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jochen E.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Sanders, Brett F.

    2017-10-01

    This research outlines a framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure (GI) performance in mitigating flood hazard in small urban catchments. The urban hydrologic modeling tool (MUSIC) is coupled with a fine resolution 2D hydrodynamic model (BreZo) to test to what extent retrofitting an urban watershed with GI, rainwater tanks and infiltration trenches in particular, can propagate flood management benefits downstream and support intuitive flood hazard maps useful for communicating and planning with communities. The hydrologic and hydraulic models are calibrated based on current catchment conditions, then modified to represent alternative GI scenarios including a complete lack of GI versus a full implementation of GI. Flow in the hydrologic/hydraulic models is forced using a range of synthetic rainfall events with annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) between 1-63% and durations from 10 min to 24 h. Flood hazard benefits mapped by the framework include maximum flood depths and extents, flow intensity (m2/s), flood duration, and critical storm duration leading to maximum flood conditions. Application of the system to the Little Stringybark Creek (LSC) catchment shows that across the range of AEPs tested and for storm durations equal or less than 3 h, presently implemented GI reduces downstream flooded area on average by 29%, while a full implementation of GI would reduce downstream flooded area on average by 91%. A full implementation of GI could also lower maximum flow intensities by 83% on average, reducing the drowning hazard posed by urban streams and improving the potential for access by emergency responders. For storm durations longer than 3 h, a full implementation of GI lacks the capacity to retain the resulting rainfall depths and only reduces flooded area by 8% and flow intensity by 5.5%.

  20. Characterization of specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in vacuum-packed ham by culture-plating techniques and MiSeq next-generation sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Myszka, Kamila; Czarny, Jakub; Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Kowalski, Ryszard; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Staninska-Pięta, Justyna; Nowak, Jacek; Cyplik, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding microaerophilic and anaerobic specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) is crucial for an appropriate evaluation of vacuum-packed ham. The objective of this study was to characterize the SSO community in vacuum-packed ham by a culture-dependent technique and MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. The relation between changes among the SSO group in the ham and changes in sensory characteristics of the product was also assessed. In the study, conventional microbiological analyses were employed in order to establish the participation of several groups of microorganisms in the deterioration of vacuum-packed ham. The diversity of the SSO group in the product was further assessed with the use of MiSeq NGS technology. The bacteria identified in sliced cooked ham belonged mostly to four phyla, namely Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. A temperature of 4 °C favoured the development of mesophilic and psychrophilic/psychrotrophic flora, mainly Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae families. A high ratio of Brochothrix thermosphacta species and new, cold-tolerant Clostridium spp. was also observed. The growth of these microorganisms facilitated changes in the pH value and organoleptic characteristics of the product. This study confirms that the combination of culturing and MiSeq NGS technology improves the microbial evaluation of food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Assessment of CT dose to the fetus and pregnant female patient using patient-specific computational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    for assessment of the radiation risks to pregnant patients and the foetus from various CT scanning protocols, thus guiding the decision-making process. KEY POINTS: • In CT examinations, the absorbed dose is non-uniformly distributed within foetal organs. • This work reports, for the first time, estimates...

  2. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  3. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  4. An assessment of advance relatives approach for brain death organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Carine; Baumann, Antoine; Gregoire, Hélène; Laviale, Corinne; Audibert, Gérard; Ducrocq, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Advance announcement of forthcoming brain death has developed to enable intensivists and organ procurement organisation coordinators to more appropriately, and separately from each other, explain to relatives brain death and the subsequent post-mortem organ donation opportunity. Research aim: The aim was to assess how potentially involved healthcare professionals perceived ethical issues surrounding the strategy of advance approach. A multi-centre opinion survey using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in the six-member hospitals of the publicly funded East of France regional organ and tissue procurement network called 'Prélor'. The study population comprised 460 physicians and nurses in the Neurosurgical, Surgical and Medical Intensive Care Units, the Stroke Units and the Emergency Departments. Ethical considerations: The project was approved by the board of the Lorraine University Diploma in Medical Ethics and the Prélor Network administrators. A slight majority of 53.5% of respondents had previously participated in an advance relatives approach: 83% of the physicians and 42% of the nurses. A majority of healthcare professionals (68%) think that the main justification for advance relatives approach is the comprehensive care of the dying patient and the research of his or her most likely opinion (74%). The misunderstanding of the related issues by relatives is an obstacle for 47% of healthcare professionals and 51% think that the answer given by the relatives regarding the most likely opinion of the person regarding post-mortem organ donation really corresponds to the person opinion in only 50% of the cases or less. Time given by advance approach should be employed to help and enable relatives to authentically bear the values and interests of the potential donor in the post-mortem organ donation discussion. Nurses' attendance of advance relatives approach seems necessary to enable them to optimally support the families facing death and

