WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing natural system

  1. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving "what would have happened anyway" scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  2. A transportable system of models for natural resource damage assessment

    Reed, M.; French, D.

    1992-01-01

    A system of computer models has been developed for assessment of natural resource economic damages resulting from spills of oil and hazardous materials in marine and fresh water environments. Under USA federal legislation, the results of the model system are presumed correct in damage litigation proceedings. The model can address a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The equations describing the motion of both pollutants and biota are solved in three dimensions. The model can simulate continuous releases of a contaminant, with representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, multiple shoreline types, and spatially variable ecosystem habitats. A graphic user interface provides easy control of the system in addition to the ability to display elements of the underlying geographical information system data base. The model is implemented on a personal computer and on a UNIX workstation. The structure of the system is such that transport to new geographic regions can be accomplished relatively easily, requiring only the development of the appropriate physical, toxicological, biological, and economic data sets. Applications are currently in progress for USA inland and coastal waters, the Adriatic Sea, the Strait of Sicily, the Gulf of Suez, and the Baltic Sea. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  4. Second California Assessment: Integrated climate change impacts assessment of natural and managed systems. Guest editorial

    Franco, G.; Cayan, D.R.; Moser, S.; Hanemann, M.; Jones, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006 the scientific community in California, in cooperation with resource managers, has been conducting periodic statewide studies about the potential impacts of climate change on natural and managed systems. This Special Issue is a compilation of revised papers that originate from the most recent assessment that concluded in 2009. As with the 2006 studies that influenced the passage of California's landmark Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), these papers have informed policy formulation at the state level, helping bring climate adaptation as a complementary measure to mitigation. We provide here a brief introduction to the papers included in this Special Issue focusing on how they are coordinated and support each other. We describe the common set of downscaled climate and sea-level rise scenarios used in this assessment that came from six different global climate models (GCMs) run under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios: B1 (low emissions) and A2 (a medium-high emissions). Recommendations for future state assessments, some of which are being implemented in an on-going new assessment that will be completed in 2012, are offered. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. The Nature and Assessment of Systemic Risk in Terms of Liquidity of the Banking System

    Lavreniuk Vladyslav V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the nature of systemic risk as a threat to the financial stability of the banking system and develop analytical tools to assess its impact on the banking system in terms of its liquidity. To solve the tasks assigned, there used general scientific and specific methods, such as: logical and dialectical method, mathematical and graphical one. Based on the generalization, analysis and comparison of different interpretations, there clarified the concept of «systemic risk» as a risk generated by financial institutions or individual sectors through the implementation of the mechanism of risk transmission, achieving significant scale of distribution and adversely affecting the stability of the financial system and the real sector of economy. There identified key aspects of systemic risk: a systemic risk is not a sum of all individual risks of financial institutions; b spreads through the channels of interconnectedness between financial institutions; c is a result of accumulated structural imbalances; d affects the stability of the financial/banking system, public confidence and the real sector of economy. Analytical tools for estimation of the bank’s contribution to the systemic liquidity risk on the basis of which it is determined that the first place in terms of the effect on the aggregate systemic risk of liquidity of the Ukrainian banking system is occupied by banks of Group I, the second place — by Privatbank, the third, fourth, fifth places — by banks in Group II — Oschadbank, Ukreximbank. It is found that it is systemically important state-owned banks that have a significant impact on systemic liquidity risk. It is determined that the probability of default of a leading systemically important bank could result in considerable cumulative losses for the entire banking system and real economy. The prospects of further research are the development of tools for systemic risk assessment with respect to

  6. Proposal for Holistic Assessment of Urban System Resilience to Natural Disasters

    Koren, David; Kilar, Vojko; Rus, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Urban system is a complex mix of interdependent components and dynamic interactions between them that enable it to function effectively. Resilience of urban system indicates the ability of a system to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner. In the relevant literature, most studies consider individual components separately. On the other hand, the purpose of this paper is to assess the urban system as a whole, considering all relevant components and their interactions. The goal is a study of possibilities for holistic evaluation of urban system resilience to natural disasters. Findings from the preliminary study are presented: (i) the definition of urban system and categorization of its components, (ii) a set of attributes of individual components with impact on disaster resilience of the entire system and (iii) review of different methods and approaches for resilience assessment. Based on literature review and extensive preliminary studies a new conceptual framework for urban resilience assessment is proposed. In the presented paper, a conceptual model of urban system by abstraction of its components as nodes (buildings), patches - specific nodes with spatial properties (open space), links (infrastructures) and base layer (community) is created. In the suggested model, each component is defined by its own quantitative attributes, which have been identified to have an important impact on the urban system resilience to natural disasters. System is presented as a mathematical graph model. Natural disaster is considered an external factor that affects the existing system and leads to some system distortion. In further analyses, mathematical simulation of various natural disasters scenarios is going to be carried out, followed by comparison of the system functionality before and after the accident. Various properties of the system (accessibility, transition, complexity etc.) are going to be analysed with

  7. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  8. Safety assessment of complex engineered and natural systems: radioactive waste disposal

    McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.; Atkins, J.; Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of deep, geologic disposal of nuclear waste requires the probabilistic safety assessment of a complex system from the coupling of various processes and sub-systems, parameter and model uncertainties, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the multiplicity of designs and scenarios. Both the engineered and natural system are included in the evaluation. Each system has aspects with considerable uncertainty both in important parameters and in overall conceptual models. The study represented herein provides a probabilistic safety assessment of a potential respository system for multiple engineered barrier system (EBS) design and conceptual model configurations (CRWMS M and O, 1996a) and considers the effects of uncertainty on the overall results. The assessment is based on data and process models available at the time of the study and doesnt necessarily represent the current safety evaluation. In fact, the percolation flux through the repository system is now expected to be higher than the estimate used for this study. The potential effects of higher percolation fluxes are currently under study. The safety of the system was assessed for both 10,000 and 1,000,000 years. Use of alternative conceptual models also produced major improvement in safety. For example, use of a more realistic engineered system release model produced improvement of over an order of magnitude in safety. Alternative measurement locations for the safety assessment produced substantial increases in safety, through the results are based on uncertain dilution factors in the transporting groundwater. (Author)

  9. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  10. The Evolution of Integrated Assessment and Emerging Challenges in the Assessment of Human and Natural System Interactions

    Clarke, L.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling and research has a long history, spanning over 30 years since its inception and addressing a wide range of contemporary issues along the way. Over the last decade, IA modeling and research has emerged as one of the primary analytical methods for understanding the complex interactions between human and natural systems, from the interactions between energy, water, and land/food systems to the interplay between health, climate, and air pollution. IA modeling and research is particularly well-suited for the analysis of these interactions because it is a discipline that strives to integrate representations of multiple systems into consistent computational platforms or frameworks. In doing so, it explicitly confronts the many tradeoffs that are frequently necessary to manage complexity and computational cost while still representing the most important interactions and overall, coupled system behavior. This talk explores the history of IA modeling and research as a means to better understand its role in the assessment of contemporary issues at the confluence of human and natural systems. It traces the evolution of IA modeling and research from initial exploration of long-term emissions pathways, to the role of technology in the global evolution of the energy system, to the key linkages between land and energy systems and, more recently, the linkages with water, air pollution, and other key systems and issues. It discusses the advances in modeling that have emerged over this evolution and the biggest challenges that still present themselves as we strive to better understand the most important interactions between human and natural systems and the implications of these interactions for human welfare and decision making.

  11. A three-dimensional natural resource damage assessment and coupled geographical information system

    Reed, M.; French, D.; Feng, S.S.; Knauss, W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a numerical model for natural resource damage assessments is discussed. The model addresses a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The transport equations for both pollutant and biota are solved with a three-dimensional Lagrangian particle methodology. The model can simulate continuous releases of a contaminant, with representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, multiple shoreline types, and spatially variable ecosystem habitats. A graphic interface gives the user complete and facile control of the dynamic transport and biological submodels, as ell as the ability to display elements of the underlying geographical information system (GIS) data base. The model is being implemented on a 386 PC

  12. Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human-hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (Yemen and Djibouti nearly as vulnerable. Surprising similarities in vulnerability were also found among geographically disparate nations such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Guatemala. Determining shared patterns of freshwater vulnerability provides insights into why water supply vulnerabilities are manifested in human-water systems at the national scale.

  13. Natural resource damage assessment

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  14. Natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants: Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    2005-11-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. Further, the IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future which was convened in 1991 noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to assure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are an ongoing activity in several IAEA Member States. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. In response to the motivating factors discussed above, and to foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation was started in early 2004. Building on the shared expertise within the CRP, this publication presents extensive information on natural circulation phenomena, models, predictive tools and experiments that currently support design and analyses of natural circulation systems and highlights areas where additional research is needed. Therefore, this publication serves both to provide a description of the present state of knowledge on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants and to guide the planning and conduct of the CRP in

  15. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems. Their importance to performance assessment

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Skagius, K.; Karlsson, Fred; Smellie, J.

    1992-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and of the far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes, have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included. The results of the study show that studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems have provided significant information regarding many issues of importance to repository performance. In several cases the evidence from natural analogues has demonstrated that processes assumed to take place in repositories actually occur in natural systems or under conditions similar to those predicted to prevail in a future repository. One example of such a process is coprecipitation of fission products and ferric oxyhydroxides as an analogue to corrosion products from a steel canister. In addition, the study of concentration gradients of uranium and other trace substances in the rock surrounding groundwater conduits confirm that matrix diffusion occurs in nature and that the diffusivities in the rock matrix measured in the laboratory are consistent with the observations in nature

  16. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  17. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  18. Assessing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems – experience from Danish studies using the DAMOS system

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Frohn, Lise

    2013-01-01

    and ammonium (reaction products of nitrogen oxides and ammonia), but also dry deposition of other reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly nitrogen oxides in the form of gas phase nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide). In Denmark's environmental management of the sensitive terrestrial ecosystems modelling tools...... are required that account for both the local and the long-range transported contributions. This motivated development of the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS) that has been successfully applied to the assessment of atmospheric nitrogen loadings to sensitive Danish ecosystems. We present here three...... different examples of such assessments. Our results show that ecosystems located in Western Denmark (Case 1) receive the highest loads of atmospheric nitrogen depositions which generally exceed the critical load. This part of the country has the highest livestock density. In the Eastern part of the country...

  19. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model to

  20. Assessing impacts of payments for watershed services on sustainability in coupled human and natural systems

    Heidi Asbjornsen; Alex S. Mayer; Kelly W. Jones; Theresa Selfa; Leonardo Saenz; Randall K. Kolka; Kathleen E. Halvorsen

    2015-01-01

    Payments for watershed services (PWS) as a policy tool for enhancing water quality and supply have gained momentum in recent years, but their ability to lead to sustainable watershed outcomes is uncertain. Consequently, the demand for effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of PWS impacts on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and their implications for...

  1. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  2. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  3. Combining a building simulation with energy systems analysis to assess the benefits of natural ventilation

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    a thermal air flow simulation program - Into the energy systems analysis model. Descriptions of the energy systems in two geographical locations, i.e. Mexico and Denmark, are set up as inputs. Then, the assessment is done by calculating the energy impacts as well as environmental benefits in the energy...

  4. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  5. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  6. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    Jose Reyes

    2005-01-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''

  7. Natural Information Processing Systems

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  8. Using a Coupled Human-Natural System to Assess the Vulnerability of the Karst Landform Region in China

    Xiang He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Guizhou Plateau is a region in China that typically shows the contradictory human-earth system. A vulnerability assessment indicator system was constructed to explore the coupled human-natural system characteristic of the karst landform based on the grey correlation analysis mathematic model. The quantitative assessment results show that Qiandongnan and Tongren Districts belong to the slight degree of the sensitivity evaluation index. Bijie district belongs to the middle degree and the other districts of Guizhou Plateau belong to the light degree. In terms of the exposure and resilience evaluation index, only Guiyang City belongs to the slight degree and other districts are in the middle degree. Thus, Guizhou Plateau could be divided into three level zones based on the comprehensive vulnerability degree of the coupled human-natural system. The strong degree vulnerability zone includes Liupanshui City, Bijie City, Anshun City, and Qiannan District. The middle degree vulnerability zone includes the districts of Qiandongnan, Qianxinan, and Tongren and the city of Zunyi. The slight degree vulnerability zone only includes Guiyang City. The research results suggest that the coupled human-natural system in Guizhou Plateau has a high vulnerability.

  9. Assessment of geomorphic risks and attractiveness to recreational systems: a case of Nalychevo Nature Park (Kamchatka, Russia).

    Blinova, I.; Bredikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Attractiveness of relief, diversity and rareness were always the basic features of overall recreational attractiveness of a territory. Mountainous regions with high geomorphic diversity served as model for first recreation and tourism researches. The above features often favoured sustainability of touristic system. Unique relief forms are commonly referred to natural sites. They differ from the others in structure or have some morphological and morphometric characteristics not found in other forms of the earth's surface. Such monuments form the main natural functional kernel for a recreation system which is created and exists around them. In general, functions of geomorphological sites in recreation can be divided into socio-cultural and economic. Socio-cultural function is the principal function of recreation. It responds to the cultural or spiritual needs of people such as the knowledge in the broader sense, knowledge of the world and their place in it. The economic function is to create consumer demand for goods and services, and sometimes an entire economy sector. Natural sites are particularly vulnerable to dangerous occurrence of endogenous and exogenous processes as guarantee of environmental stability is an essential condition for a proper system functioning. This requires a comprehensive study of relief dynamics, monitoring and forecasting its evolution in recreation areas. Nowadays educational and environmental tourism in Russia develop rapidly. The unique tectonic position of Kamchatka Peninsula (the active geodynamic area dedicated to the subduction zone) formed a variety of landscapes, attracting visitors from all over the world. Recreational development of this region is slow due to remoteness and poor transport accessibility. However, there are 3 state federal reserves and one federal wildlife sanctuary, 4 natural parks of regional significance, 23 nature preserves of regional significance, and 105 natural monuments officially marked in this region

  10. Need for a marginal methodology in assessing natural gas system methane emissions in response to incremental consumption.

    Mac Kinnon, Michael; Heydarzadeh, Zahra; Doan, Quy; Ngo, Cuong; Reed, Jeff; Brouwer, Jacob

    2018-05-17

    Accurate quantification of methane emissions from the natural gas system is important for establishing greenhouse gas inventories and understanding cause and effect for reducing emissions. Current carbon intensity methods generally assume methane emissions are proportional to gas throughput so that increases in gas consumption yield linear increases in emitted methane. However, emissions sources are diverse and many are not proportional to throughput. Insights into the causal drivers of system methane emissions, and how system-wide changes affect such drivers are required. The development of a novel cause-based methodology to assess marginal methane emissions per unit of fuel consumed is introduced. The carbon intensities of technologies consuming natural gas are critical metrics currently used in policy decisions for reaching environmental goals. For example, the low-carbon fuel standard in California uses carbon intensity to determine incentives provided. Current methods generally assume methane emissions from the natural gas system are completely proportional to throughput. The proposed cause-based marginal emissions method will provide a better understanding of the actual drivers of emissions to support development of more effective mitigation measures. Additionally, increasing the accuracy of carbon intensity calculations supports the development of policies that can maximize the environmental benefits of alternative fuels, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. A unified model for energy and environmental performance assessment of natural gas-fueled poly-generation systems

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    Poly-generation systems for combined production of manifold energy vectors such as electricity, heat at different enthalpy levels (for instance, in the form of hot water and steam), and cooling power from a unique source of primary energy (typically natural gas) are increasingly spreading, above all on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), owing to their enhanced energy, environmental and economic characteristics. Availability of suitable tools for assessing the performance of such systems is therefore fundamental. In this paper, a unified general model is proposed for assessing the energy and CO 2 emission performance of any type of poly-generation system with natural gas as the energy input. In particular, the classical energy saving model for cogeneration systems is extended to include in the analysis further energy vectors by defining the novel PPES (Poly-generation Primary Energy Saving) indicator. In addition, equivalent efficiencies for CO 2 emission assessment are defined and used in the formulation of the new PCO2ER (Poly-generation CO 2 Emission Reduction) indicator, specifically introduced for environmental analysis. The formal analogy between the PPES and the PCO2ER indicators is highlighted. Numerical applications are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed models and to quantify the typical benefits that poly-generation systems can bring. In particular, the new indicators are of relevant interest for both energy planners and policy makers, above all in the outlook of formulating financial incentive strategies, as it already occurs for cogeneration systems, or of participating to specific energy-related markets such as the ones for trading white certificates or emission allowances

  12. Patterns in natural systems

    Sewalt, L.

