WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing notorious contributing

  1. FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE): Perspective on Taxonomy Development to Support Error Reporting and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lon N. Haney; David I. Gertman

    2003-04-01

    Beginning in the 1980s a primary focus of human reliability analysis was estimation of human error probabilities. However, detailed qualitative modeling with comprehensive representation of contextual variables often was lacking. This was likely due to the lack of comprehensive error and performance shaping factor taxonomies, and the limited data available on observed error rates and their relationship to specific contextual variables. In the mid 90s Boeing, America West Airlines, NASA Ames Research Center and INEEL partnered in a NASA sponsored Advanced Concepts grant to: assess the state of the art in human error analysis, identify future needs for human error analysis, and develop an approach addressing these needs. Identified needs included the need for a method to identify and prioritize task and contextual characteristics affecting human reliability. Other needs identified included developing comprehensive taxonomies to support detailed qualitative modeling and to structure meaningful data collection efforts across domains. A result was the development of the FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE) with a taxonomy for airline maintenance tasks. The assignment of performance shaping factors to generic errors by experts proved to be valuable to qualitative modeling. Performance shaping factors and error types from such detailed approaches can be used to structure error reporting schemes. In a recent NASA Advanced Human Support Technology grant FRANCIE was refined, and two new taxonomies for use on space missions were developed. The development, sharing, and use of error taxonomies, and the refinement of approaches for increased fidelity of qualitative modeling is offered as a means to help direct useful data collection strategies.

  2. Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film

    OpenAIRE

    Arlindo Castro

    2008-01-01

    The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain react...

  3. Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Castro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain reaction which will flash-bum the world to a clinker?”l To overcome that fear of the nuclear apocalypse, according to the add, readers should learn more and more about “the big mysteries of our atomic age,” beginning by checking her or his score in the “Time’s Quiz on Science.” If they happened to go to Radio City Music Hall, Notorious would reassure them that the U.S. was doing well in preventing obstinate Nazis from making an atomic bomb, though at that moment of the nuclear espionage war, former Manhattan Project insider Klaus Fuchs had actually passed on to a Soviet contact in London classified information about the Manhattan Project and American atomic plans.2 Indeed, in that transitional period between World War II and the Cold War, the major political villains were still Nazis, not Communists, as exemplified by other 1946 films like Orson Welles’ The Stranger, Charles Vidor’s Gilda, and Edward Dmytryk’s Cornered. The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain reaction which will

  4. Constraints on coastal dune invasion for a notorious plant invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Alden B; Ahmed, Tania; Hildner, Abigail L G; Kuckreja, Shivani; Long, Shuangxou

    2015-11-10

    Although most biological invasions are not successful, relatively few studies have examined otherwise notorious invaders in systems where they are not highly problematic. The annual grass Bromus tectorum is a dominant invader in western North America, but is usually confined to human-dominated and disturbed systems (e.g. roadsides and parking lots) in the East where it remains virtually unstudied. This study aims to address fundamental ecological questions regarding B. tectorum in a Cape Cod dune ecosystem. (i) What is the range of variation in population dynamics and the potential for population growth? (ii) Which factors influence its local abundance and distribution? We observed substantial variation in population dynamics over 3 years, with the number of adult B. tectorum individuals increasing substantially between the first 2 years (λ = 9.24) and then decreasing (λ = 0.43). Population growth in terms of total seeds was similarly variable, but to a lesser extent (λ = 2.32 followed by λ = 0.32). Experimental soil disturbance led to a more than 10-fold increase in mean seedling emergence, and high sensitivity to differences in emergence carried this effect through the life cycle. In contrast, barriers to seed dispersal had no effect on population dynamics, suggesting limited dispersal in this system. Across the landscape, the presence of B. tectorum was associated with areas of higher plant diversity as opposed to those with a strong dominant (e.g. the foredune, dominated by Ammophila breviligulata, or low heathlands, characterized by Hudsonia tomentosa and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi). Overall, we find that B. tectorum is capable of both substantial population growth and decline in a dune ecosystem, but is likely limited without disturbance and dispersal agents. Thus, management actions that restrict dune access (e.g. for nesting habitat) likely have the co-benefit of limiting the invasive potential of B. tectorum.

  5. The Inconsistency Between The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wen-hua

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares Mark Twain’s The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and The Man That Corrupted Had⁃leyburg, in terms of their stylistic and semantic inconsistency, specifically, their narrative technique and moral vision.

  6. Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E. Parece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known urban heat island (UHI effect recognizes prevailing patterns of warmer urban temperatures relative to surrounding rural landscapes. Although UHIs are often visualized as single features, internal variations within urban landscapes create distinctive microclimates. Evaluating intraurban microclimate variability presents an opportunity to assess spatial dimensions of urban environments and identify locations that heat or cool faster than other locales. Our study employs mobile weather units and fixed weather stations to collect air temperatures across Roanoke, Virginia, USA, on selected dates over a two-year interval. Using this temperature data, together with six landscape variables, we interpolated (using Kriging and Random Forest air temperatures across the city for each collection period. Our results estimated temperatures with small mean square errors (ranging from 0.03 to 0.14; landscape metrics explained between 60 and 91% of temperature variations (higher when the previous day’s average temperatures were included as a variable. For all days, similar spatial patterns appeared for cooler and warmer areas in mornings, with distinctive patterns as landscapes warmed during the day and over successive days. Our results revealed that the most potent landscape variables vary according to season and time of day. Our analysis contributes new dimensions and new levels of spatial and temporal detail to urban microclimate research.

  7. 77 FR 48583 - 2012 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Notorious Markets (``Notorious Markets List'') results in the publication of examples of Internet and... of marketplaces that deal in infringing goods and which help sustain global piracy and counterfeiting. USTR is hereby requesting written submissions from the public identifying potential Internet...

  8. 75 FR 60854 - 2010 Special 301 Out of Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... report is the ``Notorious Markets'' list, which is a compilation of examples of Internet and physical... highlight the problem of marketplaces that deal in infringing goods and help sustain global piracy and... identifying potential Internet and physical notorious markets that exist outside the United States....

  9. Contribution to DEMO reactor RH maintenance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this paper is a preliminary assessment of the maintenance scheme in support of the European study for the next generation of fusion reactor: DEMO. Despite other fusion machine requiring remote handling maintenance operations, DEMO is supposed to work under steady state operational conditions. Therefore, requirement on the maintenance scheme is stronger. To target a good availability of the machine along machine operation plan, it is necessary to draw an adequate maintenance scheme. Indeed, due to the high fluxes generated by the plasma in the vacuum vessel, the first wall lifetime is limited, so the frequent replacement is necessary. On current fusion experimental machine, as first wall load conditions are less severe, DEMO condition implies high level of requirement on maintenance time. During DEMO lifetime, several full first wall replacements are expected. To provide access to the vacuum vessel machine for first wall removal, preparatory work is required to set the machine to adequate maintenance conditions and to open the machine properly, the same situation at the end of the maintenance period. Shutdown duration for first wall replacement should be as short as possible to reach the availability target of the machine. From this statement, the maintenance duration should not exceed 20% of the total lifetime of the reactor operation. First wall segmentation (i.e. total number of component to replace) has a high impact onto the replacement time. Considering the number of feasible designs for the first wall segmentation, we concentrate remote handling concept assessments one type of segmentation, the one minimizing the numbers of modules to replace . Assumption on Divertor segmentation for these DEMO studies have similarities with Divertor ITER design; therefore ITER design output is relevant . We assume divertor removal performed in shadow time, while removing the other first wall modules.

  10. Contribution to DEMO reactor RH maintenance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemason, Julie [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive 18 route du Panorama, BP6, FONTENAY AUX ROSES, F-92265 (France)], E-mail: julie.bonnemason@cea.fr; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive 18 route du Panorama, BP6, FONTENAY AUX ROSES, F-92265 (France); Maisonnier, David [EFDA, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Perrot, Yann [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive 18 route du Panorama, BP6, FONTENAY AUX ROSES, F-92265 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The scope of this paper is a preliminary assessment of the maintenance scheme in support of the European study for the next generation of fusion reactor: DEMO. Despite other fusion machine requiring remote handling maintenance operations, DEMO is supposed to work under steady state operational conditions. Therefore, requirement on the maintenance scheme is stronger. To target a good availability of the machine along machine operation plan, it is necessary to draw an adequate maintenance scheme. Indeed, due to the high fluxes generated by the plasma in the vacuum vessel, the first wall lifetime is limited, so the frequent replacement is necessary. On current fusion experimental machine, as first wall load conditions are less severe, DEMO condition implies high level of requirement on maintenance time. During DEMO lifetime, several full first wall replacements are expected. To provide access to the vacuum vessel machine for first wall removal, preparatory work is required to set the machine to adequate maintenance conditions and to open the machine properly, the same situation at the end of the maintenance period. Shutdown duration for first wall replacement should be as short as possible to reach the availability target of the machine. From this statement, the maintenance duration should not exceed 20% of the total lifetime of the reactor operation. First wall segmentation (i.e. total number of component to replace) has a high impact onto the replacement time. Considering the number of feasible designs for the first wall segmentation, we concentrate remote handling concept assessments one type of segmentation, the one minimizing the numbers of modules to replace . Assumption on Divertor segmentation for these DEMO studies have similarities with Divertor ITER design; therefore ITER design output is relevant . We assume divertor removal performed in shadow time, while removing the other first wall modules.

  11. Peer-Assessing Peers' Contribution to EFL Group Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…

  12. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenzel, Paula V.; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view c

  13. Duration perception: assessing contributions of lower and higher level processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegl, Katrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Although time perception in the milliseconds to seconds range is crucial for human perception and performance, it is known that time perception is prone to distortions. In current models of duration perception, effects of arousal and attention are stressed. In the present work, the contributions of lower level sensory and higher level cognitive processes are assessed, and methods are developed helping to disentangle these influences. In a first series of experiments, effects of the retinal...

  14. Health technology assessment: the contribution of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The pragmatism in health care has made health technology assessment (HTA) restrict its scope to a particular set of problems, c.q. methods. The "multidisciplinary and comprehensive nature" of HTA, as the concept is presented in certain definitions, is lacking. Health care is also dominated by a positivistic-rationalistic approach of evaluation. In contrast, social studies of evaluations learn that a major difference has to be made between scientific research on (potential) impact of a technology and valuing these effects. In this contribution, we will discuss how the positivistic scientific bias of current HTA practice can be made up with other research traditions. More specifically, we focus on the question of how social scientists and particularly how qualitative research can contribute to HTA, complementary to positivistic studies of evidence and efficacy. PMID:12862189

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  16. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  17. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  18. Exploring assessment factors contributing to students' study strategies: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    "Assessment steers students' learning" is a statement that has been used repeatedly without solid evidence in the literature. This manuscript aims to evaluate the published literatures on the effect of teaching learning environment in particular, the implemented assessment on students' learning appr

  19. Middle School Assessments that Contribute to Literacy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Whitley, Meredith A.; Manson, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in physical education is not new. What is new is a national focus on teacher evaluation systems that include the use of student achievement scores from administered assessments. An additional educational focus is on the implementation of Common Core Learning Standards in all subject areas, including physical education. Physical…

  20. National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available National Forest Inventories are the most complete source of information on forests, and are also a potential important tool for assess and monitoring status and trends in forest biodiversity, Nevertheless, according to Chirici et al., the current inventories have some limitations and should be improved mainly to increase the harmonisation of the field protocols and to enhance the collection of non-tree forest information that are important for the biodiversity assessment.

  1. Contribution for the vulnerability assessment of water pipe network systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Jorge; Afonso, Luís; Varajão, João; Bentes, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; António A. L. S. Duarte; Agarwal, Jitendra

    2010-01-01

    Water pipe network systems are key public utilities which require being robust, protected and preserved. Knowing their weaknesses will help these processes. The theory of vulnerability of water pipe networks can contribute in this context because it is able to map the vulnerable parts of this type of system. The meaning of vulnerability has been defined as being the disproportionateness of the failure consequences in relation to the initial damage and, in particular, its theoretical concepts....

  2. Constructive Evaluation: A Pedagogy of Student-Contributed Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton-Reilly, Andrew; Denny, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We present an innovative pedagogical approach that we call "constructive evaluation," which shifts students from being consumers of knowledge to participants in a community of peers engaged in actively producing and sharing knowledge. Students are required to author a question that assesses one or more of the learning outcomes of a course. In…

  3. A psychoanalytic child psychotherapy contribution to generic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Peta

    2016-01-01

    Psychoanalytically trained child and adolescent psychotherapists have applied psychodynamic thinking to family work, consultations and brief work for some time. Findings from a research project in which the author investigated the processes involved in generic assessments undertaken by herself and what actually takes place are presented. A description of some skills and techniques used by the author are also described. PMID:25604706

  4. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  5. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  6. Constructive evaluation: a pedagogy of student-contributed assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton-Reilly, Andrew; Denny, Paul

    2010-06-01

    We present an innovative pedagogical approach that we call constructive evaluation, which shifts students from being consumers of knowledge to participants in a community of peers engaged in actively producing and sharing knowledge. Students are required to author a question that assesses one or more of the learning outcomes of a course. In addition to the question, students write a sample solution. These questions and solutions are stored in a question item bank where they become available for other students to use as a learning resource. Once a student answers a question from the item bank, they can see how other students have answered the question and can reflect on their own response. Additionally, students must review the questions they have answered and are given an opportunity to engage in discussion of questions or answers via a feedback mechanism. In addition to improving content knowledge, students develop important meta-skills such as organising and communicating knowledge; judging the quality of information; giving and receiving feedback and improving self-assessment skills. This approach is aligned with both reflective professional practice and social theories of learning.

  7. assessing contributions of jgofs; previewing Studies in Ocean Ecology, Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Bowles, Margaret C.

    Despite impediments to travel imposed by global political and health concerns, 332 scientists and students from 32 countries gathered in Washington, D.C. in early May to celebrate the conclusion of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and to assess both its accomplishments and the future course of research in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry.Launched in 1987 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), JGOFS became the first core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) 2 years later as its first field studies were getting underway. Global in scope and multinational and interdisciplinary from its inception, JGOFS adopted two major goals: to understand the processes controlling the cycling of carbon and other biogenic elements in the ocean and their exchange with the atmosphere and the sea floor, and to advance our capacity to predict the response of ocean systems to anthropogenic perturbations.

  8. An assessment of the meteoritic contribution to the Martian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of meteoritic material to the Mars soils should perturb their chemical compositions, as has been detected for soils on the Moon and sediments on Earth. Using the measured mass influx at Earth and estimates of the Mars/Earth flux ratio, the authors estimate the continuous, planet-wide meteoritic mass influx on Mars to be between 2,700 and 59,000 t/yr. If distributed uniformly into a soil with a mean planetary production rate of 1 m/b.y., consistent with radar estimates of the soil depth overlaying a bouldered terrain in the Tharsis region, their estimated mass influx would produce a meteoritic concentration in the Mars soil ranging from 2 to 29% by mass. Analysis of the Viking X ray fluorescence data indicates that the Mars soil composition is inconsistent with typical basaltic rock fragments but can be fit by a mixture of 60% basaltic rock fragments and 40% meteoritic material. The meteoritic influx they calculate is sufficient to provide most or all of the material required by the Clark and Baird model. Particles in the mass range from 10-7 to 10-3 g, about 60-1,200 μm in diameter, contribute 80% of the total mass flux of meteoritic material in the 10-13 to 106 g mass range at Earth. On Earth atmospheric entry all but the smallest particles (generally ≤ 50 μm in diameter) in the 10-7 to 10-3 g mass range are heated sufficiently to melt or vaporize. Mars, because of its lower escape velocity and larger atmospheric scale height, is a much more favorable site for unmelted survival of micrometeorites on atmospheric deceleration. They calculate that a significant fraction of particles throughout the 60-1,200 μm diameter range will survive Mars atmospheric entry unmelted

  9. Peer assessment of individual contributions to a group project: Student perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group work has many benefits for a student's professional development but it is difficult to determine the individual contributions to the group assessment tasks. Peer assessment of an individual's contribution to group work can be used to encourage student participation. It is important that the method of peer assessment is fair and that the students' submissions be treated confidentially. A model for peer assessment of individual contributions to the group assessment is described. Students who did not participate adequately in the group were penalised resulting in a reduced individual grade. Perceptions of the peer assessment method are reported for students enrolled (n = 169) in the subject 'Medical Radiations Project'. The questionnaire showed a positive student response towards the peer assessment model.

  10. Assessment of relative contributions from different mechanisms to radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on radiation embrittlement in pressure vessel steels of both Russian and American grades, obtained by the authors and also taken from the literature, have been analyzed to assess the relative contributions from the following mechanisms: radiation-induced hardening, inter- and intragranular segregation of impurities at precipitate/matrix interfaces. It is demonstrated that radiation-induced intragranular segregation of impurities frequently provides a significant contribution to radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels. (orig.)

  11. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  12. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.;

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health......The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the...

  13. A Nobel Prize for empirical macroeconometrics: assessing the contributions of Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boumans; E.M. Sent

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the contributions of the 2011 Nobel Prize winners, Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims. They received the prize ‘for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy’. The paper illustrates that Sargent entertained different interpretations of rat

  14. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  15. Commissions for environmental impact assessment: Their contribution to the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, E.

    1995-11-07

    The thesis presents a theory on the feasibility of EIA Commissions and the way in which they can be modeled. The cases selected are the Dutch EIA Commission, the central Polish EIA Commission and the Hungarian Commission on Power Plants. Extensive literature research was conducted on these cases and a total of 79 persons, involved in EIA were interviewed. In addition to the three cases, a more limited literature study was conducted on the Canadian EIA panels. Sections discuss the questions what EIA is, what EIA Commissions are, what effective EIA is, how subjective EIA is and what complications this can give for the effectiveness EIA is, how subjective EIA is and what complications this can give for the effectiveness of EIA, what the potential contribution of EIA Commissions to the effectiveness of EIA is, and what role the decision-making culture plays in this.

  16. Noaa contributions to the 1995 IPCC assessments: A summary of the current and future activities of the intergovernmental panel on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: introduction -the IPCC and NOAA; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 science assessment; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 impacts, adaptation, and mitigation assessment; NOAA contributions to the 1995 IPCC economics and greenhouse-gas scenario assessment

  17. Sea-level rise impacts on transport infrastructure: The notorious case of the coastal railway line at Dawlish, England

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, DA; Shaw, J; Gehrels, WR

    2016-01-01

    Future climate change is likely to increase the frequency of coastal storms and floods, with major consequences for coastal transport infrastructure. This paper assesses the extent to which projected sea-level rise is likely to impact upon the functioning of the Dawlish to Teignmouth stretch of the London to Penzance railway line, in England. Using a semi-empirical modelling approach, we identify a relationship between sea-level change and rail incidents over the last 150 years and then use m...

  18. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS.

  19. Assessment of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Monoamine Oxidase Contribution to Oxidative Stress in Human Diabetic Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Duicu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria-related oxidative stress is a pathomechanism causally linked to coronary heart disease (CHD and diabetes mellitus (DM. Recently, mitochondrial monoamine oxidases (MAOs have emerged as novel sources of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system and experimental diabetes. The present study was purported to assess the mitochondrial impairment and the contribution of MAOs-related oxidative stress to the cardiovascular dysfunction in coronary patients with/without DM. Right atrial appendages were obtained from 75 patients randomized into 3 groups: (1 Control (CTRL, valvular patients without CHD; (2 CHD, patients with confirmed CHD; and (3 CHD-DM, patients with CHD and DM. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry and MAOs expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 emission was assessed by confocal microscopy and spectrophotometrically. The impairment of mitochondrial respiration was substrate-independent in CHD-DM group. MAOs expression was comparable among the groups, with the predominance of MAO-B isoform but no significant differences regarding oxidative stress were detected by either method. Incubation of atrial samples with MAOs inhibitors significantly reduced the H2O2 in all groups. In conclusion, abnormal mitochondrial respiration occurs in CHD and is more severe in DM and MAOs contribute to oxidative stress in human diseased hearts with/without DM.

  20. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?

  1. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    OpenAIRE

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psycholo...

  2. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  3. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  4. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  5. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF AUDITING CONTRIBUTIONS TO EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT SECURITY IN DATABASE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa O. Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Database auditing has become a very crucial aspect of security as organisations increase their adoption of database management systems (DBMS as major asset that keeps, maintain and monitor sensitive information. Database auditing is the group of activities involved in observing a set of stored data in order to be aware of the actions of users. The work presented here outlines the main auditing techniques and methods. Some architectural based auditing systems were also considered to assess the contribution of auditing to database security. Here a framework of several stages to be used in the instigation of auditing is proposed. Some issues relating to handling of audit trails are also discussed in this paper. This paper also itemizes some of the key important impacts of the concept to security and how compliance with government policies and regulations is enforced through auditing. Once the framework is adopted, it will provide support to database auditors and DBAs.

  6. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  7. The Contribution of Pin End-Cup Interactions to Clot Strength Assessed with Thrombelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Viscoelastic methods have been developed to assess the contribution of plasma proteins and platelets to coagulation in vitro to guide clinical transfusion therapy. One of the cardinal precepts of determining clot strength is making sure that the viscoelastic technique includes complete exposure of the plastic pin in the testing chamber with the fluid analyzed so as to assure maximal interaction of the cup wall with the pin surface. However, the various contributions of the pin surface area to final clot strength have not been investigated. That is, it is not clear what is more important in the in vitro determination of clot strength, the surface area shared between the cup and pin filled with fluid or the final viscoelastic resistance of the gel matrix formed. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the clot strength when only the tip of the pin was engaged with plasma thrombus and to compare these values with clot strength values obtained when the pin was completely in plasma. After determining the minimal amount of plasma required to cover a pin tip in a thrombelastographic system (30 μL), clot strength (elastic modulus, G) was determined in plasma samples of 30 or 360 μL final volume (n = 12 per condition) after tissue factor activation. The G value with 30 μL volume was 1057 ± 601 dynes/cm (mean ± SD; 95% confidence interval, 675-1439 dynes/cm), which was (P = 0.0015) smaller than the G value associated with 360-μL sample volumes, that was 1712 ± 48 dynes/cm (confidence interval, 1681-1742 dynes/cm). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that clot strength is not determined by a simple ratio of surface area of pin and cup to volume of sample, but rather strength is importantly influenced by the viscoelastic resistance of the fluid assessed.

  8. Implementing a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard to Contribute to the Process of Organisational Legitimacy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Bowrey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC as a contributing factor in the process of organisational legitimacy assessment. The methodological approach in this study is supported by the application of content analysis to identify and examine the disclosed sustainability indicators of a major Australian financial institution (Westpac. The theoretical lens of legitimacy theory and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC are used as points of reference to inform and structure the overall theoretical framework of this study. The results indicate that the four perspectives of a traditional BSC correlate with the main sources of influential inputs to Westpac’s sustainability reporting. In addition, the SBSC presented in this article successfully illustrates focal areas of reporting practice, providing a succinct overview of an organisation’s reporting activities. The primary contributions of this research are to the literature on social and environmental disclosures, including the research of Do, Tilt and Tilling (2007, and Baxter, Chua and Strong (2010 and the provision of a practical technique to illustrate the focal activity of an organisation’s social and environmental reporting as part of the legitimisation process.

  9. Hydrological modeling to assess capillary rise contribution to satisfy crop water requirement and groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassar, Fatma; Gandolfi, Claudio; chiaradia, Enrico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative understanding of the process of groundwater recharge and capillary rise are fundamental factors on water balance and sustainable management carried out in irrigated areas with shallow groundwater tables. Two tested hydrological models (Wassar et al., 2014) SWAP (Van Dam et al., 1997) and IDRAGRA (Gandolfi et al., 2011) were applied to assess capillary rise contribution to satisfy maize water requirement and groundwater recharge from a shallow water table located in Lombardy region, northern of Italy during two agricultural seasons (2010 and 2011). At the beginning the two models were run using the daily variation of groundwater table and it was found that during 2010 season, capillary rise was similar for both and is contributing by 41% (IDRAGRA) and 46% (SWAP) of the total maize water requirement. During 2011 season, the estimated capillary flux with SWAP model was higher than that with IDRAGRA. The capillary rise was able to contribute more than 50% of the total maize requirement for both models. On the other side, both models showed a negligible deep percolation in comparison to the capillary flux and in comparison to the 2010 season. Later, groundwater table depths were fixed virtually at 0.8m, 1m, 1.5m, 2m, and 3m. The aim of considering fixed groundwater table depths was to unveil at which depth the groundwater table contributes majorly to satisfy the crop water requirement and how much we can have groundwater recharge. One major finding was that the capillary rise from groundwater decreases with the increase of the groundwater table depth. A higher contribution is observed when the water table is higher or equal to 1m. When the water table depth reached 2m the capillary was steel contributing to maize water requirement for both models and during the two agricultural seasons. As far as the groundwater recharge is concerned, we found that net recharge tended to increase as the groundwater table depth increased. For both models the net recharge was

  10. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others. PMID:26226175

  11. Risk assessment in stock calf transportation from France to Italy: the contribution of road inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Zanasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the risk associated with the transport of stock calves imported from France to Italy, information obtained from inspections carried out in Piedmont by competent authorities between 2001 and 2010 was considered. The inspections concerned 246 trucks transporting a total of 13,857 fattening calves. Based on the types of infringements recorded, several hazards related to animal welfare, such as overcrowding, tying by the horns and inappropriate mixing, were identified and characterized. The inspection of vehicles revealed hazards concerning partitions, bedding, decks, lighting, drinking and mechanical ventilation systems. A calculation was made of the incidence of these infringements and the consequent exposure of calves to such hazards and risk characterization was performed. The ranking shows overcrowding and the absence of partitions to be major risks in stock calf transportation from France to Italy. A logistic regression was adopted to evaluate the effect on the exposure to hazards of the only two variables recordable during the inspections: number of calves inside each vehicle and distance of the journey. The results showed a direct relationship between the number of calves per vehicle and exposure to overcrowding or to absence of partitions. The journey distance was found weakly and inversely related to exposure to the absence of partitions. The information obtained from the inspections provides not only a basis for evaluating the welfare of calves during transport but also an objective contribution to the assessment of the risks tied to their transportation.

  12. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others.

  13. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  14. Contributions and Concerns of Concentrated Flow Erosion and Assessment Technologies in Watershed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingner, R. L.; Momm, H. G.; Wells, R. R.; Dabney, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Concentrated runoff increases erosion and efficiently transfers sediment and associated agrichemicals from upland areas to stream channels. Ephemeral gully erosion on cropland in the U.S. may contribute 40% of the sediment delivered to the edge of the field. Typically, conservation practices developed for sheet and rill erosion are also expected to treat ephemeral gully erosion, but technology and tools do not exist to account for the separate benefits and effects of practices on various sediment sources. Practices specifically developed to treat ephemeral gully erosion need further testing, when used in conjunction with sheet and rill erosion control practices. Without improved research studies, subjective observations will continue to be used to satisfy quality criteria in lieu of scientifically defensible, quantitative methods to estimate the impact of gully erosion. Some of the more important limiting components are the identification of and relationships for: (1) ephemeral gully width; (2) soil resistance to gully erosion including a definition for non-erosive layers; (3) the effect of root mass and above ground vegetation on erosion resistance; (4) ephemeral gully networks; and (5) the effect of subsurface flow on ephemeral gullies. Currently, these components are represented through widely divergent to non-existent algorithms. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's AnnAGNPS pollutant loading model has been developed to determine the effects of conservation management plans and provide sediment tracking from all sources within the watershed, including ephemeral gullies. Enhanced technology is also needed to identify where ephemeral gullies may form in the watershed using remote sensing technology. Developing enhanced technology and research for concentrated flow assessments is critical for developing and testing conservation practices specifically designed for gully erosion control. This study will describe the current state of concentrated flow assessment and

  15. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K.; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O.; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S. K.; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R.; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M.; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Calaza, Manuel; Elmarakeby, Haitham; Heath, Lenwood S.; Long, Quan; Moore, Jonathan D.; Opiyo, Stephen Obol; Savage, Richard S.; Zhu, Jun; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Louis Bridges Jr., S.; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M.

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h2=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  16. Contribution of enrichments and resampling for sulfate reducing bacteria diversity assessment by high-throughput cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Yannick; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Caumette, Pierre; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2015-03-01

    The development of new high-throughput cultivation methods aims to increase the isolation efficiency as compared to standard techniques that often require enrichment procedures to compensate the low microbial recovery. In the current study, estuarine sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated using an anaerobic isolation procedure in 384-well microplates. Ninety-nine strains were recovered from initial sediments. Isolates were identified according to their partial 16S rRNA sequences and clustered into 13 phylotypes. Besides, the increase in species richness obtained through enrichments or resampling was investigated. Forty-four enrichment procedures were conducted and shifts in sulfate-reducing bacterial communities were investigated through dsrAB gene fingerprinting. Despite efforts in conducting numerous enrichment conditions only few of them were statistically different from initial sample. The cultural diversity obtained from 3 of the most divergent enrichments, as well as from resampled sediments equally contributed to raise the sulfate-reducing diversity up to 22 phylotypes. Enrichments (selection of metabolism) or resampling (transient populations and micro-heterogeneity) may still be helpful to assess new microbial phylotypes. Nevertheless, all the newly cultivated strains were all representatives of minor Operational Taxonomic Units and could eventually be recovered by maintaining high-throughput isolation effort from the initial sediments.

  17. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F; Louis Bridges, S; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M; Bridges, S Louis; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h(2)=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  18. Assessment of the contribution from wood burning to the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Matheeussen, Christina; Roekens, Edward

    2012-10-15

    nearby this site. From our levoglucosan/mannosan ratios we derived the relative contributions of softwood and hardwood burning, thereby following the same approach as used by Schmidl et al. (Atmos Environ 2008;38:126-41). It was found that softwood burning accounted, on average, for about 70%, and there was little variation in this percentage with site or with season. The levoglucosan data were used to assess the contribution of wood burning to the OC and to the PM10 mass, again following the approach of Schmidl et al. (2008). The annual average contributions of wood burning OC to the PM10 OC were in the range of 20-25% for 6 of our 7 sites and 36% for Hamme; the averages for summer were 2.0-3.9% for the 6 sites and 14.5% for Hamme; the corresponding data for winter were 36-43% and 60%. As to the contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass, the annual averages were in the range of 4.8-6.3% for 6 of our 7 sites and 13.3% at Hamme; the averages for summer were 0.51-1.14% for the 6 sites and 5.0% for Hamme; the corresponding data for winter were 8.6-11.3% and 22%. Our finding that wood burning is an important contributor to the OC and the PM10 mass, especially in winter, is in line with published data from various other sites in other European countries.

  19. The Armutlu Network - a contribution to seismic hazard assessment in the Marmara region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühr, B.-G.; Bariş, Ş.; Grosser, H.; Irmak, T. S.; Woith, H.; Donner, S.; Özer, M. F.; Çaka, D.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) represents one of the most prominent continental transforms and slips at an average rate of 20-30 mm/yr. During the 20th century, the NAFZ has ruptured over about 900 km of its more than 1,500 km length by ten devastating earthquakes with magnitudes above Ms > 6.5. Today, a segment inside the Marmara Sea just south of the megacity of Istanbul represents a seismic gap that is believed being capable of generating a M ≥7 earthquake within the next decades. East of this segment the western end of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake rupture is located next to the northern shoreline of the Armutlu Peninsula depicted by distinct clusters of micro-seismic activity. As a contribution to hazard assessment the local seismic network ARMNET had been set-up in 2005 in co-operation between Kocaeli University, and GFZ, to monitor the chronological evolution of seismicity, and to investigate the deformation of the Armutlu Peninsula, as well as possible interactions between seismic waves and pore-pressure variations in geothermal systems. The installation was strongly supported by local governments, and lead to a strong interest and an increasing knowledge transfer to local authorities. The ARMNET contributes to the implementation of an Anatolian plate boundary observatory (PBO) belonging to a series of GFZ-operated Earth System Observatories to systemically study coupled Earth processes, and is imbedded in the framework of the CEDIM (CEnter for DIsaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology) project "Megacity Istanbul", which involves the analysis of the seismicity of the Greater Istanbul region. At present, ARMNET consist of 12 short period and 10 broadband stations. Additionally, a borehole seismometer has been installed in a 100 m borehole close to Yalova. Most of the detected events occurred in a depth range of 5 to 15 km, and determined duration magnitudes are in a range 0.4 and 5.3 with a magnitude of completeness of 1.3. Besides seismic

  20. USGEO National Earth Observation Assessment Methods for Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Earth Observing Systems to Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The second National Civil Earth Observation Assessment identifies the inputs and relative contributions of the portfolio of observing systems currently relied upon by Federal agencies to meet key Earth observing objectives. The Assessment employs a hierarchical value-tree framework that traces the pathways through which Earth observing systems contribute value across 13 societal benefit areas, utilizing multiple levels to provide logical traceability. This presentation describes the methods used to construct societal benefit area value-trees that include key objectives and the information products, services, and research derived from Earth observations that help satisfy them. It describes the methods for weighting nodes at multiple levels of each value-tree and the expert elicitation process for assessing the relative contributions of Earth observing systems to the development of information products, services, and research. The methodology employed in the Assessment is especially useful at assessing the interdependence and relative contributions of multiple Earth observing systems on the development of blended information products and tracing information pathways from direct observations through intermediate products, such as models, to end-products used to improve decision-making. This presentation will highlight case study examples from the 13 societal benefit areas (agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy and mineral resources, human health, ocean and costal resources, space weather, transportation, water resources weather, and reference measurements) to demonstrate tractability from Earth observing systems, through information products and research that satisfy key objectives, to societal benefit.

  1. Assessment of major uncertainties in calculating regional contributions to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen MGJ den; Schaeffer M; CIM

    2000-01-01

    During the negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol, Brazil proposed a methodology to link the relative contribution of Annex-I Parties to emission reductions with the relative contributions of Parties to the global-mean temperature increase. The proposal was not adopted during the negotiations,but reffer

  2. Assessing Cardiff University's Curricula Contribution to Sustainable Development Using the STAUNCH[superscript (RTM)] System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Peattie, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the sustainable development curricula assessment undertaken at 19 of the 28 schools of Cardiff University using the Sustainability Tool for Assessing UNiversity's Curricula Holistically (STAUNCH[superscript (RTM)]. STAUNCH[superscript (RTM)] was developed with two objectives: (1) to systematically assess how…

  3. Speech-language pathologists' contribution to the assessment of decision-making capacity in aphasia: a survey of common practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Kerryn; Tolmie, Rhiannon; Worrall, Linda; Ferguson, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists' scope of practice is currently unclear in relation to their contribution to the multi-disciplinary assessment of decision-making capacity for clients with aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders. The primary aim of the current research study was to investigate the common practices of speech-language pathologists involved in assessments of decision-making capacity. The study was completed through the use of an online survey. There were 51 of 59 respondents who indicated involvement in evaluations of decision-making. Involvement in this kind of assessment was most commonly reported by speech-language pathologists working in inpatient acute and rehabilitation settings. Respondents reported using a variety of formal and informal assessment methods in their contributions to capacity assessment. Discussion with multidisciplinary team members was reported to have the greatest influence on their recommendations. Speech-language pathologists reported that they were dissatisfied with current protocols for capacity assessments in their workplace and indicated they would benefit from further education and training in this area. The findings of this study are discussed in light of their implications for speech-language pathology practice. PMID:24400775

  4. A deep scar in the flank of Tenerife (Canary Islands): Geophysical contribution to tsunami hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Nicolas P.; Schnegg, Pierre-André; Falco, Pierik; Costa, Roberto

    2009-05-01

    -782], potential movable volume is an unavoidable parameter to quantify and constrain tsunamigenic hazard. Numerical modelling of a tsunami generated by the potential La Palma landslide concluded that high amplitude waves threaten North Atlantic shorelines [Ward, S.N., Day, S.J., 2001. Cumbre Vieja volcano — Potential collapse and tsunami at La Palma, Canary Islands. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 397-400]. New audiomagnetotelluric results provide for the first time a good estimation of the Icod Valley (Tenerife, Canary Islands) volume, a potential giant landslide threatening the same shorelines. Two profiles image its electrically conductive roots with a characteristic of a U-shaped cross-section thought to be the consequence of previous landslides. By this study, we show that North Atlantic Ocean shorelines might be exposed to a destructive tsunami generated by a subaerial lateral collapse of at least 120 km 3 during the next strong felsic eruptive activity of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex. This article highlights the degree of urgency of carrying out geophysical investigations on the flanks of most volcanic islands prone to potential flank collapse. These investigations will contribute to the understanding of their structure — a key parameter in the sliding process. Finally, all results should be included in model, providing a global map of tsunami hazard assessment.