  5. Assessing the Dynamics of Organic Aerosols over the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Jérôme; Hassler, Christel; Ibelings, Bas; Berti, Nicolas; Bigorre, Sébastien; Djambazova, Violeta; Gascon-Diez, Elena; Giuliani, Grégory; Houlmann, Raphaël; Kiselev, Denis; de Laborie, Pierric; Le, Anh-Dao; Magouroux, Thibaud; Neri, Tristan; Palomino, Daniel; Pfändler, Stéfanie; Ray, Nicolas; Sousa, Gustavo; Staedler, Davide; Tettamanti, Federico; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Beniston, Martin

    2017-03-31

    The influence of aerosols on climate is highly dependent on the particle size distribution, concentration, and composition. In particular, the latter influences their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei, whereby they impact cloud coverage and precipitation. Here, we simultaneously measured the concentration of aerosols from sea spray over the North Atlantic on board the exhaust-free solar-powered vessel "PlanetSolar", and the sea surface physico-chemical parameters. We identified organic-bearing particles based on individual particle fluorescence spectra. Organic-bearing aerosols display specific spatio-temporal distributions as compared to total aerosols. We propose an empirical parameterization of the organic-bearing particle concentration, with a dependence on water salinity and sea-surface temperature only. We also show that a very rich mixture of organic aerosols is emitted from the sea surface. Such data will certainly contribute to providing further insight into the influence of aerosols on cloud formation, and be used as input for the improved modeling of aerosols and their role in global climate processes.

  6. Environmental assessment of applicability of mineral-organic composite for landfill area rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerna, Kamila; Król, Anna; Mróz, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    This paper undertakes an assessment of the impact of a mineral-organic composite on the environment as well as the potential for its application for land rehabilitation purposes. The analysis involves the release of the leachable contaminations from the material subjected to testing. This material was formed by a composite manufactured on the basis of communal bottom ash and stabilized sewage sludge. The sludge resulting from wastewater treatment was subjected to stabilization and dehydration in waste pounds at the phase of pre-watering until 20% of dry mass is obtained. Subsequently, they were mixed with bottom ash, which was obtained from selective waste collection, in a 1:1 mass ratio. The analysis involved the leaching of inorganic contaminants in the form of heavy metals, sulphates (VI), chlorides, and fluorides as well as organic compounds in the form of organic carbon solution under the effect of leachant with a various level of pH. The analysed components were characterized by various leaching behaviour depending on the leachant pH. On the basis of the results, it was able to assess the potential hazard posed by the examined material on the environment as a consequence of its application for landfill area rehabilitation.

  7. Review of Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Quality of Care Measures: Considerations for Assessing Accountable Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, Eric; Pegany, Vishaal; Keolanui, Beth; Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Shortell, Stephen M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have proliferated under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). If ACOs are to improve health care quality and lower costs, quality measures will be increasingly important in determining if provider consolidations associated with the development of ACOs are achieving their intended purpose. This article assesses quality measurement across public and private sectors. We reviewed available quality measures for a subset of programs in six organizations and assessed the number and domain of measures (structure, process, outcomes, and patient experience). Two-thirds of all quality measures were categorized as process measures. Outcome measures made up nearly 20 percent of measures. Patient experience and structure measures made up approximately 8 percent and 7 percent, respectively. We propose further improvements to quality measurement initiatives. For example, programs that reward providers should consider reward size and distribution within the organization. Quality improvement initiatives should consider what encourages provider buy-in and participation and the effects on populations with disproportionate health care needs. As the focus of quality initiatives may change from year to year, measures should be periodically revisited to ensure continued improvement and sustainability. Finally, we suggest quality measures that regulators could use prior to ACO formation or in the year or two following formation. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  8. Preliminary assessment of contaminants in the sediment and organisms of the Swartkops Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, L; Strydom, N A; Bouwman, H