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis, `Patterns in natural systems’ the formation and evolution of patterns as solutions of several partial differential systems are studied. These mathematical systems model three different biological and ecological processes. First, the way that plankton concentrates in the water column,

  13. Modeling of natural circulation and assessment of passive safety system performance (activities current status)

    Bykov, M.A.; Kryuchkov, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions under the analysis of natural circulation: • Verifying calculations by means of CORSAR/GP code for values of power of a heater W = 1.5 and 2.5 kw have been done. Comparison with experimental data has been spent. • The received results do not coincide from a physical part of sight - in experiment change of a sign on the flow rate is observed during a problem, in calculations the flow rate is unequivocal. • However numerical values for the first variant (W = 1.5 kw) are close enough to the experimental. • For the second variant (W = 2.5 kw) are observed appreciable divergences. Researches in this direction will proceed. As is planned to continue researches in the field of uncertainty of parameters for this facilities

  14. Natural Resource Damage Assessment in highly impacted systems: A case study of the Anacostia River oil spill

    Pinkney, A.E.; Frithsen, J.B.; Burton, W.H.; Scott, L.C.; Siciliano, J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach and case study are presented to assessing natural resource damages due to additional perturbations in highly disturbed systems. The approach involves: (1) defining chemical characteristics unique to the additional perturbation, (2) identifying specific natural resources that may be sensitive to the additional perturbation and the most appropriate sampling period for each, and (3) using existing data to characterize previous conditions. This approach was used to assess the residual effects of a January 1992 spill of 3,400 gallons of number-sign 4 fuel oil in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Water quality is poor due to continuing inputs from urban runoff; one upstream tributary (Hickey Run) has a fifty year history of chronic oil spills and stormwater runoff of oil and grease. The challenge was to isolate possible spill impacts from those due to chronic pollutant inputs. GC/FID fingerprinting analyses were used to characterize spill material and hydrocarbons found in the spill area and two adjacent reference areas. Fish larvae (ichthyoplankton) and benthic invertebrates were identified as biological resources most likely to demonstrate residual effects. Results indicated that there were insignificant amounts of the hydrocarbons from the spill in the water, sediments, and biota of the river, and no residual impacts on biological resources could be identified

  15. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Chapman, N.A.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilisation of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. Existing studies are assessed and possibilities considered for additional analogues. Conclusions are drawn for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Auth.)

  16. Natural light illumination system.

    Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Yang, Shu-Hua; Pan, Po-Hsuan; Chou, Kao-Hsu; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lee, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, green energy has undergone a lot of development and has been the subject of many applications. Many research studies have focused on illumination with sunlight as a means of saving energy and creating healthy lighting. Natural light illumination systems have collecting, transmitting, and lighting elements. Today, most daylight collectors use dynamic concentrators; these include Sun tracking systems. However, this design is too expensive to be cost effective. To create a low-cost collector that can be easily installed on a large building, we have designed a static concentrator, which is prismatic and cascadable, to collect sunlight for indoor illumination. The transmission component uses a large number of optical fibers. Because optical fibers are expensive, this means that most of the cost for the system will be related to transmission. In this paper, we also use a prismatic structure to design an optical coupler for coupling n to 1. With the n-to-1 coupler, the number of optical fibers necessary can be greatly reduced. Although this new natural light illumination system can effectively guide collected sunlight and send it to the basement or to other indoor places for healthy lighting, previously there has been no way to manage the collected sunlight when lighting was not desired. To solve this problem, we have designed an optical switch and a beam splitter to control and separate the transmitted light. When replacing traditional sources, the lighting should have similar characteristics, such as intensity distribution and geometric parameters, to those of traditional artificial sources. We have designed, simulated, and optimized an illumination lightpipe with a dot pattern to redistribute the collected sunlight from the natural light illumination system such that it equals the qualities of a traditional lighting system. We also provide an active lighting module that provides lighting from the natural light illumination system or LED auxiliary

  17. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural Stabilized Earth Panels versus Conventional Façade Systems. Economic and Environmental Impact Assessment

    Carmen Galán-Marín

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available More effective construction technologies are needed nowadays in order to reduce construction energy consumption during the life-cycle of buildings. Besides which, it is necessary to consider the economic feasibility and associated costs within the framework of these alternative technologies so as to favouring their practical implementation in the construction sector. In this sense, this paper presents an economic and environmental comparison of a new non-bearing façade construction solution based on the extruded unfired stabilized clay panels as opposed to three traditional solutions with similar physical, thermal, and aesthetic characteristics in terms of the exterior cladding. The proposed panels are a sandwich type configuration with an intermediate insulating material and two exterior pieces manufactured by extrusion with raw earth stabilized with alginate and animal wool fibers. In this paper, details of the constructive technology of the system are provided. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution is a valid alternative from the environmental point of view, considerably reducing the Global Warming Potential and the Cumulative Energy Demand. And although the environmental improvement of the system can be considered the primary objective of this investigation, on the other hand, once executed, it will also be a competitive constructive technology from the perspective of the system’s final costs.

  19. The system of nature

    D'Holbac, Baron

    1999-01-01

    "The source of Man's unhappiness is his ignorance of Nature."D'Holbach believed that the misery he saw in mankind around him was caused by religion and its superstitious beliefs - that there was a God who controlled destiny and would reward or punish individuals. The System of Nature was written to replace these delusions with a schema of understanding based solely on the physical workings of nature. "Let Man study this nature, let him learn her laws, contemplate her energies." For d'Holbach the soul is only the physical body, understood from a certain point of view, which dies when the body dies. All the events and the nature of the world can be understood in terms of the motion and properties of matter; even the tiniest causes contribute to huge events - a simple change in the diet of an Emperor (or some other such insignificant cause), he suggests might have been capable of "saving kingdoms." For him, nature's laws are fixed and necessary, and if Man wants to find happiness it is best to accept this - if g...

  20. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  1. A biofuel-based cogeneration plant in a natural gas expansion system: An energetic and economic assessment

    Badami, Marco; Modica, Stefano; Portoraro, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Natural Gas Turbo Expander system with a rapeseed oil fueled CHP is studied. • The experimental data of the plant are considered in the analyses. • The energetic index of performance shows the attractiveness of the plant. • Incentives and fuel price volatility effects on economic profitability are analysed. - Abstract: The paper deals with an analysis of the energetic and economic performance of a City Gas Station (CGS) plant, made up of a rapeseed oil cogenerator coupled to a turbo-expansion system for the reduction of natural gas pressure, which is currently in operation in Italy. Although this kind of systems concept is well known, the plant can be considered unusual because the heat needed to pre-heat the gas before its expansion is obtained from a renewable source. The aim of the paper is to analyse the energetic efficiency of the plant and its economic viability, which is affected to a great extent by subsidizing energy policies and by the volatility of vegetable oil prices. All the evaluations have been based on a real set of experimental data.

  2. Natural Materials, Systems & Extremophiles

    2012-03-06

    system. Linked: FY11 AFRL/RX pgm • Structural Coloration – new area, several PIs moving in and out; MURI (Harvard) • Biopolymers – Mainly silk but...looking at other biopolymers . The silk work is well integrated with AFRL; many exchanges of personnel & material. Some PIs moving out with...it pertains to marking items. • Silk – DARPA has contributed to my existing program. ARO has a single grantee. ONR funds a single investigator. NSF

  3. Bayesian network learning for natural hazard assessments

    Vogel, Kristin

    2016-04-01

    Even though quite different in occurrence and consequences, from a modelling perspective many natural hazards share similar properties and challenges. Their complex nature as well as lacking knowledge about their driving forces and potential effects make their analysis demanding. On top of the uncertainty about the modelling framework, inaccurate or incomplete event observations and the intrinsic randomness of the natural phenomenon add up to different interacting layers of uncertainty, which require a careful handling. Thus, for reliable natural hazard assessments it is crucial not only to capture and quantify involved uncertainties, but also to express and communicate uncertainties in an intuitive way. Decision-makers, who often find it difficult to deal with uncertainties, might otherwise return to familiar (mostly deterministic) proceedings. In the scope of the DFG research training group „NatRiskChange" we apply the probabilistic framework of Bayesian networks for diverse natural hazard and vulnerability studies. The great potential of Bayesian networks was already shown in previous natural hazard assessments. Treating each model component as random variable, Bayesian networks aim at capturing the joint distribution of all considered variables. Hence, each conditional distribution of interest (e.g. the effect of precautionary measures on damage reduction) can be inferred. The (in-)dependencies between the considered variables can be learned purely data driven or be given by experts. Even a combination of both is possible. By translating the (in-)dependences into a graph structure, Bayesian networks provide direct insights into the workings of the system and allow to learn about the underlying processes. Besides numerous studies on the topic, learning Bayesian networks from real-world data remains challenging. In previous studies, e.g. on earthquake induced ground motion and flood damage assessments, we tackled the problems arising with continuous variables

  4. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme events due to natural hazards is difficult to predict. Extreme events are stochastic in nature, there is a lack of long term data on their occurrence, and there are still gaps in our understanding of their physical processes. This difficulty in prediction will be exacerbated by climate change and human activities. Yet traditional risk assessments measure risk as the probability of occurrence of a hazard, multiplied by the consequences of the hazard occurring, which ignores the recovery process. In light of the increasing concerns on disaster risks and the related system recovery, resilience assessments are being used as an approach which complements and builds on traditional risk assessments and management. In mechanical terms, resilience refers to the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb while maintaining its ability to return to its original shape. Resilience was first applied in the fields of psychology and ecology, and more recently has been used in areas such as social sciences, economics, and engineering. A common metaphor for understanding resilience is the stability landscape. The landscape consists of a surface of interconnected basins, where each basin represents different states of a system, which is a point on the stability landscape. The resilience of the system is its capacity and tendency to remain within a particular basin. This depends on the topology of the landscape, on the system's current position, and on its reaction to different shocks and stresses. In practical terms, resilience assessments have been conducted for various purposes in different sectors. These assessments vary in their required inputs, the methodologies applied, and the output they produce. Some measures used for resilience assessments are hazard independent. These focus on the intrinsic capabilities of a system, for example the insurance coverage of a community, or the buffer capacity of a water storage reservoir. Other

  5. Issues of assessment of doses from natural sources in working conditions: implications for the unified state system of individual dose monitoring

    T. A. Kormanovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the work are: 1 an analysis of information on radiation doses from natural sources of ionizing radiation of employees of enterprises in some industries of the Russian Federation and 2 an assessment of the state of registration of doses from natural sources in working conditions in the Unified System of Individual Dose Control. Materials and methods. The analysis was performed on the results of the operation of the Federal database of radiation doses of the population due to natural and artificial radiation background in 2013–2015 on the basis of the forms of the Federal statistical observation No. 4-DOZ in terms of collecting information on the radiation doses of workers in some non-nuclear industries due to natural sources of ionizing radiation. Results. Analysis of enterprises in 17 industries in 23 regions of Russia connected with the specificity of production processes showed cases of natural exposure of workers at the dose level exceeding 5 mSv/year. We have identified those branches of industry, for which the doses were close to 5 mSv/year.Examples of reducing the radiation doses by reducing the time spent by workers in workplaces with high levels of radiation are given. The problems of insufficient representativeness of the sample data are due to the lack of interaction of the management of industrial enterprises with the bodies of the Rospotrebnadzor. The obtained data allow speaking about the problem of assessing the quality of radiation control in the organizations where additional exposure of workers from natural radiation sources is expected. It is necessary to create a system of regulatory and procedural documents to solve the problem at the national level.

  6. Quantitative assessment of consequences of natural events for the performance of waste disposal isolation system. On consequences of natural events in groundwater scenario

    Ohkubo, Hiroo

    1999-02-01

    This year, first, on seismicity and faulting, uplift and erosion, climate change and human activity (intrusion) scenarios, while effects of those scenarios were primarily evaluated in reference cases last year, variant cases with another kind of patterns of models and parameters compared to reference cases, have been studied and set, and their effects have been analyzed and evaluated. Secondly, referring to the results of the above discussions, a preliminary study was made to evaluate the complex effect caused by combining natural events such as volcanism, seismicity and faulting, uplift and erosion and climate change, where discussions have been made on which combined scenario was more important and how to set the analysis framework. (author)

  7. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    Luthi, R.; Burlington, L.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  8. Study on assessment scenarios of natural phenomena effected on groundwater flow system. Case study for the sea-level change (Contract research)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2009-03-01

    It is important to evaluate effects on the groundwater flow system by the natural phenomena in the safety assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety assessment is performed by using safety assessment methods, thus it is necessary to establish reasonable scenarios for safety assessment. In this report, we study change effecting on the groundwater flow system by literature reviews. The scenario of sea level change is expected to have a importance for a safety of disposal facility in coastal area. The recent information related to the groundwater flow condition in sedimentary rocks of sub-seabed coastal area shows that there are four groundwater domains as follows with depth; (1) modern meteoric water, (2) saline water in the transgression period, (3) paleo-fresh water which formed during the last glacial age when sea levels were lower than at present and (4) pre-glacial fossil saline water. This study suggests that the non-current (3) paleo-fresh water at present is possible to move to discharged area at sea floor in the next glacial period by denudation of marine-clay sediments and to become stagnant water again in the next interglacial period by deposition of marine-clay sediments in coastal region. Therefore it is important to predict the scenario considering the denudation and deposition correlated with transgression and regression that could affect the change of groundwater flow velocity, groundwater flow path and groundwater chemical characteristics during the glacial and interglacial period. (author)

  9. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  10. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual’s mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an “attentional”, an “affective” and an “effort” dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  11. Quantitative assessment of consequences of natural events for the performance of waste disposal isolation system: Part (II)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo

    1999-12-01

    This year, first, regarding to the volcanism, seismicity and faulting, and uplift and erosion scenarios, in addition to the evaluation of those scenarios are variant cases carried out last year, variant cases where directly impacted repository could be also treated have been studied and evaluated. Secondly, based on a series of discussions in these years, a comprehensive study was made to evaluate the complex effect caused by combining natural events such as volcanism, seismicity and faulting, uplift and erosion, and climate change as well as human activity, where discussions have been made on which combined scenario was more important and how to set the analysis framework. Finally, in order to discuss alternatives such as non-groundwater scenario and/or non-geological disposal strategy, long-term storage scenario was considered to be compared with geological disposal scenario. (author)

  12. Non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species in Lithuanian fresh waters, Part 2: Macroinvertebrate assemblage deviation from naturalness in lotic systems and the consequent potential impacts on ecological quality assessment

    Arbačiauskas K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological pressure represented by non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species (NIMS should be addressed in the implementation of EU Water Framework Directive as this can have a direct impact on the ’naturalness’ of the invaded macroinvertebrate assemblage. The biocontamination concept allows assessment of this deviation from naturalness, by evaluation of abundance and disparity contamination of an assemblage. This study aimed to assess the biocontamination of macroinvertebrate assemblages in Lithuanian rivers, thereby revealing the most high-impact non-indigenous species, and to explore the relationship between biocontamination and conventional metrics of ecological quality. Most of the studied rivers appeared to be impacted by NIMS. The amphipods Pontogammarus robustoides, Chelicorophium curvispinum and snail Litoglyphus naticoides were revealed as high-impact NIMS for Lithuanian lotic systems. Metrics of ecological quality which largely depend upon the richness of indicator taxa, such as the biological monitoring working party (BMWP score and Ephemeroptera/Plecoptera/Trichoptera (EPT taxa number, were negatively correlated with biocontamination, implying they could provide unreliable ecological quality estimates when NIMS are present. Routine macroinvertebrate water quality monitoring data are sufficient for generation of the biocontamination assessment and thus can provide supplementary information, with minimal extra expense or effort. We therefore recommend that biocontamination assessment is included alongside established methods for gauging biological and chemical water quality.