  5. Assessment of purchasing contribution to the development and growth of SMEs, evidence from Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nsimbila, Paul; Jurriëns, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of purchasing to the development and growth of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the overall performance of supply chain has been neither rigorously examined nor empirically substantiated. This paper provides empirical evidence on how purchasing variables (relationship,

  6. Science panel to study mega-computers to assess potential energy contributions

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Energy Department advisers plan to examine high-end computing in the coming year and assess how computing power could be used to further DOE's basic research agenda on combustion, fusion and other topics" (1 page).

  7. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  8. Assessment of the cathode contribution to the degradation of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus;

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of anode-supported cells was studied over 1500 h as a function of cell polarization either in air or oxygen on the cathode side. Based on impedance analysis, contributions of the anode and cathode to the increase of total resistance were assigned. Accordingly, the degradation rate......-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and consequently a reduced three-phase boundary length. (C) 2008 The Electrochemical Society....

  9. Assessment of hydrophobic interactions and their contributions through the analysis of the methane dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Víctor Duarte; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás; Cuevas, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Hydrophobic Interactions (HIs) are important in many phenomena of molecular recognition in chemistry and biology. Still, the relevance of HIs is sometimes difficult to evaluate particularly in large systems and intramolecular interactions. We put forward a method to estimate the magnitude and the different contributions of a given HI of the C···C, H-C···H, and H···H type through (i) the analysis of the electron density in the intermolecular region for eleven relative orientations of the methane dimer and (ii) the subsequent decomposition of the corresponding interaction energy in physically significant contributions using Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT). Strong correlations were found between the topological properties of ρ(r) calculated at intermolecular bond critical points and Eint(SAPT) plus its different contributions with the C···C distance of the considered orientations of (CH4 )2 . These correlations were used to construct Mollier-like diagrams of Eint(SAPT) and its components as a function of the separation between two carbons and the orientation of the groups bonded to these atoms. The ethane dimer and tert-butylcyclohexane are used as representative examples of this new approach. Overall, we anticipate that this new method might prove useful in the study of both intramolecular and intermolecular HIs particularly of those within large systems wherein SAPT or electronic structure calculations are computationally expensive or even prohibitive.

  10. Contribution to Research on Securitization: Assessment of SCI and SSCI Articles from 1996 To 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Jeng LU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to gauge trends and contributions to the broad field of securitization. This article reviews 365 academic articles on securitization that were published in 47 Social Sciences Citation Index journals from 1996 to June 2012. We identified keywords and searched and determined related articles in the ISI Web of Science database. Our findings included the number of publications per year, categories of article types, main academic journals and authors, and most-cited articles. The citation counts for authors, journals, and articles were also analyzed. Results indicated that the number of articles related to the keyword “securitization” increased from 1996 to 2012, which suggests an upward trend in the influence of securitization. We also determined that “securitization” research fascinated numerous scholars during the 16-year period. In particular, researchers from the USA, Europe, Canada, and Asia contributed most to this field. This literature review provides evidence that the “securitization” concept has attracted academic researchers, which results in significant contributions to the field of entrepreneurial research. The findings in this study can help authors in future development of securitization.

  11. The contribution of formative assessment and self-efficacy to inquiry learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry

    2013-01-01

    of their abilities to use inquiry and ‘give-up’ on it. With the use of formative assessment combined with conscious efforts to increase self-efficacy among students, teachers can help provide students with the confidence and motivation to engage in inquiry methods. Such student engagement can in-turn affirm teachers......This chapter suggests the use of formative assessment in inquiry lessons as a helpful source of positive personal capacity beliefs for both teachers and students. The challenge most commonly experienced when first using inquiry learning methods is that pupils and even teachers become uncertain......’ inquiry teaching efforts and raise the likelihood that they will continue to improve them. We see inquiry methods as the motor for changing teacher practice and formative assessment methods combined with capacity beliefs as the fuel that keeps the motor running. The central position of the chapter is how...

  12. The Resilience Approach Contribution to Rural Communities Social Assessment for Social Sustainability Based Strategies Implement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Severi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the rural communities capacity to manage changes is of paramount importance for effective Social Sustainability strategies identification. The aim of the present study is to analyze if social resilience can be integrated into the social assessment of rural communities, with the aim of implementing sustainability-oriented policies and strategies.A literature review was carried out on the Resilience approach definition and its application to the Social Assessment in rural areas. The analysis showed that the Resilience approach enriches the Social Assessment by focusing on the specific capabilities of the communities in managing changes. The Resilience perspective embraces the dynamic character of communities and human-ecosystem interactions providing a deeper understanding of how a community’s positive response to change can be strengthened and supported. Moreover, the specific focus on rural communities highlights how strongly social and ecological resilience are intertwined in guaranteeing social sustainability which, in turn, is strictly interrelated with environmental and economic sustainability.

  13. Quantitative assessment on the contribution of direct photolysis and radical oxidation in photochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-07-01

    In UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), the potential degradation pathways for organic pollutants include (1) hydrolysis, (2) direct H2O2 oxidation, (3) UV direct photolysis, and (4) hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) reaction. In this study, the contribution of these pathways was quantitatively assessed in the photochemical destruction of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), demonstrating pathways (3) and (4) to be predominantly responsible for the removal of 4-CP by UV/H2O2 in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution. Increasing reaction pH could significantly enhance the contribution of direct photolysis in UV/H2O2 process. The contribution of HO(•) oxidation was improved with increasing initial H2O2 concentration probably due to the increased formation of HO(•). Presence of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as in UV/H2O2/Na2CO3 system promoted the degradation of 4-CP, with carbonate radical (CO3 (•-)) reaction and direct photolysis identified to be the main contributing pathways. The trends in the contribution of each factor were further evaluated and validated on the degradation of the antibiotic compound oxytetracycline (OTC). This study provides valuable information on the relative importance of different reaction pathways on the photochemical degradation of organic contaminants such as 4-CP and OTC in the presence and absence of a CO3 (•-) precursor. PMID:27055892

  14. Structure, process or outcome: which contributes most to patients' overall assessment of healthcare quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Boer, D. de

    2011-01-01

    Research questions: The paper explores which type of quality aspects (structure, process, outcome) most strongly determines patients' overall assessment of healthcare, and whether there is a variation between different types of patient groups in this respect. Methods: Secondary analyses were underta

  15. Enhancing innovation in agriculture at the policy level : The potential contribution of Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank M.; Russell, A. Wendy; Kimber, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Technology Assessment (TA) is an applied process that considers the societal implications of technological change in order to influence policy to improve technology governance. TA has considerable potential to enhance innovation in agriculture and to assist agricultural industries in becoming more e

  16. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  17. Assessing the contribution of water to the mass closure of PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Farao, C.; Canepari, S.

    2016-09-01

    The data obtained during a number of field studies aimed at determining the chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have shown that the measurement of the main PM components (main elements, ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon) was generally sufficient to obtain a reasonable mass closure. Notwithstanding, a wide gap between PM mass concentration and reconstructed mass was observed in two peculiar environmental conditions: desert dust intrusion and severe atmospheric stability episodes characterized by very high ammonium nitrate concentration. In these two cases, the mass closure improved significantly by adding the concentration of PM-bound water. Water was determined by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; the method was able to separate different water contributions released in different temperature ranges from 50 to 250 °C. In our field studies the amount of water associated to ammonium salts in winter stability conditions was mostly dependent on ammonium nitrate concentration and constituted up to 22% of the total PM10 mass; the specific water contribution linked to ammonium salts (released in the temperature range 180-250 °C) constituted up to 30% of the ammonium nitrate mass. It was confirmed that in these extreme conditions quartz and Teflon filters behave differently: when measured on quartz filters, PM concentration was lower than on Teflon, the mass closure was satisfactory and the concentration of water was presumably very low. In the case of desert dust episodes, water was up to 10% of total PM10 mass; the specific water contribution linked to desert dust (released in the temperature range 100-180 °C) constituted about 5% of the mass of soil components. In other environmental situations, such as urban environments, marine atmosphere and rural areas, the concentration of PM-bound water was below 2-3 μg/m3.

  18. Assessing the contribution of binaural cues for apparent source width perception via a functional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; Hahmann, Manuel; May, Tobias;

    2016-01-01

    differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and the interaural coherence (IC). To quantify their contribution to ASW, a functional model of ASW perception was exploited using the TWO!EARS auditory-front-end (AFE) toolbox. The model determines the leftand right-most boundary of a sound source using...... a statistical representation of ITDs and ILDs based on percentiles integrated over time and frequency. The model’s performance was evaluated against psychoacoustic data obtained with noise, speech and music signals in loudspeakerbased experiments. A robust model prediction of ASW was achieved using a cross...

  19. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  20. LeRoy Meisinger, Part I: Biographical Tribute with an Assessment of His Contributions to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John M.

    1995-01-01

    LeRoy Meisinger was a U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist and aeronaut who worked vigorously to bring meteorology to the aid of aviation in the post-World War 1 period. He was killed at the age of 29 in a scientific ballooning accident that has been detailed in a companion paper by Lewis and Moore. Meisinger's personality and scientific profile are reconstructed by examination of his oeuvre, which contains research contributions augmented by popular articles in the magazines of the period.Meisinger's personal characteristics were those of a quiet, scholarly man with strong interests in science, music, and art. His experiences as a Signal Corps weather officer during World War 1 inclined him toward a career in meteorology. While stationed at the Fort Omaha Balloon School, he became intrigued with the possibilities of using the tree balloon as a platform for tracking air currents.As a research meteorologist with the U.S. Weather Bureau after the war, Meisinger melded adventurous scientific ballooning with the more painstaking and arduous task of scrutinizing data from the limited upper-air network of kite stations. His principal research contribution was a form of differential analysis that extrapolated surface data to the 1- and 2-km levels by using climatological statistics from the upper-air network. The impressive line of research he pioneered at the bureau came to an immediate and abrupt end with his accidental death in 1924.

  1. Assessment of dose contribution to population exposure from the radiation sources in the alienated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main dose load of Ukrainian population is caused by radionuclide-contamination of country territories, located outside the alienated zone, following Chernobyl accident. Besides, much attention could be devoted to the contribution of dose load on population, received from the radioactivity sources that were transferred out from the zone after accident. Present research and analysis of the available documents reflecting the transfer of radioactivity from the alienated zone, provided the estimates of dose load on population, resulting from transfer of the radioactivity sources via following channels: (1) direct surface flow; (2) underground waters; (3) wind-powdered route; (4) transfer with hydrobionts; (5) transfer during irrigation; (6) biogenic route; (7) transport routes and (8) route during wood transportation. Dynamics of radiation transfer through each channel was also studied for the post-accident period. Specific gravity of radioactivity transfer is determined in relation to dose load on Ukrainian population in different regions, in particular, in Dnipro river basin. The perspectives of radioactivity transfer via each of studied channels and its role in dose load on population were also analyzed. On the basis of present results the recommendations on possible arrangements are working out that aimed to reduce the dose contribution in population exposure by radioactivity source transfer from the alienated zone via channels that stipulate the largest dose loads and collective doses

  2. Relative Contribution of Haptic Technology to Assessment and Training in Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The teaching of implant surgery, as in other medical disciplines, is currently undergoing a particular evolution. Aim of the Study. To assess the usefulness of haptic device, a simulator for learning and training to accomplish basic acts in implant surgery. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 people including 40 third-year dental students without knowledge in implantology (divided into 2 groups: 20 beginners and 20 experiencing a simulator training course and 20 experienced practitioners (experience in implantology >15 implants participated in this study. A basic exercise drill was proposed to the three groups to assess their gestural abilities. Results. The results of the group training with the simulator tended to be significantly close to those of the experienced operators. Conclusion. Haptic simulator brings a real benefit in training for implant surgery. Long-term benefit and more complex exercises should be evaluated.

  3. Nanomaterials safety assessment: contribution from the Portuguese National Institute of Health (INSA) research

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    The National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA) is a public organization of the Portuguese Ministry of Health, which develops a triple role as State Laboratory in the health sector, National Reference Laboratory and National Health Observatory. All operative units composing the departments develop multidisciplinary programs in problem areas of Public Health, namely performing R&D, health monitoring, training, laboratory external quality assessment and general health services. INS...

  4. Structure, process or outcome: which contributes most to patients' overall assessment of healthcare quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Boer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Research questions: The paper explores which type of quality aspects (structure, process, outcome) most strongly determines patients' overall assessment of healthcare, and whether there is a variation between different types of patient groups in this respect. Methods: Secondary analyses were undertaken on survey data from patients who underwent hip or knee surgery, cataract surgery, patients suffering from varicose veins, spinal disc herniation or rheumatoid arthritis. In these analyses, the ...

  5. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, E.; Gutierrez, O; ROUX, P.; Boutin, C.; Corominas, L

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with ...

  6. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  7. Assessment of orientation and extinction contrast contributions to the direct dislocation image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superscrew dislocations in SiC have been investigated using synchrotron topography in order to probe the details of the direct dislocation image at a magnified level. In view of the fact that the conventional extinction contrast theory cannot fully explain the contrast features of superscrew dislocations, a simplified orientation contrast model is developed. This model enables more accurate simulations of the observed dislocation images, and the results obtained from this model indicate that, in the low absorption case, the direct dislocation image comprises a significant orientation contrast contribution arising from the overlap and separation of the inhomogeneously diffracted x-rays with continuously varying directions. A new insight into the general contrast formation mechanisms of direct dislocation images on x-ray topographs is thus presented. (author)

  8. Assessment of Factors Contributing to Health Outcomes in the Eight States of the Mississippi Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovaag, Amanda; Catlin, Bridget B.; Rodock, Matthew; Park, Hyojun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this observational study was to examine the key contributors to health outcomes and to better understand the health disparities between Delta and non-Delta counties in 8 states in the Mississippi River Delta Region. We hypothesized that a unique set of contributors to health outcomes in the Delta counties could explain the disparities between Delta and non-Delta counties. Methods Data were from the 2014 County Health Rankings for counties in 8 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee). We used the Delta Regional Authority definition to identify the 252 Delta counties and 468 non-Delta counties or county equivalents. Information on health factors (eg, health behaviors, clinical care) and outcomes (eg, mortality) were derived from 38 measures from the 2014 County Health Rankings. The contributions of health factors to health outcomes in Delta and non-Delta counties were examined using path analysis. Results We found similarities between Delta counties and non-Delta counties in the health factors (eg, tobacco use, diet and exercise) that significantly predicted the health outcomes of self-rated health and low birthweight. The most variation was seen in predictors of mortality; however, Delta counties shared 2 of the 3 significant predictors (ie, community safety and income) of mortality with non-Delta counties. On average across all measures, values in the Delta were 16% worse than in the non-Delta and 22% worse than in the rest of the United States. Conclusion The health status of Delta counties is poorer than that of non-Delta counties because the health factors that contribute to health outcomes in the entire region are worse in the Delta counties, not because of a unique set of health predictors. PMID:26940300

  9. The Contribution of Paleoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Guerrieri, Luca; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of site evaluation/re-evaluation procedures for nuclear power plants (NPP), paleoseismology plays an essential role not only for Fault Displacement Hazard Assessment (FDHA) but also for Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA). The relevance of paleoseismology is recommended in the reference IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA SSG-9) and has been dramatically confirmed in recent time especially after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP caused by the disastrous great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11 March 2011. After this event, the IAEA International Seismic Safety Center promoted a technical document aimed at encouraging and supporting Member States, especially from newcomer countries, to include paleoseismic investigations into the geologic database, highlighting the value of earthquake geology studies and paleoseismology for nuclear safety and providing standard methodologies to perform such investigations. In detail, paleoseismic investigations in the context of site evaluation of nuclear installations have the following main objectives: i) identification of seismogenic structures based on the recognition of effects of past earthquakes in the regional area; ii) improvement of the completeness of earthquake catalogs, through the identification and dating of ancient moderate to large earthquakes, whose trace has been preserved in the geologic records; iii) estimation of the maximum seismic potential associated with an identified seismogenic structure/source, typically on the basis of the amount of displacement per event (evaluable in paleoseismic trenches), as well as of the geomorphic and stratigraphic features interpretable as the cumulative effect of repeated large seismic events (concept of "seismic landscape"); iv) rough calibration of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), by using the recurrence interval of large earthquakes detectable by paleoseismic investigations, and providing a "reality check" based on direct observations of

  10. Research contributions for assessment of the state and evolution of the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Global Environment Assessment (GEO) workshop was held in Brussels on September 15 and 16, 1998. During the preparation of policy-oriented reports of GEO, several gaps in data and expertise had been identified. The workshop elaborated on the issues where gaps had been signalled aimed to bring together scientists from different disciplines, representatives of the Directorate General XII and specialists from RIVM in integrated environmental assessment to locate information missing in UNEP's studies and make progress in filling up gaps. Research needs would be identified. The specific issues were categorised as: land-related issues, urban environment and implementation of policies. The workshop participants were able to identify several links between the activities for GEO and ongoing research in the context of the EU Research, Technology Development and the Demonstration programme. About 15 more specific research needs were formulated. For land-related issues, the following knowledge gaps and research implications were identified: (1) e.g. social and economic expertise in land-use analysis, (2) e.g. land-use planning and urban land use in integrated assessment, (3) modelling land degradation, and (4) modelling the driving forces of land degradation. For the urban environment, the major knowledge research areas identified from an integrative perspective were: (1) defining a core set of indicators for sustainable urban development, (2) quantifying the interlinkages between environmental stress and human health, (3) describing the effects of measures, (4) determining the role of institutional structures, and (5) ensuring data provision based on the physical city. Major problems were identified for implementation of policies that the degree of policy implementation is not often measured and that it is difficult to relate policy actions to changes in environmental pressures. In analysis it is first of all necessary to identify which definition of effectiveness will be

  11. The Role of SMEs in Assessing the Contribution of Entrepreneurship to GDP in the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the negative effects of the economic crisis on the Romanian economy, entrepreneurship represents one of the main pillars of economic recovery and the authorities need to act in support of private entrepreneurship initiative. Even though entrepreneurship does not equate to the small and medium-sized enterprises, there is strong support in literature regarding the importance of SMEs in national economies due to the authorities` potential of intervention and their contribution to gross value added. The fluctuating evolution of the Romanian business environment has led to a high volatility of its contribution to GDP, which is especially true in the case of SMEs due to their lack of technology and capital and difficult access to financing, as well as limited know-how compared to the large companies that control the Romanian market. Successful entrepreneurial initiative leads to sustainable businesses and ensures a smooth transition from business ideas to the creation of value added, thus supporting economic growth and the narrowing of macroeconomic gaps which have been generated during the economic recession. As a distinctive and dynamic component of Romanian entrepreneurship, the SME segment has a significant contribution to GDP. This study aims at assessing the contribution of entrepreneurship, through its SME segment, to Romania`s GDP in the main economic sectors and, at the same time, the estimation of output gap at sectoral level, thus filling a gap in entrepreneurship-related domestic literature.

  12. Assessing the Contribution of Urban Freight Terminals in Last Mile Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanail Eftihia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multi-stakeholder multi-criteria evaluation framework, which can be used for the assessment of the last mile distribution performance of urban freight terminals. To this end, a comparative analysis is conducted addressing two Greek urban intermodal freight terminals located at the port of Thessaloniki (ThPA and Kuehne+Nagel (K+N’s premises. The assessment of the terminals’ performance relies on a tailored multi-criteria Key Performance Indicator (KPI-based evaluation framework, whereas the selection and significance of the incorporated criteria and KPIs is predetermined by the relevant responsible stakeholders, who imposed their viewpoint through an analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that ThPA was ranked first according to its performance pertaining to the role of an intermodal interchange; still, K+N’s performance index was only 8.5% lower than ThPA’s, while in specific KPIs it seems that it performs in a better way.

  13. A comprehensive approach for assessing the economic contribution of forage and livestock improvement options to smallholder farming enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil MacLeod; Scott Waldron; WEN Shi-lin

    2015-01-01

    The importance of livestock production activities to improving the livelihoods of smal holder farming households and the efifciency of their underlying farming systems is increasingly recognized. A rapid increase in livestock numbers, especial y beef cattle, and special purpose forages is being promoted for smal holder farms which have traditional y undertaken sub-sistence cropping activities or simple livestock rearing activities using low quality feedstuffs. Because limited plantings of specialized forages combined with a poor knowledge of animal nutrition are a chal enge to establishing sustainable livestock enterprises, much public policy and research is now being focused on the use of new forages and improved feeding practices. A number of economic studies have suggested that specialized forage growing and livestock feeding activities can make a positive contribution to smal holder welfare. The studies have typical y compared the total level of farm or household income with and without livestock activities. Little attention is given to how much the new forage or livestock activities actual y contribute to or draw resources from other farm activities to assess their real economic contribution to the enterprise, and the availability of simple tools to assist in making such assessments are limited. This paper describes a simple model ing approach that was developed for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)-supported project to explore the real as opposed to apparent economic impact of integrating improved forages and livestock within smal holder farming systems in the Red Soils region of south-central China. Application of the model is demonstrated using a simple case study of a smal holder enterprise that plans to introduce a new beef cattle rearing activity to its existing farm activity mix. The case study highlights the importance of explicitly valuing transfers of resources between different farm activities to gauge the real

  14. Bibliometric assessment of the contributions of literature on Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Vera-Polania, Felipe; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Bello, Ricardo; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas-Rojas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, considered a parasitic neglected disease, is endemic in Latin America. Although, its mortality rate has decreased over time, it still represents a public health problem in the region. A bibliometric evaluation of the Latin American contributions on this disease was done. This study used SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), and LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types have been characterized by years, origin city/country, journals and most productive authors, by country, cites and H-index. 2988 articles were retrieved from SCI (30.85% of total). Brazil was found to be the highest producer (31.22%), followed by Argentina (18.14%) and México (9.57%); the region received 47241 citations, 28.60% for Brazil (H-index=52), 18.26% of Argentina (Hindex= 43), 11.40% Bolivia (H-index=37). 4484 were retrieved from Scopus (30.20% of the total), 38.58% of which were from Brazil, 12.40% from Argentina and 8.90% from Mexico. From Medline, 6647 records were retrieved (45.58% Brazil). From SciELO, 917 articles (47.66% Brazil). From LILACS, 2165 articles (60.05% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output in the region. Despite advances in controlling Chagas disease, scientific production is low, particularly for regional bibliographic databases, which calls for more research on this disease.

  15. [The contribution of clinical cancer registries to benefit assessments: Requirements and first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Gerken, Michael; Benz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Following the adoption of the Cancer Screening and Registry Act (KFRG) to advance the development of the early detection of cancer and to promote quality assurance through Clinical Cancer Registries according to Sect. 65c SGB V, the question is raised as to what extent population-based clinical cancer registries may contribute not only to direct patient treatment benefits, but also to the requirements of health research and to other issues such as, for example, the evaluation of the benefit of new pharmaceutical products. Efforts to improve a nationwide quality management for oncology have so far not been successful in the development of comprehensive documentation at all levels of care. New organizational structures such as population-based clinical cancer registries were supposed to solve this problem more sufficiently, but they must be accompanied by valid trans-sectorial documentation and evaluation of clinical data. The need for specific real-life outcomes (effectiveness) of specific therapies has led to calls for data from outside randomised clinical trials (efficacy). First results are demonstrated in the present article. PMID:27320026

  16. Organic matter on the early surface of Mars: An assessment of the contribution by interplanetary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations by Anders and Chyba et al. have recently revived interest in the suggestion that organic compounds important to the development of life were delivered to the primitive surface of the Earth by comets, asteroids or the interplanetary dust derived from these two sources. Anders has shown that the major post-accretion contribution of extraterrestrial organic matter to the surface of the Earth is from interplanetary dust. Since Mars is a much more favorable site for the gentle deceleration of interplanetary dust particles than is Earth, model calculations show that biologically important organic compounds are likely to have been delivered to the early surface of Mars by the interplanetary dust in an order-of-magnitude higher surface density than onto the early Earth. Using the method described by Flynn and McKay, the size frequency distribution, and the atmospheric entry velocity distribution of IDP's at Mars were calculated. The entry velocity distribution, coupled with the atmospheric entry heating model developed by Whipple and extended by Fraundorf was used to calculate the fraction of the particles in each mass decade which survives atmospheric entry without melting (i.e., those not heated above 1600K). The incident mass and surviving mass in each mass decade are shown for both Earth and Mars.

  17. Challenges in assessing the contribution of climate change to observed record-breaking heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J.; Xu, T.; Quan, X.; Hoerling, M. P.; Dole, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Record-setting heat waves have large impacts on public health and society due to increased mortality rate, wild fires, property damages and agricultural loss. There is increasing interest in understanding the causes of such extreme events including the role of climate change. We use the example of the link between atmospheric blocking frequency and summertime seasonal temperature extreme to address some challenges in determining the relative contributions of natural variability and climate change on the occurrence and magnitude of extreme climate-related events. We utilize the 62-year record of observational data from 1960 to 2011 and long integrations with the NCARs Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4). This climate model represents well atmospheric blocking frequency and related weather features over the European/Ural region. Both observations and long climate integrations suggest that seasonal temperature extremes over the Northern European/Ural region are strongly conditioned by blocking. We illustrate that one challenge in climate event attribution is related to the fact that very long records are necessary to sufficiently sample the frequency of occurrence of the principal driver of a record-setting climate event. We further illustrate that there is a strong regional dependence on how the link between blocking frequency and extreme temperature anomalies is modified due to climate change suggesting that event attribution results are often not transferable from one region to another.

  18. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  19. A critical assessment of generational accounting and its contribution to the generational equity debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Williamson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes generational accounting (GA with a focus on what it brings to the broader literature on generational equity. Our assessment suggests that the GA model has its limitations but is potentially useful in the hands of analysts who are familiar with both the strengths and limitations of the model. It is most useful when the focus is on dealing with intergenerational equity, but it is much less useful when the focus is on issues related to class, race, and other forms intragenerational equity. We conclude that when GA models are used to support calls for retrenchment of public spending on pensions and other social programs that target the older population, it makes sense to recognize that the potential benefits with respect to government debt and deficit reduction and reduced inequality in net tax burdens across age cohorts may come at the cost of increased intragenerational inequality for many workers and retirees.

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  1. Assessment of the upper body contribution to multiple-sprint cycling in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marie Clare; Watson, Hugh; Baker, Julien S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated cycling sprints on power profiles while assessing upper body muscle contraction. Eighteen physically active participants performed 8 × 10 s repeated sprints while muscle activity was recorded via surface electromyography (sEMG) from the brachioradialis (BR), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB) and upper trapezius (UT). Measurements were obtained at rest, during a functional maximum contraction (FMC) while participants were positioned in a seated position on the cycle ergometer and during the repeated sprint protocol. Results suggest that mainly type I muscle fibres (MFs) are being recruited within the upper body musculature due to the submaximal and intermittent nature of the contractions. Subsequently, there is no evidence of upper body fatigue across the sprints, which is reflected in the lack of changes in the median frequency of the power spectrum (P<0·05).

  2. Contribution of isotopic indicators to groundwater assessment and management in Grombalia plain (Northeastern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grombalia Plain, situated in the Northeast of Tunisia, contains a very important multilayered aquifer. However, the exploitation rate of shallow groundwater resources reaches 170% in order to answer the increasing needs for socio-economic development and specially the agricultural sector. Irregular climate conditions combined with increasing human constraints have lead, as main consequences, to the lowering of the water level and to the salinisation of groundwater along the coast, enhancing the risk of marine intrusion. Multidisciplinary studies have been conducted on this aquifer for the assessment of groundwater resources. Hydrochemical results indicate that shallow and deep groundwaters show similar type of water fades, highlighting vertical hydraulic communication between these different levels. Isotopic tracers (18O, 2H, 3H, 14C) confirm the existence of groundwater mixing between different depths and levels. On the other hand, shallow groundwater presents high 14C activity, indicating a direct infiltration of rainfall. (author)

  3. Contribution of isotopic indicators to groundwater assessment and management in Grombalia Plain (North-Eastern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grombalia plain, situated in the Northeast of Tunisia, contains a very important multilayered aquifer. However, the exploitation rate of shallow groundwater resources reaches 170% in order to answer the increasing needs of socio-economic development and especially agricultural sectors. Irregular climate conditions combined with increasing human constraints have lead as main consequences to the depletion of water level and to the salinisation of groundwater along the coast enhancing the risk of marine intrusion. Multidisciplinary studies have been realised on this aquifer for the assessment of groundwater resources. Hydrochemical results indicate that shallow and deep groundwater show similar type of water facies highlighting vertical hydraulic communication between these different levels. Isotopic tracers (18O, 2H, 3H, 14C) confirm the existence of groundwater mixture between different depth and level. On the other hand, shallow groundwater present high 14C activity indicating a direct infiltration of rainfall. (author)

  4. A joint urban planning and public health framework: contributions to health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Sclar, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    A joint urban planning and public health perspective is articulated here for use, in health impact assessment. Absent a blueprint for a coherent and supportive structure on which to test our thinking, we are bound to fall flat. Such a perspective is made necessary by the sheer number of people living in cities throughout the world, the need for explicit attention to land use and transportation systems as determinants of population health, and the dearth of useful indicators of the built environment for monitoring progress. If explicit attention is not paid to the overarching goals of equality and democracy, they have little if any chance of being realized in projects, programs, and policies that shape the built environment and therefore the public's health.

  5. The contribution of pattern recognition of seismic and morphostructural data to seismic hazard assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peresan, Antonella; Soloviev, Alexander; Panza, Giuliano F

    2014-01-01

    The reliable statistical characterization of the spatial and temporal properties of large earthquakes occurrence is one of the most debated issues in seismic hazard assessment, due to the unavoidably limited observations from past events. We show that pattern recognition techniques, which are designed in a formal and testable way, may provide significant space-time constraints about impending strong earthquakes. This information, when combined with physically sound methods for ground shaking computation, like the neo-deterministic approach (NDSHA), may produce effectively preventive seismic hazard maps. Pattern recognition analysis of morphostructural data provide quantitative and systematic criteria for identifying the areas prone to the largest events, taking into account a wide set of possible geophysical and geological data, whilst the formal identification of precursory seismicity patterns (by means of CN and M8S algorithms), duly validated by prospective testing, provides useful constraints about impend...

  6. Can assessing for potential contribution of soil organic and inorganic components for butachlor sorption be improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haizhen; Shi, Jiachun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of butachlor to various types of common soil components was investigated. Six pure minerals (montmorillonite [Mont], kaolinite [Kaol], Ca homoionic montmorillonite [Ca-Mont] and kaolinite [Ca-Kaol], amorphous hydrated Al and Fe oxides [AHOs-Al, AHOs-Fe]), four soil alkali-extractable pure humic acids (HAs), and the four corresponding HAs originated real unmodified and HO-treated soils were selected as the representative sorbents. Results showed that the HAs played a crucial role, and clay minerals (especially Mont) also showed an important effect in butachlor sorption. The AHOs may likely influence only in a mediator way by enhancing the availability of sorption domains of HAs. By removing 78% (on average) of the total organic carbon (TOC) from the soils with HO, the content ratio of clay to TOC (RCO) increased by an average of 367% and became >60. This change simultaneously decreased the sorption capacity of soils (40%, on average). Considering that the surface sorption domain on clay minerals may be highly exposed and more competitive after the partial removal of soil organic matter (SOM), this reaffirmed the potential contribution from clay minerals. It can thus be inferred that in the real soil where SOM and clay minerals are associated, the coating of clay minerals may have weakened the partition function of SOM or blocked some sorption domain within SOM, resulting in a decreased sorption of butachlor. Therefore, clay minerals, especially 2:1 type expanding minerals, may play a dual function vs. SOM content for the sorption of butachlor in soil.

  7. EMPLOYING DECENTRING TO ASSESS QUALITY OF SERVICES AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman YOUSAF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher education scenario in Pakistan has gone through tremendous changes and improvements in the last decade. Competition resulting from a sudden surge in the number of higher education imparting institutions and the active role of Higher Education Commission has increased the pressure on the universities to continuously enhance the quality of educational services being provided by them. The aim of the researchers in this endeavor is to employ decentering in order to assess the quality of services being provided by the universities. The study has used the SERVQUAL tool by Parasuraman, Zeithmal and Berry (1991 on a five point Liker scale in order to gauge the responses of the students. Analysis was conducted on a total of 156 valid questionnaires. The sample included the students of the top five HEC (Higher Education Commission recognized universities in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. Factor analysis was also carried out so as to classify the most important dimensions for the students with respect to higher education in Pakistan. Statistical analysis disclosed a positive and significant association between service quality and customer satisfaction. The factor analysis revealed that the most significant dimension with respect to the Pakistan’s higher education sector are the level of management support, responsiveness of the service providers and the adequacy of physical facilities. The study highlights the importance of treating students as valued customers as the competition in the industry along with the regulatory requirements of HEC as well. The service providers need to be provided adequate support and backing of the top management. The physical facilities and the infrastructure must also be adequate enough to meet the growing and ever changing demands of the industry. The current study is the first of its kind that covers the higher education imparting

  8. Genetic contributions to the risk assessment of microcystin in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the known toxins produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins and nodularins are the most significant threat to human and animal health. Knock-out studies have confirmed that microcystins are produced nonribosomally by a multienzyme complex consisting of peptide synthetases, polyketide synthases, and tailoring enzymes. Gene clusters for microcystin biosynthesis have been identified and sequenced in the distantly related cyanobacterial genera Microcystis, Planktothrix, and Anabaena. Homologous genes have been detected in a nodularin-producing Nodularia strain. Subsequently, microcystin biosynthesis (mcy) genes have been used to establish molecular techniques for the detection of toxigenic cyanobacteria in laboratory and field studies. mcy genes of unknown origin can be assigned to the producing species. Techniques are currently being developed for the quantification of mcy genes in field populations. These initial genetic investigations pave the way for a molecular monitoring of microcystin- and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria and for studying the dynamics of toxic cyanobacteria in lakes. Furthermore, microcystin-deficient mutants have significantly increased our knowledge about the impact of the toxins on Microcystis-Daphnia interactions. The experience gained on microcystin biosynthesis genes will be valuable for a risk assessment of microcystin in the environment and for future water management and lake-restoration strategies

  9. Fertility exposure analysis: A new method for assessing the contribution of proximate determinants to fertility differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Little, R J

    1984-03-01

    Summary Several recent papers have dealt with the problem of assessing the impact of the proximate determinants on fertility. All these approaches rely on combining a series of separately estimated aggregate level indicators. This paper proposes an approach which uses individual-level data and thus permits regression analyses as well as analyses for sub-groups. In the course of development it became clear that there are several deficiencies and inconsistencies in the measurement and formation of indices proposed elsewhere, which are overcome. We illustrate our approach with data from the Dominican Republic. The approach used involves attributing exposure to one or more of several states, including pregnancy, lactational and non-lactational components of post-partum amenorrhoea, absence of sexual relations and contraception. Key elements are efficacies of contraception and components of post-partum infecundity and the treatment of overlaps through an explicit hierarchy. We treat both unconditional (or additive) and conditional analyses. Intriguing findings on the age-specific pattern of fertility control emerge. Major advantages of regression analysis, such as simultaneous treatment of several variables and estimation of sampling variation are stressed.