    2015-12-30

    Urban estuaries are susceptible to metal and organic pollution, yet most remain understudied in South Africa with respect to the presence, concentrations and distribution of contaminants. Metal and organic chemical concentrations were assessed in sediment and organisms from different trophic levels in the lower reaches of the Swartkops Estuary. Species sampled included Upogebia africana (Malacostraca: Upogebiidae), Gilchristella aestuaria (Clupeidae), Psammogobius knysnaensis (Gobiidae), Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), Lichia amia (Carangidae), Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae), Pomadasys commersonnii (Haemulidae) and Larus dominicanus (Avis: Laridae). This study is one of the most comprehensive studies to date assessing pollution levels in a food web in estuaries in South Africa. Due to biomagnification, higher concentrations of Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and Cadmium were found in the juveniles stages of popular angling fishes. High concentrations of Cadmium and Arsenic were recorded in the liver of L. amia, A. japonicus and P. commersonnii which exceed international quality food guidelines. Eggs from the gull, L. dominicanus, showed detectable concentrations of PCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental assessment of applicability of mineral-organic composite for landfill area rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizerna Kamila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes an assessment of the impact of a mineral-organic composite on the environment as well as the potential for its application for land rehabilitation purposes. The analysis involves the release of the leachable contaminations from the material subjected to testing. This material was formed by a composite manufactured on the basis of communal bottom ash and stabilized sewage sludge. The sludge resulting from wastewater treatment was subjected to stabilization and dehydration in waste pounds at the phase of pre-watering until 20% of dry mass is obtained. Subsequently, they were mixed with bottom ash, which was obtained from selective waste collection, in a 1:1 mass ratio. The analysis involved the leaching of inorganic contaminants in the form of heavy metals, sulphates (VI, chlorides, and fluorides as well as organic compounds in the form of organic carbon solution under the effect of leachant with a various level of pH. The analysed components were characterized by various leaching behaviour depending on the leachant pH. On the basis of the results, it was able to assess the potential hazard posed by the examined material on the environment as a consequence of its application for landfill area rehabilitation.

  10. Consequences of intra-specific metabolic diversity in plants for soil organisms : a baseline approach for evaluating ecological effects of genetic modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.

    2012-01-01

    Plant intra-specific variation, i.e. variation within a plant species, is known to affect organisms that are directly associated to plants. These effects may be due to for example differences in nutritional quality or defensive metabolites. Plant intra-specific variation can also affect higher

  11. Formative Assessment as a Vehicle for Changing Classroom Practice in a Specific Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then…

  12. Assessment of Tetracyclines Residues and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Conventional and Organic Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarddon, Mónica; Miranda, José M; Vázquez, Beatriz I; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2015-07-22

    Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet (A) and tet (B), between conventional and organic meat-based or vegetable-based baby foods and used the quantification of these genes to assess the presence of tetracycline residues in these samples. Counts of bacteria harboring the tet (A) gene were higher than those containing tet (B), and there was no difference between the organic and the conventional samples. Samples with detectable amounts of tetracycline residues were also positive for the presence of tet genes, and when the presence of the genes was not detected, the samples were also negative for the presence of residues. The percentages of tetracycline residues were higher in organic samples than in conventional ones. It cannot be concluded that organic formulas are safer than conventional ones for the studied parameters.

  13. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.