  13. Natural interaction for unmanned systems

    Taylor, Glenn; Purman, Ben; Schermerhorn, Paul; Garcia-Sampedro, Guillermo; Lanting, Matt; Quist, Michael; Kawatsu, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Military unmanned systems today are typically controlled by two methods: tele-operation or menu-based, search-andclick interfaces. Both approaches require the operator's constant vigilance: tele-operation requires constant input to drive the vehicle inch by inch; a menu-based interface requires eyes on the screen in order to search through alternatives and select the right menu item. In both cases, operators spend most of their time and attention driving and minding the unmanned systems rather than on being a warfighter. With these approaches, the platform and interface become more of a burden than a benefit. The availability of inexpensive sensor systems in products such as Microsoft Kinect™ or Nintendo Wii™ has resulted in new ways of interacting with computing systems, but new sensors alone are not enough. Developing useful and usable human-system interfaces requires understanding users and interaction in context: not just what new sensors afford in terms of interaction, but how users want to interact with these systems, for what purpose, and how sensors might enable those interactions. Additionally, the system needs to reliably make sense of the user's inputs in context, translate that interpretation into commands for the unmanned system, and give feedback to the user. In this paper, we describe an example natural interface for unmanned systems, called the Smart Interaction Device (SID), which enables natural two-way interaction with unmanned systems including the use of speech, sketch, and gestures. We present a few example applications SID to different types of unmanned systems and different kinds of interactions.

  14. Comparison of a traditional with a new approach based on Graph Theory to vulnerability assessment to natural hazards: a study case on a socio-economic complex system

    Arosio, Marcello; Martina, Mario L. V.

    2017-04-01

    The emergent behaviour of the contemporary complex, socio-technical and interconnected society makes the collective risk greater than the sum of the parts and this requires a holistic, systematic and integrated approach. Although there have been major improvements in recent years, there are still some limitation in term of a holistic approach that is able to include the emergent value hidden in the connections between exposed elements and the interactions between the different spheres of the multi-hazards, vulnerability, exposure and resilience. To deal with these challenges it is necessary to consider the connections between the exposed elements (e.g. populations, schools, hospital, etc.) and to quantify the relative importance of the elements and their interconnections (e.g. the need of injured people to go to hospital or children to school). In a system (e.g. road, hospital and ecological network, etc.), or in a System of System (e.g. socio-technical urban service), there are critical elements that, beyond the intrinsic vulnerability, can be characterized by greater or lower vulnerability because of their physical, geographical, cyber or logical connections. To this aim, we propose in this study a comparative analysis between traditional reductionist approach and a new holistic approach to vulnerability assessment to natural hazards. The analysis considers a study case of a socio-economic complex system through an innovative approach based on the properties of graph G=(N,L). A graph consists of two sets N (nodes) and L (links): the nodes represent the single exposed elements (physical, social, environmental, etc.) to a hazard, while the links (or connections) represent the interaction between the elements. The final goal is to illustrate an application of this innovative approach of integrated collective vulnerability assessment.

  15. Total System Performance Assessment

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  16. Total System Performance Assessment

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  17. Total System Performance Assessment

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  18. Natural systems prediction of radionuclide migration

    Ewing, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the application (and limitations) of data from natural systems to the verification of performance assessments, particularly as they apply to the evaluation of the long-term performance of waste forms, backfill, canister materials, and finally, the integrity of the repository itself. Two specific examples, the corrosion of borosilicate glass and the formation of alteration products of spent fuel, will be discussed. In both cases, inferences are of three types: 1) directly applicable data (i.e. radiation effects, stable phase assemblages): 2) inferences based on the analogous behaviour of the natural and repository systems (e.g. long-term corrosion rate); 3) specific identification of new phenomena that could not have been anticipated from the short term laboratory data (i.e. new mechanisms for the retention or release of radionuclides). The latter can only be derived from the observation of natural systems. Finally, specific attention will be paid to the limitations in the use of natural systems, particularly as the spatial and temporal scales expand, and to the inherent limitations of prediction and verification. (J.P.N.)

  19. Natural-technological risk assessment and management

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    EM-DAT statistical data on human impact and economic damages in the 1st semester 2015 are the highest since 2011: 41% of disasters were floods, responsible for 39% of economic damage and 7% of events were earthquakes responsible for 59% of total death toll. This suggests that disaster risk assessment and management still need to be improved and stay the principle issue in national and international related programs. The paper investigates the risk assessment and management practice in the Russian Federation at different levels. The method is proposed to identify the territories characterized by integrated natural-technological hazard. The maps of the Russian Federation zoning according to the integrated natural-technological hazard level are presented, as well as the procedure of updating the integrated hazard level taking into account the activity of separate processes. Special attention is paid to data bases on past natural and technological processes consequences, which are used for verification of current hazard estimation. The examples of natural-technological risk zoning for the country and some regions territory are presented. Different output risk indexes: both social and economic, are estimated taking into account requirements of end-users. In order to increase the safety of population of the Russian Federation the trans-boundaries hazards are also taken into account.

  20. Radiological Assessments and Enhanced Natural Radioactivity

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmaercke, H.; Paridaens, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of the environmental impact assessment models performed the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to apply new techniques for retrospective radon measurements and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques; and (5) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised

  1. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  2. Distributed road assessment system

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  3. Systems dependability assessment

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  4. Scaling view by the Virtual Nature Systems

    Klenov, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    The Actual Nature Systems (ANS) continually are under spatial-temporal governing external influences from other systems (Meteorology and Geophysics). This influences provide own spatial temporal patterns on the Earth Nature Systems, which reforms these influences by own manner and scales. These at last three systems belong to the Open Non Equilibrium Nature Systems (ONES). The Geophysics and Meteorology Systems are both governing for the ANS on the Earth. They provide as continual energetic pressure and impacts, and direct Extremes from the both systems to the ANS on Earth surface (earthquakes, storms, and others). The Geodynamics of the ANS is under mixing of influence for both systems, on their scales and on dynamics of their spatial-temporal structures, and by own ANS properties, as the ONES. To select influences of external systems on the Earth systems always is among major tasks of the Geomorphology. Mixing of the Systems scales and dynamics provide specific properties for the memory of Earth system. The memory of the ANS has practical value for their multi-purpose management. The knowledge of these properties is the key for research spatial-temporal GeoDynamics and Trends of Earth Nature Systems. Selection of the influences in time and space requires for special tool, requires elaboration and action of the Virtual Nature Systems (VNS), which are enliven computer doubles for analysis Geodynamics of the ANS. The Experience on the VNS enables to assess influence of each and both external factors on the ANS. It is source of knowledge for regional tectonic and climate oscillations, trends, and threats. Research by the VNS for spatial-temporal dynamics and structures of stochastic regimes of governing systems and processes results in stochastic GeoDynamics of environmental processes, in forming of false trends and blanks in natural records. This ‘wild dance' of 2D stochastic patterns and their interaction each other and generates acting structures of river nets

  5. Conceptual geoinformation model of natural hazards risk assessment

    Kulygin, Valerii

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are the major threat to safe interactions between nature and society. The assessment of the natural hazards impacts and their consequences is important in spatial planning and resource management. Today there is a challenge to advance our understanding of how socio-economical and climate changes will affect the frequency and magnitude of hydro-meteorological hazards and associated risks. However, the impacts from different types of natural hazards on various marine and coastal economic activities are not of the same type. In this study, the conceptual geomodel of risk assessment is presented to highlight the differentiation by the type of economic activities in extreme events risk assessment. The marine and coastal ecosystems are considered as the objects of management, on the one hand, and as the place of natural hazards' origin, on the other hand. One of the key elements in describing of such systems is the spatial characterization of their components. Assessment of ecosystem state is based on ecosystem indicators (indexes). They are used to identify the changes in time. The scenario approach is utilized to account for the spatio-temporal dynamics and uncertainty factors. Two types of scenarios are considered: scenarios of using ecosystem services by economic activities and scenarios of extreme events and related hazards. The reported study was funded by RFBR, according to the research project No. 16-35-60043 mol_a_dk.

  6. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  7. Assessment of natural and technogenic conditions of the area of the water-supply system upgrade in Dudinka (Krasnoyarsk Region, Russia

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Territories of the subarctic forest-tundra of Taymyr are characterized by an insufficient state of exploration of their natural conditions. Another feature is vulnerability of natural landscapes to man-made impacts. Along with this, the increased public attention to preservation of the ecological status of these territories necessitates detailed studies of environment components during construction activities. This work is devoted to the geoecological substantiation of the water-supply system upgrade in Dudinka (Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Autonomous District of the Krasnoyarsk Region, Russia, considering specific natural conditions of the sub-arctic forest-tundra and technogenic impacts of the upgrade project. This work describes primary results of engineering and environmental surveys, which provided necessary and sufficient basic data. It was established that due to a localized nature of technogenic impacts during environmental activities, the combined impact of technogenic factors is insignificant and will not cause environment degradation. A set of recommendations and proposals for environment protection and ecological monitoring organization was developed.

  8. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration

  9. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  10. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Henny Rydberg

    Full Text Available Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity.We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001.Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  11. Reliability evaluation of a natural circulation system

    Jafari, Jalil; D'Auria, Francesco; Kazeminejad, Hossein; Davilu, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses a reliability study performed with reference to a passive thermohydraulic natural circulation (NC) system, named TTL-1. A methodology based on probabilistic techniques has been applied with the main purpose to optimize the system design. The obtained results have been adopted to estimate the thermal-hydraulic reliability (TH-R) of the same system. A total of 29 relevant parameters (including nominal values and plausible ranges of variations) affecting the design and the NC performance of the TTL-1 loop are identified and a probability of occurrence is assigned for each value based on expert judgment. Following procedures established for the uncertainty evaluation of thermal-hydraulic system codes results, 137 system configurations have been selected and each configuration has been analyzed via the Relap5 best-estimate code. The reference system configuration and the failure criteria derived from the 'mission' of the passive system are adopted for the evaluation of the system TH-R. Four different definitions of a less-than-unity 'reliability-values' (where unity represents the maximum achievable reliability) are proposed for the performance of the selected passive system. This is normally considered fully reliable, i.e. reliability-value equal one, in typical Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications in nuclear reactor safety. The two 'point' TH-R values for the considered NC system were found equal to 0.70 and 0.85, i.e. values comparable with the reliability of a pump installed in an 'equivalent' forced circulation (active) system having the same 'mission'. The design optimization study was completed by a regression analysis addressing the output of the 137 calculations: heat losses, undetected leakage, loop length, riser diameter, and equivalent diameter of the test section have been found as the most important parameters bringing to the optimal system design and affecting the TH-R. As added values for this work, the comparison has

  12. Reactor Safety Assessment System

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSAS is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  13. Reactor safety assessment system

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  14. The role of natural analogues in performance assessment

    Ewing, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 - 10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct verification of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems provide perhaps the only means of partial verification, as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (m to km) and temporal (10 3 - 10 8 years) scales, and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may effect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the verification of performance assessments

  15. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  16. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  17. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources: Management, Policy ...

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources is a unique collection of case studies from Nepal. ... and students of social and political sciences and natural resource management. ... Nepal and founding Editor of the Journal of Forest and Livelihood. ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  18. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  19. American Indian Systems for Natural Resource Management.

    Quintana, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the philosophy and general principles of "primitive" indigenous production technologies and natural resource management systems in North and South America. Discusses indigenous practices that promote sustainable production in gathering, hunting and fishing, minerals extraction, and agriculture. (SV)

  20. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...and also English) natural language processing ( NLP ), containing code for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in Stephen Tratz’s

  1. The role of natural organics in radionuclide migration in natural aquifer systems

    Choppin, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wide variety of organic compounds present in natural waters is assessed for the role they may play in radionuclide and, especially, actinide migration. Some natural analog and environmental data are briefly reviewed for evaluation of the effect of organics in these systems. The binding constants and the kinetics of complexation of actinides by humics are discussed in terms of probable effects on actinide migration. The role of organics in redox, and in sorption, is also considered. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  3. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  4. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural ...

    Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the pharmaceutical and scientific communities and various publications have documented the therapeutic value of natural compounds in a bid to validate claims of their biological activity. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of plants and their ...

  5. Teaching and Assessing the Nature of Science

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS)--what science is and how it works, the assumptions that underlie scientific knowledge, how scientists function as a social group, and how society impacts and reacts to science--is prominent in science education reform documents (Rutherford and Ahlgren 1990; AAAS 1993; McComas and Olson 1998; NRC 1996; AAAS…

  6. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  7. Laser control of natural disperse systems

    Vlasova, Olga L.; Bezrukova, Alexandra G.

    2003-10-01

    Different water disperse systems were studied by integral (spectroturbidemetry) and differential light scattering method with a laser as a source of light. The investigation done concerns the state of kaolin dispersions at storage and under dilution as an example of mineral dispersion systems such as natural water. The role of some light scattering parameters for an optical analysis of water dispersions, like the dispersion of erythrocytes and bacterial cells -Escherichia coli is discussed. The results obtained can help to elaborate the methods for on-line optical control fo natural disperse systems (water, air) with mineral and biological particles.

  8. Natural Language Generation for dialogue: system survey

    Theune, Mariet

    Many natural language dialogue systems make use of `canned text' for output generation. This approach may be su±cient for dialogues in restricted domains where system utterances are short and simple and use fixed expressions (e.g., slot filling dialogues in the ticket reservation or travel

  9. Community Participation in Health Systems Research: A Systematic Review Assessing the State of Research, the Nature of Interventions Involved and the Features of Engagement with Communities.

    George, Asha S; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability, accessibility and

  10. Are Human and Natural Systems Decoupling?

    Ehrlich, P. R.; Ehrlich, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Typically, studies of coupled human and natural systems focus on reciprocating interactions and feedbacks between social systems and their biophysical environments. A major challenge today for CHANS scholars is to determine whether significant coupling remains or whether society is simply plunging ahead without reacting effectively to the deterioration of the environment. Thresholds for serious climate disruption are passing, toxification of Earth is proceeding apace and producing worrying symptoms, losses of vital biodiversity are at a 65 million-year high with serious consequences for ecosystem services, the epidemiological environment is deteriorating and a race is building to control water flows and extract the last high-quality resources, increasing the chances of ending civilization in an environment-wrecking nuclear war. The social system has attempted to respond to this perfect storm of problems. In the 1960s, building on much earlier work, scientists began assessing the consequences of an ever-growing human population and expanding consumption, overuse of pesticides, radioactive fallout, air and water pollution, and other environmental issues - and to recommend ameliorative steps. In the mid-1980s, biologists formed the discipline of conservation biology with the explicit purpose of stemming the hemorrhage of biodiversity. In the late 1980s, perhaps the single most important reaction to the worsening environmental situation was the development of the Montreal Protocol to preserve the vital stratospheric ozone layer. Around the same time, it dawned on the scientific community that climate disruption was going to be more immediate and dangerous than previously thought, but attempts by the world community to take mitigating steps have been pathetic. Action to deal with other dimensions of the environmental dilemma has been utterly inadequate. To see the growing disconnect, one only has to consider the attention paid in public discourse to the relatively

  11. An Attempt at Assessing Preferences for Natural Landscapes

    Calvin, James S.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of ways in which man makes a psychological assessment of his environment. Concerned with variables in the environment itself, fifteen photographs of natural landscape scenes were rated on each of twenty-one semantic differential scales by college students. Two major dimensions emerged: natural scenic beauty and a natural force…

  12. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A: Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Book cover Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A: Guidelines for an Ethnographic. Auteur(s) : L. Blum, P.J. Pelto, G.H. Pelto, and H.V. Kuhnlein. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997.

  13. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    1 janv. 1997 ... Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A : Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Couverture du livre Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A : Guidelines for an. Auteur(s):. L. Blum, P.J. Pelto, G.H. Pelto et H.V. Kuhnlein. Maison(s) d'édition: INFDC, CRDI.

  14. Assessing and Managing Natural Resource Damages: Continuing Challenges and Opportunities

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Stahl, Ralph G.

    2017-05-01

    In a 2002 paper, we discussed the technical challenges associated with quantifying natural resource injuries, service losses and damages, and suggested some actions that might help to overcome them. An important suggestion was to consider using some of the approaches in ecological risk assessment to help evaluate potential natural resource injuries, and ultimately in some cases to help translate those injuries into natural resource service loss. This was based on the observation that ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments use much of the same types of data, but at that time the experience base with ecological risk assessment was greater than for natural resource damage assessments. We also discussed some of the issues in applying the then current Department of Interior natural resource damage assessments regulations. Since our 2002 publication the scientific literature, relevant regulations, the global context and more have changed. In the current paper we focus on the technical and regulatory changes in natural resource damage assessments practice since 2002, and use recent reports and publications to illustrate those changes and identify new directions in natural resource damage assessments.