  10. The renaissance of fast sodium reactors 2007 assessment: situation and contributions from the Phenix experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidez, J. [Phenix Plant (France)

    2007-07-01

    The first nuclear reactor to produce electrical current was the fast sodium/potassium reactor EBR-1 in Idaho (Usa). Following this pioneering experience, France, Germany, Great Britain, Usa, Japan, Russia and India launched construction of fast sodium reactors. In the post Chernobyl years, waves of protest against nuclear power grew and swelled, leading to a strong overall slowdown for this reactor type. The SNR-300 project in Germany never started up, and was shut down. In Great Britain, PFR was definitely shut down, operation of MONJU in Japan and BN-800 project in Russia were frozen, FFTF in the United States shut down, and finally the SPX-1 project in France was also stopped. When PHENIX started back up in 2003, there were only three other research reactors operating worldwide: FBTR in India, BOR-60 in Russia and JOYO in Japan, and one power reactor BN-600 in Russia. The Generation-IV initiative was the opportunity for global thinking about reactors for the future, referred to as fourth generation reactors. Six reactor designs were selected, including the fast sodium reactor. However, after several years, most of the countries have officially announced or confirmed that the fast sodium reactor is their priority reference design. In France, within the scope of the law of 28 June 2006, the country has announced and confirmed the decision to build a prototype scheduled for operation in 2020. These and other plans are all sustained in a very practical manner by the ongoing production in the field. PHENIX has been operating since 2003, contributing to the development of future systems and demonstrating the fast reactors ability to burn waste. Following the excellent results obtained by the BN-600, Russia has re-launched the BN-800 project. China is currently in the process of building a 65 MW research reactor, scheduled for divergence in 2009. In Japan, work is underway on MONJU for divergence in 2008. In India, a 1200 MW (thermal) power reactor is under

  11. Information contributed by ventilation scintigraphy in the pre-operative assessment of pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis made here is based on the record sheets of 41 patients undergoing pneumoresection between 1976 and 1982. Pulmonary ventilation scintigrams, for the purpose of which 133Xe or 81mKr had to be inhaled, were obtained as well as spirograms from each individual patient before and after surgery. Additional pulmonary ventilation scintigrams were prepared according to the same schedule for 30 of these patients following intravenous injection of 99mTc-albumin macroaggregate. The results showed that focal pulmonary disorders are clearly discernable from both ventilation and perfusion scans, which also permit the site of such changes to be determined. There was, however, a superiority of perfusion scintigrams in the assessment of central bronchial carcinomas. In two thirds of the patients examined the maximum volume of air exhaled per second was found to be reduced after surgery. The pulmonary functions that could still be maintained after surgery by the remaining parenchyma were expressed as a percentage of the total preoperative function or relative residual function and correlated with each other. On a statistical basis, a linear relationship could only be established between the maximum volumes of air inhaled per second that were determined for the residual pulmonary function by perfusion scintigraphy and spirometry. Two different methods were used to estimate the maximum volumes of air exhaled to be expected after surgery. One method was based on information provided by ventilation or perfusion scintigraphy in addition to the preoperative baseline values for this paramter. The closest correlations with the postoperative values were observed for cases, in which the estimations had been made with the help of perfusion scintigrams. (orig./MG)

  12. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornide, J., E-mail: jca@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Garcia-Mateo, C., E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Capdevila, C., E-mail: ccm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed.

  13. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces.

  14. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia—Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qile Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS, the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO, but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  15. Assessing the independent contribution of maternal educational expectations to children's educational attainment in early adulthood: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Pingault

    Full Text Available Parental educational expectations have been associated with children's educational attainment in a number of long-term longitudinal studies, but whether this relationship is causal has long been debated. The aims of this prospective study were twofold: 1 test whether low maternal educational expectations contributed to failure to graduate from high school; and 2 compare the results obtained using different strategies for accounting for confounding variables (i.e. multivariate regression and propensity score matching.The study sample included 1,279 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Maternal educational expectations were assessed when the participants were aged 12 years. High school graduation—measuring educational attainment—was determined through the Quebec Ministry of Education when the participants were aged 22-23 years. Findings show that when using the most common statistical approach (i.e. multivariate regressions to adjust for a restricted set of potential confounders the contribution of low maternal educational expectations to failure to graduate from high school was statistically significant. However, when using propensity score matching, the contribution of maternal expectations was reduced and remained statistically significant only for males.The results of this study are consistent with the possibility that the contribution of parental expectations to educational attainment is overestimated in the available literature. This may be explained by the use of a restricted range of potential confounding variables as well as the dearth of studies using appropriate statistical techniques and study designs in order to minimize confounding. Each of these techniques and designs, including propensity score matching, has its strengths and limitations: A more comprehensive understanding of the causal role of parental expectations will stem from a convergence of findings from studies using different

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF THE AUDIOLOGICAL AND VESTIBULAR ASSESSMENT TO THE DIFFERENTIAL AND ETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF PERIPHERIC VESTIBULAR SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Ungureanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope of the study: Vestibular pathology is a complex one, requiring a minute clinical evaluation, as well as numerous paraclinical investigations. The present study analyzes the contribution of the modern methods of vestibular and auditive investigation to the diagnosis of dizziness. Materials and method: The results of the investigations performed on 84 patients with peripheric vestibular syndrome, on whom a complete audiological and vestibular assessment had been also made, have been retrospectively analyzed. Results: Anamnestic data and the results of evaluation permitted classification of peripheric vestibular pathology according to topo-lesional and etiological criteria. The most frequently diagnosed diseases were: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Ménière syndrome and vestibular neuronitis. Conclusions: Testing of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes through videonystagmoscopy and, respectively, computerized dynamic posturography, besides tonal vocal audiometry and precocious auditive potentials, is especially important for a positive diagnosis and etiological differentiation of vestibular syndromes.

  17. FIGHTING AGAINST EVASION AND FRAUD IN THE FIELD OF ASSESSMENTS, TAXES AND CONTRIBUTIONS BY PROMOTING A GOOD FISCAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SĂLCEANU ALEXANDRU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nobody doubts anymore about the indispensable role of assessments, taxes and contributions in providing the necessary resources for financing public interest activities, that represent at the same time, through tax policies, an important lever used to mitigate circumstancial fluctuations on the market, in order to achieve macroeconomic objectives. Given this context, tax evasion and fraud represent major threats that hinder the completion of the state’s functions in good conditions, as well as the achievement of some performance criteria imposed by the quality of Romania as an European Union member. That is why, in order to counteract such negative phenomena, decisive actions are necessary towards a good tax governance that can help us to protect the fairness of our tax system, to promote competitiveness, ensuring thus Romania's progress.

  18. Assessment of a relative contribution of terrestrial background radiation in the test field by using RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the radiological investigation of terrestrial gamma radiation in the test field with soil samples from different minefields in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, commonly referred to as “air dose rate”, in the test field located in the Tuzla Canton, were performed by RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, based on energy-compensated Geiger-Muller counter. Its performances were tested in the laboratory conditions with gamma point sources. Since all the samples in the test field were exposed to the same cosmic radiation, there was a possibility to assess a relative contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to soil samples of different composition. One set of measurements in the test field was performed with RADIAGEMTM 2000, at a height of about one meter above the ground and basic statistical parameters indicated that there was no significant difference of terrestrial gamma radiation from different soil samples. The other set of measurements was carried out with the same device placed on the ground in the test field. Processing of experimental data on terrestrial gamma radiation has shown that it was possible to make a difference between relative contributions of terrestrial gamma radiation from individual soil samples. The results of investigation could be useful for multiple purposes of public interest.

  19. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. PMID:25774899

  20. The Contribution of Teachers' Peer-and Self-Assessment for the Implementation of Active Learning Strategies: Perceptions of Ethiopia Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Solomon Melesse

    2014-01-01

    The present study tries to investigate the contribution of primary school teachers' peer- and self- assessment for effective implementation of active learning in their actual classrooms. In this study, areas in which self-reflection and peer assessment include three broad categories, such as methods of teaching and learning, instructional…

  1. Plant-based assessment of inherent soil productivity and contributions to China's cereal crop yield increase since 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: China's food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution's technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. RESULTS: Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s - the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China's major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the 'Agricultural Miracle in China' would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving

  2. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LIFESTYLE-RELATED RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING FOR CHRONIC NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASE IN PATIENTS VISITING RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal Prasanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Non-communicable diseases remain an area of high public health concern especially in developing countries where growing middle class and ever changing lifestyle have led to the rapid increase in the burden of non-communicable disease. The study aimed to assess various lifestyle and behavioral risk factors contributing for non-communicable chronic disease in patients visiting rural tertiary care hospital. A total of 152 patients were selected and analyzed in the study out of which 49 (32.22% were female and 102 (67.78% were male. The average age of the male patients were found to be 61.79years (SD±9.28 and females were 57.1years (SD±10.3. Majority of patients were from lower socioeconomic and educational status. Various risk factors contributing for chronic non-communicable disease that are identified in the study were advance age i.e. > 40years 142 (93.42%, genetically risk factor 46 (30.26%, poor income status 120 (78.95%, occupational exposure to dust, smoke and irritants 111 (73.03%, high body mass index (BMI75 (49.34%, stress 110 (72.37%, inadequate sleep 5 (3.29%, smoking habit 69 (45.4%, Alcohol consuming habit 63 (41.48%, lack of physical activity 59 (38.81%, rare fruit consuming habit 72 (47.37% and less vegetable consumption i.e. ≤ 1/day were 32 (21.05%. Study concluded that substantially high levels of the various lifestyle and behavioral related risk factors such as poor socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, high BMI or obesity, stress etc, were significantly associated in patients with chronic disease.

  4. An assessment of the potential contribution from waste-to-energy facilities to electricity demand in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This research evaluates the potential contribution of WTE to Saudi power demand. • Two scenarios were developed: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling to year 2032. • Mass Burn will generate 2073 Megawatts (MW) about 1.73% of 2032 peak power demand. • Mass Burn with recycling will generate 166 MW about 0.14% of 2032 peak power demand. - Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest crude oil producer in the world and possesses the largest oil reserves. The crude oil revenue has resulted in a massive socio-economic development over the last four decades. This situation has resulted in rapid growth of the country’s electricity demand and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. The KSA is proposing an impressive plan towards renewable energy utilization that includes waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. This research assesses the potential contribution of WTE facilities to total Saudi peak power demand up to the year 2032 based on two scenarios: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling for the entire country and for six major cities in the KSA. The analysis shows a potential to produce about 2073 Megawatts (MW) based on a Mass Burn scenario and about 166 MW based on Mass Burn with recycling scenario. These values amount to about 1.73% and 0.14% of the projected 2032 peak electricity demand of 120 Gigawatt. The forecasted results of each city from the two scenarios can be used to design future WTE facilities in the main cities of Saudi Arabia. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the two scenarios based on financial, social, technical, and environmental criteria

  5. Environmental impact of nuclear industry and power generation in the Russian Federation: assessment of contribution to general damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was assess the contribution of nuclear industry and power generation to environmental pollution in the Russian Federation. The general aim is to provide rationale for the sound strategy and priorities in addressing issues related to technogenous environmental pollution at the national and regional governance levels. Estimates were derived from data found in reviews published by federal environmental protection authorities. The impact of major sectors of economy to contamination of the environment was estimated through analyzing the amount of chemical and radioactive releases, as well as parameters of air, water, soil and forest contamination for economic regions and provinces where major nuclear plants are located. Pollutant maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for natural environment media (ambient air, natural water, soil) as adopted in RF were taken as evaluation criteria. A relative pollution index taking account of the gross product value in the given sector of economy was proposed for the purposes of economic assessment. According to reported data nuclear power and industry plants make no adverse effect on the ambient air quality in impact areas. Emissions of industrial gases and pollutants, and fossil-fuel combustion (dust and soot, NO2, CO etc.) remain the main sources of dangerous (exceeding MPC) chemical air pollution in each province concerned. The leading industries contributing a principal load to air pollution are: automobile transport, metallurgy, etc. Specific pollution indexes were calculated for several major sectors: φ=P/(MPC)·M m3/Rb, where P is gross pollutant emission, g/year; MPC - as above, g/m3; M is value of annual production, Rb/year. Values of φ for these sectors are given in table form. Water quality in most natural fresh water resources fails to meet the standards, the most widespread pollutants being represented by oil products, phenols, etc. Major sources of water pollution are: industrial wastewater

  6. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. PMID:27110969

  7. An ensemble approach to assess hydrological models' contribution to uncertainties in the analysis of climate change impact on water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Velázquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, several research efforts investigated the impact of climate change on water resources for different regions of the world. The projection of future river flows is affected by different sources of uncertainty in the hydro-climatic modelling chain. One of the aims of the QBic3 project (Québec-Bavarian International Collaboration on Climate Change is to assess the contribution to uncertainty of hydrological models by using an ensemble of hydrological models presenting a diversity of structural complexity (i.e. lumped, semi distributed and distributed models. The study investigates two humid, mid-latitude catchments with natural flow conditions; one located in Southern Québec (Canada and one in Southern Bavaria (Germany. Daily flow is simulated with four different hydrological models, forced by outputs from regional climate models driven by a given number of GCMs' members over a reference (1971–2000 and a future (2041–2070 periods. The results show that the choice of the hydrological model does strongly affect the climate change response of selected hydrological indicators, especially those related to low flows. Indicators related to high flows seem less sensitive on the choice of the hydrological model. Therefore, the computationally less demanding models (usually simple, lumped and conceptual give a significant level of trust for high and overall mean flows.

  8. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available.

  9. Establishing a Collaborative Effort to Assess The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard; Barrett, Andrew; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Fetterer, Florence; Horodyskyj, Ulyana; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Racoviteanu, Adina; Rasmussen, Al; Raup, Bruce; Williams, Mark; Wilson, Alana

    2013-04-01

    The improved understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia is a cross-boundary exercise and in order to achieve this goal, University of Colorado scientists are working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that will enhance the scientific understanding of the regional hydrology through augmented field programs and technical training. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges. While it is generally accepted that the melt from glacier ice and seasonal snow is a significant component of High Asian water resources, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches

  10. Touchdown Dynamics and the Probability of Terrain Related Failure of Planetary Landing Systems - A Contribution to the Landing Safety Assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Landing safety assessment is an integral element of the planning of a landing mission. This thesis contributes to such assessment with the modelling and deduction of the functional limits of a legged landing system and its terrain-related failure probabilities. A mathematical method has been developed to determine these terrain-related failure probabilities. The lander's touchdown dynamics is represented by a high-fidelity numerical multibody simulation which is validated by experimental data...

  11. Assessment of parental contribution and effective population size from a 3×3 diallel cross of clam Meretrix meretrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Baozhong

    2014-03-01

    Unbalanced parental contribution and small effective population size ( N e) are common issues during the artificial breeding of marine bivalves. The impact of hatchery-spawning practices on parental contribution, effective population size, the N e/ N ratio, and genetic diversity are largely unknown. To address this, we conducted a parentage analysis on a complete 3×3 diallel cross of clam M eretrix meretrix using eight microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the parents was higher than that of their respective offspring in most crosses (8/9). Sires or dams from the same family contributed unequally to the pool of offspring from a particular cross, and the same parent clam exhibited large variation in parental contribution among different crosses. The variance in male contribution was higher than that of the female contribution in most crosses, suggesting that male contribution was more skewed than for females. The N e/ N ratio for nine crosses ranged from 0.58 to 0.86. There was no linear relationship between the sex ratio and the N e/ N ratio ( P > 0.05). Moreover, a sex ratio closer to one-to-one does not necessarily mean a larger effective population size. A solution to small effective population size in commercial breeding programs is increasing broodstock numbers and attempting to maintain a balanced sex ratio.

  12. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  13. Assessing positive matrix factorization model fit: a new method to estimate uncertainty and bias in factor contributions at the daily time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Hemann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for aerosol pollution source apportionment was fit to a synthetic dataset simulating one year of daily measurements of ambient PM2.5 concentrations, comprised of 39 chemical species from nine pollutant sources. A novel method was developed to estimate model fit uncertainty and bias at the daily time scale, as related to factor contributions. A balanced bootstrap is used to create replicate datasets, with the same model then fit to the data. Neural networks are trained to classify factors based upon chemical profiles, as opposed to correlating contribution time series, and this classification is used to align factor orderings across results associated with the replicate datasets. Factor contribution uncertainty is assessed from the distribution of results associated with each factor. Comparing modeled factors with input factors used to create the synthetic data assesses bias. The results indicate that variability in factor contribution estimates does not necessarily encompass model error: contribution estimates can have small associated variability yet also be very biased. These results are likely dependent on characteristics of the data.

  14. Assessing positive matrix factorization model fit: a new method to estimate uncertainty and bias in factor contributions at the measurement time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Hemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for aerosol pollution source apportionment was fit to a synthetic dataset simulating one year of daily measurements of ambient PM2.5 concentrations, comprised of 39 chemical species from nine pollutant sources. A novel method was developed to estimate model fit uncertainty and bias at the daily time scale, as related to factor contributions. A circular block bootstrap is used to create replicate datasets, with the same receptor model then fit to the data. Neural networks are trained to classify factors based upon chemical profiles, as opposed to correlating contribution time series, and this classification is used to align factor orderings across the model results associated with the replicate datasets. Factor contribution uncertainty is assessed from the distribution of results associated with each factor. Comparing modeled factors with input factors used to create the synthetic data assesses bias. The results indicate that variability in factor contribution estimates does not necessarily encompass model error: contribution estimates can have small associated variability across results yet also be very biased. These findings are likely dependent on characteristics of the data.

  15. Barriers to Co-Contribution in Superannuation: a Comparative Assessment of the Financial Benefits of Scheme Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Bruhn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary superannuation contributions provide a means for individuals to top-up their savings in a tax advantaged environment. In order to encourage voluntary contributions the government instituted the cocontribution scheme in 2003. Under the existing scheme, within a given financial year the government contributes up to a maximum of $500 when an individual on a low income makes a voluntary contribution of up to $1,000. Despite the apparent financial attractiveness of the scheme, participation among eligible persons is low. Reasons may include competing expenditure needs leading to a lack of sufficient funds for contribution, lack of trust in the system given regular changes to superannuation policy, and behavioural reasons including a short-term rather than long-term focus, procrastination from uncertainty and fear of regret, and loss aversion. In this paper we investigate another possible reason for low participation, namely poor financial opportunity cost. While an immediate 50% investment return may appear to be a ‘no-brainer’, for eligible individuals or families with mortgages, scheme participation may in fact not be optimal. We investigate the relative benefit of scheme participation versus reducing a mortgage, and conclude that while participation is sensible for those with short remaining mortgage terms, for those with longer mortgage terms the decision to participate may not be preferred unless one assumes generous long-term superannuation investment returns, or unless scheme participation is intended year on year for long durations.

  16. Measurement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazine pigments in sputum and assessment of their contribution to sputum sol toxicity for respiratory epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, R.; Sykes, D A; Watson, D.; Rutman, A.; Taylor, G.W.; Cole, P J

    1988-01-01

    The phenazine pigments pyocyanin and 1-hydroxyphenazine were resolved by high-pressure liquid chromatography from the sputum sol phase from 9 of 13 patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentrations measured were each sufficient to inhibit ciliary beating in vitro and contributed a significant proportion of sol phase toxicity for respiratory epithelium.

  17. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER IRRIGATION: UNDERSTANDING HEALTH RISKS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO FOOD SECURITY USING AN ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research will quantify the extent of de facto reuse of untreated wastewater at the global scale. Through the integration of multiple existing spatial data sources, this project will produce rigorous analyses assessing the relationship between wastewater irrigation, hea...

  18. An integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach for assessing trans-boundary PM 10 contribution to the host city of 2008 Olympic summer games—Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. S.; Cheng, S. Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, T.; Guo, X. R.

    In this paper, an integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach was employed to investigate the PM 10 air pollution issue in Beijing, China, with a focus on assessing pollution contributions from surrounding provinces. A 2-level-nested grid domain with spatial resolutions of 36 and 12 km was designed for the study region. Seven monitoring stations across Beijing municipality were selected to provide hourly PM 10 measurement data. The months of January, April, July and October in 2002 were taken as target periods for model performance evaluation. Five emission scenarios were designed and run in order to quantitatively assess the trans-boundary PM 10 contributions. The results show that, while Beijing needs to take positive steps to reduce its own pollution emissions, much effort should also be placed on demanding more pollution reduction and better environmental performance from surrounding provinces.

  19. Assessment of the unattached fraction of indoor radon progeny and its contribution to dose: a pilot study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiuju; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Lu

    2012-12-01

    The unattached fraction of radon progeny (f(p)) is one of the most important factors for accurate evaluation of the effective dose from a unit of radon exposure, and it may vary greatly in different environments. For precise evaluation of the indoor radon exposure dose and the influence of unattached radon progeny, a pilot survey of f(p) in different environments was carried out in China with a portable and integrating monitor. The dose conversion factors for radon progeny are calculated with LUDEP(®) code, and the dose contributions from the unattached and the attached radon progenies were simultaneously evaluated based on the results of field measurements. The results show that even though the concentrations of radon progeny vary significantly among different indoor environments, the variations of f(p) seem relatively small (9.3-16.9%). The dose contribution from unattached radon progeny is generally larger (30.2-46.2%) in an indoor environment.

  20. Assessing the ICT sector contribution to the millennium development goals: Status quo analysis of sustainability information for the ICT sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhndt, Michael; von Geibler, Justus; Herrndorf, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Information and communiction technologies (ICTs), as a crosscutting evolving technology, can contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This opinion is not only voiced by business, but also expressed in specific MDG targets as well as from a range of stakeholders, e.g. NGOs, intergovernmental organisations and financial institutions. However, ICT implications are not only beneficial, a range of stakeholders raises critical issues. Quantified information on ICT c...

  1. Theoretical and empirical bases for dialect-neutral language assessment: contributions from theoretical and applied linguistics to communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer

    2004-02-01

    Three avenues of theoretical research provide insights for discovering abstract properties of language that are subject to disorder and amenable to assessment: (1) the study of universal grammar and its acquisition; (2) descriptions of African American English (AAE) Syntax, Semantics, and Phonology within theoretical linguistics; and (3) the study of specific language impairment (SLI) cross-linguistically. Abstract linguistic concepts were translated into a set of assessment protocols that were used to establish normative data on language acquisition (developmental milestones) in typically developing AAE children ages 4 to 9 years. Testing AAE-speaking language impaired (LI) children and both typically developing (TD) and LI Mainstream American English (MAE)-learning children on these same measures provided the data to select assessments for which (1) TD MAE and AAE children performed the same, and (2) TD performance was reliably different from LI performance in both dialect groups.

  2. Contribution o the assessment of the environmental risk associated with uranium releases in the Ritord drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the application to aquatic environments and more particularly to the case of a drainage basin of methods of assessment of the environmental risk presented in another report. The objective is to determine the environmental risk related to releases of uranium from ancient mining sites. The method is applied to available data to diagnose a possible chemical and/or radiological risk due to these releases. Should the occasion occurs, probabilistic approaches are used to refine the assessment of the possible risk identified by the screening. After a presentation of the context, the different screening steps are reported: methodology (exposure analysis, effect analysis, and risk characterization), deterministic characterization of the chronic radiological risk, deterministic characterization of the chronic chemical risk. The next part reports the probabilistic assessment of the chemical or radiological risk. In conclusion, the authors indicate actions to be performed to better analyse exposures, and desirable actions to better analyse effects

  3. Interdependency between Risk Assessments for Self and Other in the Field of Comparative Optimism: The Contribution of Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzenstetter, Florence; Schimchowitsch, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a response-time measure in the field of comparative optimism, this study was designed to explore how people estimate risk to self and others depending on the evaluation order (self/other or other/self). Our results show the interdependency between self and other answers. Indeed, while response time for risk assessment for the self…

  4. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.A. Flantua; H. Hooghiemstra; M. Blaauw

    2015-01-01

    The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing chronologi

  5. Assessment of the contribution of sustainability indicators to sustainable development: a novel approach using fuzzy set theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, A.M.G.; Berg, van den J.; Koops, W.J.; Grossman, M.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    As a consequence of the impact of sustainability on agricultural production systems, a standardized framework to monitor sustainable development would have great practical utility. The objective of this paper is to introduce fuzzy set theory and develop fuzzy mathematical models to assess sustainabl

  6. The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Presurgical Assessment of Language Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Beland, Renee; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Before performing neurosurgery, an exhaustive presurgical assessment is required, usually including an investigation of language cerebral lateralization. Among the available procedures, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) was formerly the most widely used. However, this procedure has many limitations: it is invasive and potentially traumatic,…

  7. Learning Potential in High IQ Children: The Contribution of Dynamic Assessment to the Identification of Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, M. Dolores; Belen, Garcia-Martin M.; Robles, M. Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, models of giftedness have incorporated personal and social variables which influence IQ, rather than taking IQ into account exclusively. Among the various options presented in this context, authors have proposed dynamic assessment techniques as a method for revealing the potential capacity in different groups, independently of the…

  8. Assessing the contribution of the main aquifer of Loire basin to the river discharge during low flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Loire river low flows is a key issue for various uses such as water supply, irrigation or industrial needs. Power production is a major activity in the Loire basin with four nuclear power plants using the river water for the cooling system. To estimate the evolution of long term in-stream low flow distribution, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the contribution of a complex aquifer system to the river discharge. Three main overlaying aquifer units covering an area of 38000 km2 are considered: Beauce Limestones (Oligocene), Chalks (Seno-Turonian) and Sands (Cenomanian). A distributed hydrogeological model (Eau-Dyssee) is implemented with the coupling of five modules: surface water budget, watershed routing, river routing, unsaturated zone transfer, and groundwater flow. The model is calibrated over a 10-yr period, validated over another 10-yr period, and then a test simulation is run over 35 years. A hybrid fitting methodology, based on an automated inverse method and a trial-error one, has been developed for the fitting of the Beauce aquifer unit. The other units are calibrated by trial and error. The fitted model simulates properly both discharges and piezometric heads over the whole domain, with a global RMSE between simulated and observed piezometric heads of 2.86 m, and all Nash efficiency at the Loire discharge gauging stations over 0.9. The fitted model has then been used to quantify the hydro-system mass balance at different time scales. Mean aquifer contribution to Loire river discharge during low flow between 1975 and 2008 is estimated at 15 m3/s. First results of simulations under four different climate change projections indicate an averaged decrease of these contributions reaching 8 to 50% in 2100. (author)

  9. First Steps Toward a Quality of Climate Finance Scorecard (QUODA-CF): Creating a Comparative Index to Assess International Climate Finance Contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Katherine; Roberts, Timmons; de Nevers, Michele; Langley, Claire; Smith, Cory

    2013-06-15

    Are climate finance contributor countries, multilateral aid agencies and specialized funds using widely accepted best practices in foreign assistance? How is it possible to measure and compare international climate finance contributions when there are as yet no established metrics or agreed definitions of the quality of climate finance? As a subjective metric, quality can mean different things to different stakeholders, while of donor countries, recipients and institutional actors may place quality across a broad spectrum of objectives. This subjectivity makes the assessment of the quality of climate finance contributions a useful and necessary exercise, but one that has many challenges. This work seeks to enhance the development of common definitions and metrics of the quality of climate finance, to understand what we can about those areas where climate finance information is available and shine a light on the areas where there is a severe dearth of data. Allowing for comparisons of the use of best practices across funding institutions in the climate sector could begin a process of benchmarking performance, fostering learning across institutions and driving improvements when incorporated in internal evaluation protocols of those institutions. In the medium term, this kind of benchmarking and transparency could support fundraising in contributor countries and help build trust with recipient countries. As a feasibility study, this paper attempts to outline the importance of assessing international climate finance contributions while describing the difficulties in arriving at universally agreed measurements and indicators for assessment. In many cases, data are neither readily available nor complete, and there is no consensus on what should be included. A number of indicators are proposed in this study as a starting point with which to analyze voluntary contributions, but in some cases their methodologies are not complete, and further research is required for a

  10. Application of air pollution dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment and model performance evaluation at integrated industrial estate-Pantnagar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, T., E-mail: tirthankaronline@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India); Barman, S.C., E-mail: scbarman@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Monitoring, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow-226 001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Srivastava, R.K., E-mail: rajeevsrivastava08@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2} concentration was performed at Pantnagar, India through simulation of two urban mathematical dispersive models namely Gaussian Finite Line Source Model (GFLSM) and Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST-3) and model performances were evaluated. Principal approaches were development of comprehensive emission inventory, monitoring of traffic density and regional air quality and conclusively simulation of urban dispersive models. Initially, 18 industries were found responsible for emission of 39.11 kg/h of NO{sub 2} through 43 elevated stacks. Further, vehicular emission potential in terms of NO{sub 2} was computed as 7.1 kg/h. Air quality monitoring delineates an annual average NO{sub 2} concentration of 32.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Finally, GFLSM and ISCST-3 were simulated in conjunction with developed emission inventories and existing meteorological conditions. Models simulation indicated that contribution of NO{sub 2} from industrial and vehicular source was in a range of 45-70% and 9-39%, respectively. Further, statistical analysis revealed satisfactory model performance with an aggregate accuracy of 61.9%. - Research highlights: > Application of dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2}. > Inventorization revealed emission from industry and vehicles was 39.11 and 7.1 kg/h. > GFLSM revealed that vehicular pollution contributes a range of 9.0-38.6%. > Source-contribution of 45-70% was found for industrial emission through ISCST-3. > Aggregate performance of both models shows good agreement with an accuracy of 61.9%. - Development of industrial and vehicular inventory in terms of ambient NO{sub 2} for model simulation at Pantnagar, India and model validation revealed satisfactory outcome.

  11. Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; MacLean, Lachlan C.W.; Rasmussen, Pat E. (Health Canada); (NRC)

    2012-10-23

    Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 {micro}m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {micro}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

  12. A biomechanical model to assess the contribution of pelvic musculature weakness to the development of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Clare; Kwok, Ezra; Sassani, Farrokh; Jackson, Roy; Cundiff, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    A biomechanical model of the female pelvic support system was developed to explore the contribution of pelvic floor muscle defect to the development of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). From a pool of 135 patients, clinical data of 26 patients with pelvic muscular defect were used in modelling. The model was employed to estimate the parameters that describe the stiffness properties of the vaginal wall and ligament tissues for individual patients. The parameters were then implemented into the model to evaluate for each patient the impact of pelvic muscular defect on the vaginal apex support and the bladder neck support, a factor that relates to the onset of SUI. For the modelling analysis, the compromise of pelvic muscular support was demonstrated to contribute to vaginal apex prolapse and bladder neck prolapse, a condition commonly seen in SUI patients, while simulated conditions of restored muscular support were shown to help re-establish both vaginal apex and bladder neck supports. The findings illustrate the significance of pelvic muscle strength to vaginal support and urinary continence; therefore, the clinical recommendation of pelvic muscle strengthening, such as Kegel exercises, has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with SUI symptoms. PMID:22494663

  13. Amateur or Professional: Assessing the Expertise of Major Contributors in OpenStreetMap Based on Contributing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anran Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM, provide an alternative way to produce geographic data. Research has proven that the resulting data in some areas are of decent quality, which guarantees their usability in various applications. Though these achievements are normally attributed to the huge heterogeneous community mainly consisting of amateurs, it is in fact a small percentage of major contributors who make nearly all contributions. In this paper, we investigate the contributing behaviors of these contributors to deduce whether they are actually professionals. Various indicators are used to depict the behaviors on three themes: practice, skill and motivation, aiming to identify solid evidence for expertise. Our case studies show that most major contributors in Germany, France and the United Kingdom are hardly amateurs, but are professionals instead. These contributors have rich experiences on geographical data editing, have a decent grasp of professional software and work on the project with enthusiasm and concentration. It is less unexpected that they can create geographic data of high quality.

  14. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: How Apps-Embedded Assessment can contribute to learning outcomes mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Galembeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:Apps can be designed to provide usage data, and most of them do. These usage data are usually used to map users interests and to deliver more effective ads that are more likely to result in clicks, and sales. We have applied some of these metrics to understand how it can be used to map students’ behavior using educational software. We tested both Google Analytics, and a system we have developed to map learning outcomes and students engagement. Embedded assessment were implemented in app used to teach: 1 Metabolic Pathways; 2 Protein Synthesis, 3 Cell Structure, and 4 Concepts from techniques used in a Biochemistry Lab course. Our preliminary results show that this approach provides valuable information about class outcomes that can be used for both summative and formative assessments.

  15. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu T.; Varuttamaseni A.; Baek, J-S; Pepper, S.

    2016-12-30

    This paper provides an approach for developing potential attacks on I and C systems of NPPs and assessing their consequences. An important concept is that the NPPs were not designed to cope with Stuxnet-type of attacks (and any other cyber attacks). That is, the plants were only designed for design basis accidents. The safety margins and redundancies built in the design are all based on design basis accidents. They may be helpful in mitigating cyberattacks, but may not be adequate.

  16. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Varuttamaseni, Athi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, Joo-Seok [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pepper, Susan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This paper provides an approach for developing potential attacks on I and C systems of NPPs and assessing their consequences. An important concept is that the NPPs were not designed to cope with Stuxnet-type of attacks (and any other cyber attacks). That is, the plants were only designed for design basis accidents. The safety margins and redundancies built in the design are all based on design basis accidents. They may be helpful in mitigating cyberattacks, but may not be adequate.

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of undisturbed macroinvertebrate communities in the Mondego River basin : contribution to the ecological assessment of streams

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Maria Luísa Correia, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Ecologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008 Macroinvertebrates have become the most commonly used and widely known biological indicators for assessing and monitoring human impacts in streams because they respond predictably to many kinds/intensities of anthropogenic pressures. Hence, they were included in the indicators group of ecological status required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). However, the lack o...

  18. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators.

  19. Assessment of variation in the alberta context tool: the contribution of unit level contextual factors and specialty in Canadian pediatric acute care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few validated measures of organizational context and none that we located are parsimonious and address modifiable characteristics of context. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT was developed to meet this need. The instrument assesses 8 dimensions of context, which comprise 10 concepts. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence to further the validity argument for ACT. The specific objectives of this paper are to: (1 examine the extent to which the 10 ACT concepts discriminate between patient care units and (2 identify variables that significantly contribute to between-unit variation for each of the 10 concepts. Methods 859 professional nurses (844 valid responses working in medical, surgical and critical care units of 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals completed the ACT. A random intercept, fixed effects hierarchical linear modeling (HLM strategy was used to quantify and explain variance in the 10 ACT concepts to establish the ACT's ability to discriminate between units. We ran 40 models (a series of 4 models for each of the 10 concepts in which we systematically assessed the unique contribution (i.e., error variance reduction of different variables to between-unit variation. First, we constructed a null model in which we quantified the variance overall, in each of the concepts. Then we controlled for the contribution of individual level variables (Model 1. In Model 2, we assessed the contribution of practice specialty (medical, surgical, critical care to variation since it was central to construction of the sampling frame for the study. Finally, we assessed the contribution of additional unit level variables (Model 3. Results The null model (unadjusted baseline HLM model established that there was significant variation between units in each of the 10 ACT concepts (i.e., discrimination between units. When we controlled for individual characteristics, significant variation in the 10 concepts remained. Assessment of the

  20. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Camacho, Rodney; Johnson, Steven; McLean, Matthew; Maxin, Selino; Anson, Jorg; Joseph, Eugene; Nedlic, Osamu; Luckymis, Marston; Adams, Katrina; Hess, Don; Kabua, Emma; Yalon, Anthony; Buthung, Eva; Graham, Curtis; Leberer, Trina; Taylor, Brett; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA) networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i) grazing by large herbivores, (ii) high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii) high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem services that coral

  1. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Houk

    Full Text Available Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i grazing by large herbivores, (ii high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem

  2. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DIFUSO PARA VALORACIÓN DE APORTES EN SISTEMAS COLABORATIVOS FUZZY SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ASSESSMENT OF CONTRIBUTIONS IN COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente los consumidores no son pasivos, están altamente conectados y vinculados con las empresas. Por ello, algunas empresas aprovechan estas características para innovar productos a partir de los aportes de clientes. La co-creación como modelo colaborativo para la innovación se caracteriza por estar dividida en etapas relacionadas entre sí, con el fin de capturar apropiadamente los aportes de los clientes. La capacidad de valorar y clasificar los aportes de los agentes que participan en este proceso colaborativo es una tarea de crucial importancia para las organizaciones. El presente artículo propone un sistema difuso que permite valorar los aportes de los agentes que participan en forma colaborativa en la co-creación de productos y servicios.Now the customers are not passive, they are highly networked and connected with companies. Some companies take advantage of these features to innovate products from customer contributions. Co-creation like collaborative model to the innovation is characterized from being divided into interrelated stages in order to capture client's contributions in an appropriate way. The ability to assess and rank the contributions of the actors involved in this collaborative process is a crucial organizations task. The present paper proposes a fuzzy system that allows valuation for agent's contributions that participate in a collaborative way in products and services co-creation.

  3. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. A. Flantua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing chronologies. Therefore, we collected all chronological control points and age model metadata from the LAPD literature to create a complementary chronological database of 5116 dates from 1097 pollen records. We start with an overview on chronological dating and reporting in Central and South America. Specific problems and recommendations for chronology reporting are discussed. Subsequently, we implement a temporal quality assessment of pollen records from northwest South-America to support research on climate forcers and responses at a centennial-millennial time-scale. New chronologies are generated for 233 pollen records based on updated calibration curves. Different time windows are discussed on sample resolution and temporal uncertainty. Approximately one in four pollen diagrams depicts < 500 years resolution data at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition. Overall, our analyses suggest that the temporal resolution of multi-site syntheses of late Pleistocene fossil pollen records in the northwest South-America is ca. 240 years, a resolution which allows analysis of ecological responses to centennial-millennial-scale climate change during the last deglaciation.