  14. Assessment of Tetracyclines Residues and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Conventional and Organic Baby Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guarddon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet(A and tet(B, between conventional and organic meat-based or vegetable-based baby foods and used the quantification of these genes to assess the presence of tetracycline residues in these samples. Counts of bacteria harboring the tet(A gene were higher than those containing tet(B, and there was no difference between the organic and the conventional samples. Samples with detectable amounts of tetracycline residues were also positive for the presence of tet genes, and when the presence of the genes was not detected, the samples were also negative for the presence of residues. The percentages of tetracycline residues were higher in organic samples than in conventional ones. It cannot be concluded that organic formulas are safer than conventional ones for the studied parameters.

  15. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zomitsa; Penn, John H

    2015-11-10

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were investigated. Our students perceived the online homework as one of the more useful course aspects for learning organic chemistry content. We found a moderate and statistically significant correlation between online homework performance and final grade. Gender as a variable was ruled out since significant gender differences in overall attitude toward online homework use and course success rates were not found. Our students expressed relatively positive attitudes toward use of online homework with a majority indicating improved study habits (e.g., study in a more consistent manner). Our students used a variety of resources to remediate incorrect responses (e.g., class materials, general online materials, and help from others). However, 39% of our students admitted to guessing at times, instead of working to remediate incorrect responses. In large enrollment organic chemistry courses, online homework may act to bridge the student-instructor gap by providing students with a supportive mechanism for regulated learning of content.

  16. Quantitative assessment of dynamic electroencephalogram (EEG) organization as a tool for subtyping depressive syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, G; Fürstenberg, U

    1999-07-01

    Up until now, no subclassification of affective psychoses has been validated biologically. This follows unavoidably from a research practice of defining diagnostic subtypes in consensus conferences and only thereafter allowing their validation. There is evidence that electroencephalograms (EEG) may be a useful tool in psychiatry, provided that the relevant information is extracted. Our EEG quantification procedure aims at an assessment of both the amount and range of variation of spontaneous changes of topographical alpha-power distribution, developing within a certain period of recording under resting conditions. Our measures were designed to characterize the dynamic organization of the EEG. This is quite obviously an eyeball evaluation but it has nevertheless been neglected in research. The study design was done retrospectively. Included were inpatients with a primary depressive disorder. Main exclusion criteria were an age older than 62 years and psychotropic drugs other than antidepressants. The psychopathology and other clinical data were routinely assessed within three days after admission by the AMDP documentation. An EEG was also routinely performed at admission. We made use of robust, generally known non-parametric statistics. Those patients who exhibited a dynamically rigid EEG are especially prone to recurrences, have a relative late onset of their illness, and show an acute symptomatology characterized by organic-like features. The findings lend support to our contention that the quantitative assessment of the dynamics of the EEG-Gestalt allows the delimitation of a clinically important subtype that is characterized both cross-sectionally and in long-term respects.

  17. Formation of nickel-doped magnetite hollow nanospheres with high specific surface area and superior removal capability for organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhu; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2016-12-01

    A strategy for the formation of magnetic Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres with very high specific surface areas was designed through a facile solvothermal method in mixed solvents of ethylene glycol and water in this work. The Ni/Fe ratios and the crystal phases of the Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanocrystals can be readily tuned by changing the molar ratios of Ni to Fe in the precursors. An inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism was proposed for the formation of uniform Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres. Moreover, the obtained Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres exhibited excellent adsorption capacity towards organic molecules such as Congo red in water. The maximum adsorption capacities of Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres for Congo red increase dramatically from 263 to 500 mg g-1 with the increase of the Ni contents (x) in Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres from 0.2 to 0.85. The synthesized Ni x Fe3-x O4 nanoparticles can be potentially applied for waste water treatment.

  18. Site-specific economic and ecological analysis of enhanced production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorfer, J; Schwarz, M M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the cost structure and ecological performance of biomethane production and feed-in from organic wastes and manure in a site-specific approach for Upper Austria. The theoretically available quantities of biowaste and manure can feed representative biogas plant capacities resulting in relatively high biomethane full costs in the natural gas grid of at least 9.0 €-cents/kWh, which shows strong economies of scale when feed-in flows of methane from 30 to 120 Nm(3)/h are considered. From the ecological point of view small plant capacities are to be preferred since the environmental effect, i.e. the global warming potential (up to -22% of CO(2eq)), is lower in comparison to higher capacities as a consequence of reduced transport in the evaluated scenarios. To enforce the combined energetic use of the biowaste fraction, co-operation between compost facility, gas grid and biogas plant operators is necessary to use existing infrastructure, logistics and knowledge to promote the production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from biowastes at attractive locations in Upper Austria and in the whole of Europe.