  15. The second generation of natural resource damage assessments: Lessons learned?

    Luthi, R.B.; Burlington, L.B.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), under the Office of General Counsel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has centered its efforts on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures will likely lower the costs associated with damage assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments and simplify most assessments. The DART team of NOAA is developing new regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration, and economic valuation. Various methods are currently being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources. The proposed means include: compensation tables for spills under 50,000 gallons, Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive procedures. They are being developed to provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages for each oil spill

  16. Natural gas market assessment: Price convergence in North American natural gas markets

    1995-12-01

    The extent to which Canadian and U.S. natural gas markets have become integrated in the post-deregulation era was assessed. This assessment was accomplished through a statistical analysis of the price movements in Canadian and U.S. gas markets. The analysis pointed to three broad conclusions: (1) on the whole, there has been an increasing degree of integration among North American natural gas markets since price deregulation and the introduction of open access, (2) there is somewhat of a split between eastern and western markets, (3) Alberta's links are stronger with the western U.S. natural gas market than with the market in the eastern U.S. Several factors were cited as contributing to the general increase in market integration, including: (1) increased pipeline capacity and additional pipeline interconnections, coupled with the development of market hubs, (2) improved flexibility of access to pipeline transportation services, (3) improved access to market information and greater trading flexibility which has been facilitated by growing use of electronic bulletin boards and electronic trading systems. The increased market integration was claimed to have benefited both consumers and producers, and to have increased competition in both countries.. 28 refs., 14 figs

  17. Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system.

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2014-02-01

    A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 (2-)/Al3 (+) mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 10(5) to 20 × 10(5) Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r=0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L(-1)), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L(-1) +20 mg L(-1)). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

  18. The transport system for natural gas

    Bjoerndalen, Joergen; Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the actors on the Norwegian shelf in cooperation with the authorities established a new regime for sale and transport of gas. This article deals with some issues of interest relating to this new regime. The transport system for natural gas shows clear signs of being a natural monopoly, which makes it difficult to use the system efficiently. Two main problems of the current way of organizing are pointed out: (1) lack of price and market signals in capacity allocation and (2) unclear incentive effects. The article indicates a possible solution based on the form of organization that is used in the power market

  19. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, drought hazard is becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and human activities. It is crucial to monitor and assess drought conditions, especially for decision making support in agriculture sector. The vegetation index (VI) decreases, and the land surface temperature (LST) increases when the vegetation is under drought stress. Therefore both of these remotely sensed indices are widely used in drought monitoring and assessment. Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) is obtained by establishing the feature space of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST, which reflects agriculture dry situation by inverting soil moisture. However, these indices only concern the natural hazard-causing factors. Our society is a complex large-scale system with various natural and social elements. The drought risk is the joint consequence of hazard-causing factors and hazard-affected bodies. For example, as the population increases, the exposure of the hazard-affected bodies also tends to increase. The high GDP enhances the response ability of government, and the irrigation and water conservancy reduces the vulnerability. Such characteristics of hazard-affected bodies should be coupled with natural factors. In this study, the 16-day moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LST data are combined to establish NDVI-Ts space according to different land use types in Yunnan Province, China. And then, TVDIs are calculated through dry and wet edges modeled as a linear fit to data for each land cover type. Next, the efforts are turned to establish an integrated drought assessment index of social factors and TVDI through ascertaining attribute weight based on rough sets theory. Thus, the new CDI (comprehensive drought index) recorded during spring of 2010 and the spatial variations in drought are analyzed and compared with TVDI dataset. Moreover, actual drought risk situation in the study area is given to

  20. Sunscope natural light systems : tubular skylights

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This brochure described a tubular skylight designed by Sunscope Natural Light Systems. The Sunscope is a super-reflective light system in which daylight is reflected down a cylinder to a translucent ceiling fixture that diffuses natural light throughout the room in which it is placed. The Sunscope requires no structure changes, is installed in less than 3 hours, and requires no drywall repairs or repainting. The system eliminates the need for daytime electric lighting, and causes no winter heat losses or summer heat gains. Available in 3 sizes, the Sunscope has no moving parts and is fully maintenance-free. The system was designed for use in commercial and residential applications. 7 figs.

  1. Natural risks assessment and management (project of monograph)

    Ragozin, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: large-scale theoretic and practical works on the issue of natural risk assessment and management started in Russia in the end of the 80's. By now there has been made a considerable progress, which allowed for the preparation of a collective monograph on the subject mentioned in the title of this abstract. It is supposed to be published in 1999 in order to become a Russian contribution to the International Decade of Natural Disasters Reduction. The monograph included 6 chapters with the following titles: 1. Methodological foundations of natural risk analysis and assessment. 2. Investigating and forecasting natural hazards for the purpose of risk assessment. 3. Assessment of economic, social and ecological damage from natural hazards. 4, Theory of natural risk assessment. 5. Examples of natural risk assessment and mapping. 6. Natural risk management. In the report there is described the content of the monograph and unsolved questions are discussed. Executive editor offers all international experts to cooperate in the compilation of this monograph, which is to be completed by the end of 1998, especially of chapter 5 and 6. (author)

  2. A System for Natural Language Sentence Generation.

    Levison, Michael; Lessard, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Describes the natural language computer program, "Vinci." Explains that using an attribute grammar formalism, Vinci can simulate components of several current linguistic theories. Considers the design of the system and its applications in linguistic modelling and second language acquisition research. Notes Vinci's uses in linguistics…

  3. Task planning systems with natural language interface

    Kambayashi, Shaw; Uenaka, Junji

    1989-12-01

    In this report, a natural language analyzer and two different task planning systems are described. In 1988, we have introduced a Japanese language analyzer named CS-PARSER for the input interface of the task planning system in the Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP). For the purpose of a high speed analysis, we have modified a dictionary system of the CS-PARSER by using C language description. It is found that the new dictionary system is very useful for a high speed analysis and an efficient maintenance of the dictionary. For the study of the task planning problem, we have modified a story generating system named Micro TALE-SPIN to generate a story written in Japanese sentences. We have also constructed a planning system with natural language interface by using the CS-PARSER. Task planning processes and related knowledge bases of these systems are explained. A concept design for a new task planning system will be also discussed from evaluations of above mentioned systems. (author)

  4. The Nature of Stability in Replicating Systems

    Addy Pross

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of dynamic kinetic stability, a type of stability associated specifically with replicating entities, and show how it differs from the well-known and established (static kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities associated with regular chemical systems. In the process we demonstrate how the concept can help bridge the conceptual chasm that continues to separate the physical and biological sciences by relating the nature of stability in the animate and inanimate worlds, and by providing additional insights into the physicochemical nature of abiogenesis.

  5. Assessing the nature of lipid raft membranes

    Niemelä, Perttu S; Ollila, Samuli; Hyvönen, Marja T

    2007-01-01

    of highly ordered lateral domains rich in sphingomyelin and cholesterol (CHOL). These domains, called functional lipid rafts, have been suggested to take part in a variety of dynamic cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the activity of membrane proteins......-scale simulations to elucidate the properties of ternary raft mixtures with CHOL, palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM), and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine. We simulate two bilayers of 1,024 lipids for 100 ns in the liquid-ordered phase and one system of the same size in the liquid-disordered phase. The studies provide...... heterogeneity more difficult. The findings reveal aspects of the role of favored (specific) lipid-lipid interactions within rafts and clarify the prominent role of CHOL in altering the properties of the membrane locally in its neighborhood. Also, we show that the presence of PSM and CHOL in rafts leads...

  6. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.; Skagius K.; Karlsson, F.; Smellie, J.

    1993-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  7. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... This manual presents a practical step-by-step guide for assessing various aspects of natural food sources of vitamin A within a community and is essential for any research program involved in alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

  8. Assessments of nuclear systems

    Ekholm, R.

    1978-01-01

    Assessments of competing energy systems are gaining increased importance as a means for an optimal choice of energy source for each specific major application considering the growing energy needs and the shortage of supply. However it is important to make sure that the assessments reflect scientific facts rather than private interests. If this is not achieved, scientists will lose credibility and one will lose the basis for political decisions. It is concluded that to accomplish the globally justified needs for thousands of nuclear reactors soon after the year 2000 and to save a maximum of lives with a minimum of environmental impact, emphasis must be put on low energy costs and on a good fuel and capital resource utilization. This goal can be best accomplished by expendient introduction of the fast breeders and of promising advanced reactors. The gas cooled breeder and the high temperature reactor have outstanding short and long terms merits on this respect, but are not enjoying the financial support that they deserve. (UK)

  9. Desicion Support System For Natural Hazards

    Vyazilov, E.

    2009-04-01

    recommendations should be reasonable. To resolve the above problems or to make them less significant it is necessary to develop decision support systems (DSS). DMs need not tables with initial data, analytical, forecasting and climatic information, but messages containing warnings on critical value accidence, information on probability of hazards, information on potential losses, and information on hazardous impacts and recommendations on decision making. DSS can do the following: take into account impacts on specific points and on the total area under consideration; allow for the effects of the environment on economic entities (objects) in any geographical region to be analyzed; distinguish impacts and changes caused both by different phenomena and by their combination; signal when objects are or can be in adverse environmental conditions, e.g. in the area affected by fog, storm, tropical cyclone or in the area where the probability of hazardous ice events is very high, etc. The main component of DSS is a knowledge base based on the following concept: if we know environmental conditions it is possible to predict potential impacts on the economy; if we know impacts it is possible to give a set of recommendations on how to prevent (reduce) losses or how to use natural resources most efficiently. Decision making criteria are safety of people and property, reduction of losses, increase of profit, materials saving, etc. Knowledge base is a set of rules formulated in a formalized way using if, that, else. If "Water level in S.-Petersburg >150 cm" that "To give out warning information "Hazards for building on coastal river Neva is possible" and recommendations "The valuable goods carry out in second floor" else "To switch another rule". To have a knowledge base in place it is necessary to: develop tools of identifying and getting knowledge from experts; arrange the information flow from available information systems (operational data, analyses, forecasts, climatic information) through

  10. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources : Management, Policy ...

    31 oct. 2007 ... Depuis quelques années, les chercheurs, les responsables des politiques et les militants du développement s'intéressent fortement aux systèmes de connaissances. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources est un recueil unique d'études de cas réalisées au Népal. Cet ouvrage apporte un éclairage ...

  11. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  12. Natural circulation in reactor coolant system

    Han, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Reactor coolant system (RCS) natural circulation in a PWR is the buoyancy-driven coolant circulation between the core and the upper-plenum region (in-vessel circulation) with or without a countercurrent flow in the hot leg piping between the vessel and steam generators (ex-vessel circulation). This kind of multidimensional bouyancy-driven flow circulation serves as a means of transferring the heat from the core to the structures in the upper plenum, hot legs, and possibly steam generators. As a result, the RCS piping and other pressure boundaries may be heated to high temperatures at which the structural integrity is challenged. RCS natural circulation is likely to occur during the core uncovery period of the TMLB' accident in a PWR when the vessel upper plenum and hot leg are already drained and filled with steam and possibly other gaseous species. RCS natural circulation is being studied for the Surry plant during the TMLB' accident in which station blackout coincides with the loss of auxiliary feedwater and no operator actions. The effects of the multidimensional RCS natural circulation during the TMLB' accident are discussed

  13. Structural equation modeling and natural systems

    Grace, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This book, first published in 2006, presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems.

  14. Integrated Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards in Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated risk assessment includes the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such as baseline study, hazard identification and categorization, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values. Thus, social vulnerability is a pre-existing condition that affects a society's ability to prepare for and recover from a disruptive event. Risk is the probability of a loss, and this loss depends on three elements: hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Thus, risk is the estimated impact that a hazard event would have on people, services, facilities, structures and assets in a community. In this work we assess the risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37N, 92.25W) with a population of about 20 000 habitants. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed to many different natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods). To determine the level of exposure of the community to natural hazards, we developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic microzonation, landslide and flood susceptibility as well as volcanic impact using standard methodologies. Social vulnerability was quantified from data obtained from local families interviews. Five variables were considered: household structure quality and design, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing family plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception.The number of families surveyed was determined considering a sample statistically significant. The families that were interviewed were selected using the simple random sampling technique with replacement. With these

  15. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  16. The role of natural analogues in safety assessment and acceptability

    Papp, Toenis

    1987-01-01

    The safety assessment must evaluate the level of safety for a repository, the confidence that can be placed on the assessment and how well the repository can meet the acceptance criteria of the society. Many of the processes and phenomena that govern the long term performance of a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste also take place in nature. To investigate these natural analogues and try to validate the models on which the safety assessment are based is a main task in the effort to build of confidence in the safety assessments. The assessment of the safety of a repository can, however, not only be based on good models. The possible role of natural analogues or natural evidence in other parts of the safety assessment is discussed. Specially with regard to - the need to demonstrate that all relevant processes have been taken into account, and that the important ones have been validated to an acceptable level for relevant parameters spans, -the definition and analysis of external scenarios for the safety assessment and for the claim that all reasonable scenarios have been addressed, - the public confidence in the long-term relevance of the acceptance criteria. (author)

  17. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  18. Naturally Speaking: A Systems Biology Tool With Natural Language Interfaces

    Antoniotti, Marco; Lau, Ian T; Mishra, Bud

    2004-01-01

    .... Thus, this bioinformatics system improves the quality of the interaction that a biologist can have with a system built on rigorous mathematical modeling, but without being aware of the underlying...

  19. NBS measurement system for natural argon-37

    Currie, L.A.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    A project to determine the cosmic-ray production rate and the natural levels of 35-day half-life 37 Ar in the atmosphere has been underway at the National Bureau of Standards for about the past year. The prime objective of this project is to determine the spatial dependence of 37 Ar production in the atmosphere, and the spatial distribution of the naturally-produced 37 Ar (observed concentrations). The results of this study are to be used, in cooperation with L. Machta (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration), to derive information about atmospheric mixing. The purpose of this communication, however, is to present a general description of the various components of the measurement system. As the lowest concentrations of interest are but approximately equal to 10 -3 dpm ( 37 Ar)/l-Ar, very high sensitivity measurement techniques are required. Among the techniques which we have adopted are: quantitative separation of the noble gases from about 1 m 3 of air, using a CaC 2 reactor; gas chromatographic separation of the argon fraction; isotopic enrichment (by a factor of approximately equal to 100) of purified argon; use of specially selected low-level gas proportional counters together with massive shielding and anticoincidence meson cancellation; and the application of pulse discrimination based upon both amplitude (energy) and pulse shape. Finally, on-line computer techniques are being applied for data acquisition and system control

  20. Assessing Natural Hazard Vulnerability Through Marmara Region Using GIS

    Sabuncu, A.; Garagon Dogru, A.; Ozener, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural hazards are natural phenomenon occured in the Earth's system that include geological and meteorological events such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, droughts, fires and tsunamis. The metropolitan cities are vulnerable to natural hazards due to their population densities, industrial facilities and proporties. The urban layout of the megacities are complex since industrial facilities are interference with residential area. The Marmara region is placed in North-western Turkey suffered from natural hazards (earthquakes, floods etc.) for years. After 1999 Kocaeli and Duzce earthquakes and 2009 Istanbul flash floods, dramatic number of casualities and economic losses were reported by the authorities. Geographic information systems (GIS) have substantial capacity in order to develop natural disaster management. As these systems provide more efficient and reliable analysis and evaluation of the data in the management, and also convenient and better solutions for the decision making before during and after the natural hazards. The Earth science data and socio-economic data can be integrated into a GIS as different layers. Additionally, satellite data are used to understand the changes pre and post the natural hazards. GIS is a powerful software for the combination of different type of digital data. A natural hazard database for the Marmara region provides all different types of digital data to the users. All proper data collection processing and analysing are critical to evaluate and identify hazards. The natural hazard database allows users to monitor, analyze and query past and recent disasters in the Marmara Region. The long term aim of this study is to develop geodatabase and identify the natural hazard vulnerabilities of the metropolitan cities.

  1. Naturalness, value systems and perception of risk

    Drottz Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: what is natural? And what is Nature? Are perceptions of Nature and naturalness related to perceptions of risk? This paper focuses on these aspects based on results from a Swedish representative sample (N=731), where subjects indicated e.g. the degree of naturalness of various phenomena, their views of nature, and personal life values, as well as perceptions of risk in specified contexts. The results showed a tendency to perceive as natural the phenomenon which is positively valued, i.e. what is natural is also good or desirable. Further, there were weak correlations between perceived naturalness and indicators of technological optimism, possibly indicating that persons with a more generous view of what is natural also more easily might accept change and outcomes due to human intelligence and activity. The construct of 'tampering with nature' has previously been shown to be one good predictor of perceived risk. The respondents also rated their agreement with items aimed to reflect the four 'views of nature' as suggested by Cultural Theory, i.e. nature as robust, capricious, tolerant and fragile. Nature was foremost perceived as fragile, but the main result clearly revealed that peoples' views of nature were complex and most often involved several of the suggested categories. The discussion focuses on the possible implications on environmental concern and risk perception given that Nature would develop into an undesirable type of locality. (author)

  2. Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural ...

    Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural radioactivity and its overall health detriments. ... No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. The projected ... However, the chances of radiological hazard to the health of human from radioactivity in the soil were generally low.

  3. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...

  4. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  5. Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of ...

    Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of Rhizophora racemosa in a Heavy Metal Polluted Mangrove Forest, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Many of these noxious substances have been noted to be removable from polluted environment through proper application of phytoremediation techniques, particularly ...

  6. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups

  7. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, LaTonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myerly, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  8. French radioactive wastes performance assessment and the natural analogues approach: an overview

    Escalier des Orres, P.

    1988-10-01

    One of the main difficulties linked to the Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment calculations lies in the scale of time and space underlying these calculations: mechanisms and parameters can directly be affected by time or space dependency. The ''natural analogues'' approach has evident advantages, at least qualitative, to enlighten these aspects. It may also provide confidence in our ability to model partial or overall natural systems. The following paper gives the headlines of the use of the ''natural analogues'' methodology in the French Radioactive Wastes Performance Assessment in the field of waste disposal

  9. Maritimes natural gas market : an overview and assessment

    Booth, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) adopted a market-based procedure (MBP) to assess long-term gas exports. The MPB included monitoring and assessment of Maritimes natural gas markets. The NEB is responsible for interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines as well as tolls and tariffs on NEB-regulated pipelines. The NEB is also responsible for electricity and natural gas exports and exploration programs on federally regulated lands not covered by an Accord agreement. The province of New Brunswick requested a new set of rules for the export of natural gas from the Maritimes to ensure competitiveness with other jurisdictions. The NEB decided that the public interest is best served by allowing the market to work. It also decided that the developing Maritimes market faces several challenges not faced by buyers in the export market. It was concluded that the market is working reasonably well to meet the needs of domestic consumers. 20 per cent of Scotian gas is being used in the Maritimes and many laterals have been constructed to extend service. Most major population centres have natural gas. However, there is no residential or commercial natural gas service in Nova Scotia, and only limited penetration of natural gas in residential and commercial markets in New Brunswick. Maritimers have a long history of using other fuel options and must make capital investment to switch to natural gas. They must, therefore, be convinced that investment will pay off in fuel savings and other benefits. The NEB will have to improve price transparency and strive for regulatory efficiency and cooperation with other jurisdictions. 2 figs

  10. Systemic Assessment as a New Tool for Assessing Students ...

    Systemic Assessment as a New Tool for Assessing Students Learning in Chemistry using SATL Methods: Systemic Matching, Systemic Synthesis, Systemic Analysis, Systemic Synthetic – Analytic, as Systemic Question Types.

  11. Coordinating ecological risk assessment with natural resource damage assessment: A panel discussion.

    Sanders, Brenda; Ammann, Mike; Hoff, Rebecca; Huston, Mark; Jenkins, Kenneth; Palagyi, Tony; Pelto, Karen; Rettig, Todd; Wagner, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Contaminated sites in the United States undergo remediation and restoration through regulatory programs that lead the 2 processes through independent but often parallel pathways with different objectives. The objective of remediation is to reduce risk to human health and the environment, whereas that of restoration is to restore injured resources and compensate the public for lost use of the services that natural resources provide. More complex sites, such as those associated with large river systems and urban waterways, have resulted in increasingly larger-scale ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) that take many years and involve diverse practitioners including scientists, economists, and engineers. Substantial levels of effort are now frequently required, creating a need for more efficient and cost-effective approaches to data collection, analyses, and assessments. Because there are commonalities in the data needs between ERAs and NRDAs, coordination of the design and implementation of site-specific studies that meet the needs of both programs could result in increased efficiency and lower costs. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation convened a panel of environmental practitioners from industry, consulting, and regulatory bodies to examine the benefits and challenges associated with coordinating ERA and NRDA activities in the context of a broad range of regulatory programs. This brief communication presents the opinions and conclusions of the panelists on these issues and reports 2 case studies for which coordinated ERA and NRDA activities produced a positive outcome. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:616-621. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C.; Ebel, P.E.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a natural circulation experiment in Nuclear Power Plant Borssele

    Winters, L.

    1993-07-01

    As part of the ICAP (International Code Assessment and Applications Program) agreement between ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) and USNRC, ECN has performed a number of assessment calculations for the thermohydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD2/36.05. This document describes the assessment of this computer program versus a natural circulation experiment as conducted at the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant. The results of this comparison show that the code RELAP5/MOD2 predicts well the natural circulation behaviour of Nuclear Power Plant Borssele

  15. Liquefied natural gas : a Canadian perspective : an energy market assessment

    2009-01-01

    World requirements for energy and natural gas are expected to increase in the near future. This energy market assessment presented an overview of global liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply and demand, and discussed the potential effects that imported LNG may have on Canadian gas markets and energy infrastructure. Regasification projects will double the world's existing LNG receiving capacity by 2015. However, LNG pricing will still be indexed to the price of crude oil and oil products in the future. LNG price differences will affect trading opportunities as well as the flow of LNG between regions. North American LNG facility development will be influenced by outlooks for continental gas supply and demand. Current declines combined with recent increases in United States natural gas production from unconventional gas resources will reduce requirements for LNG in the near future, and may have a significant impact on long-term North American and global LNG requirements. Canada's existing facilities are located competitively with other terminals. 33 figs.

  16. Assessment of terrestrial naturally occurring radioactive Material in ...

    The levels of natural radioactivity of 40K, 238U and 232Th in soils and mine tailings of Awo and Ede areas of Osunstate, Nigeria have been measured using a portable, advanced survey meter 992 Fluke Victoreen Gamma Scout Model for in-situ investigation and a 1 inch by 1 inch Cesium Iodide detector system.

  17. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines

    1977-02-01

    This document contains phases 7, 8, and 9 of a review on the technology assessment of long distance liquefied natural gas (LNG) pipelines. Phase 7 contains 6 papers describing novel applications for LNG pipelines. Phase 8 contains a summary of material relating to cold utilization and rural service. Phase 9 presents a listing of materials and equipment used to construct an LNG pipeline. Separate abstracts for each phase of the study have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  18. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the selected area of Slovakia

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakia is country which has a difficult geological structure. This fact is reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. A chosen area includes various types rocks which have diverse values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these values were shown by maps which present localities with values of a radioactivity. This research was a first step which will be used like a base for a valorization and assessment of the potential radiation exposure of residents of SR where we can suppose health damage. (authors)

  19. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  20. Natural gas market assessment ten years after deregulation

    1996-11-01

    Changes which have taken place in the Canadian natural gas market in the ten years since the gas market was de-regulated, were reviewed. A 1985 agreement created conditions for a competitive natural gas market. However, the National Energy Board ensured that the pipeline transmission sector of the gas industry would continue to be regulated because of its natural monopoly characteristics. Open non-discriminatory access was to be provided to all shippers on inter-provincial gas pipelines. One objective of this report was to provide the Board with the means of assuring itself that the market was operating in such a way that Canadian requirements for natural gas were being met at fair market prices. The report also provided a review of the major changes in the gas producing and transmission sector, and reviewed developments in gas markets and sales practices. The overall assessment was that the natural gas industry was efficient and responsive to the demands of the marketplace. 5 tabs., 30 figs

  1. Design guidelines for natural ventilation systems in tertiary sector buildings

    Van Moeseke, Geoffrey; Bruyère, Isabelle; De Herde, André; CISBAT 2005: Renewables in a changing climate

    2005-01-01

    Parameters determining efficiency of natural ventilation systems are numerous. The most important are architecture and system design. This article get onto both but focuses on system design. Through dynamic simulations it shows that natural ventilation management has a large impact on energy saving but most of all on thermal comfort. Natural ventilation techniques are also weighted against hybrid solutions and high efficiency mechanical cooling solutions. Natural ventilation techniques show t...

  2. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11 was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8 to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens

  3. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system

    Krantz, E.A.; Russell, K.D.; Stewart, H.D.; Van Siclen, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) related information in the day-to-day operation of plant systems has, in the past, been impracticable due to the size of the computers needed to run PRA codes. This paper discusses a microcomputer-based database system which can greatly enhance the capability of operators or regulators to incorporate PRA methodologies into their routine decision making. This system is called the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system. SARA was developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to facilitate the study of frequency and consequence analyses of accident sequences from a large number of light water reactors (LWRs) in this country. This information is being amassed by several studies sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). To meet the need of portability and accessibility, and to perform the variety of calculations necessary, it was felt that a microcomputer-based system would be most suitable

  5. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural resource damage assessments: Linking injury to restoration

    Newell, M.; Collinson-Kahl, C.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), natural resource trustees have the authority to act on behalf of the public to file claims for damages against potentially responsible parties for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources and related human services caused by releases of hazardous substances or discharges of oil. Damages recovered must be used to restore, replace, or acquire the equivalent of such resources. Therefore, to adequately restore an injured resource and the services it provides, a natural resource restoration proposal should address, as directly as possible, the injuries caused by a hazardous substance release. In other words, the resources restored and services generated by the restoration activities should be commensurate in type and amount with the reduction in services caused by the release. More specifically, the natural resource damage assessment regulations indicate that services should be used as the common currency for linking injury to restoration. The following conceptual steps may be followed to develop a primary restoration program that is linked to the injuries: Define the resources that were injured, and identify the services provided by those resources that were reduced by the injury. Define the baseline levels of the quantity of the resource, and the quantity of the services that would have been provided by the resource if the injury had not occurred. Quantify the interim lost value, which represents the reduction in services (compared to a baseline) from the time of the injury through the time of full recovery of the resources, assuming natural recovery. Evaluate the potential restoration projects for inclusion in the primary restoration program, which is designed to accelerate and enhance natural recovery of the resources and the flow of services from the resources

  7. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  8. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  9. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    G. Saulnier; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table

  10. Assessing natural hazard risk using images and data

    Mccullough, H. L.; Dunbar, P. K.; Varner, J. D.; Mungov, G.

    2012-12-01

    Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazard assessment. Scientific research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for risk analysis, inundation mapping and historic records. Instrumental data only reveal a portion of the whole story; photographs explicitly illustrate the physical and societal impacts from the event. Visual data is rapidly increasing as the availability of portable high resolution cameras and video recorders becomes more attainable. Incorporating these data into archives ensures a more complete historical account of events. Integrating natural hazards data, such as tsunami, earthquake and volcanic eruption events, socio-economic information, and tsunami deposits and runups along with images and photographs enhances event comprehension. Global historic databases at NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) consolidate these data, providing the user with easy access to a network of information. NGDC's Natural Hazards Image Database (ngdc.noaa.gov/hazardimages) was recently improved to provide a more efficient and dynamic user interface. It uses the Google Maps API and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to provide geographic context to the images and events. Descriptive tags, or keywords, have been applied to each image, enabling easier navigation and discovery. In addition, the Natural Hazards Map Viewer (maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards) provides the ability to search and browse data layers on a Mercator-projection globe with a variety of map backgrounds. This combination of features creates a simple and effective way to enhance our understanding of hazard events and risks using imagery.

  11. Natural gas vehicles: Technical assessment and overview of world situation

    Klimstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    In evaluating commercialization prospects for natural gas fuelled vehicles, this paper compares the performance and emission quality of these innovative vehicles with those using conventional fuels - gasoline and diesel fuels. Assessments are made of the state-of-the-art of current technology relative to fuel storage, air/fuel mixture preparation, in cylinder combustion processes and pollution control. The analysis evidences that while natural gas is an excellent fuel for spark ignition engines, in transport applications its use is hampered by large storage volume requirements and weight. Moreover, the air/fuel mixture preparation, combustion process and exhaust-gas cleaning require a greater research and development effort to make this alternative fuel economically and environmentally competitive with conventional fuels

  12. Morocco; Financial System Stability Assessment

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Financial System Stability Assessment of Morocco reviews the reform program that is aimed at establishing a modern, market-oriented financial system that optimizes the mobilization of savings and the allocation of financial resources. It reviews the modernization of the banking sector and the development of competition within the sector, development of financial markets, and removal of constraints on financial system activity. It also provides reports on the Observance of Standards and Co...

  13. Fisheries-Independent Biological and Environmental Trawl Data from the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1981-2007) as Part of the Comparative Assessment of Gulf Estuarine Systems (CAGES) Database (NODC Accession 0115183)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAGES program (Comparative Assessment of Gulf Estuarine Systems) is designed to examine the differences between estuarine ecosystems and investigate why some are...

  14. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  15. Conference on Environmental Assessment of Socioeconomic Systems

    Ittelson, William

    1978-01-01

    Neglect of the relation between the socio-economic system and its natural environment has had detrimental consequences in the past, for example - the pollution of the natural environment (water, air and soil) by producing, using and consuming the products of our industrialized economy, - the forseeable exhaustion of natural resources by continuing the increase of industrial production. Most of the recent activities, both in research and in adminis­ tration, against these impacts have been technically oriented, with the aim of stimulating and introducing new technologies of produc­ tion and new products to diminish the environmental pollution. But these efforts, which are of course necessary, cannot be successful in approaching the aim - which should and must in the long-term view be defined as the development of society in balance with the natural environment. Therefore, in addition to an assess­ ment of technologies, emphasis should be put on an assessment of socio-economic systems. On di~~erent levels, i...

  16. Natural frequency extraction of a beam-moving mass system with periodic passages using its pseudo-natural frequencies

    Ghorbani, Esmaeil; Keshmiri, Mehdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Wind turbines, helicopters, and turbo-machineries' rotary motion, along with a variety of nonlinear structures linearized with their periodic limit cycles, may all contain time-periodic terms in their equations of motion even if the equations remain linear. The purpose of this study is to model these systems into a beam-moving mass system. Natural frequencies of the beam are calculated using past work in which pseudo-natural frequencies of a beam-moving mass system were extracted, followed by the homotopy perturbation method. The findings of this study are valuable to the industry, and they decrease error margin in resonance range assessment. This approach indicates that for beam-moving mass systems, extraction of natural frequencies that ignore the moving mass effect can lead to inaccurate results, whereas only a limited amount of physical data are needed obtain accurate calculations. Furthermore, this study used homotopy perturbation for operational modal analysis purposes and not for solving nonlinear equations.

  17. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  18. Natural resource damage assessment -- Trustee and defendant perspectives

    McHugh, M.; Trimmier, R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the NRD process is restoration: restoring injured resources and the services they provide to a level that will compensate the public for the losses associated with injuries. While restoration, the final step in the cleanup process, has only recently been pursued, experience dictates that it is more effective and efficient for cleanup agencies. Industry and natural resource trustees to address NRD by integrating it into the cleanup process in a cooperative and coordinated manner. Early integration reduces transaction costs and liability by: (1) enabling the collection of NRD information by field personnel already conducting RI work; (2) promoting the selection of remedial alternatives that are protective of resources; and (3) creating opportunities to build restoration directly into the remedy. The damage assessment regulations provide an objective template to guide this process. Integration thus facilitates timely restoration, thereby halting the accrual of further damages and reducing the potential for time consuming and costly litigation. Delays in settlement and restoration are more likely when trustees are not made part of the cleanup process. Particularly under CERCLA, reliance on unproven science for injury determination and unreliable economics for damage assessment results in inflated values, prolonged litigation, delayed or vacuous remedial action and high transaction costs. Under OPA, where oil spills require immediate and effective response action, cooperation between PRPs and Trustees is more likely, but even there, the post-response assessment of NRD is unlikely to be cooperative for the same reason CERCLA assessments tend not to be

  19. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  20. Human Nature and its Implications for the Legal System | Obioha ...

    This paper examines the implications the various conceptions of human nature hold for the legal system. No doubt, there are various and conflicting theories of human nature such that the concept of human nature seems to have remained elusive and pervasive. Some conceive man as nothing but matter pure and simple; ...