  4. Animal models for assessment of infection and inflammation: contributions to elucidating the pathophysiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane eBlood-Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is still not well understood. It is a diagnosis of exclusion following the sudden and unexpected death of an infant. There are numerous theories about the etiology of SIDS but the exact cause or causes have never been pinpointed.Examination of theoretical pathologies might only be possible in animal models. Development of these models requires consideration of the genetic, developmental and environmental risk factors associated with SIDS, as they need to explain how the risk factors could contribute to the cause of death. These models were initially developed in common laboratory animals to test various hypotheses to explain these infant deaths - guinea pig, piglet, mouse, neonatal rabbit and neonatal rat. Currently there are growing numbers of researchers using genetically altered animals to examine specific areas of interest. This review describes the different systems and models developed to examine the diverse hypotheses for the cause of SIDS and their potential for defining a causal mechanism or mechanisms.

  5. Tracking Myself: Assessing the Contribution of Mobile Technologies for Self-Trackers of Weight, Diet, or Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Eulàlia Puig

    2016-06-01

    For individuals trying to lose or maintain weight, self-tracking their weight, diet, or exercise is important. In the past, different tracking modes have been examined, like paper and pencil, memory, or personal digital assistants. But the recent advancement and adoption of mobile technologies could also result in easier and simpler self-tracking. However, little is known about self-trackers, their tracking modes, and the absolute or relative contribution of each tracking mode at the population level. This study fills this gap by (a) comparing self-trackers' characteristics across tracking modes and against nontrackers and (b) testing the relationship between mobile self-tracking and tracking outcomes using a representative sample of data from the Pew Internet and American Life Project from 2012. Controls in the model include demographics, technology use, and health indicators. Results suggest that mobile self-trackers are younger and more educated and that mobile self-tracking is a positive contributor and the best tracking mode. PMID:27168426

  6. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. PMID:21555087

  7. The contribution of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) in streams to assess spatial runoff processes in a moraine dominated agricultural catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, Eva; Blemmer, Morten; Holmes, Esbern;

    -plant-atmosphere model (Daisy) was used to calculate the water balance of a moraine dominated agricultural catchment (42 km2) in Denmark, and a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system was installed in the stream Elverdam to assess the spatial variations in lateral inflows to the stream. The Daisy model was set up......Evaluating impacts of site-specific changes in land use and land cover on catchment processes is significantly complicated by spatial heterogeneity and the long and variable time lags between precipitation and the responses of streams and groundwater. In this study, a 1-D soil...... using a high spatial resolution (10-30 m) land use map which includes agricultural crops, forest, wetlands and inhabited areas, and spatial variations in soil types, geology and tile drainage were represented. The DTS system measured diurnal variations in water temperature each meter along a stream...

  8. Safety and reliability of pressure components with special emphasis on the contribution of component and large specimen testing to structural integrity assessment methodology. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 51 papers of the 13. MPA-seminar contribute to structural integrity assessment methodology with special emphasis on the component and large specimen testing. 8 of the papers deal with fracture mechanics, 6 papers with dynamic loading, 13 papers with nondestructive testing, 2 papers with radiation embrittlement, 5 papers with pipe failure, 4 papers with components, 2 papers with thermal shock loading, 5 papers with the high temperature behaviour, 4 papers with the integrity of vessels and 3 papers with the integrity of welded joints. Especially also the fracture behaviour of steel material is verificated. All papers are separately indexed and analysed for the database. (DG)

  9. Analogue studies in the Alligator Rivers Region of Australia. Contribution to the scientific basis for the performance assessment of proposed repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analogue Studies in the Alligator Rivers Region (ASARR) project is coordinated by the OECD/NEA and involves ANSTO, JAERI, KAERI and the USNRC. Its aim is to contribute to the performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal sites through the building of confidence in predictive transport codes. The project is principally concerned with validating models of sub-surface retardation processes which underpin the codes. This paper will describe recent progress in extending sorption studies from reference minerals to natural materials. The first step in the laboratory program was to investigate uranium uptake on binary systems comprising ferrihydrite and kaolinite. Secondly, the significance of small levels of active minerals such as anatase in a standard kaolinite and iron nodules in geological samples from the Koongarra Uranium deposit is being assessed. Progress towards applying the natural analogue approach to a reference arid site will be reported. The scientific approaches of the individual laboratories are outlined in an annex. (author)

  10. A social work contribution to suicide prevention through assertive brief psychotherapy and community linkage: use of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Melissa; Joubert, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    There is a striking absence of literature articulating and evaluating clinical social work contributions to suicide prevention, despite considerable practice in this important field. This article reports on a model of assertive brief psychotherapeutic intervention and facilitated linkage to community services utilized in a prospective cohort study of emergency department suicide attempt aftercare. A key outcome measure, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), was used with 65 patients to assess psychosocial domains at initial presentation, 4-weeks, 3-months, and 6-months. There were significant improvements in the domains of work, finance, leisure, social life, living situation, personal safety and health by 3 months. There were highly significant correlations between psychosocial improvements and improved depression scores.

  11. Predicting Drug Extraction in the Human Gut Wall: Assessing Contributions from Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporter Proteins using Preclinical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sheila Annie; Jones, Christopher R; Ungell, Anna-Lena; Hatley, Oliver J D

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal metabolism can limit oral bioavailability of drugs and increase the risk of drug interactions. It is therefore important to be able to predict and quantify it in drug discovery and early development. In recent years, a plethora of models-in vivo, in situ and in vitro-have been discussed in the literature. The primary objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge in the quantitative prediction of gut-wall metabolism. As well as discussing the successes of current models for intestinal metabolism, the challenges in the establishment of good preclinical models are highlighted, including species differences in the isoforms; regional abundances and activities of drug metabolizing enzymes; the interplay of enzyme-transporter proteins; and lack of knowledge on enzyme abundances and availability of empirical scaling factors. Due to its broad specificity and high abundance in the intestine, CYP3A is the enzyme that is frequently implicated in human gut metabolism and is therefore the major focus of this review. A strategy to assess the impact of gut wall metabolism on oral bioavailability during drug discovery and early development phases is presented. Current gaps in the mechanistic understanding and the prediction of gut metabolism are highlighted, with suggestions on how they can be overcome in the future.

  12. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  13. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): II. Soil ecotoxicological screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, S.C. [CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar and Departmento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: scantunes@ua.pt; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F. [CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar and Departmento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2008-02-15

    This study presents the first ecotoxicological data concerning the soils of the area surrounding the Cunha Baixa uranium mine. Our main goal was to categorise soils from the area based on their toxicity profiles using a battery of cost- and time-effective bioassays (elutriate approach - Microtox (registered) and Daphnia acute tests; whole-soil approach - Microtox (registered) and avoidance assays with Eisenia andrei), as a part of tier 1 of an ongoing Environmental Risk Assessment. No acute toxicity was found for any of the 10 sites/soils using Microtox (registered) or Daphnia. On the contrary, the behavioural response of E. andrei was found to be an extremely sensitive endpoint, allowing the discrimination of highly to moderately toxic soils based on their toxicity profiles (as a function of soil concentration). Soils exhibiting highest toxicity corresponded to areas subjected to runoffs or sludge deposition from the aquatic effluent, while non-toxic soils were farthest to the mine. Data obtained in avoidance assays strengthen the previous evaluation of risks based on chemical data and supported decisions about proceeding for tier 2.

  14. Contribution of spiral artery blood flow changes assessed by transvaginal color Doppler sonography for predicting endometrial pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Kabil Kucur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ive: To investigate the diagnostic value of blood flow measurements in spiral artery by transvaginal color Doppler sonography (CDS in predicting endometrial pathologies.Methods: Ninety-seven patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and requiring endometrial assessment were included in this prospective observational study. Endometrial thickness, structure and echogenicity were recorded. Pulsatility index (PI and resistive index (RI of the spiral artery were measured by transvaginal CDS. Endometrial sampling was performed for all subjects. Sonographic and hystopathologic findings were compared.Results: The histopathological diagnoses were as follows; 39 cases (40.2% endometrial polyp, 9 cases (9.3% endometrial hyperplasia, 10 cases (10.3 submucous myoma, 7 cases (7.2% endometrium cancer, and 32 cases (33% nonspecific findings. The spiral artery PI in endometrium cancer group was highly significantly lower than other groups (p<0.01. The spiral artery RI was also significantly lower in the patients with malignant histology (p<0.05. Conclusion: Endometrial pathologies are associated significantly with endometrial spiral artery Doppler changes.Key words: Spiral artery, Doppler ultrasonography, endometrium

  15. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  16. Comparative risk assessment of tobacco smoke constituents using the margin of exposure approach: the neglected contribution of nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumung, Claudia; Rehm, Jürgen; Franke, Heike; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers. Benchmark dose values ranged from 0.004 mg/kg bodyweight for symptoms of intoxication in children to 3 mg/kg bodyweight for mortality in animals; MOEs ranged from below 1 up to 7.6 indicating a considerable consumer risk. The dimension of the MOEs is similar to those of other tobacco toxicants with high concerns relating to adverse health effects such as acrolein or formaldehyde. Owing to the lack of toxicological data in particular relating to cancer, long term animal testing studies for nicotine are urgently necessary. There is immediate need of action concerning the risk of nicotine also with regard to electronic cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27759090

  17. The contribution of a niche-based approach to ecological risk assessment: Using macroinvertebrate species under multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose that a niche-based experimental approach at population level could be used to solve some uncertainties in traditional approaches in ecotoxicology. We tested this approach in the context of multiple stressors (i.e. chemical and physical) in a selection of six run-of-river reservoirs with different levels of sediment contamination and associated upstream and downstream river sites. A niche-based approach was tested using three functional traits (habitat, food preferences and body size) and discrepancy between the realized and theoretical niches. We first identified three groups of taxa and then recorded differences along the disturbance gradients, such as an increase in competition, a narrowing of spatial and trophic niche breadth (e.g. of Leuctra major and Gammarus pulex), a widening of spatial niche breadth (e.g. of Ephemerella ignita), a greater proportion of small individuals (e.g. of G. pulex) and a decreasing or an increasing (e.g. L. major) discrepancy between realized and theoretical niches. -- Highlights: • We test a niche-based approach for ecological risk assessment methodologies. • We explore inter-population variability of functional traits of macroinvertebrates species. • Competition, habitat occupancy, diet and size vary significantly. • Discrepancy between niches increases significantly with the metal contamination. • Niches shifts reveal population vulnerability. -- Niche-based approach provides early indicators of disturbance and relevant endpoints to impacts on communities and ecosystem functioning

  18. Assessing the contribution of prescribing in primary care by nurses and professionals allied to medicine: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanbhro Sadiq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and timely access to effective and appropriate medication through primary care settings is a major concern for all countries addressing both acute and chronic disease burdens. Legislation for nurses and other professionals allied to medicine to prescribe exists in a minority of countries, with more considering introducing legislation. Although there is variation in the range of medicines permitted to be prescribed, questions remain as to the contribution prescribing by nurses and professionals allied to medicine makes to the care of patients in primary care and what is the evidence on which clinicians, commissioners of services and policy makers can consider this innovation. Methods A integrative review of literature on non-medical prescribing in primary care was undertaken guided by dimensions of health care quality: effectiveness, acceptability, efficiency and access. Results 19 papers of 17 empirical studies were identified which provided evidence of patient outcome of non medical prescribing in primary care settings. The majority were undertaken in the UK with only one each from the USA, Canada, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Only two studies investigated clinical outcomes of non-medical prescribing. Seven papers reported on qualitative designs and four of these had fewer than ten participants. Most studies reported that non medical prescribing was widely accepted and viewed positively by patients and professionals. Conclusions Primary health care is the setting where timely access to safe and appropriate medicines is most critical for the well-being of any population. The gradual growth over time of legislative authority and in the numbers of non-medical prescribers, particularly nurses, in some countries suggests that the acceptability of non-medical prescribing is based on the perceived value to the health care system as a whole. Our review suggests that there are substantial gaps in the knowledge base to help evidence

  19. Filling Gaps in Biodiversity Knowledge for Macrofungi: Contributions and Assessment of an Herbarium Collection DNA Barcode Sequencing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W.; Robert, Vincent A.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Baker, Lydia J.; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1–2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa. PMID:23638077

  20. Filling gaps in biodiversity knowledge for macrofungi: contributions and assessment of an herbarium collection DNA barcode sequencing project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W Osmundson

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1-2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa. All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa.

  1. Implementation of airborne trace element monitoring with devitalised transplants of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw.: Assessment of temporal trends and element contribution by vehicular traffic in Naples city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, P., E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Giordano, S., E-mail: simonetta.giordano@unina.it [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Sforza, A., E-mail: antonio.sforza@unina.it [Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Bargagli, R., E-mail: bargagli@unisi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    A biomonitoring of airborne trace elements was performed in 2006 in Naples urban area through the exposure of devitalised Hypnum cupressiforme for 10 weeks at 4 m height. In one street, the moss was exposed at different heights to assess vertical gradients of element concentrations. Results were compared with those of a 1999 biosurvey. Correlations among Al, Fe and Ti suggested a soil particles contribution to element uptake. Cu, Mo and Fe were related with traffic flows. Long-range transport contributed to Cd, Cu and Mo accumulation in moss at higher heights. As in 1999, the airborne element load was higher in coastal sites, more affected by marine aerosols and traffic. In all sites, contents of Cd, Fe, Pb, Ni and V in moss were remarkably lower than in 1999, indicating a positive effect of actions set up in recent years to reduce the traffic and to improve the city air quality. - Highlights: > The devitalised Hypnum cupressiforme moss is applied as new biomaterial for monitoring air quality in Naples urban area. > The vertical gradient of element concentrations in a pilot site is assessed. > Results of this survey are compared with those from a 1999 monitoring survey. - Devitalised transplants of Hypnum cupressiforme highlight current traffic impact and improvement of air quality in the urban area of Naples city.

  2. Assessing the contribution of marine protected areas to the trophic functioning of ecosystems: a model for the Banc d'Arguin and the Mauritanian shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Guénette

    Full Text Available Most modelling studies addressed the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA for fisheries sustainability through single species approach. Only a few models analysed the potential benefits of MPAs at the ecosystem level, estimating the potential export of fish biomass from the reserve or analysing the trophic relationships between organisms inside and outside the MPA. Here, we propose to use food web models to assess the contribution of a MPA to the trophic functioning of a larger ecosystem. This approach is applied to the Banc d'Arguin National Park, a large MPA located on the Mauritanian shelf. The ecosystem was modeled using Ecopath with Ecosim, a model that accounts for fisheries, food web structure, and some aspects of the spatial distribution of species, for the period 1991-2006. Gaps in knowledge and uncertainty were taken into account by building three different models. Results showed that the Banc d'Arguin contributes about 9 to 13% to the total consumption, is supporting about 23% of the total production and 18% of the total catch of the Mauritanian shelf ecosystem, and up to 50% for coastal fish. Of the 29 exploited groups, 15 depend on the Banc for more than 30% of their direct or indirect consumptions. Between 1991 and 2006, the fishing pressure increased leading to a decrease in biomass and the catch of high trophic levels, confirming their overall overexploitation. Ecosim simulations showed that adding a new fleet in the Banc d'Arguin would have large impacts on the species with a high reliance on the Banc for food, resulting in a 23% decrease in the current outside MPA catches. We conclude on the usefulness of food web models to assess MPAs contribution to larger ecosystem functioning.

  3. Assessment on the prevalence and contributing factors of social drugs utilization among university of Gondar regular undergraduate students, maraki campus, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Birara Mamo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to WHO expert committee on drug dependence, drug abuse is persistent or sporadic excessive drug use in consistence with all unrelated to medical practice. Substances of abuse include controlled drugs (under international law and other substance with abuse potential but not subjected to international controls such as alcohol, khat, tobacco, and volatile substances. Social drug utilization has a negative impact on health and economic development of an individual and a country as a whole. Especially youngsters, who are the most productive section of the population, are suffering from the negative consequences of social drugs utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and contributing factors of social drugs utilization in university of Gondar regular undergraduate students, Maraki campus, in 2013 academic year. The study design employed was mixed type where quantitative data was emphasized and the qualitative data was used to illustrate the quantitative data. Descriptive survey method using questionnaires, key informant interview and focus group discussion (FGD was conducted to collect the data. Utilization of social drugs among regular students of different departments of Maraki campus of University of Gondar was assessed using cross sectional study in 2013. Results: From a total of 682 respondents the majority 429(62.9% were found as utilizers and the rest 253(37.1% as non utilizers. Regarding contributing factors the result of this study showed that relaxation 125(29.1%, to increase performance 63(14.7%, and peer pressure 53(12.4% were the major contributing factors for students’ social drugs utilization. The prevalence of social drugs utilization was high (62.9%. Although the majority of utilizers started utilization before they join campus, peer pressure had a statistically significant association with social drugs utilization. All the concerned bodies should take part and work hand in hand

  4. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  5. Patulin and ochratoxin A co-occurrence and their bioaccessibility in processed cereal-based foods: A contribution for Portuguese children risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Martins, Carla; Dupont, Didier; Alvito, Paula

    2016-10-01

    Patulin (PAT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are well known enteropathogenic mycotoxins that are present in several foodstuffs. Processed cereal-based foods are among the first solid foods eaten by children, a particularly vulnerable population group. There is a lack of knowledge related to the co-occurrence of PAT and OTA in food intended for children consumption and their potential interactions during the digestion process. The present study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the co-occurrence of PAT and OTA in processed cereal-based foods for children consumption, the bioaccessibility of these two mycotoxins, and the contribution of the bioaccessibility data for human health risk assessment. PAT and OTA incidence were 75% and 50%, respectively. These mycotoxins co-occurred in 40% of analysed samples. Bioaccessibility assays revealed mean values of 52% and 56% for PAT, alone and combined with OTA; and 100% and 106% for OTA, alone and combined with PAT. Considering the human health risk assessment, and taking into account the co-occurrence and the bioaccessibility results, this study indicates a tolerable exposure to these mycotoxins representing a low risk for Portuguese children. The present work reinforces the importance of a holistic approach for risk assessment which gathers data from occurrence, exposure and bioaccessibility. PMID:27497766

  6. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  7. 管理实践研究价值贡献的评价%Assessment of Value Contribution from Management Practice Study 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春花; 陈鸿志; 刘祯

    2011-01-01

    价值贡献是评价管理实践研究的关键,包含4个基本要素:①实践性,研究要以实践价值作为首要目的;②理论性,研究要以理论的形式贡献实践;③推广性,反映成果的外部引用及应用;④验证性,反映成果本身的效力.%Study on the practice of management should be assessed based on the key criterion of value contribution. It contains four factors: practicality, which reflects the foremost intention of the research; theoreticality, which reflects the form of a practical research; generalizability, which reflects the citation and application of the result; verifiability, which reflects the effectiveness of the result itself.

  8. Contribution of thin slice (1 mm) oblique coronal proton density-weighted MR images for assessment of anteromedial and posterolateral bundle damage in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of using additional oblique coronal 1 mm proton density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging of the knee for detection and grading anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) injuries. Materials and methods: We prospectively assessed preoperative MR images of 50 patients (36 men, 14 women; age range, 18–62 years). First, we compared the diagnostic performance of routine sagittal (3 mm) and additional oblique coronal images (1 mm) for ACL tears. Then, we compared the tear types (AMB or PLB) and grade presumed from oblique coronal MR imaging with arthroscopy. Results: Arthroscopy revealed ACL tear in 24 (48%) patients. There was significant difference between sagittal images and arthroscopy results for ACL tear recognition (p 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of thin slice oblique coronal images to conventional sequences could better contribute to better verifying the presence of ACL tear and in determining its grade

  9. Assessing the contribution of wetlands and subsided islands to dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproduct precursors in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta: A geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T.E.C.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.; Spencer, R.G.M.; Stepanauskas, R.; Kendall, C.; Losee, R.F.; Fujii, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses how rivers, wetlands, island drains and open water habitats within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta affect dissolved organic matter (DOM) content and composition, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Eleven sites representative of these habitats were sampled on six dates to encompass seasonal variability. Using a suite of qualitative analyses, including specific DBP formation potential, absorbance, fluorescence, lignin content and composition, C and N stable isotopic compositions, and structural groupings determined using CPMAS (cross polarization, magic angle spinning) 13C NMR, we applied a geochemical fingerprinting approach to characterize the DOM from different Delta habitats, and infer DOM and DBP precursor sources and estimate the relative contribution from different sources. Although river input was the predominant source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), we observed that 13-49% of the DOC exported from the Delta originated from sources within the Delta, depending on season. Interaction with shallow wetlands and subsided islands significantly increased DOC and DBP precursor concentrations and affected DOM composition, while deep open water habitats had little discernable effect. Shallow wetlands contributed the greatest amounts of DOM and DBP precursors in the spring and summer, in contrast to island drains which appeared to be an important source during winter months. The DOM derived from wetlands and island drains had greater haloacetic acid precursor content relative to incoming river water, while two wetlands contributed DOM with greater propensity to form trihalomethanes. These results are pertinent to restoration of the Delta. Large scale introduction of shallow wetlands, a proposed restoration strategy, could alter existing DOC and DBP precursor concentrations, depending on their hydrologic connection to Delta channels. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  11. Integral assessment of pollution in the Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina) as a contribution to lotic ecosystem restoration programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, C; Abril, A; Amé, M V; Argüello, G A; Carreras, H A; Chiappero, M S; Hued, A C; Wannaz, E; Galanti, L N; Monferrán, M V; González, C M; Solís, V M

    2011-11-01

    The Suquía River lower-middle basin (Córdoba, Argentina) is subject to a strong anthropic impact because it receives pollutants from different sources (industries, wastewaters, heavy traffic, agricultural land use, etc.) We have assessed the degree of watershed degradation of Suquía River lower-middle sections through the analysis of different ecosystem compartments (air, water, riparian soil, sediments and biota), in order to provide useful data to be considered in future river restoration programs. Four study sites were selected along the river (La Calera city, Córdoba city, Corazón de María village and Río Primero city) which were sampled during the low- and high-water flow periods. We analyzed: a) chemical and physical characteristics of water, sediments, and riparian soil; b) heavy metal content of water and sediments, and c) semi-volatile organic compounds in air. Besides, pollutant bioindicators such as fish assemblages, lichens (Usnea amblyoclada), vascular plants (Tradescantia pallida), and microorganisms (fecal coliform and Escherichia coli) were used to further assess the status of the river. All analyzed ecological compartments were affected by water pollution, particularly, fish assemblages, sediments and riparian soils by heavy metal and coliform bacteria. Moreover, we detected a possible contribution of sulfur and a high pollutant content in air that merit further research about other air-water exchanges. Accordingly, we strongly suggest that an action to restore or remediate the anthropic effect on the Suquía River be extended to all possible compartments along the river. PMID:21925711

  12. Assessing the Relative Contributions of Active Ankle and Knee Assistance to the Walking Mechanics of Transfemoral Amputees Using a Powered Prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Ingraham

    Full Text Available Powered knee-ankle prostheses are capable of providing net-positive mechanical energy to amputees. Yet, there are limitless ways to deliver this energy throughout the gait cycle. It remains largely unknown how different combinations of active knee and ankle assistance affect the walking mechanics of transfemoral amputees. This study assessed the relative contributions of stance phase knee swing initiation, increasing ankle stiffness and powered plantarflexion as three unilateral transfemoral amputees walked overground at their self-selected walking speed. Five combinations of knee and ankle conditions were evaluated regarding the kinematics and kinetics of the amputated and intact legs using repeated measures analyses of variance. We found eliminating active knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion was linked to increased compensations of the ipsilateral hip joint during the subsequent swing phase. The elimination of knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion also led to reduced braking ground reaction forces of the amputated and intact legs, and influenced both sagittal and frontal plane loading of the intact knee joint. Gradually increasing prosthetic ankle stiffness influenced the shape of the prosthetic ankle plantarflexion moment, more closely mirroring the intact ankle moment. Increasing ankle stiffness also corresponded to increased prosthetic ankle power generation (despite a similar maximum stiffness value across conditions and increased braking ground reaction forces of the amputated leg. These findings further our understanding of how to deliver assistance with powered knee-ankle prostheses and the compensations that occur when specific aspects of assistance are added/removed.

  13. Voluntary food fortification with folic acid in Spain: predicted contribution to children's dietary intakes as assessed with new food folate composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish market offers a significant number of folic acid (FA) voluntarily fortified foods. We analysed FA and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid ((6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu) content in ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (n=68) and cow's milk (n=25) by a previously validated affinity chromatography-HPLC method. Contribution to potential FA intakes for children aged 2-13years, was assessed using food consumption data from a representative nationwide study, folate Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI), and Upper Levels (UL). Results showed that at all food fortification levels obtained, fortified products provided more than tenfold FA than (6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu. For RTEC, the high fortification level provided 6-21%, per serving, of RDI and ⩽32% of ULs at 90th percentile of RTEC consumption (P90). Milk products fortified at the higher level reached on average 54-136% of RDI per serving and only exceeded UL at P90 of milk consumption in children aged 2-5years.

  14. Assessing the Relative Contributions of Active Ankle and Knee Assistance to the Walking Mechanics of Transfemoral Amputees Using a Powered Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Kimberly A; Fey, Nicholas P; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-01-01

    Powered knee-ankle prostheses are capable of providing net-positive mechanical energy to amputees. Yet, there are limitless ways to deliver this energy throughout the gait cycle. It remains largely unknown how different combinations of active knee and ankle assistance affect the walking mechanics of transfemoral amputees. This study assessed the relative contributions of stance phase knee swing initiation, increasing ankle stiffness and powered plantarflexion as three unilateral transfemoral amputees walked overground at their self-selected walking speed. Five combinations of knee and ankle conditions were evaluated regarding the kinematics and kinetics of the amputated and intact legs using repeated measures analyses of variance. We found eliminating active knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion was linked to increased compensations of the ipsilateral hip joint during the subsequent swing phase. The elimination of knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion also led to reduced braking ground reaction forces of the amputated and intact legs, and influenced both sagittal and frontal plane loading of the intact knee joint. Gradually increasing prosthetic ankle stiffness influenced the shape of the prosthetic ankle plantarflexion moment, more closely mirroring the intact ankle moment. Increasing ankle stiffness also corresponded to increased prosthetic ankle power generation (despite a similar maximum stiffness value across conditions) and increased braking ground reaction forces of the amputated leg. These findings further our understanding of how to deliver assistance with powered knee-ankle prostheses and the compensations that occur when specific aspects of assistance are added/removed.

  15. Carbon budgets for catchments across a managed landscape mosaic in southeast Sweden: contributing to the safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anders; Miliander, Sofia; Truvé, Johan; Lindborg, Tobias

    2006-12-01

    Ecosystem budgets of matter contribute to the assessment of transport and accumulation of bioavailable contaminants in a landscape, since flows of matter and energy ultimately determine the rates at which contaminants will be partitioned in the environment. This study compares ecosystem properties, such as net primary production (NPP), sequestration of matter and fluxes to food sources for humans, which are of potential interest to describe fluxes and accumulation of bioavailable radionuclides in 14 catchments within a larger catchment area in southeast Sweden. The carbon budgets, used as a proxy for organic matter, are mainly based on local estimates of pools and fluxes, which have been distributed across a landscape mosaic of different vegetation types and management regimes using a geographical information system (GIS). NPP varied by a factor close to two (432 - 709 g x Cx m(-2)x y(-1)), while net ecosystem production ranged between -124 and 159 gx C x m(-2) x y (-1) for the different catchments. Carbon sequestration mainly occurred in the vegetation while the soil organic carbon pool was mainly a source of carbon. Large herbivores consumed on average 4.5 % of the above-ground green tissue production. When arable land was present in the catchment, the flux of carbon to humans was highest from crops and, in decreasing order, milk and beef, followed by the flux from hunting and berry/fungus picking. The results can be used to estimate the potential assimilation of radionuclides in vegetation and the potential exposure to humans of bioavailable radionuclides.

  16. Assessing the potential contribution of blowing snow to the mass balance of glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadghar, A.; Ainslie, B.; Jackson, P. L.; Dery, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    The difference between snow accumulation and ice ablation determines the mass balance of glaciers, with snowfall as the dominant input. However, blowing snow is another important term in glacier mass balance. Blowing snow occurs when loose particles of snow at the surface are entrained by winds exceeding a certain threshold for transport. The role of blowing snow in the surface mass balance of glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains (the northern extension of the Columbia Mountains) of British Columbia, Canada is assessed in this study. The regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) model is used to simulate several case studies of blowing snow in the region of interest. The simulations are validated with meteorological data from a mesoscale network (mesonet) of high-elevation automatic weather stations (AWSs) entitled the Cariboo Alpine Mesonet (CAMnet) that has been developed in the region since 2006. The mass divergence (convergence) fields from the RAMS simulations provide an indication of the blowing snow erosion (accumulation) areas. These are then compared with the spatial distribution of glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains. Our results suggest that snow drift may contribute significantly to the mass budget of glaciers in the region.

  17. Assessing the Relative Contributions of Active Ankle and Knee Assistance to the Walking Mechanics of Transfemoral Amputees Using a Powered Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ann M.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2016-01-01

    Powered knee-ankle prostheses are capable of providing net-positive mechanical energy to amputees. Yet, there are limitless ways to deliver this energy throughout the gait cycle. It remains largely unknown how different combinations of active knee and ankle assistance affect the walking mechanics of transfemoral amputees. This study assessed the relative contributions of stance phase knee swing initiation, increasing ankle stiffness and powered plantarflexion as three unilateral transfemoral amputees walked overground at their self-selected walking speed. Five combinations of knee and ankle conditions were evaluated regarding the kinematics and kinetics of the amputated and intact legs using repeated measures analyses of variance. We found eliminating active knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion was linked to increased compensations of the ipsilateral hip joint during the subsequent swing phase. The elimination of knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion also led to reduced braking ground reaction forces of the amputated and intact legs, and influenced both sagittal and frontal plane loading of the intact knee joint. Gradually increasing prosthetic ankle stiffness influenced the shape of the prosthetic ankle plantarflexion moment, more closely mirroring the intact ankle moment. Increasing ankle stiffness also corresponded to increased prosthetic ankle power generation (despite a similar maximum stiffness value across conditions) and increased braking ground reaction forces of the amputated leg. These findings further our understanding of how to deliver assistance with powered knee-ankle prostheses and the compensations that occur when specific aspects of assistance are added/removed. PMID:26807889

  18. Clarifying the contribution of assessee-, dimension-, exercise-, and assessor-related effects to reliable and unreliable variance in assessment center ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putka, Dan J; Hoffman, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research has evaluated the functioning of assessment center (AC) ratings, surprisingly little research has articulated and uniquely estimated the components of reliable and unreliable variance that underlie such ratings. The current study highlights limitations of existing research for estimating components of reliable and unreliable variance in AC ratings. It provides a comprehensive empirical decomposition of variance in AC ratings that: (a) explicitly accounts for assessee-, dimension-, exercise-, and assessor-related effects, (b) does so with 3 large sets of operational data from a multiyear AC program, and (c) avoids many analytic limitations and confounds that have plagued the AC literature to date. In doing so, results show that (a) the extant AC literature has masked the contribution of sizable, substantively meaningful sources of variance in AC ratings, (b) various forms of assessor bias largely appear trivial, and (c) there is far more systematic, nuanced variance present in AC ratings than previous research indicates. Furthermore, this study also illustrates how the composition of reliable and unreliable variance heavily depends on the level to which assessor ratings are aggregated (e.g., overall AC-level, dimension-level, exercise-level) and the generalizations one desires to make based on those ratings. The implications of this study for future AC research and practice are discussed. PMID:23244226

  19. Contribution of thin slice (1 mm) oblique coronal proton density-weighted MR images for assessment of anteromedial and posterolateral bundle damage in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokalp, Gokhan, E-mail: drgokhangokalp@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Demirag, Burak, E-mail: bdemirag@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Orthopedy, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Nas, Omer Fatih, E-mail: omerfatihnas@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Aydemir, Mehmet Fatih, E-mail: fatiha@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopedy, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Yazici, Zeynep, E-mail: zyazici@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of using additional oblique coronal 1 mm proton density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging of the knee for detection and grading anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) injuries. Materials and methods: We prospectively assessed preoperative MR images of 50 patients (36 men, 14 women; age range, 18–62 years). First, we compared the diagnostic performance of routine sagittal (3 mm) and additional oblique coronal images (1 mm) for ACL tears. Then, we compared the tear types (AMB or PLB) and grade presumed from oblique coronal MR imaging with arthroscopy. Results: Arthroscopy revealed ACL tear in 24 (48%) patients. There was significant difference between sagittal images and arthroscopy results for ACL tear recognition (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected for oblique coronal images when compared with arthroscopy results (p = 0.180). Sensitivity and specificity values for ACL tear diagnosis were 37.04% and 95.65% for sagittal images; 74.07% and 91.30% for oblique coronal images. There was no significant difference between arthroscopy and oblique coronal MR images in grading AMB and PLB injuries (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of thin slice oblique coronal images to conventional sequences could better contribute to better verifying the presence of ACL tear and in determining its grade.

  20. Community Needs Assessment and Portal Prototype Development for an Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI): A Contribution to an IPY Data Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Warnick, W. K.; Hempel, L. C.; Henk, J.; Sorensen, M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Gaylord, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    As the creation and use of geospatial data in research, management, logistics, and education applications has proliferated, there is now a tremendous potential for advancing the IPY initiative through a variety of cyberinfrastructure applications, including Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and related technologies. SDIs provide a necessary and common framework of standards, securities, policies, procedures, and technology to support the effective acquisition, coordination, dissemination and use of geospatial data by multiple and distributed stakeholder and user groups. Despite the numerous research activities in the Arctic, there is no established SDI and, because of this lack of a coordinated infrastructure, there is inefficiency, duplication of effort, and reduced data quality and search ability of arctic geospatial data. The urgency for establishing this framework is significant considering the myriad of data that is likely to be collected in celebration of the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008 and the current international momentum for an improved and integrated circumarctic terrestrial-marine-atmospheric environmental observatories network. The key objective of this project is to lay the foundation for full implementation of an Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI) through two related activities: (1) an assessment - via interviews, questionnaires, a workshop, and other means - of community needs, readiness, and resources, and (2) the development of a prototype web mapping portal to demonstrate the purpose and function on an arctic geospatial one-stop portal technology and to solicit community input on design and function. The results of this project will be compiled into a comprehensive report guiding the research community and funding agencies in the design and implementation of an ASDI to contribute to a robust IPY data cyberinfrastructure.

  1. Assessing the impact of ocean temperature on the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise with a heuristic statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calov, R.; Ganopolski, A.; Robinson, A.; Beckmann, J.; Alexander, D.; Perrette, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present large ensembles of simulations of the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise under RCP2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 future scenarios over 300 years, including several extended simulations over millennia. To this end, we utilise the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS coupled with the regional climate system model of intermediate complexity REMBO. The loss of ice into fjords via outlet glaciers is resolved in a heuristic statistical approach. In this framework, we recently included into our model an ocean temperature parameterization to assess the impact of ice loss of the Greenland ice sheet. This work precedes our planned more comprehensive approach, which will resolve all important ice loss processes in a model of intermediate complexity of the Greenland glacial system. Our large ensembles of simulations under future scenarios serve to estimate the uncertainty of the impact of future ocean temperatures on the state of the Greenland ice sheet. A suite of initial configurations of the ice sheet is generated via paleo simulations over two glacial cycles by introducing present-day and Eemian constraints, such as a range in the mass balance partition, the shape of the ice sheet, the Eemian ice surface elevation change at an upstream position of the NEEM and further local constraints. The paleo simulations support the choice of the range of parameters of our ocean temperature parameterization. The large ensemble simulations together with the paleo constraints enable us to improve estimates onthe range of the possible impact of future changes in ocean temperature around Greenland on the ice loss of the Greenland ice sheet.

  2. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs: a quantitative approach to estimate the relative contributions of dogs, cats and foxes, and to assess the efficacy of advised interventions in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming regimens for >6-month-old dogs, as most of them do not actually shed Toxocara eggs. We aim to estimate the contribution of different non-juvenile hosts to the environmental Toxocara egg contamination ...