  19. Organ-specific activation of the gastric branch of the efferent vagus nerve by ghrelin in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habara, Hiromi; Hayashi, Yujiro; Inomata, Norio; Niijima, Akira; Kangawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin plays multiple physiological roles such as growth hormone secretion and exerting orexigenic actions; however, its physiological roles in the electrical activity of autonomic nerves remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of human ghrelin on several autonomic nerve activities in urethane-anesthetized rats using an electrophysiological method. Intravenous injection of ghrelin at 3 μg/kg significantly and transiently potentiated the efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve; however, it did not affect the efferent activity of the hepatic vagus nerve. The activated response to ghrelin in the gastric efferent vagus nerve was not affected by the gastric afferent vagotomy, suggesting that this effect was not induced via the gastric afferent vagus nerve. Ghrelin did not affect the efferent activity of the brown adipose tissue, adrenal gland sympathetic nerve, and the renal sympathetic nerve. In addition, rectal temperature and the plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, corticosterone, and renin were also not changed by ghrelin. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin stimulates the gastric efferent vagus nerve in an organ-specific manner without affecting the gastric afferent vagus nerve and that ghrelin does not acutely affect the efferent basal activity of the sympathetic nerve in rats.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION, THE DONOR RESOURCE AND PLANNING OF THE EFFECTIVE NETWORK OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS (THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the requirement of the population of the Russian Federation for an organ transplantation and donor resource, to offer approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation. Materials and methods. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the patients receiving a dialysis, data about medical care on an organ transplantation in Russia and foreign countries is made. Results. On the basis of what the assessment of requirement of the population of the Russian Federation in an organ transplantation and donor resource is carried out, approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation and scenarios of development of organ do- nation and transplantation in Russia is offered. Conclusion. To provide the population of the Russian Federation with medical care on an organ transplantation according to real requirement and donor resource, in each region of the Russian Federation have to be organized deceased organ donation and transplantation of a cadaveric kidney. But the transplantation of extrarenal organs is better to develop in the federal centers of hi-tech medical care with donor providing from territories of adjacent regions. 

  1. World Health Organization regional assessments of the risks of poliovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Sara A; Roesel, Sigrun; O'Connor, Patrick; Landaverde, Mauricio; Oblapenko, George; Deshevoi, Sergei; Ajay, Goel; Buff, Ann; Safwat, Hala; Salla, Mbaye; Tangermann, Rudi; Khetsuriani, Nino; Martin, Rebecca; Wassilak, Steven

    2013-04-01

    While global polio eradication requires tremendous efforts in countries where wild polioviruses (WPVs) circulate, numerous outbreaks have occurred following WPV importation into previously polio-free countries. Countries that have interrupted endemic WPV transmission should continue to conduct routine risk assessments and implement mitigation activities to maintain their polio-free status as long as wild poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. This article reviews the methods used by World Health Organization (WHO) regional offices to qualitatively assess risk of WPV outbreaks following an importation. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of various risk assessment approaches, and opportunities to harmonize approaches. These qualitative assessments broadly categorize risk as high, medium, or low using available national information related to susceptibility, the ability to rapidly detect WPV, and other population or program factors that influence transmission, which the regions characterize using polio vaccination coverage, surveillance data, and other indicators (e.g., sanitation), respectively. Data quality and adequacy represent a challenge in all regions. WHO regions differ with respect to the methods, processes, cut-off values, and weighting used, which limits comparisons of risk assessment results among regions. Ongoing evaluation of indicators within regions and further harmonization of methods between regions are needed to effectively plan risk mitigation activities in a setting of finite resources for funding and continued WPV circulation. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of long-term organic rice production in a Subtropical area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueqing, He; Qiao, Yuhui; Liang, Long