  1. Safety assessment of HLW geological disposal system

    Naito, Morimasa

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the Japanese nuclear program, the liquid waste with a high level of radioactivity arising from reprocessing is solidified in a stable glass matrix (vitrification) in stainless steel fabrication containers. The vitrified waste is referred to as high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and is characterized by very high initial radioactivity which, even though it decreases with time, presents a potential long-term risk. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly manage HLW from human and his environment. After vitrification, HLW is stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, and finally disposed of in a stable geological environment at depths greater than 300 m below surface. The deep underground environment, in general, is considered to be stable over geological timescales compared with surface environment. By selecting an appropriate disposal site, therefore, it is considered to be feasible to isolate the waste in the repository from man and his environment until such time as radioactivity levels have decayed to insignificance. The concept of geological disposal in Japan is similar to that in other countries, being based on a multibarrier system which combines the natural geological environment with engineered barriers. It should be noted that geological disposal concept is based on a passive safety system that does not require any institutional control for assuring long term environmental safety. To demonstrate feasibility of safe HLW repository concept in Japan, following technical steps are essential. Selection of a geological environment which is sufficiently stable for disposal (site selection). Design and installation of the engineered barrier system in a stable geological environment (engineering measures). Confirmation of the safety of the constructed geological disposal system (safety assessment). For site selection, particular consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment taking into account the fact

  2. Visualization and natural control systems for microscopy

    Taylor, Russell M.; Borland, David; Brooks, Frederick P.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents these microscope systems, along with brief descriptions of the science experiments driving the development of each system. Beginning with a discussion of the philosophy that has driven the Nanoscale Science Research Group (NSRG) and the methods used, the chapter describes th...

  3. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  4. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 ± 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory analysis

  5. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  6. Afghanistan Multi-Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards

    Diermanse, Ferdinand; Daniell, James; Pollino, Maurizio; Glover, James; Bouwer, Laurens; de Bel, Mark; Schaefer, Andreas; Puglisi, Claudio; Winsemius, Hessel; Burzel, Andreas; Ammann, Walter; Aliparast, Mojtaba; Jongman, Brenden; Ranghieri, Federica; Fallesen, Ditte

    2017-04-01

    The geographical location of Afghanistan and years of environmental degradation in the country make Afghanistan highly prone to intense and recurring natural hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, snow avalanches, landslides, and droughts. These occur in addition to man-made disasters resulting in the frequent loss of live, livelihoods, and property. Since 1980, disasters caused by natural hazards have affected 9 million people and caused over 20,000 fatalities in Afghanistan. The creation, understanding and accessibility of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk information is key for effective management of disaster risk. This is especially true in Afghanistan, where reconstruction after recent natural disasters and military conflicts is on-going and will continue over the coming years. So far, there has been limited disaster risk information produced in Afghanistan, and information that does exist typically lacks standard methodology and does not have uniform geo-spatial coverage. There are currently no available risk assessment studies that cover all major natural hazards in Afghanistan, which can be used to assess the costs and benefits of different resilient reconstruction and disaster risk reduction strategies. As a result, the Government of Afghanistan has limited information regarding current and future disaster risk and the effectiveness of policy options on which to base their reconstruction and risk reduction decisions. To better understand natural hazard and disaster risk, the World Bank and Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) are supporting the development of new fluvial flood, flash flood, drought, landslide, avalanche and seismic risk information in Afghanistan, as well as a first-order analysis of the costs and benefits of resilient reconstruction and risk reduction strategies undertaken by the authors. The hazard component is the combination of probability and magnitude of natural hazards. Hazard analyses were carried out

  7. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  8. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  9. Intelligent Techniques for Power Systems Vulnerability Assessment

    Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available With power grids considered national security matters, the reliable operation of the system is of top priority to utilities.  This concern is amplified by the utility’s deregulation, which increases the system’s openness while simultaneously decreasing the applied degree of control.  Vulnerability Assessment (VA deals with the power system’s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency.  Such contingencies may include unauthorized tripping, breaks in communication links, sabotage or intrusion by external agents, human errors, natural calamities and faults.  These contingencies could lead to a disruption of service to part or all of the system.  The service disruption is known as outage or blackout.  The paper outlines an approach by which feature extraction and boundary tracking can be implemented to achieve on line vulnerability assessment.

  10. The Maritimes natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    2003-06-01

    The National Energy Board continually monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the functioning of the natural gas market in the Maritimes and discusses several issues facing the market. The focus of the report is on the existing markets served by the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP) in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It also includes Prince Edward Island, another Maritime market that may be served by the pipeline before the end of the decade. Since the initiation of the Sable Offshore Energy (SOE) Project more than 3 years ago, pipeline facilities have been built off the mainline M and NP system to serve Halifax and Point Tupper in Nova Scotia, and Saint John, Moncton, and St. George in New Brunswick. Enbridge Gas New Brunswick has built distribution facilities in Fredericton and Oromocto, New Brunswick to serve large industrial, commercial and residential consumers. A distribution system has not been set up for residential or commercial customers in Nova Scotia. Approximately 20 per cent of the Scotian production is being consumed in the Maritimes, while 80 per cent of the gas produced from the SOE Project is being exported to the United States. Despite the high export, the Board is satisfied that the market is working to the benefit of Canadians because energy users in the Maritimes already have access to a variety of fuels at competitive prices. The Maritimes also benefited from the development of the natural gas industry and the export market has provided a large anchor market necessary for the development of offshore reserves. Domestic demand has also grown due to a pipeline system policy that has maintained low transportation rates to domestic users. The challenges facing the Maritimes gas market include the fact than many of the markets in the Maritimes are small, thereby reducing the economics of serving these

  11. Wicked Problems in Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Stein, S.; Steckler, M. S.; Rundle, J. B.; Dixon, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Social scientists have defined "wicked" problems that are "messy, ill-defined, more complex than we fully grasp, and open to multiple interpretations based on one's point of view... No solution to a wicked problem is permanent or wholly satisfying, which leaves every solution open to easy polemical attack." These contrast with "tame" problems in which necessary information is available and solutions - even if difficult and expensive - are straightforward to identify and execute. Updating the U.S.'s aging infrastructure is a tame problem, because what is wrong and how to fix it are clear. In contrast, addressing climate change is a wicked problem because its effects are uncertain and the best strategies to address them are unclear. An analogous approach can be taken to natural hazard problems. In tame problems, we have a good model of the process, good information about past events, and data implying that the model should predict future events. In such cases, we can make a reasonable assessment of the hazard that can be used to develop mitigation strategies. Earthquake hazard mitigation for San Francisco is a relatively tame problem. We understand how the earthquakes result from known plate motions, have information about past earthquakes, and have geodetic data implying that future similar earthquakes will occur. As a result, it is straightforward to develop and implement mitigation strategies. However, in many cases, hazard assessment and mitigation is a wicked problem. How should we prepare for a great earthquake on plate boundaries where tectonics favor such events but we have no evidence that they have occurred and hence how large they may be or how often to expect them? How should we assess the hazard within plates, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone, where large earthquakes have occurred but we do not understand their causes and geodetic data show no strain accumulating? How can we assess the hazard and make sensible policy when the recurrence of

  12. Natural Circulation Capability Assessments for a Small-medium Reactor

    Choi, Sun Do

    2010-02-01

    Small-medium reactors have been highly evaluated to have more safe characteristics than those of large reactors. In addition, it could be used for a variety of purposes, such as small-scale power production in mountainous of island area, seawater desalination, regional heating system. For a higher safety, studies about a way of using natural circulation have being conducted around world. CAREM(Argentina), AST- 500(Russia), and NHR-200(china) etc. According to this tendency, REX- 10(Regional Energy rX-10) is designed in Korea for regional heating and small-scale power production. To investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10, we designed Rex-10 Test Facility (RTF), simulating REX-10, by using the scaling law. The scaling ratios of length, volume and power were set with 1/1, 1/50 and 1/50, respectively. The diameter and total length of RTF are 40 cm and approximately 6 m, respectively. The facility is composed of various components, which are a core in the bottom part, a heat exchanger in the middle part, a pressurizer and hot legs in the upper part, and chillers outside the facility. The test instrumentation is also designed to measure temperatures, flow rates, pressures, and pressure drop. The experiment parameters were adopted based on the 1-dimensional approach. There are a variety of parameters which influence natural circulation behavior such as heater power, overall flow resistance parameter, the distance between the center of the heat exchanger and the core. As the experimental geometries are fixed, it is found that the most important parameter is the heater power under the experimental conditions. In addition, to evaluate the effect of heater power, some experiments were conducted at varying heater power condition (from 70 kW to 170 kW) under constant primary pressure (2.0 MPa) and secondary flow rate (4.5 liter per minute). As the results of the experiments, the temperature and flow rate increase with increasing heater power. The flow rate is

  13. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  14. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  15. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  16. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  17. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  18. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  19. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  20. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  1. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system

  2. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  3. Natural gas market assessment. Canadian natural gas market mechanisms: Recent experiences and developments

    1993-11-01

    The increase in natural gas demand and the associated expansions of most of the pipeline systems serving western Canada have reduced the excess deliverability or excess productive capacity that existed at the time of deregulation of the natural gas industry in 1985. Based on an industry survey, the responses of natural gas buyers and sellers to recent supply difficulties are described. Specific production, transportation, and contractual difficulties were encountered in winter 1992/93 as production was stretched to meet record levels of demand during periods of very cold temperatures and as short-term spot prices reached very high levels. Problems at this time included wellhead freezeups, pipeline outages, and inadequate contract terms and conditions. Methods used to maintain gas flows to end users are reviewed, including a discussion of force majeure, spot gas purchases, storage, supply curtailment, and special loan arrangements. In 1992/93, in most instances where the responsibility fell on the end-user to solve the supply problem, the difficulty was shifted to local distribution companies who have traditionally had more experience with such situations. No cases were identified where either a firm or interruptible end-user was forced to curtail gas consumption because of inadequate supply. New market mechanisms are emerging that will enable buyers and sellers of western Canadian gas to avoid many of the problems encountered in 1992/93. These include prearranged backstopping arrangements, short-term spot markets, access to other gas basins, standardized gas contracts, electronic trading, and price risk management tools. 11 figs

  4. Assessing Natural Direct and Indirect Effects Through Multiple Pathways

    Lange, T; Rasmussen, M; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2014-01-01

    . The approach is an extension of the natural effect models proposed by Lange et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(3):190-195). By allowing the analysis of distinct multiple pathways, the suggested approach adds to the capabilities of modern mediation techniques. Furthermore, the approach can be implemented using......Within the fields of epidemiology, interventions research and social sciences researchers are often faced with the challenge of decomposing the effect of an exposure into different causal pathways working through defined mediator variables. The goal of such analyses is often to understand...... the mechanisms of the system or to suggest possible interventions. The case of a single mediator, thus implying only 2 causal pathways (direct and indirect) from exposure to outcome, has been extensively studied. By using the framework of counterfactual variables, researchers have established theoretical...

  5. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper

  6. ASSESSING AEROBIC NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE AT FOUR DOE SITES

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  7. Study on quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for natural gas pipelines based on fuzzy comprehensive assessment

    Qiu, Zeyang; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of national energy supply system, transmission pipelines for natural gas are possible to cause serious environmental pollution, life and property loss in case of accident. The third party damage is one of the most significant causes for natural gas pipeline system accidents, and it is very important to establish an effective quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for reducing the number of gas pipelines operation accidents. Against the third party damage accident has the characteristics such as diversity, complexity and uncertainty, this paper establishes a quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). Firstly, risk sources of third party damage should be identified exactly, and the weight of factors could be determined via improved AHP, finally the importance of each factor is calculated by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The results show that the quantitative risk assessment model is suitable for the third party damage of natural gas pipelines and improvement measures could be put forward to avoid accidents based on the importance of each factor. (paper)

  8. Assessing the natural and anthropogenic charges of radioactivity in complex ecosystems

    El-Daoushy, F.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale and long-term assessment of nuclear disasters depends on transport and chemistry processes. Chernobyl dominated by tropospheric and local surface water processes. Assessment strategies for the Nile Basin , and other African rivers, would be different. European surface water are primarily forced by atmospheric and local catchment interactions. Surface water are multi-scale systems with local, regional & global interactions. Natural and artificial radioactivity were assessed in European inland waters. Scales and interactions were detailed using Lake-catchment systems. Surface water interactions in the Nile Basin has much more large scale dynamics as compared by the European ones. The spatio-temporal scales of this complex river system are much more comprehensive due to its complex boundaries and intensive coupling with climate and environment. Lakes and rivers are space-time indicators of atmospheric and land-based human activities

  9. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m -3 . The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Local Conceptualisation of Nature, Forest Knowledge Systems and ...

    Conventional forest and natural resource management tend to overshadow local forest management practices and ecological knowledge on which rural communities base their survival and livelihood strategies. This article examines how rural communities conceptualize nature, what forest knowledge systems they use and ...

  11. Politics of Natural Resource Management and Accountable Systems ...

    The political behaviour of public institutions exhibited in the management of critical natural ... natural resource management and the modes in which they impact on accountable systems in Uganda. ... the provision of critical resources such as water at the expense of consumers and citizens. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Linking human and natural systems in the planning process

    Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin; Roger B. Hammer

    2012-01-01

    Planning links human and natural systems in the urban-rural interface by engaging people in consideration of the future of natural resources. We review evolving ideas about what planning entails, who it involves, and what its outcomes should be. Sense of place, collaboration, emergent planning, and other new developments in planning are discussed. Smaller plans,...

  13. Spiked natural matrix materials as quality assessment samples

    Feiner, M.S.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has conducted the Quality Assessment Program since 1976 to evaluate the quality of the environmental radioactivity data, which is reported to the Department of Energy by as many as 42 commercial contractors involved in nuclear work. In this program, matrix materials of known radionuclide concentrations are distributed routinely to the contractors and the reported results are compared. The five matrices used are: soil, vegetation, animal tissue, water and filter paper. Environmental soil, vegetation and animal tissue are used, but the water and filter paper samples are prepared by spiking with known amounts of standard solutions traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. A summary of results is given to illustrate the successful operation of the program. Because of the difficulty and high cost of collecting large samples of natural matrix material and to increase the versatility of the program, an attempt was recently made to prepare the soil, vegetation and animal tissue samples with spiked solutions. A description of the preparation of these reference samples and the results of analyses are presented along with a discussion of the pitfalls and advantages of this approach. 19 refs.; 6 tabs

  14. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  15. Performance assessment of nuclear waste isolation systems

    Lee, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A number of concepts have been proposed for the isolation of highly radioactive wastes, and it will be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such systems. In many countries including the U.S., the waste isolation system of choice is deep mined geologic repositories. Because of the complex nature of the multiple isolation barriers afforded by mined geologic disposal systems, and the long isolation periods involved, this demonstration can only be indirect. In recent years this indirect demonstration, mostly through mathematical modeling, is called performance assessment. Performance Assessment can be defined to mean the development, testing, and application of a series of mathematical models and computer codes which traces the movement of radionuclides from a waste isolation system to the biosphere and any resultant dose to man. In modeling such a repository system, it is often convenient to divide it into a number of subsystems, there may be several different processes that need to be modeled, individually and interactively. For instance, this waste package will probably consist of a waste form such as borosilicate glass containing the radioisotopes, a canister, an overpack material such as steel or copper, and a buffer material such as bentonite. The processes to be modeled at the waste package scale include radioisotope inventory and decay, thermal radiation, radiolysis effects, corrosion, leading and fluid flow. In tracing radionuclide transport through rock, the processes of importance are probably groundwater flow, and sorption and retardation of radionuclide movement

  16. Natural coordinates for a class of Benenti systems

    Blaszak, Maciej; Sergyeyev, Artur

    2007-01-01

    We present explicit formulas for the coordinates in which the Hamiltonians of the Benenti systems with flat metrics take natural form and the metrics in question are represented by constant diagonal matrices

  17. Natural coordinates for a class of Benenti systems

    Blaszak, Maciej [Institute of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl; Sergyeyev, Artur [Silesian University in Opava, Mathematical Institute, Na Rybnicku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: artur.sergyeyev@math.slu.cz

    2007-05-21

    We present explicit formulas for the coordinates in which the Hamiltonians of the Benenti systems with flat metrics take natural form and the metrics in question are represented by constant diagonal matrices.