  3. Estimation of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes in interpretation of the results of the public survey to assess the thyroidal iodine content following a radiation accident at the nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarev S.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A detail consideration has been done to assess an importance of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the public survey for following the Chernobyl accident. Empirical ratios have been derived to take into account that contribution under interpretation of the results of survey meter monitoring of the public. Materials and methods. Model calculations for typical radionuclide intake by the residents living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident have been carried out in order to assess the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the survey. Under such calculations two the most important modes of intake have been considered: 1 inhalation and 2 ingestion with cow milk. Results. According to the estimates received the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid during the first 20 days does not exceed 20% for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and 30% for the residents of Mogil'yov region. During 60 days following the accident that contribution is estimated to be within (50-80 % for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and (80-95 % for the residents of Mogil'yov region. Conclusion. For the period of intensive thyroid measuring in the southern areas of Gomel region (the second part of May account of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes is relatively unimportant, but for Mogil'yov region (the end of May — it is important to account for. For the thyroid measurements conducted in June of 1986 it is important for all residents living in Belarus to take into account the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes.

  4. Sources of radioactivity in the marine environment and their relative contributions to overall dose assessment from marine radioactivity (MARDOS). Final report of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document provides data on radionuclide levels in the marine environment and estimates doses from marine radioactivity through ingestion of sea food. Two radionuclides -natural Po210 and Cs 137 -are studied, as they are radiologically the most important representatives of each class of marine radioactivity on global scale. The results of the study confirm that the dominant contribution to doses comes from natural Po 210 in fish and shellfish and that the contribution of anthropogenic Sc 137 (mostly coming from nuclear weapons test) is negligible (100 to 1000 time lower) 14 refs, 12 figs, 13 tabs

  5. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  6. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Baatiema, Leonard; Skovdal, Morten; Rifkin, Susan; Campbell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a 'social psychology of participation' (theory) with 'spider-grams' (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in ru...

  7. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  8. An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC). This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, 5 combined with the mass balance sensitivity o

  9. Poster contributions; Contributions par affiches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegraud, K.; Gatilova, I.; Guaitella, O.; Ionikh, Y.; Roepcke, J.; Rousseau, A.; Aranchuk, L.E.; Larour, J.; Asad, S.; Tendero, C.; Tixier, C.; Jaoul, C.; Tristant, P.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Leprince, P.; Leniniven, C.; Assouar, M.B.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Aubert, X.; Rousseau, A.; Sadeghi, N.; Bekstein, A.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; Bousquet, A.; Granier, A.; Cartry, G.; Calafat, M.; Escaich, D.; Raynaud, P.; Clergereaux, R.; Cardoso, R.P.; Belmonte, T.; Henrion, G.; Sadeghi, N.; Cavarroc, M.; Mikikian, M.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, I.; Celestin, S.; Guaitella, O.; Bourdon, A.; Rousseau, A.; Cernogora, G.; Szopa, C.; Cavarroc, M.; Boufendi, I.; Commaux, N.; Geraud, A.; Pegourie, B.; Clairet, F.; Gil, C.; Gros, G.; Gunn, J.; Joffrin, E.; Hertout, P.; Costin, C.; Choimet, J.B.; Minea, T.; Couedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, I.; Samarian, A.A.; Cousin, R.; Larour, J.; Gouard, P.; Raymond, P.; Curley, G.A.; Booth, J.P.; Corr, C.S.; Foldes, T.; Guillon, J.; Czarny, O.; Huysmans, G.; Daniel, A.; Belmonte, T.; Poucques, L. de; Imbert, J.C.; Teule-Gay, L.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Devaux, S.; Manfredi, G.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Dong, B.; Bauchire, J.M.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Magnier, P.; Hong, D.; Duluard, C.; Tillocher, T.; Mekkakia Maaza, N.; Dussart, R.; Mellhaoui, X.; Lefaucheux, P.; Puech, M.; Ranson, P.; Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Colas, L.; Fubiani, G.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Gatilova, L.; Allegraud, K.; Ionikh, Y.; Roepcke, J.; Cartry, G.; Rousseau, A.; Gauthier, J.C.; Fourment, C.; Schurtz, G.; Nicolai, Ph.; Peyrusse, O.; Feugeas, J.L

    2006-07-01

    This document gathers the poster contributions among which 11 are relevant for fusion plasmas or particle acceleration: 1) the spectral study of a micro plasma from an X-pinch explosion; 2) experiments with a plasma density greater than the Greenwald value via the injection of icicles in Tore-Supra; 3) Bezier's surfaces and finite elements method for non-linear MHD; 4) 2-dimensional simulation of the RF casings before the ICRF antennas in tokamaks; 5) negative ion sources for ITER; 6) experimental characterization of electron heat transport on the laser integration line; 7) comparison of fluctuation measurement methods of plasma density via reflectometry in mode-o and mode-x in Tore-Supra; 8) water-bag model applied to kinetics equations of magnetic fusion plasmas; 9) computerized simulation of electron acceleration in plasma waves generated in a capillary pipe through laser wakefield; 10) the slowing-down of an alpha particle in a strongly magnetized dense plasma; and 11) stochastic processes of particle trapping by a wave in a magnetized plasma. (A.C.)

  10. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  11. The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Meha; Flynn, Dan FB; Prager, Case M; Hart, Georgia M; DeVan, Caroline M; Ahrestani, Farshid S; Palmer, Matthew I; Bunker, Daniel E; Knops, Johannes MH; Jouseau, Claire F; Naeem, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    The majority of species in ecosystems are rare, but the ecosystem consequences of losing rare species are poorly known. To understand how rare species may influence ecosystem functioning, this study quantifies the contribution of species based on their relative level of rarity to community functional diversity using a trait-based approach. Given that rarity can be defined in several different ways, we use four different definitions of rarity: abundance (mean and maximum), geographic range, an...

  12. Process and product in writing--a methodological contribution to the assessment of written narratives in 8-12-year-old Swedish children using ScriptLog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker-Arnason, Lena; Wengelin, Asa; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven children, with typical language development (TLD), 8-10 years old and 10-12 years old, were assessed with keystroke-logging in order to investigate their narrative writing. Measures of the writing process and the written product were used. One purpose was to explore how children produce written narratives in on-line production, and to relate the writing process to the written product. The results showed that those children who produced the final text faster, also wrote stories that comprised of more words. In the group of older children, children with better narrative ability used less pause time than those with worse ability, and the girls were faster writers than the boys. We believe that keystroke-logging gives valuable information for the assessment of young children's writing and that it is a potentially valid assessment tool for children from about 10 years of age.

  13. A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B; Bengis, R; Brahmbhatt, D; Gummow, B; Thomson, G R

    2009-12-01

    Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa.

  14. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM review team requested that consideration be given

  15. Multiregional environmental comparison of fossil fuel power generation-Assessment of the contribution of fugitive emissions from conventional and unconventional fossil resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Evert A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of fugitive methane emissions from coal, natural gas, and shale gas extraction on the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fossil fuel power generation through its life cycle. A multiregional hybridized life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to evaluate sever

  16. An assessment of the contribution of NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] regulatory growth to nuclear plant cost growth using engineering scope changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of NRC regulations to the growth in nuclear power plant capital costs using the case study method. The two plants selected for the case studies are Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L) St. Lucie Unit 1 (SL1) and St. Lucie Unit 2 (SL2). SL1 was constructed in the early 1970s and was granted an operating license in 1976. SL2 was constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was granted an operating license in 1983. The information bases were the amendments to the contracts between FP and L and its architect-engineer/constructor, i.e., the ''scope changes''. These were examined and analyzed for causation, i.e., NRC-initiated or utility-initiated, and all of the costs associated with scope changes of each type were aggregated to determine the contribution of each. Although the scope changes accounted for only a small fraction of the total cost growth for either plant, they were still used to determine the relative contribution of regulatory growth to cost growth. Unexpectedly, a significantly higher percentage of out-of-scope work (approximately 84%) was attributable to NRC regulatory requirements for SL1 than SL2 (approximately 47%). These results were unexpected because SL2 was constructed during a period in which regulation was considered to be particularly unstable. However, a more detailed analysis of causation indicates that a shift occurred from an ad-hoc mode of regulation in the early 1970s to a more prescriptive process in the late 1970s. Thus the number of formal NRC requirements may not be a valid measure of regulatory stability

  17. Intellectual and non-intellectual determinants of high academic achievement – the contribution of personality traits to the assessment of high performance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schubhart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a study is presented which tries to explain and predict high academic achievement in children or adolescents on the basis of intellectual and non-intellectual determinants – in this case, performance relevant personality traits as well as the social environment of stimulation. The prognosis of high academic achievement is based on a new diagnostic model, the Viennese Diagnostic Model of High Achievement Potential, which undergoes its first empirical validation here. The results show impressive evidence that performance-relevant personality traits and categories of social environment of stimulation contribute to high academic achievement in children and adolescents of above-average intelligence.

  18. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office for the Assessment of Scientific and Technological Choices on innovation and climate change: the contribution of the scientific and technological assessment. Report of the public hearing of the 24 September 2015, and considerations come out of debates for the purpose of a transmission to the COP21 negotiators. National Assembly Nr 3206, Senate Nr 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the various contributions presented during a public hearing organised by the French Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Choices (OPECST) with the support of the European Parliamentary Technology Assessment (EPTA), notably to prepare the Paris Conference on Climate (COP21). The contributions and their associated round tables addressed the following topics: Innovation as a tool to promote energy efficiency in the building sector, Innovations to feed mankind while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Innovation in the transport sector and sustainable mobility, and citizen involvement in the management of smart technologies. For each of these topics, some contributions propose prospective elements

  19. Quantitative assessment of scattering contributions in high energy cone-beam computed tomography; Quantitative Untersuchung der Streubeitraege in Hochenergie-Roentgencomputertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stritt, Carina; Schuetz, Philipp; Plamondon, Mathieu; Hofmann, Juergen; Sennhauser, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Reliability Science and Technology Laboratory; Flisch, Alexander [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Reliability Science and Technology Laboratory; Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Center for X-Ray Analytics

    2016-02-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an established method in the fields of failure analysis and quality control. The energy of the X-ray beam determines the penetration length of the radiation and hereby limits the size and the density of the object that is investigated. For the case of large, dense and heavy objects, X-ray energies exceeding one mega electronvolt (MeV) are needed to achieve measureable transmission values. An important factor for the quality of X-ray CT is the contribution of scattered radiation in the radiographies. X-ray photons can be scattered from the object as well as the instrumentation and the environment which leads to a distorted transmission image. Besides scattered radiation, the physical effect of pair production has to be taken into account for radiation in the range of MeV. This work investigates the impact of each of the scattering processes on the radiography. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations help to distinguish the physical interactions as well as scattered radiation from system components. In contrast to previous studies, not only a set of simple geometric objects made of different materials is examined, but also models of the components of a CT scanner are used to estimate the contribution of scattering of various system components.

  20. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits.

  1. Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 171 -- Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) failure from a loop subsequent to LOCA: Assessment of plant vulnerability and CDF contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Samanta, P.; Chu, L.; Yang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Generic Safety Issue 171 (GSI-171), Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) from a Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) subsequent to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), deals with an accident sequence in which a LOCA is followed by a LOOP. This issue was later broadened to include a LOOP followed by a LOCA. Plants are designed to handle a simultaneous LOCA and LOOP. In this paper, the authors address the unique issues that are involved i LOCA with delayed LOOP (LOCA/LOOP) and LOOP with delayed LOCA (LOOP/LOCA) accident sequences. LOCA/LOOP accidents are analyzed further by developing event-tree/fault-tree models to quantify their contributions to core-damage frequency (CDF) in a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor (PWR and a BWR). Engineering evaluation and judgments are used during quantification to estimate the unique conditions that arise in a LOCA/LOOP accident. The results show that the CDF contribution of such an accident can be a dominant contributor to plant risk, although BWRs are less vulnerable than PWRs.

  2. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits. PMID:26760897

  3. Assessment of the physiologic contribution of right atrial function to total right heart function in patients with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Joseph A; Raina, Amresh; Forfia, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Total right heart function requires normal function of both the right ventricle and the right atrium. However, the degree to which right atrial (RA) function and right ventricular (RV) function each contribute to total right heart function has not been quantified. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of RA function to total right heart function in a group of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients compared to a cohort of normal controls without cardiovascular disease. The normal cohort comprised 35 subjects with normal clinical echocardiograms, while the PAH cohort included 37 patients, of whom 31 had echocardiograms before and after initiation of PAH-specific therapy. Total right heart function was measured via tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE). TAPSE was broken down into two components, the excursion occurring during RA contraction (TAPSERA) and that occurring before RA contraction (TAPSERV). RA fractional area change (RA-FAC) was also compared between the two groups. In the PAH cohort, more than half of the total TAPSE occurred during atrial systole, compared to less than one-third in the normal cohort (51.0% vs. 32.1%; P right heart function in patients with PAH than in normal subjects.

  4. Assessing the Contribution of the Environmental Parameters to Eutrophication with the Use of the "PaD" and "PaD2" Methods in a Hypereutrophic Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjisolomou, Ekaterini; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Papatheodorou, George; Papastergiadou, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Lake Pamvotis (Greece) is a shallow hypereutrophic lake with a natural tendency to eutrophication. Several restoration measures were applied, but with no long-term success. To examine the causes for this an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was created in order to simulate the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) levels and to investigate the role of the associated environmental parameters. The ANN managed to simulate with good correlation the simulated Chl-a and can be considered as a reliable predictor. The relative importance of the environmental parameters to the simulated Chl-a was calculated with the use of the "Partial Derivatives" ("PaD") sensitivity method. The water temperature (WT) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) had the highest relative importance, with values of 50% and 17%, respectively. The synergistic effect of the paired parameters was calculated with the use of the "PaD2" algorithm. The SRP-WT paired parameter was the most influential, with a relative contribution of 22%. The ANN showed that Lake Pamvotis is prone to suffer the effects of climatic change, because of the major contribution of WT. The ANN also revealed that combined nutrients reduction would improve water quality status. The ANN findings can act as an advisory tool regarding any restoration efforts. PMID:27483293

  5. Contribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors of human atrium and ventricle to the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline as assessed with (-)-atenolol.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, H.; Schönell, H.; Kaumann, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. (-)-Atenolol was used as a tool to assess the function of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in human heart. Right atrial and left ventricular preparations from patients undergoing open heart surgery were set up to contract isometrically. Membrane particles were prepared for beta-adrenoceptor labelling with [3H]-(-)-bupranolol and adenylate cyclase assays. 2. The positive inotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline were antagonized to a similar extent by (-)-atenolol in atrial and ventricular pre...

  6. ‘Beating Domestic Violence? Assessing the EU’s contribution to tackling violence against women’

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, R.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a social problem across the EU Member States and, following the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU has adopted a series of measures which will affect women experiencing this form of intimate violence. This paper examines these measures to assess their potential benefits for women who experience domestic violence. Tackling domestic violence has been explicitly linked to the EU’s mandate on gender equality, but measures have been adopted under a variety of competence and their...

  7. [Implementation and validation in the Italian context of the HSE management standards: a contribution to provide a practical model for the assessment of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Natali, E; Rondinone, B M; Castaldi, T; Persechino, B

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, stress has been recognized as a potential work-related risk factor. Unfortunately, work-related stress is a very delicate subject, especially because it is difficult to assess it objectively and in broadly acceptable terms. In fact, work-related stress is a subjective personal response to a specific work environment, ad is of a multifactorial origin. In order to provide a practical tool for the assessment of work-related stress, the authors carried out a thorough benchmarking analysis of the various models to manage work stress problems adopted by EU countries. As a result, the authors have chosen to apply and implement the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards approach in the Italian context. In compliance with the European Framework Agreement signed on October 8, 2004, HSE Management Standards ask for the coordinated and integrated involvement of workers and safety personnel and represent a valid assessment approach based on principles widely acknowledged in the scientific literature.

  8. Biochemical and textural ripeness assessment of avocado fruit from different origins

    OpenAIRE

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine D.; Terry, Leon A.

    2010-01-01

    Stage of ripeness and quality of avocado is notoriously difficult to assess by conventional methods. Texture is a very important determinant of avocado fruit quality and can change radically during storage. The difficulties in determining avocado quality are related, in part, to the spatial heterogeneity of fruit characteristics during ripening. The aim of this study was to assess the discriminatory capabilities of physiochemical properties to determine ripeness of imported 'Hass' avocado fru...

  9. Objective assessment of the contribution of the RECOPESCA network to the monitoring of 3D coastal ocean variables in the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouroux, Julien; Charria, Guillaume; De Mey, Pierre; Raynaud, Stéphane; Heyraud, Catherine; Craneguy, Philippe; Dumas, Franck; Le Hénaff, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, in situ observations represent a key element to monitor and to understand the wide range of processes in the coastal ocean and their direct impacts on human activities. An efficient way to measure the hydrological content of the water column over the main part of the continental shelf is to consider ships of opportunity as the surface to cover is wide and could be far from the coast. In the French observation strategy, the RECOPESCA programme, as a component of the High frequency Observation network for the environment in coastal SEAs (HOSEA), aims to collect environmental observations from sensors attached to fishing nets. In the present study, we assess that network using the Array Modes (ArM) method (a stochastic implementation of Le Hénaff et al. Ocean Dyn 59: 3-20. doi: 10.1007/s10236-008-0144-7, 2009). That model ensemble-based method is used here to compare model and observation errors and to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the observation network at detecting prior (model) uncertainties, based on hypotheses on error sources. A reference network, based on fishing vessel observations in 2008, is assessed using that method. Considering the various seasons, we show the efficiency of the network at detecting the main model uncertainties. Moreover, three scenarios, based on the reference network, a denser network in 2010 and a fictive network aggregated from a pluri-annual collection of profiles, are also analysed. Our sensitivity study shows the importance of the profile positions with respect to the sheer number of profiles for ensuring the ability of the network to describe the main error modes. More generally, we demonstrate the capacity of this method, with a low computational cost, to assess and to design new in situ observation networks.

  10. Predicting the physical–chemical properties of biodiesel fuels assessing the molecular structure with the SAFT−γ group contribution approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of biodiesel as fuel are strongly defined by the molecular structure of its constituent species (saturated, unsaturated and hydroxylated fatty acid alkyl esters). Improving fuel properties and energetic patterns in biodiesel implies optimising its fatty ester structures and compositions. Biodiesel fuels derived from different sources can have significantly varying fatty acid profiles and properties, which claims for the theoretical prediction of the thermophysical and phase equilibria properties of biodiesel compounds and its mixtures. In this work the SAFT-γ (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory by group contribution) is applied for predicting these properties in biodiesel fuels by adequately representing the physical behaviour and stereochemistry of biodiesel molecules. A realistic representation of the molecular structure of long chain methyl esters and esters that contains hydroxyl groups, which are the typical biodiesel fuel constituents, is obtained. We implemented a simplex simulated annealing algorithm as global optimisation method to determine the SAFT-γ parameters for the groups that fully represent the biodiesel compounds, which were fitting to experimental data available for analogous chemical families like secondary alkanols and short chain esters. These parameters are theoretically justifiable following physically meaningful trends and can be generalised to others fatty acid methyl esters in the same homologous series. The group of like and unlike parameters obtained were used to represent the thermophysical properties of several commercial biodiesel fuels. The theory provides a very good description of the liquid vapour equilibria behaviour of the chemical families used to estimate the set of parameters. With the proposed model, any potential biodiesel fuel from any feedstock can be represented and modelled. - Highlights: • Biodiesel fuels are modelled using the molecular thermodynamic based group con-tribution approach SAFT-γ.

  11. O teste de Pfister e sua contribuição para diagnóstico da esquizofrenia The Pfister test's contribution to the assessment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisa de Villemor Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar indicadores no teste das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister que pudessem auxiliar nos diagnósticos de pacientes esquizofrênicos. Tal iniciativa justifica-se pela escassez de pesquisas de validade desse teste para diagnóstico em psicopatologia. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a execução de tapetes furados e desequilibrados constitui um indicador significativo de esquizofrenia, principalmente quando associado a não execução de formações em camadas multicromáticas e a constância absoluta das cores vermelha e marrom. Não foram identificadas alterações significativas na freqüência da cor branca conforme previsto em outros estudos. Os resultados demonstram que a sensibilidade do Pfister para diagnóstico de esquizofrenia, com base nesses indicadores, é relativa devido à possibilidade de falsos negativos e falsos positivos, podendo, entretanto contribuir positivamente para a avaliação psicológica quando associado com outras técnicas. Esse estudo vem ao encontro da necessidade de verificar os alcances e as limitações do uso de testes psicológicos.The aim of this study is to identify the aspects in the Color Pyramid Test of Pfister that may be useful to the assessment of schizophrenic patients. It is justified due to the scarceness of studies on the validity of Pfister Test for the psychopathological assessment. The results demonstrate that the disorganized forms called holey rugs or unbalanced rugs are significant indicators of schizophrenia, especially when associated with the non execution of stratified forms or the absolute constancy of the colors red and brown. We didn't find significant alterations on the frequency of the white color as found on other studies. Our results indicate that the sensibility of the Pfister test for the diagnosis of schizophrenia is limited due to the possibility of false positives and false negatives, but it could help in the psychological assessment when associated to

  12. Assessment of exposure to atmospheric particles: contribution of individual measurements; Evaluation de l'exposition aux particules atmospheriques: apport des mesures individuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueron, L.; Momas, I. [Universite Rene Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Lab. d' Hygiene et de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France); Le Moullec, Y. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Momas, I. [Direction de l' Action Sociale, de l' Enfance et de la Sante, Cellule Epidemiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    There are few studies of individual exposure to atmospheric particles, because of the relatively bulky and noisy sampling devices. These personalized measurements, generally associated with micro-environmental measurements, are aimed at studying the distribution of individual exposure and identifying its main determinants. Methods: A synopsis of the methods implemented in such studies (populations studied, measurements strategies, questionnaires on time-activity patterns, residences and work place) was detailed. The major results are presented and discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Results: The individual exposure measured with portable devices generally were generally found to be higher than the estimations made by combining micro-environmental (outdoor and indoor) measurements and data from time-activity diaries. The difference between results of these two approaches, known as 'personal cloud', remains poorly understood. Correlations between individual measurements and outdoor concentrations are weak; nevertheless, day to day variations of these two series of measurements are better related. The main determinants of individual exposure to particles are identified but a quantification of their contribution remains difficult, except for passive smoking. Conclusion: Personal measurements cannot be used to estimate particle exposure in large scale epidemiological studies. This exposure needs to be modeled. (authors)

  13. Assessment of liver circulation by quantitative scintiangiography: Evaluation of the relative contribution of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to liver perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molino, G.; Squadrone, E.; Baccegal, M.; Magnani, C.

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative hepatic scintiangiography was previously used for evaluating the relative contribution of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to the hepatic circulation. The present study compares 3 different procedures (automatic and manual integration, and slope fitting methods) for analyzing the hepatic time activity curves obtained after bolus i.v. injection of 370 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-diethylentriaminopentacetic acid. Twenty five subjects were studied: Five controls, ten cirrhotics, and ten portal hypertensive patients previously submitted to side to side portacaval anastomosis. The correspondence between results given by the different methods was satisfactory only in shunted patients, and the reproducibility of computed parameters was quite poor for all procedures. Accordingly, none of the methods can be considered as supporting reliable quantitative pathophysiological evaluations. However, the hepatic arterial/portal venous flow ratio was found to be increased in liver cirrhosis and in shunted patients and therefore, in spite of the limitations underlined before and of the absence of data on the reproducibility of consecutive injections, hepatic scintiangiography may be of some clinical utility.

  14. Contribution to the unified formalization of functional and organizational knowledge of an industrial system for a quantitative risks assessment and an estimation of barrier impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the industrial revolution, human being develops industrial systems to meet his production needs. But the operation of such facilities involves risks for the users. As a result the risk analysis has expanded during these last decades. Indeed, if in the Seventies, the studies were focused on the technological failures, several major accidents have underlined the importance of human and organisational factors in their occurrence, and have changed this initial way of thinking. So that in the Eighties, different methods allowing an identification of these factors have emerged. These studies, implying different fields of expertise, were so far independently built and applied. This fact leads to sector-based analyses and prevents from having an overall view of the studied situation. But, recently, some methodologies propose to (partially) integrate these different methods to study risks in a global approach. This lack of integration constitutes nowadays a scientific and industrial issue for the owners of critical systems. Thus, our contribution concerns the development of a methodology enabling the risk analyses of socio-technical systems in operation. This kind of analysis aims to probabilistically estimate risks for helping the decision-making. In that way, we propose an approach that enables to formalise, integrate, characterise and represent the different knowledge of the system. Our model allows an identification of the whole of the causes that lead to the occurrence of a critical event, by considering the technical data of the system and the data related to human operators and organisational features. (author)

  15. Contribution of the subjective factor to assessment of damage to health caused by the major risk factors at territories contaminated with radionuclides a nd clean territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was aimed at elucidation of the subjective opinion of the population about risk factors and the role of this opinion as a pathogenic factor. Questionnaires were distributed among 2 groups (n=61 and n=65) living at territories contaminated after the accident (town of Novozybkov) and at clean control territories (town of Dyatkov) the groups were matches for age, sex, and educational level. The respondents were to rank twelve possible sources leading to untimely death in the order of their decreasing hazard for human and to express their attitude to 14 diseases. The results helped define the mean index of leaf, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the hazards of living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. It is noteworthy that fear of diseases is a more sensitive characteristic than fear of this or that unfavorable factor. The index of fear is 1.4 times higher in a contaminated region than in the control one

  16. Contribution to the determination of J-integral and crack opening displacement as material characteristics and their application in safety-assessments of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For fracture mechanics assessment of the safety of metal structures some material characteristics are necessary, which should be independent of the dimensions of the tested specimens. For the required minimum dimensions of the specimens some conditions are known, which, however, are inexact or contradictory, especially in the case of elastic-plastic materials behaviour. In this work the influence of specimen dimensions on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics values is investigated for structural steel in three states of heat treatment (normalized, quenched and tempered, coarse grain annealed). Standard specimens with greatly differing dimensions are tested according to J-integral- and COD-standards and are evaluated with regard to fracture initiation. Conditions for specimen dimension for structural steel are derived from the test results, depending on micro-structure and test temperature. If these conditions are not satisfied, the material characteristics measured in the upper shelf region are somewhat too low. Testing at different temperatures shows here, that there is a contrary influence on the material characteristics by specimen size and test temperature. The comparison of J-integral- and COD-test results shows that both methods produce practically equal fracture toughness values and that there is plane strain condition in the specimens at fracture initiation. From plates of the above-mentioned quenched and tempered steel several pressure vessels were welded. Artificial flaws were put into them and they were subjected to burst tests. The burst behaviour of the pressure vessels can be assessed with elastic-plastic material characteristics and fracture mechanics calculations. (author)

  17. Assessment of nitric oxide (NO) redox reactions contribution to nitrous oxide (N2 O) formation during nitrification using a multispecies metabolic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Chandran, Kartik; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-05-01

    Over the coming decades nitrous oxide (N2O) is expected to become a dominant greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone depleting substance. In wastewater treatment systems, N2O is majorly produced by nitrifying microbes through biochemical reduction of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO). However it is unknown if the amount of N2O formed is affected by alternative NO redox reactions catalyzed by oxidative nitrite oxidoreductase (NirK), cytochromes (i.e., P460 [CytP460] and 554 [Cyt554 ]) and flavohemoglobins (Hmp) in ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB, respectively). In this study, a mathematical model is developed to assess how N2O formation is affected by such alternative nitrogen redox transformations. The developed multispecies metabolic network model captures the nitrogen respiratory pathways inferred from genomes of eight AOB and NOB species. The performance of model variants, obtained as different combinations of active NO redox reactions, was assessed against nine experimental datasets for nitrifying cultures producing N2O at different concentration of electron donor and acceptor. Model predicted metabolic fluxes show that only variants that included NO oxidation to NO2(-) by CytP460 and Hmp in AOB gave statistically similar estimates to observed production rates of N2O, NO, NO2(-) and nitrate (NO3(-)), together with fractions of AOB and NOB species in biomass. Simulations showed that NO oxidation to NO2(-) decreased N2O formation by 60% without changing culture's NO2(-) production rate. Model variants including NO reduction to N2O by Cyt554 and cNor in NOB did not improve the accuracy of experimental datasets estimates, suggesting null N2O production by NOB during nitrification. Finally, the analysis shows that in nitrifying cultures transitioning from dissolved oxygen levels above 3.8 ± 0.38 to oxidize the NO produced by AOB through reactions catalyzed by oxidative NirK. PMID:26551878

  18. Assessment of Local Control after Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Contribution of FDG-PET in Patients with Clinical Suspicion of Progressive Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, T.; Steffen, I.; Hildebrandt, B.; Ruehl, R.; Streitparth, F.; Lehmk uhl, L.; Langrehr, J.; Ricke, J.; Amthauer, H.; Lopez Haenninen, E. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Bereiche Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie Onkologie, and Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral-, und T ransplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizi n Berlin, (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Management of patients after locally ablative treatment of liver metastases requires exact information about local control and systemic disease status. To fulfill these requirements, whole-body imaging using positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising alternative to morphologic imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To evaluate FDG-PET for the assessment of local control and systemic disease in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of colorectal liver metastases. Material and Methods: In 21 patients with suspicion of progressive disease after LITT, whole-body FDG-PET was performed. The presence of viable tumor within treated lesions, new liver metastases, and extrahepatic disease was evaluated visually and semi quantitatively (maximal standard uptake value [SUVmax], tumor-to-normal ratio [T/N]). The standard of reference was histopathology (n = 25 lesions) and/or clinical follow-up (>12 months) including contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver. Results: Among 54 metastases treated with LITT, 29 had residual tumor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of SUVmax (area under the curve (AUC) 0.990) and T/N (AUC 0.968) showed a significant discrimination level of negative or positive lesion status with an equal accuracy of 94% (51/54). The overall accuracy of visual FDG-PET was 96% (52/54), with one false-negative lesion among six examined within 3 days after LITT, and one false-positive lesion examined 54 days after LITT. In the detection of new intra- and extrahepatic lesions, FDG-PET resulted in correct alteration of treatment strategy in 43% of patients (P = 0.007). Conclusion: FDG-PET is a promising tool for the assessment of local control and whole-body restaging in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after locally ablative treatment of colorectal liver metastases with

  19. PARENTING QUALITY IN DRUG-ADDICTED MOTHERS IN A THERAPEUTIC MOTHER-CHILD COMMUNITY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATTACHMENT AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDe Palo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996. The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers’ profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community. Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a therapeutic community. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%, with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5 were found for some experience scales (i.e. neglect and rejection scales. Data also showed very low values (1-3 in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients’ different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for

  20. FloodProBE Project WP 3: Reliability of Urban Flood Defences. Guidebook for Using Helicopter-Borne Lidar to Contribute to Levee Assessment – Experiment on “Val d’Orléans” Pilot Site

    OpenAIRE

    Auriau, L.; Mériaux, P.; Royet, P.; Tourment, R.; Lacombe, S.; Maurin, J.; Boulay, A.

    2012-01-01

    In support of a real case of application (“Val d’Orléans” Pilot Site), our research work provide a methodology for using remote sensing LiDAR data and high-resolution aerial imagery – acquired in “dry conditions” (e.g. not in a flood context) - to contribute efficiently to a rural or urban flood defence structure diagnostic or assessment. The main objective of our task 3.2.2 is resolutely operational: to put in practice the developed methodology, it is n...

  1. Bioaccessibility assessment of patulin and ochratoxin A in cereal and fruit based baby foods using a harmonized in vitro digestion model: contribution for the risk assessment of chemical mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, R.; Martins, C.; Leclerc Duarte, E.; Alvito, P.

    2015-01-01

    People, animals and the environment can be exposed to multiple chemicals at once from a variety of sources, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical substance at a time. Mycotoxins are fungal natural contaminants commonly found in a variety of foods including baby foods and have been found in cereal and fruit based baby foods. In human health risk assessment, ingestion of food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants including mycotoxins, although...

  2. Challenge to assess the toxic contribution of metal cation released from nanomaterials for nanotoxicology - the case of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Li, Jie; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Su, Huanxing; Chen, Hongzheng; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-05-01

    The identification of physicochemical factors that govern toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is important for the safe design and synthesis of NMs. The release of metal cations from NMs in cell culture medium and the role of the metal cations in cytotoxicity are still under dispute. Here, we report that removal of NMs such as ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by centrifugation, the procedure commonly used for the estimation of released ion concentration in nanotoxicology, was incomplete even at a relative centrifugal force of 150 000 × g. In this sense, the Zn concentration in supernatant measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry cannot be regarded as the concentration of free Zn2+ ions which were released from ZnO NPs in cell culture medium. This suggests the urgent need to develop relevant analytical techniques for nanotoxicology. The toxic contribution of released Zn2+ ions to the A549 cell lines was estimated to be only about 10%. We conclude that the cytotoxicity associated with ZnO NPs is not a function of the Zn concentration, suggesting that other factors play an important role in the toxic effect of ZnO NPs.The identification of physicochemical factors that govern toxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is important for the safe design and synthesis of NMs. The release of metal cations from NMs in cell culture medium and the role of the metal cations in cytotoxicity are still under dispute. Here, we report that removal of NMs such as ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by centrifugation, the procedure commonly used for the estimation of released ion concentration in nanotoxicology, was incomplete even at a relative centrifugal force of 150 000 × g. In this sense, the Zn concentration in supernatant measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry cannot be regarded as the concentration of free Zn2+ ions which were released from ZnO NPs in cell culture medium. This suggests the urgent need to develop relevant analytical techniques for nanotoxicology. The

  3. Looking beyond fertilizer: Assessing the contribution of nitrogen from hydrologic inputs and organic matter to plant growth in the cranberry agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, S.M.; Kosola, K.R.; Workmaster, B.A.A.; Guldan, N.M.; Browne, B.A.; Jackson, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Even though nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient for successful cranberry production, N cycling in cranberry agroecosystems is not completely understood. Prior research has focused mainly on timing and uptake of ammonium fertilizer, but the objective of our study was to evaluate the potential for additional N contributions from hydrologic inputs (flooding, irrigation, groundwater, and precipitation) and organic matter (OM). Plant biomass, soil, surface and groundwater samples were collected from five cranberry beds (cranberry production fields) on four different farms, representing both upland and lowland systems. Estimated average annual plant uptake (63.3 ?? 22.5 kg N ha-1 year-1) exceeded total average annual fertilizer inputs (39.5 ?? 11.6 kg N ha-1 year-1). Irrigation, precipitation, and floodwater N summed to an average 23 ?? 0.7 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was about 60% of fertilizer N. Leaf and stem litterfall added 5.2 ?? 1.2 and 24.1 ?? 3.0 kg N ha-1 year-1 respectively. The estimated net N mineralization rate from the buried bag technique was 5 ?? 0.2 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was nearly 15% of fertilizer N. Dissolved organic nitrogen represented a significant portion of the total N pool in both surface water and soil samples. Mixed-ion exchange resin core incubations indicated that 80% of total inorganic N from fertilizer, irrigation, precipitation, and mineralization was nitrate, and approximately 70% of recovered inorganic N from groundwater was nitrate. There was a weak but significant negative relationship between extractable soil ammonium concentrations and ericoid mycorrhizal colonization (ERM) rates (r = -0.22, P fertilizer N in order to maximize the benefits of ERM fungi in actively mediating N cycling in cranberry agroecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Back-trajectory analysis of African dust outbreaks at a coastal city in southern Spain: Selection of starting heights and assessment of African and concurrent Mediterranean contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, M.; Orza, J. A. G.; Dueñas, C.; Liger, E.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.

    2016-09-01

    The present study uses a back-trajectory analysis at multiple heights for better interpretation of the impact of the African dust outbreaks in the coastal Mediterranean city of Málaga (Spain), the southernmost large city in Europe. Throughout a 3-year period, 363 days were identified as dusty days by atmospheric transport models. During these events, PM10, SO2, O3, temperature, AOD and Ångström exponent showed statistically significant differences compared to days with no African dust. It was found that under African dust events, the study site was influenced by Mediterranean air masses at the lowermost heights and by Atlantic advections at high altitudes, while African air masses mostly reached Málaga at intermediate levels. Specifically, the lowest heights at which air masses reached the study site after having resided over Africa are confined into the 1000-2000 m range. The decoupling between the lowest heights and the ones for dust transport may explain the presence of aged air masses at the time of the African outbreak. Additionally, with the aim of studying the influence of the air mass origin and history on air quality, a new procedure based on Principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to determine which altitudes are best suited as starting points for back-trajectory calculations, as they maximize the differences in residence time over different areas. Its application to Málaga identifies three altitudes (750, 2250 and 4500 m) and a subsequent analysis of back-trajectories for African dust days provided the main source areas over Africa as well as further insight on the Mediterranean contribution.