    2018-01-01

    conversion and compare it to conventional rice (CR) in subtropical China. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to assess environmental impact of rice production systems with regard to nine environmental impact categories: Non-renewable Energy Depletion (NED), Water Depletion (WD), Land Occupation......Organic farming is considered as a promising solution for reducing the environmental burden related to agricultural practices. China is one of the top-five countries with the largest organic area in the world and produces a major part of the world's organic rice. Rice cultivation causes...... a considerable environmental impact and changing from conventional to organic rice cultivation might therefore have a potentially great impact. Meanwhile, it takes time for the organic farming systems to reach a new steady state after conversion to organic. Thus, the environmental profile of the organic products...

  3. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  4. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting

    2016-02-01

    Low impact development (LID) practices have become more important in urban stormwater management worldwide. However, most research on design optimization focuses on relatively large scale, and there is very limited information or guideline regarding individual LID practice designs (i.e., optimal depth, width and length). The objective of this study is to identify the optimal design by assessing the hydrological performance and the cost-effectiveness of different designs of LID practices at a household or business scale, and to analyze the sensitivity of the hydrological performance and the cost of the optimal design to different model and design parameters. First, EPA SWMM, automatically controlled by MATLAB, is used to obtain the peak runoff of different designs of three specific LID practices (i.e., green roof, bioretention and porous pavement) under different design storms (i.e., 2 yr and 50 yr design storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, U.S.). Then, life cycle cost is estimated for the different designs, and the optimal design, defined as the design with the lowest cost and at least 20% peak runoff reduction, is identified. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal design to the different design parameters is examined. The optimal design of green roof tends to be larger in area but thinner, while the optimal designs of bioretention and porous pavement tend to be smaller in area. To handle larger storms, however, it is more effective to increase the green roof depth, and to increase the area of the bioretention and porous pavement. Porous pavement is the most cost-effective for peak flow reduction, followed by bioretention and then green roof. The cost-effectiveness, measured as the peak runoff reduction/thousand Dollars of LID practices in Hong Kong (e.g., 0.02 L/103 US s, 0.15 L/103 US s and 0.93 L/103 US s for green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm) is lower than that in Seattle (e.g., 0.03 L/103 US s, 0.29 L/103 US s and 1.58 L/103 US s for

  5. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  6. [Organizational well-being and work-related stress in health care organizations: validation of the Work-related Stress Assessment Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Anna; Lorini, Francesca; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Gaetani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the assessment of work-related stress has stimulated in recent years, the production of several theoretical paradigms and assessment tools. In this paper we present a new scale for the assessment of organizational well-being and work-related stress specific for healthcare organizations (Work-related Stress Assessment Scale - WSAS). The goal of the authors is to examine the psychometric properties of the scale, so that it can be used in the healthcare setting as a work-related stress assessment tool. The answers of 230 healthcare professionals belonging to different roles have been analyzed. The study was realized in 16 Units of the University Hospital "S. Maria alle Scotte "of Siena. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed the presence of five factors with good internal consistency and reliability, "relationship to the structure of proximity" (α = 0.93) "change" (α = 0.92), "organization of work "(α = 0.81)," relationship with the company / Governance "(α = 0.87)" working environment "(α = 0.83). The analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Models) has confirmed the goodness of the factor solution (NNFI = 0.835, CFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.060). The good psychometric qualities, the shortness and simplicity of the scale WSAS makes it a useful aid in the assessment of work-related stress in health care organizations.