  18. The Dialectic of the Nature-Society-System

    Christian Fuchs

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There are four logical possibilities for conceiving the relationship of nature and society: the reduction of society to nature, the projection of nature into society, dualism, and a nature-society-dialectic. This differentiation results in four different approaches. Nature is a self-organizing system that produces an evolutionary hierarchy of interconnected systems with specific qualities. Society is a product of nature where humans produce and reproduce structures that enable and constrain human practices in dynamic processes. Parts of nature are observed and appropriated by humans from within society, these parts are socially constructed and form a subsystem of society. The self-organization cycle of nature and the self-organization cycle of the socio-sphere are mutually connected in a productive cycle of society where natural self-organization serves as the material foundation that enables and constrains social self-organization and human production processes transform natural structures and incorporate these very structures into society as means of production (technologies, raw materials. The economy is that part of the socio-sphere where the relationship between nature and the socio-sphere is established, the mediation is achieved by human labour processes. Nature enters the economic process as material input in the form of means of production (constant capital: machines, raw materials, auxiliary materials. Organized nature that is part of the production process in the form of technology increases the productivity of labour and hence reduces the costs of variable capital (total amount of wages and increases the speed of the production of surplus value. The production system of modern society is oriented on economic profit and productivity, ecological depletion and pollution are by-products of modernization. The Fordist production model that originated in the West and was copied by the Soviet Union is one of the major causes of the global

  19. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase) space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  20. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  1. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    Turekian, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  2. ICF's Plant Compliance Assessment System

    Baker, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Government and private industrial facilities must manage wastes that are both radioactive and (chemically) hazardous. Until recently, these mixed wastes have been managed under rules established under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Low-Level Waste Policy At, and rules that derive from environmental legislation have not been applied. Both sets of rules now apply to mixed wastes, creating situations in which significant changes to waste steams must be made in order to bring them into compliance with environmental regulations. The first step in bringing waste streams into compliance is to determine their status with respect to the newly-applicable regulations. This process of compliance assessment is difficult because requirements to minimize human exposure to radiation can conflict with requirements of environmental regulations, many regulations are potentially applicable, the regulations are changing rapidly, and because waste streams designed to operate under AEA rules frequently cannot be easily modified to incorporate the additional regulations. Modern personal computer (PC) tools are being developed to help regulatory analysts manage the large amounts of information required to asses the compliance status of complex process plants. This paper presents the Plant Compliance Assessment System (PCAS), which performs this function by relating a database containing references to regulatory requirements to databases created to describe relevant aspects of the facility to be assessed

  3. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    Singh, A.; Spurgin, A.J.; Martin, T.; Welsch, J.; Hallam, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    OPERAS is a personal-computer (PC) based software to collect and process simulator data on control-room operators responses during requalification training scenarios. The data collection scheme is based upon approach developed earlier during the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments project. The software allows automated data collection from simulator, thus minimizing simulator staff time and resources to collect, maintain and process data which can be useful in monitoring, assessing and enhancing the progress of crew reliability and effectiveness. The system is designed to provide the data and output information in the form of user-friendly charts, tables and figures for use by plant staff. OPERAS prototype software has been implemented at the Diablo Canyon (PWR) and Millstone (BWR) plants and is currently being used to collect operator response data. Data collected from similator include plant-state variables such as reactor pressure and temperature, malfunction, times at which annunciators are activated, operator actions and observations of crew behavior by training staff. The data and systematic analytical results provided by the OPERAS system can contribute to increase objectivity by the utility probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and training staff in monitoring and assessing reliability of their crews

  4. System reliability analysis with natural language and expert's subjectivity

    Onisawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces natural language expressions and expert's subjectivity to system reliability analysis. To this end, this paper defines a subjective measure of reliability and presents the method of the system reliability analysis using the measure. The subjective measure of reliability corresponds to natural language expressions of reliability estimation, which is represented by a fuzzy set defined on [0,1]. The presented method deals with the dependence among subsystems and employs parametrized operations of subjective measures of reliability which can reflect expert 's subjectivity towards the analyzed system. The analysis results are also expressed by linguistic terms. Finally this paper gives an example of the system reliability analysis by the presented method

  5. Deciding over nature: Corruption and environmental impact assessments

    Williams, Aled; Dupuy, Kendra

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are an important analytic tool for identifying and potentially mitigating project risks and negative environmental and societal impacts. Their usefulness, however, depends on how they are implemented and on whether findings are used in public decision-making. Given the notorious vulnerability of public-private interactions to corrupt practices, we examine potential and actual corruption risks across four stages of a generic EIA process. Combined with case analysis of the EIA process in Albania, a Southeastern European context experiencing serious governance challenges, we reflect on the vulnerabilities of EIAs to various forms of corruption from a principal-agent perspective. We concur with earlier research suggesting that the fundamentally rationalist approach behind EIAs do not necessarily match the empirical realities of public environmental decision-making, particularly in less mature EIA systems. We conclude with suggestions for framing a future research agenda in this area and touch on tentative policy remedies.

  6. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  7. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  8. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing -- an energy market assessment

    2000-11-01

    This publication is part of the Energy Market Assessment Program of the National Energy Board. It focuses on identifying factors that affect natural gas prices and describe the current functioning of domestic regional markets in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and in the Atlantic provinces.The report emphasizes the growth in demand for natural gas throughout North America, and the aggressive response by producers to the current high price environment with increased drilling programs. The report also predicts a supply and demand adjustment over time, and an accompanying relief in natural gas prices, although the Board is not able to predict with certainty any movements in commodity markets. The Board's findings indicate that domestic users of natural gas paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices have converged. The end result of the convergence was that Canadians have had access to natural gas under terms and conditions which were no less favourable than those in effect for export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems is reviewed, noting that spot markets and futures markets such as the NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had a significant impact on the pricing of natural gas, mostly by allowing market participants to manage price volatility by forward contracting. 1 tab., 42 figs., 1 glossary

  9. WEB-GIS FOR ASSESSING SCENARIOS OF USING NATURAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF SOUTHERN MACROREGION

    O. E. Аrkhipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of geoinformation technologies, including “cloud” services, for assessing the natural resource potential of the southern macroregion. The toolkit has been proposed to evaluate various scenarios of social and economic development of the regions and the associated use of the natural resource potential of the southern region. The geoinformation system for the regions of the South of Russia and a web application have been created.The methodology for assessing scenarios for usind the natural resource potential of the southern macroregion have been developed using ArcGis Online cloud technology. This technology allows you to run and maintain software and store data on the server by creating a private or combined cloud. Web-GIS are created on the basis of the interactive designer Story Map Journal℠.The relations in the nature-society system are evaluated on the example of two subjects of the Russian Federation that are part of the Southern and North-Caucasian federal districts – Rostov region and the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. Investigation of the natural resource potential of the southern regions of Russia involves comparing the available reserves of a particular type of resources and the degree of their use. A comparison of the potential resource reserve and the real intensity of its consumption in the municipalities of these regions formed the basis for interpreting the obtained estimates of the efficiency of using of the natural resource potential. Quantitative estimates are obtained at the level of municipal regions using developed software tools that combine GIS, databases and mathematical modeling.

  10. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ames, Arlo Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  11. Development and Validation of the Conceptual Assessment of Natural Selection (CANS)

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Taper, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    We developed and validated the Conceptual Assessment of Natural Selection (CANS), a multiple-choice test designed to assess how well college students understand the central principles of natural selection. The expert panel that reviewed the CANS concluded its questions were relevant to natural selection and generally did a good job sampling the…

  12. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE's upstream as well as downstream natural gas R ampersand D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R ampersand D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R ampersand D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R ampersand D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R ampersand D programs

  13. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  14. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  15. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  16. Natural Resources Information System for the State of Oklahoma

    Mankin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma's Sarkeys Energy Center, undertook to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state's natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of development was placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas

  17. Natural Characteristics of The Herringbone Gear Transmission System

    Zhou, Jianxing; Sun, Wenlei; Cao, Li

    2018-03-01

    According to the structure characteristics of herringbone gear transmission, a more realistic dynamic model of the transmission system is built in consideration of the inner excitation, herringbone gears axial positioning and sliding bearing etc. The natural frequencies of the system are calculated, and the vibration mode is divided into symmetric vibration modes and asymmetric vibration modes. The time history of system dynamic force is obtained by solving the dynamic model. The effects of the connection stiffness of left and right sides of herringbone gears and axial support stiffness on natural characteristics are discussed.

  18. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  19. Application of probabilistic safety assessment for Macedonian electric power system

    Kancev, D.; Causevski, A.; Cepin, M.; Volkanovski, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the complex and integrated nature of a power system, failures in any part of the system can cause interruptions, which range from inconveniencing a small number of local residents to a major and widespread catastrophic disruption of supply known as blackout. The objective of the paper is to show that the methods and tools of probabilistic safety assessment are applicable for assessment and improvement of real power systems. The method used in this paper is developed based on the fault tree analysis and is adapted for the power system reliability analysis. A particular power system i.e. the Macedonian power system is the object of the analysis. The results show that the method is suitable for application of real systems. The reliability of Macedonian power system assumed as the static system is assessed. The components, which can significantly impact the power system are identified and analysed in more details. (author)

  20. Chinese Academic Assessment and Incentive System.

    Suo, Qinghui

    2016-02-01

    The Chinese academic assessment and incentive system drew mixed responses from academia. In the essay the author tried to explain why the current assessment system is appropriate in China and an opportunistic behavior in Chinese academia is exposed.

  1. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  2. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products.

  3. Neither nature nor environment: Systemic operationalism and ecologism

    Gomez E, Luis F

    2009-01-01

    Nature is a complex concept that some critics have found as one of the roots of the current crisis of orthodox modernity. Because of this, we think ecologism should develop a theory where it does not play a pivotal role. Here, we propose systemic operationalism as a theoretical basis for ecologism since it seems to meet this requirement without having to replace it with terms such as environment which appears to keep some of the problems critics see in the concept of nature.

  4. The Assessment of Natural Pigmentation in Archaeological Wool

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2018-01-01

    Naturally coloured wool contains pigment grains that mainly occur as ellipsoidal organelles (eumelanin) or spher¬ical grains (pheomelanin). Eumelanin is the most commonly occurring pigment, but naturally coloured wool fi¬bres contain both eumelanin and pheomelanin. In black and brown wool....... This can especially be the case if the pigments are degraded. When analysing the textiles from Lønne Hede (a Danish Iron Age inhumation grave), it was difficult to gain exact information about the natural pigmentation in some of the samples. To investigate this further, four samples of red-brown yarns from...... patterned fragments were selected for analyses. Earlier dyestuff analyses of the red-brown yarns gave no results, and it was therefore necessary to test the yarns for natural pigmentation. Three different methods were used for the analy¬ses. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres...

  5. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy.

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-13

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-01

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  7. Natural history of alkaptonuria revisited: analyses based on scoring systems.

    Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Cox, Trevor F

    2011-12-01

    Increased circulating homogentisic acid in body fluids occurs in alkaptonuria (AKU) due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to conversion of HGA to a pigmented melanin-like polymer, known as ochronosis. The tissue damage in AKU is due to ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, deploying nitisinone effectively requires its administration at the most optimal time in the natural history. AKU has a long apparent latent period before overt ochronosis develops. The rate of change of ochronosis and its consequences over time following its recognition has not been fully described in any quantitative manner. Two potential tools are described that were used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires in 44 people with AKU. Analysis of the data reveals distinct phases of the disease, a pre-ochronotic phase and an ochronotic phase. The ochronotic phase appears to demonstrate an earlier slower progression followed by a rapidly progressive phase. The rate of change of the disease will have implications for monitoring the course of the disease as well as decide on the most appropriate time that treatment should be started for it to be effective either in prevention or arrest of the disease.

  8. Identification of Natural Oscillation Modes for Purposes of Seismic Assessment and Monitoring of HPP Dams

    Kuz’menko, A. P., E-mail: apkuzm@gmail.com; Saburov, S. V., E-mail: saburov58@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Computer Equipment Design Technology Institute, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The paper puts forward a method for processing data from detailed seismic assessments of HPP dams (dynamic tests). A detailed assessment (hundreds of observation points in dam galleries) is performed with consideration of operating dam equipment and the microseismic noise. It is shown that dynamic oscillation characteristics (natural oscillation frequencies and modes in the main dam axes, the velocities of propagation of elastic waves with given polarization, and so on.) can be determined with sufficient accuracy by using complex transfer functions and pulse characteristics. Monitoring data is processed using data from a detailed assessment, taking account of identified natural oscillation modes and determined ranges of natural frequencies. The spectra of characteristic frequencies thus obtained are used to choose substitution models and estimate the elastic characteristics of the “dam – rock bed” construction system, viz., the modulus of elasticity (the Young modulus), the Poisson ratio, the dam section stiffness with respect to shear, tension and compression and the elastic characteristics of the rock foundation.

  9. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural computing for mechanical systems research: A tutorial overview

    Worden, Keith; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Hensman, James J.

    2011-01-01

    A great many computational algorithms developed over the past half-century have been motivated or suggested by biological systems or processes, the most well-known being the artificial neural networks. These algorithms are commonly grouped together under the terms soft or natural computing. A property shared by most natural computing algorithms is that they allow exploration of, or learning from, data. This property has proved extremely valuable in the solution of many diverse problems in science and engineering. The current paper is intended as a tutorial overview of the basic theory of some of the most common methods of natural computing as they are applied in the context of mechanical systems research. The application of some of the main algorithms is illustrated using case studies. The paper also attempts to give some indication as to which of the algorithms emerging now from the machine learning community are likely to be important for mechanical systems research in the future.

  11. ASSESSING THE NATURAL REGENERATION OF THREE SPECIES CONIFER NATURAL RANGE IN THE WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF GUATEMALA

    Sergio Miguel Godínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous forests of the western highlands of Guatemala have been disturbed by human intervention and natural phenomena, which has allowed the occurrence of the phenomenon of natural regeneration. In this scenario the density of natural regeneration of conifers three species evaluated (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, P. pseudostrobus Lindl. and P. tecunumanii Eguiluz & Perry in 60 sites distributed in space and clear edge. The variables evaluated were the source of disturbance that caused its establishment, density variation of the source of seed and distance estimation range scattering adequate regeneration, using sampling units of 25 m2 for natural regeneration and 500 m2 seed source trees. Disturbance sources identified were logging 55%, 24% forest fires, pests 8%, agriculture, avalanche 5% each and hurricane 3%. The variation of the density of natural regeneration on the seed source, corresponds to the inverted J models for edges, and to clear variable subpopulations. Dispersal distances of natural regeneration was established for P.oocarpa 65 m in edges, and 160 m in the clears; P. pseudostrobus 75 m in edges, and 175 m in the clears; and P. tecunumanii was 70 m in edges, and 170 m in the clears. Dispersal distances with acceptable densities according National Forestry Institute-Regional Forestry Programme for Central American, for the three species vary from 65-175 m

  12. Natural gas prices in the Maritimes : an energy market assessment

    2004-03-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply and price of natural gas in the Maritimes. This report contains the results and analysis of a survey of the wholesale natural gas prices paid by Canadian buyers in the Maritimes from November 2002 to October 2003. The objective of the report is to improve the understanding of the market factors that influence wholesale natural gas prices in the Maritimes. A comparative evaluation of domestic and export prices shows that Canadian buyers have had access to gas at prices similar to the export market at St. Stephen, New Brunswick. Since the number of participants in the domestic market is low, only four large buyers have a major impact on average prices in the region. The challenge for small buyers will be to buy gas from others who can divert some of their own sales of use. However, these sellers may not want to over-commit to new firm sales in case they have to re-purchase the gas during shortages that may occur due to fluctuations in production or shipping. It was noted that a new gas supply into the region would support many buyers and sellers, and could lead to a more transparent Maritime natural gas market. The National Energy Board is satisfied that the Maritime natural gas market is currently performing as well as can be expected, given its young stage of development. 1 tab., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  13. Failure modes and natural control time for distributed vibrating systems

    Reid, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The eigenstructure of the Gram matrix of frequency exponentials is used to study linear vibrating systems of hyperbolic type with distributed control. Using control norm as a practical measure of controllability and the vibrating string as a prototype, it is demonstrated that hyperbolic systems have a natural control time, even when only finitely many modes are excited. For shorter control times there are identifiable control failure modes which can be steered to zero only with very high cost in control norm. Both natural control time and the associated failure modes are constructed for linear fluids, strings, and beams, making note of the essential algorithms and Mathematica code, and displaying results graphically