  5. Contribution of (222)Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Diyun; Chen, Yongheng

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ((222)Rn)-bearing water to indoor (222)Rn in thermal baths. The (222)Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM(10) and PM(2.5)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m(-3) of (222)Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which (222)Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average (222)Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor (222)Rn levels were influenced by the (222)Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average (222)Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 × 10(-4)-4.1 × 10(-3). The 24-h average levels of CO(2) and PM(10) in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM(2.5). Radon and PM(10) levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants.

  6. Assessment of nitric oxide (NO) redox reactions contribution to nitrous oxide (N2 O) formation during nitrification using a multispecies metabolic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Chandran, Kartik; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-05-01

    Over the coming decades nitrous oxide (N2O) is expected to become a dominant greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone depleting substance. In wastewater treatment systems, N2O is majorly produced by nitrifying microbes through biochemical reduction of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO). However it is unknown if the amount of N2O formed is affected by alternative NO redox reactions catalyzed by oxidative nitrite oxidoreductase (NirK), cytochromes (i.e., P460 [CytP460] and 554 [Cyt554 ]) and flavohemoglobins (Hmp) in ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB, respectively). In this study, a mathematical model is developed to assess how N2O formation is affected by such alternative nitrogen redox transformations. The developed multispecies metabolic network model captures the nitrogen respiratory pathways inferred from genomes of eight AOB and NOB species. The performance of model variants, obtained as different combinations of active NO redox reactions, was assessed against nine experimental datasets for nitrifying cultures producing N2O at different concentration of electron donor and acceptor. Model predicted metabolic fluxes show that only variants that included NO oxidation to NO2(-) by CytP460 and Hmp in AOB gave statistically similar estimates to observed production rates of N2O, NO, NO2(-) and nitrate (NO3(-)), together with fractions of AOB and NOB species in biomass. Simulations showed that NO oxidation to NO2(-) decreased N2O formation by 60% without changing culture's NO2(-) production rate. Model variants including NO reduction to N2O by Cyt554 and cNor in NOB did not improve the accuracy of experimental datasets estimates, suggesting null N2O production by NOB during nitrification. Finally, the analysis shows that in nitrifying cultures transitioning from dissolved oxygen levels above 3.8 ± 0.38 to <1.5 ± 0.8 mg/L, NOB cells can oxidize the NO produced by AOB through reactions catalyzed by oxidative NirK.

  7. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  8. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Geml

    Full Text Available Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  9. The Grimsel radionuclide migration experiment - a contribution to raising confidence in the validity of solute transport models used in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories is to provide confidence that the predictive models utilized are applicable for the specific repository systems. Nagra has carried out radionuclide migration experiments at the Grimsel underground test site (Switzerland) for testing of currently used methodologies, data bases, conceptual approaches and codes for modeling radionuclide transport through fractured host rocks. Specific objectives included: identification of the relevant transport processes, to test the extrapolation of laboratory sorption data to field conditions, and to demonstrate the applicability of currently used methodology for conceptualizing or building realistic transport models. Field tests and transport modeling work are complemented by an extensive laboratory program. The field experimental activities focused predominantly on establishing appropriate conditions for identifying relevant transport mechanisms on the scale of a few meters, aiming at full recovery of injected tracers, simple geometry and long-term stability of induced dipole flow fields. A relatively simple homogeneous, dual-porosity advection/diffusion model was built with input from a state of the art petrographic characterisation of the water conducting feature. It was possible to calibrate the model from conservative tracer breakthrough curves. (J.S.). 21 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  10. An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of wind and solar generating resources is expected to dramatically increase in the United States over the coming years. It is widely understood that large scale deployment of these types of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar) that have variable and less predictable production characteristics than traditional thermal resources poses integration challenges for bulk power system operators. At present, bulk power system operators primarily utilize strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this uncertainty; a host of additional options are also envisioned for the near future including demand response (DR). There are well-established bodies of research that examine variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential; but, the existing literature that provides a comparative assessment of the two neither treats this topic comprehensively nor in a highly integrated fashion. Thus, this paper seeks to address these missing pieces by considering the full range of opportunities and challenges for mass market DR rates and programs to support integration of variable renewable generation. - Highlights: ► Mass market demand response can help manage the integration of renewable resources. ► To be more effective, retail electricity rates must apply contemporaneous prices. ► Demand response programs will require shorter duration and more frequent events. ► Mass market customers will likely need to accept control technology. ► Market rules and regulatory policies must change to expand demand response's role.

  11. mTOR-inhibitor treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: contribution of Choi and modified Choi criteria assessed in 2D or 3D to evaluate tumor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamuraglia, M. [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Paris (France); Raslan, S.; Penna, R.R.; Wagner, M. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP UPMC, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Elaidi, R.; Oudard, S. [APHP, Oncology Unit, Georges-Pompidou Hospital, Paris (France); Escudier, B. [Gustave-Roussy Institute, Medical Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); Slimane, K. [Novartis Pharma, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Lucidarme, O. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP UPMC, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Paris (France)

    2016-01-15

    To determine whether 2D or 3D Choi and modified Choi (mChoi) criteria could assess the efficacy of everolimus against metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). RECIST-1.1, Choi, and mChoi criteria were applied retrospectively to analyse baseline and 2-month contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images in 48 patients with mRCC enrolled in the everolimus arm of the French randomized double-blind multicentre phase III trial comparing everolimus versus placebo (RECORD-1). The primary endpoint was centrally reviewed progression-free survival (PFS) calculated from the initial RECORD-1 analysis. Mean attenuation was determined for 2D target lesion regions of interest drawn on CECT sections whose largest diameters had been measured, and for the 3D whole target lesion. The median PFS was 5.5 months. The median PFS for everolimus responders defined using 3D mChoi criteria was significantly longer than for non-responders (7.6 versus 5.4 months, respectively), corresponding to a hazard ratio for progression of 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22-0.92), with respective 1-year survival rates of 31 % and 9 %. No other 2D or 3D imaging criteria at 2 months identified patients who would benefit from everolimus. At 2 months, only 3D mChoi criteria were able to identify mRCC patients with a PFS benefit from everolimus. (orig.)

  12. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy through conditional analysis: a contribution to the unbiased selection of causal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vergari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work the conditional multivariate analysis was applied to evaluate landslide susceptibility in the Upper Orcia River Basin (Tuscany, Italy, where widespread denudation processes and agricultural practices have a mutual impact. We introduced an unbiased procedure for causal factor selection based on some intuitive statistical indices. This procedure is aimed at detecting among different potential factors the most discriminant ones in a given study area. Moreover, this step avoids generating too small and statistically insignificant spatial units by intersecting the factor maps. Finally, a validation procedure was applied based on the partition of the landslide inventory from multi-temporal aerial photo interpretation.

    Although encompassing some sources of uncertainties, the applied susceptibility assessment method provided a satisfactory and unbiased prediction for the Upper Orcia Valley. The results confirmed the efficiency of the selection procedure, as an unbiased step of the landslide susceptibility evaluation. Furthermore, we achieved the purpose of presenting a conceptually simple but, at the same time, effective statistical procedure for susceptibility analysis to be used as well by decision makers in land management.

  13. Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the contribution of radon (222Rn)-bearing water to indoor 222Rn in thermal baths. The 222Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM10 and PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m-3 of 222Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which 222Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average 222Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor 222Rn levels were influenced by the 222Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average 222Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10-4-4.1 x 10-3. The 24-h average levels of CO2 and PM10 in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM2.5. Radon and PM10 levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: → 222Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. → The PM2.5 and CO2 are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. → Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. → The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  14. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  15. 技术性知识产权出资评估之现有机制与完善--以宁波GQY评估报告为基础%Technical Intellectual Property Contribution Assessment Mechanisms and Its Perfection---Based on Ningbo GQY Assessment Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李逸竹

    2014-01-01

    Technical intellectual property contribution assessment is vital for that to confirm corporate qualifications,to protect the interests of shareholders and creditors,to maintain social and economic or-der.Because of the particularity of the object and purpose of the evaluation,we should seek assessment methods and evaluation procedures appropriate to it.Assessment methods should be preferred to the in-come approach,with the cost approach and market approach followed.Assessment process should focus on reviewing the state of the patent rights and technical secrets,not only to understand the production and management capacity of funders,but also the situation of the invested enterprises.At present,in the field of intellectual property contribution assessment in China,a mandatory assessment system is implemented. In practice,unlike intellectual property such as copyright,trademark,trade secret and other,there is a big disadvantage in use of mandatory assessment to technical intellectual property.For non-state-owned technical intellectual property,we may try to break the mandatory assessment requirements,to relax the qualification of assessment body appropriately,to introduce a negotiated price mechanism by the promot-ers and the board.We should establish the legal remedies and response system to untrue assessment to strengthen accountability to assessment body.To improve the intellectual property contribution assessment system,we should not only strengthen risk prevention mechanism,but also consider the facilities for en-terprises finance and to set up a small company quickly.%技术性知识产权出资评估,对于确认企业法人资格、保护股东与债权人的利益、维护社会经济秩序至关重要。因其评估对象与评估目的的特殊性,我们应寻求适合其特点的评估方法与评估程序。评估方法应以收益法为首选,成本法与市场法次之。评估程序应重点审查专利与技术秘密之权利状态,不仅

  16. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  17. Social Contributions in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social securit...

  18. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, Gideon; Blokland, Pieter-Willem; Bouma, Foppe; Luesink, Harry H.; Mokveld, Lennard J.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to assess. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure...

  19. Contribution to the top-down alert system associated with the upcoming French tsunami warning center (CENALT): tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast for the ALDES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loevenbruck, A.; Quentel, E.; Hebert, H.

    2011-12-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Tsunamis have already affected the west Mediterranean coast; however past events are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. Models of propagation in the basin and off the French coast allow evaluating the potential threat at regional scale in terms of sources location and

  20. Darwin's contributions to genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-S; Zhou, X-M; Zhi, M-X; Li, X-J; Wang, Q-L

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's contributions to evolutionary biology are well known, but his contributions to genetics are much less known. His main contribution was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for its interpretation. Darwin clearly described almost all genetic phenomena of fundamental importance, such as prepotency (Mendelian inheritance), bud variation (mutation), heterosis, reversion (atavism), graft hybridization (Michurinian inheritance), sex-limited inheritance, the direct action of the male element on the female (xenia and telegony), the effect of use and disuse, the inheritance of acquired characters (Lamarckian inheritance), and many other observations pertaining to variation, heredity and development. To explain all these observations, Darwin formulated a developmental theory of heredity - Pangenesis - which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories, but also is supported by recent evidence. PMID:19638672

  1. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  2. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  3. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  4. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  5. Contribution to the Analysis, Design and Assessment of Compact Antenna Test Ranges At Millimeter Wavelengths - Contribución al Análisis, Diseño y Caracterización de Sistemas de Medida de Antenas en Rango Compacto para Frecuencias Milimétricas

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Acevedo, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This Doctoral Thesis entitled Contribution to the analysis, design and assessment of compact antenna test ranges at millimeter wavelengths aims to deepen the knowledge of a particular antenna measurement system: the compact range, operating in the frequency bands of millimeter wavelengths. The thesis has been developed at Radiation Group (GR), an antenna laboratory which belongs to the Signals, Systems and Radiocommunications department (SSR), from Technical University of Madrid (UPM). The Ra...

  6. Tank waste isotope contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to 90Sr, 90Y, 137Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste

  7. Contribution mapping: a method for mapping the contribution of research to enhance its impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Maarten O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At a time of growing emphasis on both the use of research and accountability, it is important for research funders, researchers and other stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the extent to which research contributes to better action for health, and find ways to enhance the likelihood that beneficial contributions are realized. Past attempts to assess research 'impact' struggle with operationalizing 'impact', identifying the users of research and attributing impact to research projects as source. In this article we describe Contribution Mapping, a novel approach to research monitoring and evaluation that aims to assess contributions instead of impacts. The approach focuses on processes and actors and systematically assesses anticipatory efforts that aim to enhance contributions, so-called alignment efforts. The approach is designed to be useful for both accountability purposes and for assisting in better employing research to contribute to better action for health. Methods Contribution Mapping is inspired by a perspective from social studies of science on how research and knowledge utilization processes evolve. For each research project that is assessed, a three-phase process map is developed that includes the main actors, activities and alignment efforts during research formulation, production and knowledge extension (e.g. dissemination and utilization. The approach focuses on the actors involved in, or interacting with, a research project (the linked actors and the most likely influential users, who are referred to as potential key users. In the first stage, the investigators of the assessed project are interviewed to develop a preliminary version of the process map and first estimation of research-related contributions. In the second stage, potential key-users and other informants are interviewed to trace, explore and triangulate possible contributions. In the third stage, the presence and role of alignment efforts is

  8. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Budhi (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Egan, Michael (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (DE)); Chapman, Neil (Independent Consultant (XX)); Wilmot, Roger (Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM

  9. Assessing the Contribution of the Environmental Parameters to Eutrophication with the Use of the “PaD” and “PaD2” Methods in a Hypereutrophic Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjisolomou, Ekaterini; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Papatheodorou, George; Papastergiadou, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Lake Pamvotis (Greece) is a shallow hypereutrophic lake with a natural tendency to eutrophication. Several restoration measures were applied, but with no long-term success. To examine the causes for this an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was created in order to simulate the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) levels and to investigate the role of the associated environmental parameters. The ANN managed to simulate with good correlation the simulated Chl-a and can be considered as a reliable predictor. The relative importance of the environmental parameters to the simulated Chl-a was calculated with the use of the “Partial Derivatives” (“PaD”) sensitivity method. The water temperature (WT) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) had the highest relative importance, with values of 50% and 17%, respectively. The synergistic effect of the paired parameters was calculated with the use of the “PaD2” algorithm. The SRP-WT paired parameter was the most influential, with a relative contribution of 22%. The ANN showed that Lake Pamvotis is prone to suffer the effects of climatic change, because of the major contribution of WT. The ANN also revealed that combined nutrients reduction would improve water quality status. The ANN findings can act as an advisory tool regarding any restoration efforts. PMID:27483293

  10. Samoa Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    SABER-Student Assessment is a component of the SABER program that focuses specifically on benchmarking student assessment policies and systems. The goal of SABER-Student Assessment is to promote stronger assessment systems that contribute to improvededucation quality and learning for all. Samoa has focused on increasing student learningoutcomes by improving the quality of education in the ...

  11. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  12. Sustainable Assessment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boud, David; Soler, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable assessment has been proposed as an idea that focused on the contribution of assessment to learning beyond the timescale of a given course. It was identified as an assessment that meets the needs of the present in terms of the demands of formative and summative assessment, but which also prepares students to meet their own future…

  13. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope (δ13C and δ18O CO2; δ13C and δD CH4) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. ► The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. ► Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO2 concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach (δ13C and δ18O of CO2; δ13C and δD of CH4) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO2 levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH4 oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH4 oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. δ13C of CO2 samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  14. The contribution of single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical assessment of Alzheimer type dementia; Apport de la tomographie d'emission monophonique cerebrale dans l'evaluation des demences de type Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudousq, V.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 (France)

    1999-12-01

    Interest of brain single-photon emission computed tomography to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia is now established. Numerous studies have reported a decreased perfusion in the association cortex of the parietal lobe and the posterior temporal regions. In patients with mild cognitive complaints, the presence of focal hypoperfusion may increase substantially the probability of the disease. In addition, emission tomography emerges as a helpful tool in situation in which there is diagnostic doubt. In this case, the presence of temporo-parietal perfusion deficit associated with hippocampal atrophy on MRI or X-ray computed tomography contributes to diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies suggest that emission tomography may be useful for preclinical prediction of Alzheimer's disease and to predict cognitive decline. (author)

  15. 动态测验对“数学学习困难”儿童的进一步甄别%The Contribution of Dynamic Assessment to Screening Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽锦; 张臻峰

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used grade-level discrepancy assessment, which relies on achievement test scores to identify children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD or MD), can be biased and its effectiveness varies across children’s cognitive levels, educational backgrounds of families, school contexts, and children’s learning styles. As a consequence, the identification of children with MD often lacks accuracy. With an integration of interventions and interactive evaluation, dynamic assessment is developed to identify children’s potential for learning which is less influenced by their family and school backgrounds mentioned above. Unlike traditional achievement tests, dynamic assessment applies new criterion on MD that focus on children’s potential for learning mathematics and can reduce above-mentioned unfavorable effect to some extent. The current study attempted to demonstrate that the addition of dynamic assessment to traditional achievement tests can help identify MD children and the subgroups of MD children with increased accuracy and objectivity. Dynamic assessment has a unique effect on rapid and accurate identifying children with mathematics learning disabilities. Following the standard orientation model proposed by Proctor and Prevatt (2003), the treatment group included 30 fourth-grade children with mathematics learning disabilities, while the control group consisted of 30 children who were matched on Raven intelligence test scores. Four subtests (Rhyming Words, Auditory Digit Sequence, Visual Matrix and Mapping and Directions) of the “Swanson Cognitive Processing Test (S-CPT)”were administrated to assess children’s working memory. The assessment included initial score, gain score, maintain score, difference score, stable score, guide score and strategy score, collected in four phases: pretest, intervention, posttest, and delayed posttest. The differences in work memory task scores before and after the dynamic interventions, were used to

  16. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Budhi (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Egan, Michael (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (DE)); Chapman, Neil (Independent Consultant (XX)); Wilmot, Roger (Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM

  17. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  18. EMSL Contribution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2

  19. Concentrations of geogenic heavy metals in meadowland sediments and soils in the Saale river catchment area. A contribution to the ecological assessment of heavy metal pollution in bodies of surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint project covering the main tributaries of the Elbe river, heavy metal concentrations in recent river sediments of the Saale river were measured. Apart from the most relevant pollutants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, As), further metals and Se were also measured. The results provided information on the volumes, distribution, sources and regional distribution of heavy metal pollution as well as on the development of pollution with time since 1991. Natural (geogenic) metal concentrations are an issue as renaturing plans are being developed. In order to avoid unrealistic sanitation goals, an attempt was made to assess the distribution of the geogenic background values of fine-grained river sediments in part catchment areas of a large river catchment area (here: the Saale river) in order to obtain a standard regional geogenic background value for each element

  20. Bronze solider - chronology when and how he became notorious / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2008-01-01

    Kronoloogiline ülevaade pronkssõduri paigaldamisest Tõnismäele, rahutustele eelnenud sündmusest, tänavarahutustest, pronksõduri teisaldamisest ning sellele järgnenud reaktsioonidest rahvusvahelistes suhetes ja kohalike poliitikute hulgas

  1. Rumbula : a war crimes case revives memories of a notorious killing field / Michael Tarm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Nõukogude ajal tingis juutide kannatustest vaikimise Kremli võimude antisemitistlik hoiak. Iseseisvunud lätlased eelistavad rääkida lätlaste küüditamisest. Seetõttu on erakordsed massimõrvad nagu Rumbula metsas Riia lähedal jäänud siiani tähelepanuta

  2. Economic Contributions from Industrial Mining in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of mining used to be seen essentially through taxes and royalties; it tends to be viewed now in a more integrated manner. This report, the result of a 2-year research project, attempts to improve that information and to structure the debate around the long term economic impact of industrial mining. The objectives of this research were to assess the fiscal and non-fiscal co...

  3. The new-classical contribution to macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    D. LAIDLER

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to assessing New-Classical ideas, and to asking what of lasting importance this school of macroeconomics has contributed since the early 1970s. It deals in turn with the relationship between New-Classical Economics and Monetarism, the relative explanatory power of these two bodies of doctrine over empirical evidence, and the claims of New-Classical Economics to embody a superior analytic method. The author argues that, although the particular ways in which New-Classical M...

  4. Introducing and Modeling Inefficiency Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Kronborg, Dorte; Matthews, Kent

    2016-01-01

    -called inefficiency contributions, which are defined as the relative contributions from specific variables to the overall levels of inefficiencies. A statistical model for distinguishing the inefficiency contributions between subgroups is proposed and the method is illustrated on a data set on Chinese banks....

  5. Contribution to the assessment of the salinity of wastewater used for irrigation market gardening: The case of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluent in the scope of market garden Sebkha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Demba N’DIAYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluent using the parameters indicators of salinity to assess the suitability of wastewater for irrigation, the sampling campaigns were conducted between February 2008 and December 2009. Temperature, pH, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, bicarbonates, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption of ratio, magnesium adsorption ratio and sodium soluble percentage. The test results presented in this work showed that these effluents have temperatures reaching 28.7°C. The pH oscillates between neutrality and basicity. Chlorides, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonates have median levels of 950.1, 57.3, 29.6, 131.6, 24.9 and 1053.2 mg/L. The mean values of electrical conductivity of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR of soluble sodium percentage (SSP and the magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR are respectively 2340 μScm-1, 5.4, 52.1 and 36.9%. The sodium adsorption ratio and electrical conductivity showed that wastewater irrigated at the market-garden of Sebkha oscillates between class C3S1 (high salinity and excellent low hazard alkalization and C4S1 (very high salinity and the excellent low hazards alkalization.

  6. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels: The added value of the isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D CH{sub 4}) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widory, D., E-mail: d.widory@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 ave Claude Guillemin, 45000 Orleans (France); Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G. [BRGM, 3 ave Claude Guillemin, 45000 Orleans (France); Bour, O. [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4}) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH{sub 4} oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH{sub 4} is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH{sub 4} oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  7. Assess overall value of performance-related pay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of human resource management is that people should work as efficiently as possible in the organization. The notorious payment by the result system which does not work very well lasted for many years. So, the organization attempts to achieve their goals by using various systems of payment to encourage and reward them. Performance related pay, as one of reward systems, has a range of advantages to motivate individuals to work harder or more productively. Nevertheless, there is also evidence of weakness and failures, which have some of the unacceptable and undesirable side effects. Sometimes the problem of performance related pay cannot produce the hoped benefits. This essay will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of performance-related pay schemes. Then, it will assess the overall value of performance-related pay systems.

  8. Campaign Contributions and Agricultural Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the influence of campaign contributions on agricultural subsidies. Empirical results revealed that rent seeking works, i.e., campaign contributions of agricultural-related industries influence agricultural subsidies in the manner they best serve contributors' economic interests. Eliminating campaign contributions would significantly decrease agricultural subsidies, hurt farm groups, benefit consumers and taxpayers, and increase social welfare by approximately $5.5 billio...

  9. Fast voltage stability assessment and reinforcement in an interconnected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wen-Ta

    1998-12-01

    It is believed that voltage stability analysis will be more difficult due to the full utilization of transmission systems and the growth of inter-utility power transfer. An online voltage stability analyzing system which can be incorporated into the EMS to deal with the threats of suddenly arising voltage collapses is presented. Operating margin prediction, voltage stability assessment and reinforcement are three major functions. Two predicting methods are proposed to calculate the operating margin according to current operating condition and the anticipative system state. A fast risk indicator based on the saddle-node bifurcation theory is designed to predict the proximity of a system to voltage collapse. A novel CPF method which can trace the power flow solution path through the nose point without notorious numerical difficulties is presented. Speed is the advantage of former method, while accuracy is the important feature of latter one. Voltage stability assessment is required to predict steady-state conditions of a system following a large number of anticipated transmission branch or generator outages. An efficient and simple method based on voltage sensitivity changing rates is proposed for quickly identify the weak buses in a large-scale system. An effective contingency selection function relying on search algorithms built into power flow solutions is designed to filter out most of harmless contingencies for system operators who are working with rapidly changing load/generation patterns and a wide variety of operating conditions. A contingency evaluation function having the ability to deal with real-time numerous contingencies in a very short period of time is utilized to find high-severity contingencies. Var compensation and load shedding are two remedial measures of reinforcement function. Suitable var compensation scheme has three contributions: extending operating margin to avoid voltage collapses, fully utilizing the transmission infrastructure to earn

  10. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them. PMID:26610977

  11. Advocacy and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A highly structured treatment is presented of adversarial systems as they apply to technology assessment. One approach to the problem of adequate criteria of assessment focuses upon the internal operations of assessment entities; operations include problem perception, problem formulation, selection, utilization, determination, and evaluation. Potential contributions of advocacy as a mode of inquiry in technology are discussed; advocacy is evaluated by representative sets of criteria of adequate assessment which include participant criteria, perspectives criteria, situations criteria, base values criteria, and strategies criteria.

  12. New contributions for the assessment of intelligence : the Aurora Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Ana Manuela Faria

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia A avaliação da inteligência representa um dos domínios mais divulgados e controversos da Psicologia. Em resposta às críticas aos testes clássicos de inteligência emergiu a Bateria Aurora, destinada a crianças na faixa etária dos 9-12 anos e enquadrada na Teoria Triárquica de Robert Sternberg. Esta bateria visa o diagnóstico da sobredotação através da avaliação da inteligência prática, analítica e criativa, apresentando itens figur...

  13. Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

  14. Civil society contribution to democratic governance : a critical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler-Koch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    "Civil society ranks high in academic and political discussions on democracy. It is perceived as a remedy to the legitimacy crisis of national systems and as a promise to turn international governance more democratic. But civil society is an illusive concept and contending conceptual frames govern the normative reflections and political recommendations which give legitimacy to civil society engagement. Therefore, researchers in RG 4 set out to exploit existing research comparing theoretical a...

  15. Contribution to the power distribution methodology uncertainties assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present methodology of safety margins in NPP Dukovany design power distribution calculations is based on the philosophy of engineering factors with errors defined on the bases of statistical approach of standard (95%) confidence intervals. On the level of FA power distribution the normality (normal density distribution) of this approach is tested and comparison with errors defined on the 95-percent probability at a 95-percent confidence level (shortly in statistics 95%/95%)) is provided. Practical applications are presented for several NPP Dukovany fuel cycles. The paper also deals briefly with difference between confidence interval and tolerance interval, with the problems of density distribution of mechanical engineering factor variables and solution of axial and radial error distribution like bivariate problem. (Author)

  16. Assessing the contribution of Centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that the internal luminosity of Neptune is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, the luminosity of Neptune can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether Centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce the luminosity of Neptune. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order the observed value for Neptune, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates, and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates.

  17. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  18. Internationalization Assessment in Schools: Theoretical Contributions and Practical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Cosmopolitan, international capital has become an integral ingredient in the set of competencies considered to provide a competitive edge and to be required for affective citizenship in the 21st century. Recently, internationalization of education has become a more common phenomenon in local schools around the world, serving as a tool to provide…

  19. Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior…

  20. Contributions to the environmental assessment of road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Santisteve, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es proporcionar un mayor grado de conocimiento sobre ciertos aspectos medioambientales del transporte por carretera que aún no han sido investigados en profundidad. En concreto, la tesis aborda las siguientes líneas de investigación: análisis del ciclo de vida (ACV) de los pavimentos de carreteras, ACV del ruido del transporte por carretera, y valoración de los costes externos del ruido del transporte por carretera. La evaluación ambiental del transporte rodado se...

  1. Assessing the contribution of Centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that the internal luminosity of Neptune is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, the luminosity of Neptune can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether Centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce the luminosity of Neptune. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Nept...

  2. Assessing the contribution of centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that Neptune's internal luminosity is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, Neptune's luminosity can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce Neptune's luminosity. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order Neptune's observed value, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates.

  3. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  4. Adam Smith’s contribution to secularisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examined several crucial themes in Adam Smith’s philosophy with the purpose of highlighting and assessing his contribution to the secularisation of Western society. The article, written from the perspective of reformational philosophy, begins with a brief biography and sketch of Adam Smith’s influence on modern society, followed by a summary of Ponti Venter’s view on Smith. This sets the scene for a discussion of Adam Smith’s project, his method of tackling it, and his views on systems, philosophy of history and the concept of philosophy.

  5. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  6. ECN contributions to GLOBAL `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the 9 contributions of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN to the international conference on evaluation of emerging nuclear fuel cycle systems, GLOBAL `95, held in Versailles, France, on September 11-14, 1995. (orig./GL).

  7. Individual focus and knowledge contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Adamic, Lada A.; Wei, Xiao; Yang, Jiang; Gerrish, Sean; Nam, Kevin K.; Clarkson, Gavin S.

    2010-01-01

    Before contributing new knowledge, individuals must attain requisite background knowledge or skills through schooling, training, practice, and experience. Given limited time, individuals often choose either to focus on few areas, where they build deep expertise, or to delve less deeply and distribute their attention and efforts across several areas. In this paper we measure the relationship between the narrowness of focus and the quality of contribution across a range of both traditional and ...

  8. Stuart Hall’ Contributions to CCCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2014-01-01

    Hall is the most prominent master of Birmingham school. To some extent, Hall just represents CCCS and makes outstanding contributions to establishment of this school. Hall’s cultural theory is characterized by the interdisciplinary ideology, cultural gaze of race diaspora, collective creation, academic openness, cultural politics, civilization of the talent and so on, so that displays his value and significance as a cultural theorists and critic, in addition demonstrates his contribution to the whole world.

  9. Models for describing the behaviour of light water reactors in serious accidents for the programs SCDAP/RELAP5, ATHLET/SA, CATHARE/ICARE, MELCOR etc.. First technical report on BMFT-sponsored research project 1500 831 7: Comparative assessment of different computer codes for severe accident analysis, contribution to the ATHLET/CD code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of the project BMFT No. 15008317 entitled ''Comparative Assessment of Different Computer Codws for Severe Accident Analysis, Contribution to the ATHLET/SA-Code Development'' the codes ATHLET/SA, CATHARE/ICARE, MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 are investigated. Emphasis is put on a comparison and an assessment of the governing modelling features implemented and operating in the codes under consideration. The codes are evaluated and compared on the base of selected experiments (especially the CORA experimental program of the Karlsruhe Research Center) and relevant severe accident scenarios. The present report is a reference study dealing with the governing models implemented in the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, ATHLET/SA, CATHARE/ICARE, MELCOR, KESS-III, MAAP and MELPROG/TRAC. Emphaisis is laid on the following models (molstly implemented in form of modules in the respective codes) dealing with: - thermal hydraulics; - heat generation and heat structures; - Radiation heat transfer; - mechanical (rod) behaviour; - core heatup, meltdown and relocation; - chemical reaction; - fission product release and transport; - material properties; - specific components. (orig.)

  10. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Julie A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H; Wilsey, Chad B; Bender, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of individuals in sinks can compromise persistence; but conversely, sinks can improve viability by improving connectivity and facilitating the recolonization of vacant sources. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional population persistence of declining populations, we simulated source-sink dynamics for 3 very different endangered species: Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapilla) at Fort Hood, Texas, Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) in Alberta, and Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the northwestern United States. We used empirical data from these case studies to parameterize spatially explicit individual-based models. We then used the models to quantify population abundance and persistence with and without long-term sinks. The contributions of sink habitats varied widely. Sinks were detrimental, particularly when they functioned as strong sinks with few emigrants in declining populations (e.g., Alberta's Ord's kangaroo rat) and benign in robust populations (e.g., Black-capped Vireos) when Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism was controlled. Sinks, including ecological traps, were also crucial in delaying declines when there were few sources (e.g., in Black-capped Vireo populations with no Cowbird control). Sink contributions were also nuanced. For example, sinks that supported large, variable populations were subject to greater extinction risk (e.g., Northern Spotted Owls). In each of our case studies, new context-dependent sinks emerged, underscoring the dynamic nature of sources and sinks and the need for frequent re-assessment. Our results imply that management actions based on assumptions that sink habitats are generally harmful or helpful risk undermining conservation efforts for declining populations.

  11. Stuart Hall’ Contributions to CCCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2014-01-01

    Hall is the most prominent master of Birmingham school.To some extent,Hall just represents CCCS and makes outstanding contributions to establishment of this school.Hall’s cultural theory is characterized by the interdisciplinary ideology,cultural gaze of race diaspora,collective creation,academic openness,cultural politics,civilization of the talent and so on,so that displays his value and significance as a cultural theorists and critic,in addition demonstrates his contribution to the whole world.

  12. Nuclear Apoptosis Contributes to Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alway, Stephen E.; Parco M. Siu

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis results in DNA fragmentation and, subsequently, destruction of cells containing a single nucleus. Our hypothesis is that multinucleated cells such as muscle fibers can experience apoptotic-induced loss of single nuclei (nuclear apoptosis) without destruction of the entire fiber. The loss of nuclei likely contributes to atrophy and sarcopenia. Furthermore, increased chronic activity attenuates apoptotic signaling, which may reduce sarcopenia.

  13. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  14. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths’ relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a measure assessing interpersonal stress responses; youth and caregivers completed semi-structured interviews assessing youths’ life stress and psychopatho...

  15. Should we ignore U-235 series contribution to dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Goulet, Richard; Mihok, Steve; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) methodology for radioactive substances is an important regulatory tool for assessing the safety of licensed nuclear facilities for wildlife, and the environment as a whole. ERAs are therefore expected to be both fit for purpose and conservative. When uranium isotopes are assessed, there are many radioactive decay products which could be considered. However, risk assessors usually assume (235)U and its daughters contribute negligibly to radiological dose. The validity of this assumption has not been tested: what might the (235)U family contribution be and how does the estimate depend on the assumptions applied? In this paper we address this question by considering aquatic wildlife in Canadian lakes exposed to historic uranium mining practices. A full theoretical approach was used, in parallel to a more realistic assessment based on measurements of several elements of the U decay chains. The (235)U family contribution varied between about 4% and 75% of the total dose rate depending on the assumptions of the equilibrium state of the decay chains. Hence, ignoring the (235)U series will not result in conservative dose assessments for wildlife. These arguments provide a strong case for more in situ measurements of the important members of the (235)U chain and for its consideration in dose assessments.

  16. Individual Meaning and Increasing Complexity: Contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Considers contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to developmental psychology. Freud's contributions include his observations about play, perspectives on developmental processes, and ideas about unconscious mental activity. Spitz's contributions include his assessments of infants, perspectives on developmental processes, and his concept of…

  17. Public relations: contributions from Ljubljana:

    OpenAIRE

    Verčič, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Public relations emerged as an academic discipline in the 1980s in the US, and in 1990s it institutionalised itself in European academia as well. Work at the Marketing Communication and Public Relations department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, has been instrumental in the Europeanisation and globalisation of the predominantly US public relations theory and contributed to the development of the reflective model of public relations. Odnosi z javnostmi so se kot akadem...

  18. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita; Luana de Decco Marchese; Danielle Warol Dias; Andressa Brasil Barbeito; Jonathan Costa Gomes; Maria Clara Soares Muradas; Pedro Gemal Lanzieri; Ronaldo Altenburg Gismondi

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiolo...

  19. Mead's contributions to learner's identities

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Suzanne; Puigdellívol, Ignasi; Molina Roldán, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Mead’s approach of symbolic interactionism is useful for explaining both how students learn and how learning environments can be improved. This article reviews Mead’s theoretical contributions, which serve as a base for successful educational actions in several countries. The interactionist view of learning is examined in depth, as well as the dialogical nature of the self, and the way that verbal language and gestures mediate interaction. These concepts are illustrated with examples from cas...

  20. Employee contributions to brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Gelb, BD; Rangarajan, Deva

    2014-01-01

    Viewing employees as elements of a brand or as "brand ambassadors" means that almost any policy can affect brand equity. Resource allocation for brand-building requires understanding what differentiates "our brand" in order to focus resources on the employees who provide that difference. Employees' commitment to the brand increases when they know how they can contribute. Management actions matter from small issues like free coffee to large issues like mass layoffs.

  1. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits.

  2. Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dul, Jan; Neumann, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to strengthen the position of ergonomics and ergonomists in the business and management world, we discuss company strategies and business goals to which ergonomics could contribute. Conceptual models are p...