  7. Assessment reactivity: A randomized controlled trial of alcohol-specific measures on alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nate; Leffingwell, Thad

    2017-04-01

    Completion of alcohol assessments influences treatment outcomes, yet little is known about the aspects of assessment that may contribute to this response. The present study is a randomized controlled trial examining how the themes of alcohol assessments (e.g., assessment of alcohol-related consequences as opposed to drinking patterns) may affect drinking behaviors. Undergraduate students (N=290, Mage=19.97, SDage=1.81, 61.7% female), reporting at least one binge drinking episode during the past month, completed one of five baseline assessment batteries that varied thematically: (a) Control (e.g., minimal drinking quantity and frequency questions), (b) Consequences (e.g., College Alcohol Problems Scale; CAPS-r), (c) Norms (e.g., Drinking Norms Rating Form), (d) Diagnostic (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), and (e) Combined (all themes). Participants completed a one-month follow-up of drinking quantity/frequency and the CAPS-r. All groups decreased their self-reported peak drinks consumed (palcohol-related consequences (p=0.06, ηp(2)=0.03) from baseline to follow-up. Minimal assessment of drinking quantity and frequency may result in assessment reactivity. Reductions in markers of risky drinking behaviors did not differ as a function of the type of assessments completed (e.g., Consequences vs Diagnostic). Continued research is needed to determine what other important variables (e.g., treatment seeking) may affect assessment reactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Preliminary Examination of Specific Risk Assessment for Sexual Offenders against Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeve, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Specific risk questions concerning sexual offending, such as risk of offending against male victims given identified female victims, have seldom been discussed in the child sexual abuse literature. Two approaches to specific risk questions are described: (a) conditional probability calculations, and (b) the development of risk assessment…

  9. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids specifically remote static pulse systems on the welfare of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel; Casey, Rachel; Blackwell, Emily; Van Driel, Katja; Lines, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed the welfare of dogs trained with pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse collar systems (e-collars). Previous work has focused on a very limited number of devices in a very limited range of contexts and the evidence of the impact of such devices on dog's overall quality of life is inconclusive. Project AW1402 aimed to assess the physical characteristics of the e-collars and the physiological, behavioural and psychological consequences of their use in dog trai...

  10. Assessment of methods for organic and inorganic carbon quantification in carbonate-containing Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesteguia, Marcos; Virto, Iñigo; Plante, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and fluxes continues to be an important endeavor in assessments of soil quality, and more broadly in assessments of ecosystem functioning. The quantification of SOM in alkaline, carbonate-containing soils, such as those found in Mediterranean areas, is complicated by the need to differentiate between organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC), which continues to present methodological challenges. Acidification is frequently used to eliminate carbonates prior to soil OC quantification, but when performed in the liquid phase, can promote the dissolution and loss of a portion of the OC. Acid fumigation (AF) is increasingly preferred for carbonate removal, but its effectiveness is difficult to assess using conventional elemental and isotopic analyses. In addition, the potential effects of AF on SOM are not well characterized. The objective of the current study was to apply a multi-method approach to determine the efficacy of carbonate removal by AF and its effects on the residual SOM. We selected a set of 24 surface agricultural soils representing a large range of textures, SOM contents and presumed carbonate contents. For each soil, OC was determined using wet combustion (Walkley-Black) and IC was determined using the calcimeter method. Samples were then subjected to elemental (total C) and isotopic (δ13C) analyses by dry combustion using a Costech autoanalyzer coupled to a Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) before and after AF. IC was equated to total C determined after fumigation, and OC was estimated as the different in total C before and after AF. Samples were also subjected to ramped oxidation using a Netzsch STA109 PC Luxx thermal analyzer coupled to a LICOR 820A infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). Quantification of OC was performed using evolved gas analysis of CO2 (CO2-EGA) in the exothermic region 200-500° C associated with organic matter combustion. IC was quantified by CO2-EGA

  11. [Diagnostic imaging in polytrauma: comparison of radiation exposure from whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedegärtner, U; Lorenzen, M; Nagel, H D; Weber, C; Adam, G