  3. The UPTF TRAM program (Contributed Paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the utilisation of nuclear energy in Germany the specific risks associated with this technology were recognized and the so called Atomic Law was issued. This law placed the overall responsibility for the protection of the public against the hazards arising from peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy on the Federal Government. It further determines art of science and technology. This implies that safety related research and assessment has to be carried out continuously. To fulfill the requirements of the Atomic Law in Germany two federal authorities are occupied with nuclear safety activities. While the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety (BMU) assumes the responsibility for licensing and supervision of design, construction and operation on nuclear installations the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) is responsible for safety related generic and conceptual research and development of safety assessment methods and tools. To optimize the safety concept of nuclear power plant design a defense in depth strategy was developed for German nuclear reactors covering the full range of facility states and conditions. A qualitative and not exhaustive survey of operational conditions and associated safety provisions are given. The UPTF Program consumes approximately 100 million DW funding for test performance. Also regarding the costs of design and construction of the UPTF, approximately 250 million DW, which were born by the previous 2D/3D Program, TRAM is one of the greatest research projects in the field of reactor safety world wide. It is supposed to significantly contribute to the resolution of important reactor safety issues affected by phenomena which are sensitive to geometrical scale. The results of the TRAM Program are directed to the assessment tp the assessment and improvement of the German advanced computer codes ATHLET and ATHLET-CD. The TRAM Program as one of the principal experimental efforts

  4. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  5. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit a contribution election to his...

  6. The new-classical contribution to macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LAIDLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to assessing New-Classical ideas, and to asking what of lasting importance this school of macroeconomics has contributed since the early 1970s. It deals in turn with the relationship between New-Classical Economics and Monetarism, the relative explanatory power of these two bodies of doctrine over empirical evidence, and the claims of New-Classical Economics to embody a superior analytic method. The author argues that, although the particular ways in which New-Classical Macroeconomics has applied its basic ideas are unnecessarily restrictive, its stress on equilibrium behaviour conditioned by the state of individual agents’ expectations as a basis for macro modelling is nevertheless valuable.  

  7. Ethnographic Contributions to Method Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to common assumptions, there is much to be learned about methods from constructivist/post-structuralist approaches to International Relations (IR) broadly speaking. This article develops this point by unpacking the contributions of one specific method—ethnography—as used in one subfield...... of IR—Critical Security Studies. Ethnographic research works with what has been termed a “strong” understanding of objectivity. When this understanding is taken seriously, it must lead to a refashioning of the processes of gathering, analyzing, and presenting data in ways that reverse many standard...

  8. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  9. Genes contributing to prion pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V;

    2008-01-01

    incubation times, indicating that the conversion reaction may be influenced by other gene products. To identify genes that contribute to prion pathogenesis, we analysed incubation times of prions in mice in which the gene product was inactivated, knocked out or overexpressed. We tested 20 candidate genes...... show that many genes previously implicated in prion replication have no discernible effect on the pathogenesis of prion disease. While most genes tested did not significantly affect survival times, ablation of the amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (App) or interleukin-1 receptor, type I (Il1r1...

  10. The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 115 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with 81mKr or 133Xe, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by 81mKr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with 99mTc-MAA, 67Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with 99mTc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity, and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q, which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO2 was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. 67Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of 67Ga. 67Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the disease. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by 99mTc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability became accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author)

  11. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg, E-mail: ronaldo@floralia.com.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  12. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  13. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15% studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16% laureates, and two (6% were women. Fourteen (42% were American, 15 (45% Europeans and four (13% were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  14. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15% studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16% laureates, and two (6% were women. Fourteen (42% were American, 15 (45% Europeans and four (13% were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  15. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male

  16. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  17. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  18. Cuidados paliativos: a avaliação da dor na percepção de enfermeiras Cuidados paliativos: la percepción de enfermeras cerca de la evaluación del dolor Palliative care: the nurses contributions in pain assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Waterkemper

    2010-03-01

    nurses' ideas and contributions on the assessment of cancer patients' pain in palliative care through a proposal of work education based on Paul Freire's problematizing education theory. We used Juan Charles Maguerez's "problematization arc" as a strategy for data collection. The study included six nurses. The results pointed to three categories: (1 the meaning of pain, (2 the way pain assessment is practiced by nurses and (3 contributions to care. Cancer pain is a total pain. It exceeds the physical dimension of disease and extends to psychological and social dimensions. The deployment of systematic pain care routines, enclosed in the systematization of nursing care makes it possible to better redirect the actions, therefore achieving a most complete and effective pain management.

  19. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  20. Using multivariate generalizability theory to assess the effect of content stratification on the reliability of a performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lisa A; Clauser, Brian E; Swanson, David B

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, demand for performance assessments has continued to grow. However, performance assessments are notorious for lower reliability, and in particular, low reliability resulting from task specificity. Since reliability analyses typically treat the performance tasks as randomly sampled from an infinite universe of tasks, these estimates of reliability may not be accurate. For tests built according to a table of specifications, tasks are randomly sampled from different strata (content domains, skill areas, etc.). If these strata remain fixed in the test construction process, ignoring this stratification in the reliability analysis results in an underestimate of "parallel forms" reliability, and an overestimate of the person-by-task component. This research explores the effect of representing and misrepresenting the stratification appropriately in estimation of reliability and the standard error of measurement. Both multivariate and univariate generalizability studies are reported. Results indicate that the proper specification of the analytic design is essential in yielding the proper information both about the generalizability of the assessment and the standard error of measurement. Further, illustrative D studies present the effect under a variety of situations and test designs. Additional benefits of multivariate generalizability theory in test design and evaluation are also discussed.

  1. Ergonomics contributions to company strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, Jan; Neumann, W Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Managers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to strengthen the position of ergonomics and ergonomists in the business and management world, we discuss company strategies and business goals to which ergonomics could contribute. Conceptual models are presented and examples are given to illustrate: (1) the present situation in which ergonomics is not part of regular planning and control cycles in organizations to ensure business performance; and (2) the desired situation in which ergonomics is an integrated part of strategy formulation and implementation. In order to realize the desired situation, considerable changes must take place within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by moving from a health ergonomics paradigm to a business ergonomics paradigm, without losing the health and safety goals. PMID:18775532

  2. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman--Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cut-off) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can well be described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field th...

  3. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  4. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  5. 5 CFR 1604.3 - Contribution elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1604.3 Contribution elections. A service member may make contribution elections as described in 5 CFR... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1604.3 Section... incentive pay when the contribution election is made); those elections will take effect when the...

  6. Student Scientific Conference, 2010. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (154 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (39 contributions); (iii) Geography; (41 contributions); (iv) Geology (22 contributions); (v) Environment (45 contributions); (vi) Didactics (6 contributions). Contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  7. Student Scientific Conference, 2009. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (145 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (42 contributions); (iii) Geology (42 contributions); (iv) Environment (40 contributions); (v) Geography (28 contributions); (vi) Didactics (13 contributions). Contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  8. Optimization of the Actuarial Model of Defined Contribution Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the actuarial models of defined contribution pension plan. Through assumptions and calculations, the expected replacement ratios of three different defined contribution pension plans are compared. Specially, more significant considerable factors are put forward in the further cost and risk analyses. In order to get an assessment of current status, the paper finds a relationship between the replacement ratio and the pension investment rate using econometrics method. Based on an appropriate investment rate of 6%, an expected replacement ratio of 20% is reached.

  9. Uruguay geology contributions no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Group is characterized by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of low grade into which are found the main Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo occurrences and vast limestones deposits and a laterally associated sequence of medium metamorphism. From a structural point of view it is characterized by a poly phasic evolution. At low metamorphic sequence is distinguished a volcanic-sedimentary series (s.s.) and a sedimentogenous series. The synchronism between both series is showed by transition by lateral facies changes. There is a pelitic carbonate zone associated to a basic calc o-alkaline and tholeitic volcanism and the another zone represented by a carbonaceous platform subjected lo de tri tic contribution of varied nature. The Iithologic succession permits establishing at the volcano-sedimentary sequence, five levels from base to top: -a phyllitic and meta pelitic level (500 meters thick), with basic volcanic rocks intercalated, -a level of limestones which evolves to the top by detritic contributions to a flisch alternation (300 m. thick) with basic volcanic rocks intercalated, -a level of rit mic alternation of rnetapelites, melasandstones, limes tones and phyllites (200 m. thick), -a basic volcanic unit, with intercalation of acid vulcanite s, at the lop are intercalated volcanoclastic rocks as tuffs and breccia s, 1000 meters thick, -a n el sedimentary unit integrated by limestones and phyllites wich evolve to the top of the series lo levels of dolomites. coarse-grained phyllites and jasper, 300 m. thick. Laterally this level passes lo a set integrated by quartzites, metaarcoses, limestones, acid tuffs and rarely rhyolites. The sedimentogenous series has the following base to top sequence: -150 m. of quartzites and meta sandstones wich lay unconformbly over a qranitic-gneissic set, -100 m. 01 phyllites, coarse-grained phyllites and metaarcoses, -ritmic alternance of calcareous, phyllites, coarse-grained phyllites, 800 m. thick (flisch). The megastructures were formed al the second

  10. Integrated impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.L.; Rossini, F.A.

    1981-12-01

    Impact assessment studies the effects on society of proposed projects, programs, or policies. It is perhaps best known in the forms of technology assessment and environmental-impact assessment. The institutionalization of impact assessment, the principal features of impact assessment and its performance are discussed here, keynoting interdisciplinarity as a critical factor. Substantial progress in performance has occurred over the past decade, especially in environmental and social analyses, pointing to some critical issues for the decade ahead. Within studies, integration across disciplinary components, between contributions from professionals and parties-at-interest, and between producers and users must be improved. Across studies, practitioners of impact assessment need to intercommunicate to advance the state of their art. 38 references.

  11. ECN contributions to ADTT `96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, A.J.

    1996-07-01

    An outline is presented of the status of nuclear data evaluation for accelerator-driven systems. The international effort consists mainly of measuring, compiling and calculating nuclear data for elements and isotopes relevant for transmutation of radioactive waste (ATW), energy amplification and other accelerator-related nuclear applications. We argue that input for global, macroscopic calculation schemes for hybrid nuclear systems basically should consist of three types of nuclear data: (a) High-energy transport codes for energies above about 150 MeV, (b) neutron and proton transport data files for energies below about 150 MeV and (c) neutron and proton transmutation/activation libraries below about 150 MeV. Our specific contribution to the field concerns (b) and (c). The progress of the evaluation of high-energy nuclear data files for the most important materials and the related compilation of nuclear reaction information is reported. The evaluated data are calculated with the computer codes ECIS95, MINGUS and GNASH and are stored in ENDF6-format. We illustrate the library production with a short outline of the employed physical methods. Finally, we briefly discuss the application of the activation/transmutation library ECNAF96. (orig.).

  12. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-06-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman-Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cutoff) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can be well described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field theories, require at least a perturbative treatment of inhomogeneity beyond a strict minisuperspace model. The new methods suggest a systematic extension of minisuperspace models by a canonical effective formulation of perturbative inhomogeneity.

  13. Quarkonium Contribution to Meson Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Cincioglu, E; Ozpineci, A; Yilmazer, A U

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a molecular picture for the X(3872) resonance, this state and its J^{PC}=2++ HQSS partner [X2(4012)] are analyzed within a model which incorporates possible mixings with 2P charmonium states. Since it is reasonable to expect the bare chi_{c1}(2P) to be located above the D\\bar D* threshold, but relatively close to it, the presence of the charmonium state provides an effective attraction that will contribute to bind the X(3872), but it will not appear in the 2++ sector. Indeed in this latter sector, the chi_{c2}(2P) should provide an effective small repulsion, because it is placed well below the D*\\bar D* threshold. We show how the 1++ and 2++ bare charmonium poles are modified due to the D(*)\\bar D(*) loop effects, and the first one is moved to the complex plane. The meson loops produce, besides some shifts in the masses of the charmonia, a finite width for the 1++ dressed charmonium state. On the other hand, the X(3872) and X2(4012) start developing some charmonium content, which is estimated by...

  14. Avaliação de áreas potenciais ao cultivo de biomassa para produção de energia e uma contribuição de sensoriamento remoto e sistemas de informações geográficas Assessment of potential areas to biomass cultivation for energy production and a contribution of remote sensing and geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto K. Miura

    2011-06-01

    aspects. Thus, this study aims to present important aspects related with regional energy planning as a contribution for proposing better solutions to energy demands and to think about better public policies related to energy production from biomass. Besides, a contribution of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in order to assess areas for biomass energy production and a conceptual model are presented as framework which demonstrates how these techniques can constitute support tools to strategic decision making process in bioenergy issues. Some difficult and constraints to territorial and agro-energy planning in Brazil was also presented.

  15. Contribution Index Based on Green Building Certification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Green Building Certification Systems (GBCS are carried out in many countries due to the rising awareness of the importance of sustainability in the building industry. The intention should have motivated participants to construct and operate buildings sustainably, however, there is not yet a method developed to investigate the motivation of the participants. Based on the GBCS, this paper proposes the contribution index as a standard global method to analyze the performance of participants in the green building industry. Three contribution indices, namely Frequency Contribution Index (FCI, Intensity Contribution Index (ICI and Comprehensive Contribution Index (CCI that concern each different category of participant, have been formulated. Three further analyses based on the index were undertaken to investigate some features of the industry. A case study of Singapore was conducted to show how the contribution index could be used to extract industry patterns and trends and assess the participants’ performance in the green building industry. Interviews with experts provide some suggested applications and support for the findings.

  16. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Nantel-Vivier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure. METHOD: Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered. RESULTS: Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  17. Agrotóxicos em água para consumo humano: uma abordagem de avaliação de risco e contribuição o processo de atualização da legislação brasileira Pesticides in drinking water: a risk assessment approach and contribution to the Brazilian legislation updating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Fernandes Neto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de agrotóxicos no país tem suscitado a preocupação de profissionais de diversos setores face aos riscos potenciais que essas substâncias trazem ao ambiente e aos seres humanos. Nesse contexto, a água para consumo humano pode ser uma importante forma de exposição. O padrão nacional de potabilidade da água é regulamentado pela Portaria do Ministério da Saúde nº 518/2004 e contempla 22 agrotóxicos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar e discutir aspectos vinculados à atualidade do padrão de potabilidade brasileiro com relação à necessidade de inserção de agrotóxicos, e à definição de valores máximos permitidos (VMP. A estratégia da metodologia de avaliação de risco foi utilizada para a sistematização e análise das informações disponíveis na literatura. As discussões e apontamentos do trabalho poderão contribuir para a revisão da legislação nacional, cujo processo deverá se iniciar brevemente.The intensive use of pesticides in the country has addressed the stakeholders concerns regarding the potential risks of these substances to the environment and to the human beings. In this context, the water for human intake can be an important form of exposure. The drinking water national standard is regulated by the Ministry of Health Act 518/2004, which considers 22 pesticides. The objective of this paper is to present and to discuss aspects of the current Brazilian standard of water potability, with regard to the necessity of insertion of pesticides and to the definition of maximum permitted values (VMP. The strategy of the methodology of risk assessment was used for the systematization and analysis of the available information in literature. The discussions and notes of the paper could contribute for the forthcoming national legislation review process.

  18. Peer assessment as a tool for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation includes three theoretical contributions and three empirical studies on peer assessment, a general introduction and final reflections including a discussion of the results, a discussion of the educational implications and a discussion of some methodological issues. The first contribution delineates the role that peer assessment can play in raising the consequential validity of an assessment system. First, it clarifies the type of effects that assessment in general can have on...

  19. Peripheral contributions to visceral hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F

    1999-03-01

    and, along with activated mechanically insensitive receptors, increase the afferent barrage into the spinal cord, contributing to the development of visceral hyperalgesia.

  20. Promoting Well-Being: The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed. PMID:27582713

  1. Promoting Well-Being: The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed. PMID:27582713

  2. Some Built Environment Research Contributing to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineering in all forms must address global challenges of sustainability including its dimensions such as poverty, urbanisation, and climate change. The built environment is the dynamic interface between human society as it interacts and influences the ecosystem.  An understanding of this inextricably linked interdependence underpins the sustainability issues relevant to Civil Engineering. Geotechnical engineering outstand the rest of the disciplines in being the most resource intensive and having an early stance in the construction process. Philosophies and definitions of sustainability, as appropriate to geotechnical engineering is punctuated with illustrations through such research studies that contribute to sustainable development. This paper is thus a technical narrative of such innovative geotechnical research focusing on the author’s research career to include the modeling and assessment of the performance of a rectangular hyperbolic paraboloid shell foundation to mimic the “duck’s foot” on very soft mud; innovative research on the development of rocker pipes to arrest the often unnoticed failure of utility services arising from differential settlement; industrial design and sustainable installation of thick compacted London clay surround to protect the Heathrow Express Rail link Tunnel from noxious gases entering the tunnel as it traversed through an old landfill site;  Urban Heat Island studies; Hemp in rammed earth construction,; Quality control and enhancement of geo synthetic clay liners; adoption of lightweight manufactured aggregates; used vegetable oil in asphalt pavements and soil stabilization and sustainable construction through use of enzymes and light geo composites on challenging soils are presented.

  3. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development and..., or any person whose contributions would constitute a conflict of interest. Research and Development...

  4. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  5. 12 CFR 1291.2 - Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required annual AHP contributions; allocation... GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.2 Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions. (a) Annual AHP contributions. Each Bank shall contribute annually...

  6. The GMOS contributions to GEOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirrone N.

    2013-04-01

    oceans, and in the UTLS will support the validation of regional and global atmospheric mercury models for use in evaluating different policy options for reducing mercury pollution and its impacts on human health and ecosystems. The data sets, the validated models, and the interoperable system that is produced within this program, will support the policymaking process in the framework of UNEP Governing Council activities, and in the UNECE-LRTAP convention. The task builds upon contributions from, among others, the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, the UNEP Mercury Programme, the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Task Force (TF HTAP, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP, the MercNet/AMNet initiative in the USA, the CAMNet in Canada, and other international monitoring and modelling efforts.

  7. The contributions of anthropology and mitochondrial DNA analysis to the identification of the human skeletal remains of the Australian outlaw Edward 'Ned' Kelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, S; Catelli, L; Garrone, F; Hartman, D; Romanini, C; Romero, M; Vullo, C

    2014-07-01

    This paper details the anthropological and genetic analyses that contributed to the identification of the notorious Australian outlaw ('bushranger') Edward ('Ned') Kelly. In 1880 at the age of 25, Kelly was hanged and buried at the former Melbourne Gaol in Victoria, Australia. In 1929, the remains of executed prisoners (including those of Kelly) were haphazardly disinterred following the demolition of parts of the Melbourne Gaol and haphazardly reinterred in three distinct "pits" at the Pentridge Prison. In 1999 the Pentridge Prison was sold for commercial development and subsequently in 2008 and 2009 the human remains of prisoners were recovered. A total of 41 cases of unidentified human skeletal remains from Pentridge were examined using traditional anthropological techniques. At least one representative sample from each of the remains (mostly clavicles) from all three pits was selected for DNA analysis. Comparative ante-mortem reference samples were also located. Given the antiquity and condition of remains recovered from Pentridge, and the 130 years that had passed since Kelly's execution, mitochondrial DNA analysis was chosen as a suitable DNA analysis tool to examine the Pentridge cases to assist in the inclusion or exclusion of remains as being those of Ned Kelly. Only one of the Pentridge cases (Pen14) matched the HV1/HV2 mitochondrial DNA haplotype of the reference sample. Additional anthropological analyses indicated a number of pathological features that provided support that the remains of Pen14 are those of Edward ("Ned") Kelly.

  8. Reliable Broadcast Contribution over the Public Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Markman, Martin Alexander Jarnfeld; Tokheim, Stian

    2012-01-01

    Broadcast contribution is point-point media transfer from recording sites to local editing studios, between studio facilities and to distribution centers. The contribution phase has strict Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to reliability and bandwidth - any error might degrade end users Quality of Experience (QoE) in the consecutive distribution phase. Dedicated IP contribution networks has become the preferred technology for contribution from content creation sites. Occasionally, however...

  9. Contribution of fuelwood marketing to sustainable livelihood in Oyo state

    OpenAIRE

    OLUGBIRE O.O.; AREMU F.J.; OPUTE O.H.; OJEDOKUN C.A.; AYOMIDE A.A.; OGUNTOYE T.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel wood is an important source of income and domestic energy for both rural and urban households in Nigeria. The marketing of fuel wood in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria was investigated with a view to assess the profitability and contribution of fuelwood marketing to sustainable livelihood in Oyo state. Data for the study were obtained from a total of 50 randomly selected respondents through interview schedules, structured questionnaires applications and personal observation. Descriptive stati...

  10. Did fair-value accounting contribute to the financial crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Christian; Leuz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has led to a major debate about fair-value accounting. Many critics have argued that fair-value accounting, often also called mark-to-market accounting, has significantly contributed to the financial crisis or, at least, exacerbated its severity. In this paper, we assess these arguments and examine the role of fair-value accounting in the financial crisis using descriptive data and empirical evidence. Based on our analysis, it is unlikely that fair-value accounting...

  11. Contributions of the US state park system to nature recreation

    OpenAIRE

    Siikamäki, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Nature recreation in the United States concentrates in publicly provided natural areas. They are costly to establish and maintain, but their societal contributions are difficult to measure. Here, a unique approach is developed to quantifying nature recreation services generated by the US state park system. The assessment first uses data from five national surveys conducted between 1975 and 2007 to consistently measure the amount of time used for nature recreation. The surveys comprise two off...

  12. 45 CFR 1627.5 - Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 1627.5 Section 1627.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.5 Contributions. Any contributions or gifts of Corporation funds to...

  13. 76 FR 58854 - 2011 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... examples of Internet and physical markets that have been the subject of enforcement action or that may... highlight the problem of marketplaces that deal in infringing goods and which help sustain global piracy and counterfeiting. USTR is hereby requesting written submissions from the public identifying potential Internet...

  14. 78 FR 57924 - 2013 Special 301 Out-Of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request For Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... responsible authorities to step up efforts to combat copyright piracy and trademark counterfeiting in these... goods and help sustain global piracy and counterfeiting. b. Requirements for Comments Interested...

  15. Determining the direct upland hydrological contribution area of estuarine wetlands using Arc/GIS tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The delineation of a polygon layer representing the direct upland runoff contribution to esturine wetland polygons can be a useful tool in estuarine wetland assessment. However, the traditional methods of watershed delineation using pour points and digital elevation models (DEMs)...

  16. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of a

  17. Brazil : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) intends to contribute to a dialogue with the government, on its procurement policy and management agenda, by surveying the existing situation, assessing the situation in light of appropriate standards, indicating a meaningful array of issues that could be incorporated into the government's agenda, and examining the desirability, and workabi...

  18. A Group Contribution Method for Estimating Cetane and Octane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, William Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-07-28

    Much of the research on advanced biofuels is devoted to the study of novel chemical pathways for converting nonfood biomass into liquid fuels that can be blended with existing transportation fuels. Many compounds under consideration are not found in the existing fuel supplies. Often, the physical properties needed to assess the viability of a potential biofuel are not available. The only reliable information available may be the molecular structure. Group contribution methods for estimating physical properties from molecular structure have been used for more than 60 years. The most common application is estimation of thermodynamic properties. More recently, group contribution methods have been developed for estimating rate dependent properties including cetane and octane numbers. Often, published group contribution methods are limited in terms of types of function groups and range of applicability. In this study, a new, broadly-applicable group contribution method based on an artificial neural network was developed to estimate cetane number research octane number, and motor octane numbers of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The new method is more accurate over a greater range molecular weights and structural complexity than existing group contribution methods for estimating cetane and octane numbers.

  19. The potential contribution of organic salts to new particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Barsanti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and lab measurements suggest that low-molecular weight (MW organic acids and bases exist in accumulation and nucleation mode particles, despite their relatively high pure-liquid vapor pressures. The mechanism(s by which such compounds contribute to the mass growth of existing aerosol particles and newly formed particles has not been thoroughly explored. One mechanism by which low-MW compounds may contribute to new particle growth is through the formation of organic salts. In this paper we use thermodynamic modeling to explore the potential for organic salt formation by atmospherically relevant organic acids and bases for two system types: one in which the relative contribution of ammonia vs. amines in forming organic salts was evaluated, the other in which the decrease in volatility of organic acids and bases due to organic salt formation was assessed. The modeling approach employed relied heavily on group contribution and other estimation methods for necessary physical and chemical parameters. The results of this work suggest that amines may be an important contributor to organic salt formation, and that experimental data are greatly needed to improve our understanding of organic salt formation in atmospherically relevant systems and to accurately predict the potential contribution of such salts to new particle growth.

  20. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  1. Dynamic balance control in transfemoral amputees: Individual contribution of the prosthesis side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, M.J.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Kooij, van der H.

    2006-01-01

    1. Summary/conclusions This study explores the use of a new developed method to assess the individual contribution of both legs to postural control. The results imply that the contribution of the prosthetic leg in balance control is not a mere reflection of the weight distribution. 2. Introduction

  2. Fanny M. Cheung: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Fanny M. Cheung for her outstanding contributions to the assessment of cross-cultural psychopathology, personality psychology, and gender…

  3. The contribution of dairy products to micronutrient intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Streppel, M.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of dairy products to the intake of various vitamins and minerals in several life stages in the Dutch population. Method: Data from 3 Dutch Food Consumption Surveys and the Leiden Longevity Study were used to estimate the contribution of dairy products—as percent

  4. The contribution of tropical cyclones to rainfall in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín Breña-Naranjo, J.; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián; Pozos-Estrada, Oscar; Jiménez-López, Salma A.; López-López, Marco R.

    Investigating the contribution of tropical cyclones to the terrestrial water cycle can help quantify the benefits and hazards caused by the rainfall generated from this type of hydro-meteorological event. Rainfall induced by tropical cyclones can enhance both flood risk and groundwater recharge, and it is therefore important to characterise its minimum, mean and maximum contributions to a region or country's water balance. This work evaluates the rainfall contribution of tropical depressions, storms and hurricanes across Mexico from 1998 to 2013 using the satellite-derived precipitation dataset TMPA 3B42. Additionally, the sensitivity of rainfall to other datasets was assessed: the national rain gauge observation network, real-time satellite rainfall and a merged product that combines rain gauges with non-calibrated space-borne rainfall measurements. The lower Baja California peninsula had the highest contribution from cyclonic rainfall in relative terms (∼40% of its total annual rainfall), whereas the contributions in the rest of the country showed a low-to-medium dependence on tropical cyclones, with mean values ranging from 0% to 20%. In quantitative terms, southern regions of Mexico can receive more than 2400 mm of cyclonic rainfall during years with significant TC activity. Moreover, (a) the number of tropical cyclones impacting Mexico has been significantly increasing since 1998, but cyclonic contributions in relative and quantitative terms have not been increasing, and (b) wind speed and rainfall intensity during cyclones are not highly correlated. Future work should evaluate the impacts of such contributions on surface and groundwater hydrological processes and connect the knowledge gaps between the magnitude of tropical cyclones, flood hazards, and economic losses.

  5. Spatial differentiated effect assessment for aquatic eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Penailillo, R.

    2005-01-01

    The conventional evaluation of aquatic eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) expresses the contribution of nitrogen and/or phosphorus emissions to biomass production in terms of the equivalent emission of a reference substance. This assessment doe

  6. Electrostatic and Non-Electrostatic Contributions of Proteoglycans to the Compressive Equilibrium Modulus of Bovine Articular Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Guterl, Clare Canal; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents direct experimental evidence for assessing the electrostatic and nonelectrostatic contributions of proteoglycans to the compressive equilibrium modulus of bovine articular cartilage. Immature and mature bovine cartilage samples were tested in unconfined compression and their depth-dependent equilibrium compressive modulus was determined using strain measurements with digital image correlation analysis. The electrostatic contribution was assessed by testing samples in isoto...

  7. Pain Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Types of Pain Pain Assessment Pain Treatments Integrative Pain Therapy Pain Management Recommendations References September 04, 2016 Pain Assessment Effective pain management begins with a comprehensive ...

  8. Impact of MPH programs: contributing to health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Zwanikken, Prisca A. C.; Alexander, Lucy; Scherpbier, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background The “health workforce” crisis has led to an increased interest in health professional education, including MPH programs. Recently, it was questioned whether training of mid- to higher level cadres in public health prepared graduates with competencies to strengthen health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Measuring educational impact has been notoriously difficult; therefore, innovative methods for measuring the outcome and impact of MPH programs were sought. Impact was c...

  9. Stanislas Dehaene: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Stanislas Dehaene, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to not just one but three fields that are central to the enterprises of psychology and cognitive neuroscience." Dehaene's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618941

  10. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  11. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  12. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  13. Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known. But the contribution that they can make to energy security is less widely recognised. This report aims to redress the balance, showing how in electricity generation, heat supply, and transport, renewables can enhance energy security and suggesting policies that can optimise this contribution.

  14. National contributions to observed global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

  15. National contributions to observed global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. (paper)

  16. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  17. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  18. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  19. Systems reliability Benchmark exercise part 2-Contributions by the participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes aims, rules and results of the Systems Reliability Benchmark Exercise, which has been performed in order to assess methods and procedures for reliability analysis of complex systems and involved a large number of European organizations active in NPP safety evaluation. The exercise included both qualitative and quantitative methods and was structured in such a way that separation of the effects of uncertainties in modelling and in data on the overall spread was made possible. This second part of the report is devoted to the documentation of the single contributions by the participant teams (Swedish, GRS, ENEA, NIRA and ENEL, EWE, EdF, Risoe, KWU/IA, ECN, KEMA/KUL, and Framatome contributions)

  20. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O. M.

    risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...... and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human...... tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined....

  1. US Contributions to the Athena Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    2015-09-01

    The science of the Hot and Energetic Universe, as embodied in the IXO mission, was highly ranked by the 2010 Decadal Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. NASA therefore strongly supports the Athena mission, and plans significant contributions to the X-IFU, such as the micro-calorimeter array, that should enable more capabilities than in the original Athena proposal. NASA and US scientists are also examining, with ESA, possible contributions to other aspects of Athena. I will discuss the status and progress towards these contributions, both planned and potential.

  2. Michael Tomasello: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Michael Tomasello, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to understanding what makes the human mind unique. Michael Tomasello's pioneering research on the origins of social cognition has led to revolutionary insights in both developmental psychology and primate cognition." Tomasello's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618943

  3. Theodore Millon's Contributions to Conceptualizing Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We review Theodore Millon's contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders in contemporary clinical science and practice. Millon worked tirelessly across professional domains and theoretical orientations, developing a rich integrative theory of personality and its pathology, directly and indirectly impacting the evolving iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5), and advocating for the personality disorders through his contributions to cofounding the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders and the Journal of Personality Disorders. We conclude with a closer look at Millon's final major contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders as well as the strengths and limitations of his approach.

  4. The economic contribution of tourism in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2010-01-01

    How much tourism contributes to the economies of developing countries is controversial and often not measured rigorously. Focusing on Mozambique, this study presents a simple accounting tool – a tourist-focused Social Accounting Matrix – which makes it possible to estimate the economic contribution...... of various tourism sub-types. Multiplier analysis is applied to evaluate the strength of backward linkages from tourism to the domestic economy. The results show the sector is moderate in size but has the potential to contribute significantly to aggregate economic development. However, potential...

  5. Contribution of operating feedback to probabilistic safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the method used for PWR unit operation feedback analysis and its contribution to probabilistic safety studies. The targets were as follows: - use of failure data banks to assess reliability parameters, - use of event data banks to identify and quantify main system initiating events, - determination of a standard operating profile. These studies, performed in the context of nuclear power plant safety programs, prove useful not only to safety engineers but also to equipment experts, designers, operators and maintenance specialists. They constitute basic data for studies in all these areas or the departure point for new investigations. (authors). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  6. Axiomatic Quantification of Co-authors' Relative Contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ge

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decades, the competition for academic resources has gradually intensified, and worsened with the current financial crisis. To optimize the resource allocation, individualized assessment of research results is being actively studied but the current indices, such as the number of papers, the number of citations, the h-factor and its variants have limitations, especially their inability of determining co-authors' credit shares fairly. Here we establish an axiomatic system and quantify co-authors' relative contributions. Our methodology avoids subjective assignment of co-authors' credits using the inflated, fractional or harmonic methods, and provides a quantitative tool for scientific management such as funding and tenure decisions.

  7. The contribution of dynamic visual cues to audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekl, Philip; Pesquita, Ana; Alsius, Agnes; Munhall, Kevin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial gestures can significantly improve speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. However, the nature of the visual information from the speaker's facial movements that is relevant for this enhancement is still unclear. Like auditory speech signals, visual speech signals unfold over time and contain both dynamic configural information and luminance-defined local motion cues; two information sources that are thought to engage anatomically and functionally separate visual systems. Whereas, some past studies have highlighted the importance of local, luminance-defined motion cues in audiovisual speech perception, the contribution of dynamic configural information signalling changes in form over time has not yet been assessed. We therefore attempted to single out the contribution of dynamic configural information to audiovisual speech processing. To this aim, we measured word identification performance in noise using unimodal auditory stimuli, and with audiovisual stimuli. In the audiovisual condition, speaking faces were presented as point light displays achieved via motion capture of the original talker. Point light displays could be isoluminant, to minimise the contribution of effective luminance-defined local motion information, or with added luminance contrast, allowing the combined effect of dynamic configural cues and local motion cues. Audiovisual enhancement was found in both the isoluminant and contrast-based luminance conditions compared to an auditory-only condition, demonstrating, for the first time the specific contribution of dynamic configural cues to audiovisual speech improvement. These findings imply that globally processed changes in a speaker's facial shape contribute significantly towards the perception of articulatory gestures and the analysis of audiovisual speech.

  8. Urban metabolism: Measuring the city's contribution to sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conke, Leonardo S; Ferreira, Tainá L

    2015-07-01

    Urban metabolism refers to the assessment of the amount of resources produced and consumed by urban ecosystems. It has become an important tool to understand how the development of one city causes impacts to the local and regional environment and to support a more sustainable urban design and planning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to measure the changes in material and energy use occurred in the city of Curitiba (Brazil) between the years of 2000 and 2010. Results reveal better living conditions and socioeconomic improvements derived from higher resource throughput but without complete disregard to environmental issues. Food intake, water consumption and air emissions remained at similar levels; energy use, construction materials and recycled waste were increased. The paper helps illustrate why it seems more adequate to assess the contribution a city makes to sustainable development than to evaluate if one single city is sustainable or not.

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin K2 and contribution to the normal function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 125, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to vitamin K2 and contribution to the normal function of the heart....... In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account the absence of human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, the inconsistency of the results reported in two cross-sectional studies regarding arterial calcification in women...

  10. Contributions of Leta Hollingworth to School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    1990-01-01

    The contributions of psychologist and educator, Leta Hollingworth (1886-1939), to the development of school psychological services are identified. Considered are her organizational involvement, professional writing, and research in this area. (DB)

  11. What contributes to depression in Parkinson's disease?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHRAG, A; M. Jahanshahi; N. P. Quinn

    2001-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common problem in patients with Parkinson's disease, but its mechanism is poorly understood. It is thought that neurochemical changes contribute to its occurrence, but it is unclear why some patients develop depression and others do not. Using a community-based sample of patients with Parkinson's disease, we investigated the contributions of impairment, disability and handicap to depression in Parkinson's disease. Methods: Ninety-seven patients seen in a popula...

  12. Jakob Nielsen and His Contributions to Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    The Danish mathematician Jakob Nielsen won international recognition as one of the developers of combinatorial group theory and the topology of surfaces. This article describes the life and work of Jakob Nielsen with emphasis on his contributions to topology.......The Danish mathematician Jakob Nielsen won international recognition as one of the developers of combinatorial group theory and the topology of surfaces. This article describes the life and work of Jakob Nielsen with emphasis on his contributions to topology....

  13. Michel Henon's contributions to collisional stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Heggie, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    The theory of star cluster dynamics was a major topic in Henons early research career. Here we summarise his contributions under three headings: (i) the Monte Carlo method, (ii) homological evolution of star clusters, and (iii) escape from star clusters. In each case we also trace some aspects of how Henons contributions have been developed or applied in subsequent decades up to the present. We also propose that henons work be commemorated by adopting the names "Henons units" and "Henons Principle".

  14. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  15. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  16. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Protein Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Nick

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(Δ G), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A (1.1Å), Y51F(1.5Å), and T95A(1.3Å). The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners always form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in the mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions: 1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. 2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. 5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein.

  17. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process.