    2004-07-01

    To compare the radiation dose of whole-body multislice CT (MSCT) and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT in polytrauma. The whole-body MSCT encompassing brain, neck and midface, chest, abdomen and pelvis was performed on a Somatom Volume Zoom (Siemens). Conventional radiography consisted of chest and cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine in two views as well as pelvis (Polymat, Siemens). Three combinations of organ specific CT were chosen: CT examination of (1) head and cervical spine, (2) head, cervical spine and chest, (3) head, cervical spine and abdomen. The effective doses of whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT were calculated. Effective doses were 20 mSv for whole-body MSCT, 2 mSv for conventional x-ray, and 5 mSv for combination (1), 8 mSv for combination (2) and (3) 16 mSv for combination (3) of the organ-specific CT. The ratio of radiation dose between whole-body MSCT and radiography was 10 : 1. This ratio was reduced to 3 : 1, 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 when a combination of radiography and CT was performed. Whole-body MSCT in polytrauma compared to conventional radiography with organ-specific CT induces a threefold increased dose in unfavorable situations and no increased dose in favorable situations. Nevertheless, routine use of whole-body MSCT should be critically evaluated and should be adapted to the clinical benefit.

  12. Evaluating the Use of Criteria for Assessing Profession-Specific Communication Skills in Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvarinen, Marja-Leena; Tanskanen, Paavo; Katajavuori, Nina; Isotalus, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    One central task in higher education is to provide students with interpersonal communication competence in their profession. To achieve this, specialised training, based on an understanding of disciplinary communication practices and appropriate assessment methods, is needed. However, there is a lack of reliable assessment instruments which are…

  13. A Classroom-Based Assessment Method to Test Speaking Skills in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola Colomar, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents and analyses a classroom-based assessment method to test students' speaking skills in a variety of professional settings in tourism. The assessment system has been implemented in the Communication in English for Tourism course, as part of the Tourism Management degree programme, at Florida Universitaria (affiliated to the…

  14. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the ecological assessment task, Kingfisher Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation Ecological Assessment Task, Kingfisher Study, including information that will contribute to safe completion of the project. The report includes historical background; a site map; project organization; task descriptions and hazard evaluations; controls; and monitoring, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and medical surveillance program requirements. The report also includes descriptions of site personnel and their certifications as well as suspected WAG 2 contaminants and their characteristics. The primary objective of the WAG 2 Kingfisher Study is to assess the feasibility of using kingfishers as biological monitors of contaminants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Kingfisher sample collection will be used to determine the levels of contaminants and degree of bioaccumulation within a common piscivorous bird feeding on contaminated fish from streams on the ORR.

  15. Layer specific geostatistical coregionalisation of soil organic carbon utilising terrain attributes and spatial patterns of soil redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugoß, V.; Fiener, P.; Schneider, K.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution soil organic carbon (SOC) maps are a major prerequisite for many environmental studies dealing with carbon stocks and fluxes as well as for biogeochemical modelling. Hence, the development of time and cost effective mapping methods is an important issue. In most cases these maps are interpolated based on measured point SOC data with different horizontal resolution, whereas additional secondary (terrain) information is often utilised. In this study the potential of external drift kriging (EDK) to improve the soil layer specific (I: 0-0.25 m, II: 0.25-0.5 m and III: 0.5-0.9 m) interpolation of SOC concentrations in a hilly 4.2 ha agriculturally used catchment was tested using three different input data densities (6, 16.9, and 37.9 soil samples/ha). A number of covariables were used in EDK with a special focus on those representing processes of soil moisture distribution and soil redistribution. The later was, among others, represented by the results of a relatively simple and robust water and tillage erosion model (WaTEM/SEDEM). With the EDK method a significant improvement of the precision of SOC maps derived from different input data densities was observed particularly for deeper soil layers. While in the plough layer only slight improvements could be found, covariables representing soil moisture distribution and especially soil redistribution substantially improved predictions in the two subsoil layers. A maximum relative improvement of 15.5% was found for soil layer III (16.9 soil samples/ha; Root Mean Square Error 0.153% kg kg-1). Comparing EDK results of medium and low resolution SOC input data (16.9 and 6 samples/ha) with OK results of high resolution inputs (37.9 samples/ha) shows a similar or even improved precision for soil layers I and III, while the reduction of input data density could not be fully compensated utilising covariables in soil layer II. In general, the results indicate the potential of EDK to improve SOC maps and to reduce