  18. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process. PMID:26562772

  19. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  20. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159432

  1. Rates versus Developer Contributions as Revenue Sources for Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koutifaris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Population expansion in many New South Wales (NSW local government areas (LGA has resulted in an increase in demand for local infrastructure and services that has far outstripped sources of local government revenue. This paper looks at two important sources of local government revenue in NSW, municipal rates and Section 94 contributions, as a source of funding increased demand and maintenance of infrastructure. It examines some recent and potentially long-term trends of both these revenues within different economic climates. An analysis and comparison of data over the period from June 2006 through to June 2010 against data collected for the period ending June 1993 forms the basis of this research. The research objective is to compare changes in the relativity of these revenue types and assess their application as a source of local government revenue. Data collected from the Department of Local Government NSW is compared with the findings of an earlier study, conducted by Barnes and Dollery (1996, in determining their relativity. The provision and maintenance of infrastructure by local government is essential for growth in the economy and is a valuable asset to be used by the community. Two types of funding for this infrastructure, among others, is sourced from municipal rates and developer charges levied under Section 94 contributions either by the developer providing the infrastructure, or a contribution towards its funding (Barnes and Dollery 1996.

  2. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 1: Contributions by participants in the co-ordinated research project on chemical durability and performance assessment under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). It provides a basis for understanding the potential interactions of waste form and repository environment, which is necessary for the development of the design and safety case for deep disposal. Types of high level waste matrices investigated include spent fuel, glasses and ceramics. Of particular interest are the experimental results pertaining to ceramic forms such as SYNROC. This publication also outlines important areas for future work, namely, standardized, collaborative experimental protocols for package-release studies, structured development and calibration of predictive models linking the performance of packaged waste and the repository environment, and studies of the long term behaviour of the wastes, including active waste samples. It comprises 15 contributions of the participants on the Coordinated Research Project which are indexed individually.

  3. Genomic contributions in livestock gene introgression programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hospital Frédéric

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The composition of the genome after introgression of a marker gene from a donor to a recipient breed was studied using analytical and simulation methods. Theoretical predictions of proportional genomic contributions, including donor linkage drag, from ancestors used at each generation of crossing after an introgression programme agreed closely with simulated results. The obligate drag, the donor genome surrounding the target locus that cannot be removed by subsequent selection, was also studied. It was shown that the number of backcross generations and the length of the chromosome affected proportional genomic contributions to the carrier chromosomes. Population structure had no significant effect on ancestral contributions and linkage drag but it did have an effect on the obligate drag whereby larger offspring groups resulted in smaller obligate drag. The implications for an introgression programme of the number of backcross generations, the population structure and the carrier chromosome length are discussed. The equations derived describing contributions to the genome from individuals from a given generation provide a framework to predict the genomic composition of a population after the introgression of a favourable donor allele. These ancestral contributions can be assigned a value and therefore allow the prediction of genetic lag.

  4. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  5. Janet E. Helms: award for distinguished contributions to education and training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Janet E. Helms, who received the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology "for her remarkable contribution to a conceptual and reiterative empirical base that has transformed the study of racism in our time." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Helms' award address, entitled Fairness Is Not Validity or Cultural Bias in Racial-Group Assessment: A Quantitative Perspective. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115830

  6. Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?

    OpenAIRE

    Pribluda, Victor S; Evans, Lawrence; Barillas, Edgar; Marmion, John; Lukulay, Patrick; Chang, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better ...

  7. How can occupational health services in Sweden contribute to work ability?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lisa; Sjöström, John; Antonsson, Ann-Beth

    2012-01-01

    Occupational health service in Sweden is often described as an important and strategic resource to reduce work-related diseases, improve work ability and successfully assess improvement of the workplace. However, not much research has been done on how OHS contribute to reduced absence due to work-related illness or improvement of the work ability of employees. In our study, the ambition has been to describe how OHS can contribute and give effects in client companies. Fifteen companies conside...

  8. Formalized search strategies for human risk contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation ''work analysis'', procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined. (author)

  9. Incentives to Encourage Scientific Web Contribution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We suggest improvements to citation standards and creation of remuneration opportunities to encourage career scientist contributions to Web2.0 and social media science channels. At present, agencies want to accomplish better outreach and engagement with no funding, while scientists sacrifice their personal time to contribute to web and social media sites. Securing active participation by scientists requires career recognition of the value scientists provide to web knowledge bases and to the general public. One primary mechanism to encourage participation is citation standards, which let a contributor improve their reputation in a quantifiable way. But such standards must be recognized by their scientific and workplace communities. Using case studies such as the acceptance of web in the workplace and the growth of open access journals, we examine what agencies and individual can do as well as the time scales needed to secure increased active contribution by scientists. We also discuss ways to jumpstart this process.

  10. Regional and applied climatology-contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three articles of this book, which is dedicated to Wolfgang Weischet, are closely related to his work on unban climatology: - A comprehensive research programme on urban climatology for the example of a medium-sized Swiss town; - A wind tunnel test in preparation of a large-scale urban construction project; - Modelling of human thermal comfort in different urban environments on the basis of comprehensive data sets of geofactors. At the same time, they provide a survey of the status and methods of modern urban climate research. The second group of contributions comprises texts which discuss the effects of individual climate elements in the biosphere and pedosphere. The third group consists of two contributions on the stability of tropical environments. Both of them discuss the semiarid regions of northern Kenia. Finally, there is a group of contributions stimulated and influenced by W. Weischet's work in Latin America. (orig./KW)

  11. The Authorship Dilemma: Alphabetical or Contribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Scientific communities have adopted different conventions for ordering authors on publications. Are these choices inconsequential, or do they have significant influence on individual authors, the quality of the projects completed, and research communities at large? What are the trade-offs of using one convention over another? In order to investigate these questions, we formulate a basic two-player game theoretic model, which already illustrates interesting phenomena that can occur in more realistic settings. We find that alphabetical ordering can improve research quality, while contribution-based ordering leads to a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications. Contrary to the assumption that free riding is a weakness of the alphabetical ordering scheme, this phenomenon can occur under any contribution scheme, and the worst case occurs under contribution-based ordering. Finally, we show how authors working on multiple projects can cooperate to attain optimal research quality and eliminate...

  12. Contribution to a Theory of Detailed Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    It has been recognised, that literature actually do not propose a theory of detailed design. In this paper a theory contribution is proposed, linking part design to organ design and allowing a type of functional reasoning. The proposed theory satisfies our need for explaining the nature of a part...... structure, for support of synthesis of part structure, i.e. detailed design, and our need for digital modelling of part structures.The aim of this paper is to contribute to a design theory valid for detailed design. The proposal is based upon the theory's ability to explain the nature of machine parts...... and assemblies, to support the synthesis of parts and to allow the modelling, especially digital modelling of a part structure. The contribution is based upon Theory of Technical Systems, Hubka, and the Domain Theory, Andreasen. This paper is based on a paper presented at ICED 99, Mortensen, but focus...

  13. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution...

  14. ZEUS contributed papers to CHEP92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Computing in High Energy Physics conference, CHEP92 Annecy 21st - 25th September 1992, the ZEUS data acquisition groups contributed a number of papers, as a result of plenary, parallel and poster session contributions. These papers are appended after the index list and a figure which gives a schematic overview of the acquisition system. The papers give up-to-date information concerning the ZEUS data acquisition system and the experience gained during the first HERA running period in 1992. (orig.)

  15. DEDUCTIBILITY OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO VOLUNTARY PRIVATE PENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA MUNTEAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper approaches the notion of public and private pension in Romania. Pension can be seen in terms of a replacement income to individuals whose age no longer affords to operate in the labour market. Pension reform in Romania has allowed besides the public pension system, called Pillar I, which is a distributive system based on solidarity between generations also a private pension system that records the contributions of participants in individual accounts, based on capitalization, investment and accumulation of these contributions.

  16. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  17. Jakob Nielsen and his Contributions to Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1996-01-01

    The Danish mathematician Jakob Nielsen won international recognitionas one of the developers of combinatiorial group theory and the topologyof surfaces. This article describes the life and work of Jakob Nielsenwith emphasis on his contributions to topology.The biography is to be included in the b......The Danish mathematician Jakob Nielsen won international recognitionas one of the developers of combinatiorial group theory and the topologyof surfaces. This article describes the life and work of Jakob Nielsenwith emphasis on his contributions to topology.The biography is to be included...

  18. SLR Contribution to Investigation of Polar Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2011-01-01

    SLR technique has being used for determination of ERP during over twenty years. Most of results contributed to IERS are based on analysis of observations of Lageos 1&2 satellites collected at the global tracking network of about 40 stations. Now 5 analysis centers submit operative (with 2-15 days delay) solutions and about 10 analysis centers yearly contribute final (up to 23 years) ERP series. Some statistics related to SLR observations and analysis is presented and analyzed. Possible problems in SLR observations and analysis and ways of its solution are discussed.

  19. Contribution to encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Jan; Ocłoń, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    This paper lists the contribution in the international interdisciplinary reference - Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses (ETS). The ETS, edited by the world famous expert in field of Thermal Stresses - Professor Richard Hetnarski from Rochester Institute of Technology, was published by Springer in 2014. This unique Encyclopedia, subdivided into 11 volumes is the most extensive and comprehensive work related to the Thermal Stresses topic. The entries were carefully prepared by specialists in the field of thermal stresses, elasticity, heat conduction, optimization among others. The Polish authors' contribution within this work is significant; over 70 entries were prepared by them.

  20. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  1. Contribution of contaminated sites to the global mercury budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Pirrone, Nicola; Cinnirella, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Global mercury emission inventories include anthropogenic emissions, contributing via current use or presence of mercury in a variety of products and processes, as well as natural source emissions. These inventories neglect the contribution of areas contaminated with mercury from historical accumulation, which surround mines or production plants associated with mercury production or use. Although recent studies have shown that releases of mercury from these historical sites can be significant, a database of the global distribution of mercury contaminated sites does not exist, nor are there means of scaling up such releases to estimate fluxes on a regional and global basis. Therefore, here we estimated for the first time the contribution of mercury releases from contaminated sites to the global mercury budget. A geo-referenced database was built, comprising over 3000 mercury contaminated sites associated with mercury mining, precious metal processing, non-ferrous metal production and various polluted industrial sites. In the assessment, mercury releases from these sites to both the atmosphere as well as the hydrosphere were considered based on data available for selected case studies, their number, the reported extent of contamination and geographical location. Annual average global emissions of mercury from identified contaminated sites amount to 198 (137-260) Mgyr(-1). Of that, 82 (70-95)Mgyr(-1) contribute to atmospheric releases, while 116 (67-165) Mgyr(-1) is estimated to be transported away from these sites by hydrological processes. Although these estimates are associated with large uncertainties, our current understanding of mercury releases from contaminated sites indicates that these releases can also be of paramount importance on the global perspective. This is especially important as it is known that these sites represent a long-term source of releases if not managed properly. Therefore, the information presented here is needed by governments and NGO

  2. Contributions of natural sources to ozone and PM concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Azimeh; Christensen, Jesper; Gross, Allan; Irannejad, parviz; Glasius, Marianne; Brandt, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    Natural emissions play an important role in determining ambient levels of harmful atmospheric pollutants, especially tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM). Natural sources have become more important with the ongoing reductions of anthropogenic emissions and are expected to be even more significant in the future in connection with a changing climate. Despite of the efforts made for modelling of natural emissions, the uncertainties and gaps with regard to investigation and quantification of these emissions are still quite large. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of many compounds from the natural sources to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM. The relative contributions are calculated for the domain covering more than the Northern Hemisphere for a typical year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model consist of vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. Here, DEHM has been further developed to include more natural emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as a scheme for describing secondary organic aerosols. Moreover, the parameterization used for estimating sea-salt generation has been modified to contain additional features. Evaluation of the modeled total fine PM, against observations, is conducted for both the previous and new model versions to assess improvement of the model performance with the updated description of natural emissions. Using the developed DEHM, our simulations indicate that at the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone concentrations over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, biogenic VOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation. Our results show that biogenic VOCs enhance the average ozone concentration with around

  3. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: The centrality of scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural resources development projects are - and have been for more than 150 years - located in remote rural areas in developing countries, where local level data on community health is notoriously scarce. Health impact assessment (HIA) aims at identifying potential negative health consequences of such projects and providing the initial evidence-base for prevention and mitigation of diseases, injuries and risk factors, as well as promotion of positive effects. An important, but under-systematised early phase of the HIA process is scoping. It aims at organising diverse, often fragmentary, evidence and identifying potential project-related health impacts and underlying data gaps. It is also a key element in defining the terms of reference for the entire assessment. We present novel methodological features for the scoping process, emphasising the evaluation of quality of evidence, and illustrate its use in a contemporary HIA of the Simandou iron ore project in the Republic of Guinea. Assessment of data quality is integrated with specific content information via an analytical framework for the systematic identification of health outcomes and determinants of major concern. A subsequent gap analysis is utilised to assess the need for further baseline data collection and to facilitate the specification of a set of potential key performance indicators and strategies to inform the required evidence-base. We argue that scoping also plays a central role in the design of surveillance systems for longitudinal monitoring of health, equity and wellbeing following project implementation.

  4. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  5. Conditional vorticity budget of coherent and incoherent flow contributions in fully developed homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Michael; Schneider, Kai; Friedrich, Rudolf; Farge, Marie; 10.1063/1.3694807

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the conditional vorticity budget of fully developed three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with respect to coherent and incoherent flow contributions. The Coherent Vorticity Extraction based on orthogonal wavelets allows to decompose the vorticity field into coherent and incoherent contributions, of which the latter are noise-like. The impact of the vortex structures observed in fully developed turbulence on statistical balance equations is quantified considering the conditional vorticity budget. The connection between the basic structures present in the flow and their statistical implications is thereby assessed. The results are compared to those obtained for large- and small-scale contributions using a Fourier decomposition, which reveals pronounced differences.

  6. Contribution of four common pulmonary function tests to diagnosis of patients with respiratory symptoms: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Decramer, Marc; Janssens, Wim; Derom, Eric; Joos, Guy; Ninane, Vincent; Deman, René; Van Renterghem, Dirk; Liistro, Giuseppe; Bogaerts, Kris; Belgian Pulmonary Function Study Investigators

    2013-01-01

    Few studies of the diagnostic value of pulmonary function testing are available. We assessed the diagnostic contribution of four basic pulmonary function tests: spirometry, lung volume, airway resistance, and diffusing capacity.

  7. ENERGY SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET. Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER and glycolytic (WGLYCOL system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95% was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14% throughout the IET (p < 0.05. In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the "anaerobic threshold" concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity

  8. Mode Contributions to the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, F.; Henkel, C.

    2010-04-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  9. Mode contributions to the Casimir effect

    CERN Document Server

    Intravaia, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  10. Land science contributions to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossman, N.D.; Brett, A.; Bryan, A.; Groot, de R.S.; Lin, Y.P.; Minang, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    We provide an overview of the contribution of land science to improving ecosystem service quantification, valuation and management. We briefly review the impacts of land use and land management change on ecosystem services, the complexity of relationships between the land system and the supply and u

  11. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  12. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  13. The Contributions of the American Indians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余生泽

    2002-01-01

    The potato was unknown to the white man until he came to New World. Spanish explorers(探险者)found out some of the Indians in South America grown potatoes. The potato is one of the things that the South American Indians contributed to the world.

  14. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  15. Connexin Remodeling Contributes to Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle M Jennings; J Kevin Donahue

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity through increased risk of stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarcts. Investigations of mechanisms responsible for the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation have highlighted the importance of gap junctional remodeling. Connexins 40 and 43, the major atrial gap junctional proteins, undergo considerable alterations in expression and localization in atrial fibrillation, creating an environment conducive to s...

  16. Elements that contribute to healthy building design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftness, V.; Hakkinen, B.; Adan, O.; Nevalainen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. Objectives: We present three viewpoints of designing a healthy building: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor air qualit

  17. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  18. Truancy: How Parents and Teachers Contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Linda F.; Thompson, Rock

    1983-01-01

    Compared attitudes and behaviors of parents and teachers toward junior-high habitually truant students (N=94) and regular attenders (N=94). Data from the Little Parenting Valuing Styles Scale and Little Teacher Valuing Styles Scale suggest parents may contribute to truancy by being overprotective and overindulgent. Teachers may reject and…

  19. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  20. Lattice QCD and the Balkan physicists contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Borici, Artan

    2015-01-01

    This is a paper based on the invited talk the author gave at the 9th Balkan Physical Union conference. It contains some of the main achievements of lattice QCD simulations followed by a list of Balkan physicists who have contributed to the project.

  1. Vygotsky's Methodological Contribution to Sociocultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Holbrook

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces major contributions of educational psychologist, Lev S. Vygotsky, through examination of his dialectical methodological approach. Topics discussed include semiotic mediation, social sources of development, verbal thinking, concept formation, spontaneous and scientific concepts, the zone of proximal development, and higher…

  2. Variance and efficiency of contribution Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The game of contribution is compared with the game of splitting in radiation transport using numerical results obtained by solving the set of coupled integral equations for first and second moments around the score. The splitting game is found superior. (author)

  3. Gluon Spin Contribution to The Nucleon Spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arash, Firooz, E-mail: farash@cic.aut.ac.i [Physics Department, Tafresh University, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahveh, Abolfazl [Physics Department, Tafresh University, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavi-Shahri, Fateme [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM) P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    We have calculated {delta}g/g in the nucleon at all measured kinematics. The smallness of {delta}g/g in the measured kinematics should not be interpreted as the the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, {Delta}g(Q{sup 2}) can be sizable.

  4. Gluon Spin Contribution to The Nucleon Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fateme

    2010-10-01

    We have calculated δg/ g in the nucleon at all measured kinematics. The smallness of δg/ g in the measured kinematics should not be interpreted as the the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, Δ g( Q2) can be sizable.

  5. Gluon Spin Contribution to The Nucleon Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated δg/g in the nucleon at all measured kinematics. The smallness of δg/g in the measured kinematics should not be interpreted as the the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, Δg(Q2) can be sizable.

  6. Presenting Circumpolar organizations: instructions for contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Production, Co-Action Publishing

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of the description: The International Journal of Circumpolar Health welcomes contributions where organizations are presented to circumpolar health and wellbeing professionals, decision-makers, authorities, educators or other persons interested in the topic. These organizations may constitute of research institutes, organizations conducting development activities, educational organizations, institutes disseminating information or other organizations involved in improving health and wel...

  7. The value contribution of strategic foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Schwarz, Jan Oliver

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on exploring the potential and empirically observable value creation of strategic foresight activities in firms. We first review the literature on strategic foresight, innovation management and strategic management in order to identify the potential value contributions. We use...

  8. Mapping Academic Library Contributions to Campus Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Steven W.; Kutner, Laurie; Cooper, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed academic libraries across the United States to establish baseline data on their contributions to campus internationalization. Supplementing data from the American Council on Education (ACE) on internationalization of higher education, this research measured the level of international activities taking place in academic…

  9. Mechanism Design for Incentivizing Social Media Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek K.; Jain, Ramesh; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    Despite recent advancements in user-driven social media platforms, tools for studying user behavior patterns and motivations remain primitive. We highlight the voluntary nature of user contributions and that users can choose when (and when not) to contribute to the common media pool. A Game theoretic framework is proposed to study the dynamics of social media networks where contribution costs are individual but gains are common. We model users as rational selfish agents, and consider domain attributes like voluntary participation, virtual reward structure, network effect, and public-sharing to model the dynamics of this interaction. The created model describes the most appropriate contribution strategy from each user's perspective and also highlights issues like 'free-rider' problem and individual rationality leading to irrational (i.e. sub-optimal) group behavior. We also consider the perspective of the system designer who is interested in finding the best incentive mechanisms to influence the selfish end-users so that the overall system utility is maximized. We propose and compare multiple mechanisms (based on optimal bonus payment, social incentive leveraging, and second price auction) to study how a system designer can exploit the selfishness of its users, to design incentive mechanisms which improve the overall task-completion probability and system performance, while possibly still benefiting the individual users.

  10. Can more become less? Effects of an intensive assessment environment on students' learning performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, M. Asif; Prusty, Gangadhara B.; Ford, Robin A. J.; Marcus, Nadine; Russell, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Online interactive systems offer the beguiling prospect of an improved environment for learning at minimum extra cost. We have developed online interactive tutorials that adapt the learning environment to the current learning status of each individual student. These Adaptive Tutorials (ATs) modify the tasks given to each student according to their previous responses. Feedback, assessment and remediation are also adapted. Over a three-year period we progressively blended ATs into notoriously challenging courses in introductory Engineering Mechanics. We assessed the impact of this initiative by reviewing three lines of data: (i) the built-in diagnostics of the system, (ii) changes in student grades from year-to-year and (iii) supplementary surveys. Generally, students liked the new blended system and grades improved. Detailed analysis revealed nuances in the measures of student learning, such as differences between high-performing and low-performing students. With these insights we are able to further adapt the system to meet the learning needs of our students.

  11. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hormesis hypothesis is discussed claiming that low dose ionizing radiation shows positive biological effects. The hypothesis could not be demonstrably proved. In the last decade, new disciplines have been developing, such as risk assessment and risk management that, on the basis of proven results and the consideration of all circumstances quantitatively assess and test possible risks. (M.D.). 1 fig

  12. Contributions to resource and environmental risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis charts a research journey through the disciplines of waste chemistry, environmental risk assessment, policy analysis and corporate risk governance since award of the candidate’s PhD in 1990. The insights gained present a distinctive perspective on resource and environmental risk management - assessments of risk must reflect our understanding of the science and evidence that supports them; and the protection of public and environmental health, as an overarching motiv...

  13. Assessment of Teaching Methods and Critical Thinking in a Course for Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Whittington, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Ability to think critically is a key ingredient to the scientific mindset. Students who take science courses may or may not be predisposed to critical thinking - the ability to evaluate information analytically. Regardless of their initial stages, students can significantly improve their critical thinking through learning and practicing their reasoning skills, critical assessments, conducting and reflecting on observations and experiments, building their questioning and communication skills, and through the use of other techniques. While, there are several of teaching methods that may help to improve critical thinking, there are only a few assessment instruments that can help in evaluating the efficacy of these methods. Critical thinking skills and improvement in those skills are notoriously difficult to measure. Assessments that are based on multiple-choice questions demonstrate students’ final decisions but not their thinking processes. In addition, during the course of studies students may develop subject-based critical thinking while not being able to extend the skills to the general critical thinking. As such, we wanted to design and conduct a study on efficacy of several teaching methods in which we would learn how students’ improve their thinking processes within a science discipline as well as in everyday life situations. We conducted a study among 20 astronomy, physics and geology majors-- both graduate and undergraduate students-- enrolled in our Solar System Science course (mostly seniors and early graduate students) at the University of Missouri. We used the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay test to assess students’ general critical thinking and, in addition, we implemented our own subject-based critical thinking assessment. Here, we present the results of this study and share our experience on designing a subject-based critical thinking assessment instrument.

  14. 东亚三国的公共养老金制度改革:名义账户制的应用前景评析%Public Pension Reform in Three East Asian Countries: Assessing the Potential Utility of the Notional Defined Contribution (NDC) Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John B. Williamson; 申策; 房连泉

    2011-01-01

    在人口老龄化形势下,东亚国家的老年人口赡养率迅速攀升。如何改革公共养老金制度,建立与人口、经济社会形势相适应的养老保障体系,是摆在这些国家面前的一个难题。本文将比较中国、韩国和新加坡的公共养老制度,探讨名义账户制(NDC)在三国的应用前景。通过分析名义账户制化解各国现实问题的潜在能力,作者认为中国适用名义账户制的可行性最强,新加坡较低,而韩国介于二者之间。%In East Asia the rate of increase in the major factor behind old-age dependency ratio is particularly rapid and is a search by pension policy experts in many of these nations for new ideas about how to reform their existing public pension schemes so as to make them more suitable for the demographic and economic pressures they are facing. In this article we ask whether or not the notional defined contribution (NDC) model has potential utility and deserves greater attention than it has been getting in current public pension policy debates in three countries in East and South East Asia. We conclude that the NDC model has a great deal to offer China, but much less to offer to Singapore with South Korea located between the other two.

  15. Contribution dynamics in defined contribution pension plans during the great recession of 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushi, Irena; Iams, Howard M; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    We investigate changes in workers' participation and contributions to defined contribution (DC) plans during the Great Recession of 2007-2009. Using longitudinal information from W-2 tax records matched to a nationally representative sample of respondents from the Survey ofl Income and Program Participation, we find that the recent economic downturn had a considerable impact on workers' participation and contributions to DC plans. Thirty-nine percent of 2007 participants decreased contributions to DC plans by more than 10 percent during the Great Recession. Our findings highlight the interrelationship between the dynamics in DC contributions and earnings changes. Participants experiencing a decrease in earnings of more than 10 percent were not only more likely to stop contributing by 2009 than those with stable earnings (30 percent versus 9 percent), but they also decreased their contributions substantially (-$1,839 versus -$129). The proportion of workers who decreased or stopped contributions during the crisis exceeded the proportion observed prior to it (2005-2007). PMID:23914623

  16. Principais instrumentos para avaliação da disfunção temporomandibular, parte II: critérios diagnósticos; uma contribuição para a prática clínica e de pesquisa Main instruments for assessing temporomandibular disorders, part II: diagnostic criteria; a contribution to clinicians and researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Chaves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura especializada, encontram-se variados instrumentos para avaliação da disfunção temporomandibular (DTM, sob a forma de índices, questionários, protocolos, escalas e critérios de diagnóstico. Este estudo, dividido em duas partes, visou caracterizar os principais instrumentos de avaliação da DTM disponíveis na literatura, para auxiliar o clínico e o pesquisador na correta escolha da ferramenta apropriada para seus objetivos clínicos ou científicos. Na parte I foram caracterizados dois índices clínicos e três questionários (anamnésicos e funcionais; e, nesta parte II, um questionário funcional e dois conjuntos de critérios diagnósticos. Os índices são ferramentas que organizam a avaliação de sinais e sintomas, pela obtenção de pontuações. Os questionários são melhor aplicados em estudos epidemiológicos. Para avaliação dos eventuais impactos da DTM nas atividades de vida diária, os questionários funcionais são mais adequados. Finalmente, os critérios permitem obter o diagnóstico da disfunção. O RDC/TMD (Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, Critérios diagnósticos para pesquisa em DTM é um dos poucos instrumentos que define critérios operacionais para o diagnóstico clínico. O RDC/TMD, disponível em tradução oficial para o português, tem a maior parte de suas propriedades psicométricas e acurácia verificadas, caracterizando-se como uma das ferramentas mais apropriadas para avaliação da DTM.Several instruments for assessing temporomandibular disorders (TMD are available in literature, such as indices, questionnaires, protocols, scales, and diagnostic criteria. The purpose of this study, divided into two parts, was to characterise main tools available for TMD evaluation, so as to offer both researchers and clinicians guiding information on instrument selection according to their clinical or research needs. Two clinical indices and three (anamnestic and functional

  17. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on six standardized assessments in a sample of middle-SES kindergarteners. 3- and 4-year-olds’ (N=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten; EF was measured at fall of kindergarten; and Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skill...

  18. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  19. Contributions of Literature to Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…

  20. Some feminist contributions to community social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mayorga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the contributions of feminist debate about intersectionality of social categories for Community Social Psychology in Brazil. This was set up as dedicated to theoretical analyze the social inequalities that characterize contemporary societies and propose methodological processes of intervention for questioning and processing of these realities. We discuss how the emergence of new actors and demands on public space, as distinct from the 60/70, is required to understand the oppression from various power systems such as gender, race and sexuality. We conclude that intersectional analysis should consider different levels of relationships between categories, the history of the same differential and common aspects of different systems of power as naturalization of inequality, the relationship between public and private relationship between equality and difference. Analyses based on intersectionality can contribute to processes of social intervention that considers the complexity of contemporary societies.

  1. The cometary contribution to prebiotic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.; Lazcano, A.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition of cometary nuclei is examined to estimate the potential contribution of volatiles to the prebiotic earth from cometary collisions. Observations of cometary nuclei are reviewed to describe the chemical evolution of the objects and their theoretical potential for affecting the terrestrial environment. Specific attention is given to the plausibility of the single-impact formation of the earth-moon system, and experiments are proposed for testing the present theories. It is proposed that significant contributions of biogenic elements such as C, H, N, O, P, and S resulted from these nuclei colliding with the earth. Observations of the solar atmosphere and of the circumstellar shells of C-rich stars indicate that compounds such as CO, C2, and H2O were not pyrolyzed as a result of collision events. The compounds are theorized to have established the foundation for the abiotic synthesis of key biochemical molecules.

  2. Contributions of astronomy to fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highlights of the valuable contributions astronomy has made towards the understanding of the basic laws of physics are given. The physics-astronomy relationship is a two-way interaction-a fact very often not appreciated by physicists in general, who believe that physics contributes to understanding of astronomy but not vice versa. The understanding of cosmic phenomena requires the knowledge of the laws of physics; the laws that have been conceptualized through numerous laboratory experiments here on the Earth. At the same time, it should remembered that the cosmos provides a setting for the operation of these laws that is so grand that it can never be achieved in the terrestrial laboratory. (author). 9 figs

  3. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind Batra; Thorsten Stroh; Britta Siegmund

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature.Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease,but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets.

  4. Contributions of Egyptian Women in Physics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nadi, Lotfia

    2009-04-01

    Physics is a dynamic, global field. Progress in research motivates scientists to explore new areas and find useful applications for their work. Femtosecond ultrashort pulsed lasers and progress in nanostructures to study the properties of extremely dense matter, as well as one-dimensional materials, are two examples of innovations that encourage students and scientists—male and female—to pursue physics. Young Egyptian women's contributions to physics grew from 46% in 2003 to 69% in 2008. This paper discusses the role of women in physics in Egypt; presents statistics regarding their contributions and presence at Egyptian universities and institutes; and gives information about their decision making leadership roles. Ideas, applicable in Egypt as well as in developing countries, to address problems facing women are raised.

  5. Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Hydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic hydration plays a key role in a vast variety of biological processes, ranging from the formation of cells to protein folding and ligand binding. Hydrophobicity scales simplify the complex process of hydration by assigning a value describing the averaged hydrophobic character to each amino acid. Previously published scales were not able to calculate the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobicity directly. We present a new method, based on Molecular Dynamics simulations and Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, that calculates hydrophobicity from enthalpic and entropic contributions. Instead of deriving these quantities from the temperature dependence of the free energy of hydration or as residual of the free energy and the enthalpy, we directly obtain these values from the phase space occupied by water molecules. Additionally, our method is able to identify regions with specific enthalpic and entropic properties, allowing to identify so-called “unhappy water” molecules, which are characterized by weak enthalpic interactions and unfavorable entropic constraints. PMID:27442443

  6. Contribution of Electromagnetic Field to Atomic Spin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Tao; LIANG Wen-Feng; WU Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We examine the contribution of electromagnetic field to the atomic spin, by adopting two different, both gauge invariant definitions of the electromagnetic angular momentum: →JI≡ ∫ d3x∈0→γ× (→E × →B) and →JII ≡ ∫ d3x(∈0→E × A→⊥ + ∈0Ei→ γ× ▽A⊥i). Notably, at the classical level, J→II gives an exactly null result while →JI gives a finite value.This suggests that JII leads to a simpler and more reasonable picture of the atomic spin, therefore qualifies as a more appropriate definition of the electromagnetic angular momentum. Our observation gives important hint on the delicate issue of gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  7. Universal corner contributions to entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keun-Young; Pang, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    It has been realised that corners in entangling surfaces can induce new universal contributions to the entanglement entropy and R\\'enyi entropy. In this paper we study universal corner contributions to entanglement negativity in three- and four-dimensional CFTs using both field theory and holographic techniques. We focus on the quantity $\\chi$ defined by the ratio of the universal part of the entanglement negativity over that of the entanglement entropy, which may characterise the amount of distillable entanglement. We find that for most of the examples $\\chi$ takes bigger values for singular entangling regions, which may suggest increase in distillable entanglement. However, there also exist counterexamples where distillable entanglement decreases for singular surfaces. We also explore the behaviour of $\\chi$ as the coupling varies and observe that for singular entangling surfaces, the amount of distillable entanglement is mostly largest for free theories, while counterexample exists for free Dirac fermion i...

  8. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel O. Igberase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  9. Contributions of public health to patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, B K; Glanz, K; Lerman, C

    1991-08-01

    This paper discusses the contributions of public health to compliance in five areas: clinical trials, smoking cessation, dietary compliance, breast cancer screening and hypertension control. Public health programs have been based on a number of theoretical foundations, most notably, social learning theory and the health belief model. Social marketing, community organization, and, more recently, consumer information processing models also are important. The strongest public health programs embody an ecological approach, with interventions directed not only at individuals, but also at groups, communities and changing institutional norms. Among the most important contributions of public health interventions are: multiple levels of intervention and evaluation, tailoring to target audiences, use of social support and community organization for behavior change. Together, community health and clinical compliance-enhancing strategies can exert a synergistic impact on health behavior change. PMID:1918439

  10. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  11. Hopelessness during emerging adulthood: Contributions of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Suvashisa Rana; Gitanjali Lall; Asima Mishra; Durgesh Nandinee; Kallavarapu Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Context: During emerging adulthood, a person takes on several roles and needs to cope up with psychosocial challenges that are connected to an autonomous personal life. Hence, anxiety and its repercussions, though common in this phase, yet may produce a detrimental effect in their life. Aims: The objective of the study was to examine the contributions of anxiety to hopelessness of emerging adults during their transitional phase from late adolescence to adulthood. Settings and Design: The stud...

  12. Elements That Contribute to Healthy Building Design

    OpenAIRE

    Loftness, V; Hakkinen, B; Adan, OCG Olaf; Nevalainen, A

    2007-01-01

    Background The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. Objectives We present three viewpoints of designing a healthy building: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor air quality, and ongoing developments related to indoor finishes with low chemical emissions and good fungal resistance. Discussion Sustainable design rediscovers the social, environmental, and technical value...

  13. Cannabis and psychosis : the Maltese contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Agius, Mark; Grech, Anton; Zammit, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Three different Maltese scientists have contributed to research on the link between cannabis and psychosis. The object of this article is to review and chronicle the work that has been done by these three colleagues in this field. Work has helped to establish whether cannabis causes psychosis, whether the continued use of cannabis by patients with schizophrenia affects the course of the disease and its treatment, and whether or not it is possible to change the habit of cannabis use in patient...

  14. Inspiring Reflections:Christopher Freeman's Enduring Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining contributions have been put together. There are a number of ways to continue Chris Freeman's legacy on innovation research. The first is to build in a critical tradition in the economics of innovati...

  15. ARNOLD HARBERGER'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    It is with great pleasure that I review some of the contributions to the field of public policy that Arnold Harberger has made in his distinguished career. Arnold is a teacher, researcher, policy economist, and missionary for the adoption of good policies in countries around the globe. His enormous influence on public policy has come about because of the last four factors. First, his considerable intellectual energy has stayed focused on issues that are rooted in the real world. Second, the i...

  16. Contributions to osteoclast biology from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suda, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue, in which bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts continue throughout life. In 1998, we molecularly cloned osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a long-thought factor responsible for osteoclast formation. This review article describes how Japanese scientists contributed to osteoclast biology before and after the discovery of ODF. This review article is based on the Louis V. Avioli Memorial Lecture of the American Society for Bone and Minera...

  17. MR contribution in surgery of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of MR imaging in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy considered for surgical therapy is discussed. In this review we focus on: (a) focal abnormalities (mesial temporal sclerosis, focal migration disorders, hamartomatous lesions and low-grade tumours, phakomatosis and vascular malformations) associated with therapy-resistant partial epilepsy, requiring resective surgery; (b) abnormalities leading to generalized seizures that require more drastic surgical procedures, such as callosotomy and functional hemispherectomy; and (c) localisation of implanted depth-electrodes. (orig.)

  18. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed ERRITALI; Oussama Mohamed Reda; Bouabid El Ouahidi

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  19. Human Resource Development's Contribution to Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Hyland, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Improvement (CI) is an approach to organizational change that requires active involvement of skilled and motivated employees, which implies an important role for HRD practitioners. The findings from a literature review and a survey of 168 Danish manufacturing companies indicate however...... that HRD is rarely integrated with CI. The paper contributes by offering a model that depicts how HR and HRD functions could be exploited to support successful CI development and implementation....

  20. Human Resource Development's Contribution to Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Hyland, Paul

    Continuous Improvement (CI) is an approach to organizational change that requires active involvement of skilled and motivated employees, which implies an important role for HRD practitioners. The findings from a literature review and a survey of 168 Danish manufacturing companies indicate however...... that HRD is rarely integrated with CI. The paper contributes by offering a model that depicts how HR and HRD functions could be exploited to support successful CI development and implementation....