  14. Active geothermal systems as natural analogs of HLW repositories

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Cohen, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic analogs of long-lived processes in high-level waste (HLW) repositories have been much studied in recent years. However, most of these occurrences either involve natural processes going on today at 25 degree C, or, if they are concerned with behavior at temperatures similar to the peak temperatures anticipated near HLW canisters, have long since ended. This paper points out the usefulness of studying modern geothermal systems as natural analogs, and to illustrate the concept with a dramatic example, the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS)

  15. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  16. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity in TENORM Samples Using Different Techniques

    Salman, Kh.A.; Shahein, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    In petroleum oil industries, technologically-enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive materials are produced. The presence of TENORM constitutes a significant radiological human health hazard. In the present work, liquid scintillation counting technique was used to determine both 222 Rn and 226 Ra concentrations in TENORM samples, by measuring 222 Rn concentrations in the sample at different intervals of time after preparation. The radiation doses from the TENORM samples were estimated using thermoluminenscent detector (TLD-4000). The estimated radiation doses were found to be proportional to both the measured radiation doses in site and natural activity concentration in the samples that measured with LSC

  17. Assessing the Nexus of Built, Natural, and Social Environments and Public Health Outcomes

    Archer, R.; Alexander, S.; Douglas, J.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates community-related environmental justice concerns and chemical and non-chemical health stressors from built, natural, and social environments in Southeast Los Angeles (SELA) County and East Oakland, California. The geographical distribution of health outcomes is related to the built and natural environments, as well as impacts from the social environment. A holistic systems view is important in assessing healthy behaviors within a community, because they do not occur in isolation. Geospatial analysis will be performed to integrate a total environment framework and explore the spatial patterns of exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors and access to health-promoting environments. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis using primary and secondary existing data will be performed to determine how social environments impact exposure to chemical health stressors and access to health-promoting built and natural environments. This project will develop a comprehensive list of health-promoting built and natural environments (e.g., parks and community gardens) and polluting sites (e.g., shipping ports and sources of pollution not included in federal regulatory databases) in East Oakland and SELA. California Department of Public Health and U.S. Decennial Census data will also be included for geospatial analysis to overlay the distribution of air pollution-related morbidities (e.g. asthma, diabetes, and cancer) and access to health-promoting built and natural environments and related community assets, exposure to polluting industries, social disorganization, and public health outcomes in the target areas. This research will help identify the spatial and temporal distribution and cumulative impacts of critical pollution hotspots causing community environmental health impacts. The research team will also map how social environments impact exposure to chemical health stressors and access to health-promoting built and natural environments. The

  18. Dose assessment on natural radiation, natural radionuclide, and artificial radionuclide released by Fukushima nuclear accident

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Furukawa, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Various radionuclides are distributed in environmental materials such as soil, rock, and water. People are exposed every day to natural radiation. According to the UNSCEAR 2008 report, Sources of Ionizing Radiation, natural radiation sources are categorized as terrestrial gamma-rays, radon, cosmic rays and food. The effective dose from radon, thoron and its decay products is about 50% of all natural radiation exposure. Consciousness of the Japanese public toward radiation exposure has significantly increased since the start of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In this paper, the nationwide survey and dose estimation for terrestrial gamma-rays and radon are summarized. External dose from artificial radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident are also reported. (author)

  19. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  20. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  1. Some problems for natural radiation impact assessment in road construction

    Li Xutong; Chen Xiaoqiu; Li Yuanxin

    2002-01-01

    Some instances have occurred for that road constructions were likely to meet with some high grade uranium mine in some provinces with abundant uranium resource and developed economy. Some of the constructions have made assessment for the radiation risk. The author discusses the problems existent in the assessments

  2. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Mirzaei Aliabadi, Mostafa; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been

  3. Catastrophes in nature and society mathematical modeling of complex systems

    Khlebopros, Rem G; Fet, Abram I

    2007-01-01

    Many people are concerned about crises leading to disasters in nature, in social and economic life. The book offers a popular account of the causative mechanisms of critical states and breakdown in a broad range of natural and cultural systems - which obey the same laws - and thus makes the reader aware of the origin of catastrophic events and the ways to avoid and mitigate their negative consequences. The authors apply a single mathematical approach to investigate the revolt of cancer cells that destroy living organisms and population outbreaks that upset natural ecosystems, the balance between biosphere and global climate interfered lately by industry, the driving mechanisms of market and related economic and social phenomena, as well as the electoral system the proper use of which is an arduous accomplishment of democracy.

  4. Nature-inspired design of hybrid intelligent systems

    Castillo, Oscar; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights recent advances in the design of hybrid intelligent systems based on nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction, and optimization of complex problems. The book is divided into seven main parts, the first of which addresses theoretical aspects of and new concepts and algorithms based on type-2 and intuitionistic fuzzy logic systems. The second part focuses on neural network theory, and explores the applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The book’s third part presents enhancements to meta-heuristics based on fuzzy logic techniques and describes new nature-inspired optimization algorithms that employ fuzzy dynamic adaptation of parameters, while the fourth part presents diverse applications of nature-inspired optimization algorithms. In turn, the fifth part investigates applications of fuzzy logic in diverse areas, such as...

  5. A system for tritium analysis in natural water

    Mozeto, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the analysis, by scintillation counting, of tritium in natural water enriched electrolytically, is presented. The characteristics of the proposed system are indicated by experimental parameters, and by the performance obtained in the analysis of rain and under ground waters. An evaluation of the precison and reproducibility of the measurements is also made [pt

  6. The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Road and railway networks are one of the key factors to a country's economic growth. Inadequate infrastructural networks could be detrimental to a society if the transport between locations are hindered or delayed. Logistical hindrances can often be avoided whereas natural hindrances are more difficult to control. One natural hindrance that can have a severe adverse effect on both infrastructure and society is flooding. Intense and heavy rainfall events can trigger other natural hazards such as landslides and debris flow. Disruptions caused by landslides are similar to that of floods and increase the maintenance cost considerably. The effect on society by natural disasters is likely to increase due to a changed climate with increasing precipitation. Therefore, there is a need for risk prevention and mitigation of natural hazards. Determining susceptible areas and incorporating them in the decision process may reduce the infrastructural harm. Spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) is a part of decision analysis, which provides a set of procedures for analysing complex decision problems through a Geographic Information System (GIS). The objective and aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for inundation, landslide and debris flow susceptibility assessments through a SMCA approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. The sensitivity of the SMCA model was tested in relation to each perspective and impact on the resulting susceptibility. A least cost path function was used to compare new alternative road lines with the existing ones. This comparison was undertaken to identify the resulting differences in the susceptibility assessments using expert judgements as well as historic incidences of flooding and landslides in order to discuss the usefulness of the model in road planning.

  7. Globe of Natural Hazard - A new assessment tool for risk managers

    Siebert, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    A large number of tropical cyclones and the earthquake in Sichuan made 2008 one of the most devastating years on record. Throughout the world, more than 220,000 people died as a result of natural catastrophes this year. Overall losses totaled some US 200bn (2007: US 82bn). Insured losses in 2008 rose to US 45bn, about 50% higher than in the previous year. Mainly driven by high losses from weather-related natural catastrophes, 2008 was - on the basis of figures adjusted for inflation - even the third most expensive year on record for the insurance industry, exceeded only by the hurricane year of 2005 and by 1995, the year of the Kobe earthquake. Munich Re, a worldwide operating reinsurance company, is a world leader in terms of investigating risks from natural hazards of all kinds. 2008 has again shown the insurance industry how important it is to analyse risks like natural hazards and climate change in all their facets and to manage the insurance business accordingly. An excellent example of the wealth of knowledge Munich Re has developed in natural hazard assessment is the DVD "Globe of Natural Hazards". It combines the geoscientific data and findings Munich Re has accumulated over a period of 35 years. First devised as a wall-map in 1978, the product has established itself as a standard work for the identification, exposure assessment and risk management of natural hazards. Over 80,000 copies of the CD-ROM version of 2000 have been provided to clients - a mark achieved by no other service product in Munich Re's history. Since the beginning of 2009, the fully updated fourth-generation version has been available. The bilingual DVD (German and English) shows natural hazards and climate effects at a glance: the global maps are presented on a 3D globe, underlaid with satellite images. The hazard complexes of hail, tornado and winter storms have been completely revised and flood incorporated as a new hazard. Users can intuitively home in on and enlarge any location on

  8. Seismic Isolation of Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks: a Compartive Assessment

    Marti Rodriguez, Joaquin; Crespo Álvarez, María José; Martinez Cutillas, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    In severe seismic environments, tanks for storage of liquefied natural gas may benefit from seismic isolation. As the design accelerations increase, the inner tank undergoes progressively greater demands and may suffer from corner uplift, elephant’s foot buckling, gross sliding, shell thickness requirements beyond what can be reliably welded and, eventually, global uplift. Some of these problems cause extra costs while others make the construction impossible. The seismic environments at which...

  9. Assessment of natural radiation exposure inside a newly constructed building

    Shukla, V.K.; Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sundaram, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure to the population. Several building materials used for a newly constructed building complex were analysed for 40 K, 238 U radioactivity by gamma ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose inside the complex was evaluated by using the computer code QAD-CGGP. External dose rate was also measured by using scintillation gamma monitor. Calculated and the measured dose rate values are discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Natural radioactivity assessment of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary

    Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Bi, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    The activities of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K) of the surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary were determined and used to evaluate radiation hazards in the study area. The of activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K ranges from 14.1 to 62.3, 26.1 to 71.9, 13.7 to 52.3, and 392 to 898 Bq kg −1 , respectively, which were comparable to values of other regions in China. The activities of 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra were clearly different from the global recommended values. The radium equivalent activity was less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg −1 ; therefore, the sediment in this area can be safely used for reclamation. The external hazard index values were less than one. The average absorbed gamma dose rate and annual effective dose equivalent values were slightly greater than the world average value. 226 Ra/ 238 U and 232 Th/ 238 U ratios could potentially be applied for tracing sediment source. - Highlights: • The natural radioactivity of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary was observed. • The radiological hazards of the sediments are insignificant in this study area. • The ratios of natural radionuclides can potentially be applied for sediment source.

  11. Including natural systems into the system engineering process: benefits to spaceflight and beyond

    Studor, George

    2014-03-01

    How did we get to the point where we don't have time to be inspired by the wonders of Nature? Our office walls, homes and city streets are so plain that even when we do escape to a retreat with nature all around us, we may be blind to its magnificence. Yet there are many who have applied what can be known of natural systems (NS) to create practical solutions, but often definite applications for them are lacking. Mimicry of natural systems is not only more possible than ever before, but the education and research programs in many major universities are churning out graduates with a real appreciation for Nature's complex integrated systems. What if these skills and perspectives were employed in the teams of systems engineers and the technology developers that support them to help the teams think "outside-the-box" of manmade inventions? If systems engineers (SE) and technology developers regularly asked the question, "what can we learn from Nature that will help us?" as a part of their processes, they would discover another set of potential solutions. Biomimicry and knowledge of natural systems is exploding. What does this mean for systems engineering and technology? Some disciplines such as robotics and medical devices must consider nature constantly. Perhaps it's time for all technology developers and systems engineers to perceive natural systems experts as potential providers of the technologies they need.

  12. A Framework to Assess Where and How Children Connect to Nature

    Giusti, Matteo; Svane, Ulrika; Raymond, Christopher M.; Beery, Thomas H.

    2018-01-01

    The design of the green infrastructure in urban areas largely ignores how people's relation to nature, or human-nature connection (HNC), can be nurtured. One practical reason for this is the lack of a framework to guide the assessment of where people, and more importantly children, experience significant nature situations and establish nature routines. This paper develops such a framework. We employed a mixed-method approach to understand what qualities of nature situations connect children to nature (RQ1), what constitutes children's HNC (RQ2), and how significant nature situations and children's HNC relate to each other over time (RQ3). We first interviewed professionals in the field of connecting children to nature (N = 26), performed inductive thematic analysis of these interviews, and then further examined the inductive findings by surveying specialists (N = 275). We identified 16 qualities of significant nature situations (e.g., “awe,” “engagement of senses,” “involvement of mentors”) and 10 abilities that constitute children's HNC (e.g., “feeling comfortable in natural spaces,” “feeling attached to natural spaces,” “taking care of nature”). We elaborated three principles to answer our research questions: (1) significant nature situations are various and with differing consequences for children's HNC; (2) children's HNC is a complex embodied ability; (3) children's HNC progresses over time through diverse nature routines. Together, these findings form the Assessment framework for Children's Human Nature Situations (ACHUNAS). ACHUNAS is a comprehensive framework that outlines what to quantify or qualify when assessing “child-nature connecting” environments. It guides the assessment of where and how children connect to nature, stimulating both the design of nature-connecting human habitats as well as pedagogical approaches to HNC. PMID:29354088

  13. A Framework to Assess Where and How Children Connect to Nature

    Matteo Giusti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of the green infrastructure in urban areas largely ignores how people's relation to nature, or human-nature connection (HNC, can be nurtured. One practical reason for this is the lack of a framework to guide the assessment of where people, and more importantly children, experience significant nature situations and establish nature routines. This paper develops such a framework. We employed a mixed-method approach to understand what qualities of nature situations connect children to nature (RQ1, what constitutes children's HNC (RQ2, and how significant nature situations and children's HNC relate to each other over time (RQ3. We first interviewed professionals in the field of connecting children to nature (N = 26, performed inductive thematic analysis of these interviews, and then further examined the inductive findings by surveying specialists (N = 275. We identified 16 qualities of significant nature situations (e.g., “awe,” “engagement of senses,” “involvement of mentors” and 10 abilities that constitute children's HNC (e.g., “feeling comfortable in natural spaces,” “feeling attached to natural spaces,” “taking care of nature”. We elaborated three principles to answer our research questions: (1 significant nature situations are various and with differing consequences for children's HNC; (2 children's HNC is a complex embodied ability; (3 children's HNC progresses over time through diverse nature routines. Together, these findings form the Assessment framework for Children's Human Nature Situations (ACHUNAS. ACHUNAS is a comprehensive framework that outlines what to quantify or qualify when assessing “child-nature connecting” environments. It guides the assessment of where and how children connect to nature, stimulating both the design of nature-connecting human habitats as well as pedagogical approaches to HNC.

  14. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    Wilson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times

  15. The Effect of Computer Models as Formative Assessment on Student Understanding of the Nature of Models

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng; Smith, Erica; Waight, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the effect of computer models as formative assessment on high school students' understanding of the nature of models. Nine high school teachers integrated computer models and associated formative assessments into their yearlong high school chemistry course. A pre-test and post-test of students' understanding of the nature of…

  16. Nuclear processes in deuterium/natural hydrogen-metal systems

    Zelensky, V.F.

    2013-01-01

    The survey presents the analysis of the phenomena taking place in deuterium - metal and natural hydrogen - metal systems under cold fusion experimental conditions. The cold fusion experiments have shown that the generation of heat and helium in the deuterium-metal system without emission of energetic gamma-quanta is the result of occurrence of a chain of chemical, physical and nuclear processes observed in the system, culminating in both the fusion of deuterium nuclei and the formation of a virtual, electron-modified excited 4He nucleus. The excitation energy of the helium nucleus is transferred to the matrix through emission of conversion electrons, and that, under appropriate conditions, provides a persistent synthesis of deuterium. The processes occurring in the deuterium/natural hydrogen - metal systems have come to be known as chemonuclear DD- and HD-fusion. The mechanism of stimulation of weak interaction reactions under chemonuclear deuterium fusion conditions by means of strong interaction reactions has been proposed. The results of numerous experiments discussed in the survey bear witness to the validity of chemonuclear fusion. From the facts discussed it is concluded that the chemonuclear deuterium fusion scenario as presented in this paper may serve as a basis for expansion of deeper research and development of this ecologically clean energy source. It is shown that the natural hydrogen-based system, containing 0.015% of deuterium, also has good prospects as an energy source. The chemonuclear fusion processes do not require going beyond the scope of traditional physics for their explanation

  17. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  18. The information protection level assessment system implementation

    Trapeznikov, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, the threat of various attacks increases significantly as automated systems become more widespread. On the basis of the conducted analysis the information protection level assessment system establishing objective was identified. The paper presents the information protection level assessment software implementation in the information system by applying the programming language C #. In conclusions the software features are identified and experimental results are represented.

  19. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The study, 'Assesment of greenhouse gas emission from natural gas' by independent consultants Energetics Pty Ltd, shows that natural gas has significantly fewer greenhouses gas emissions than either black or brown cola for the defined life cycle stages. The life cycle emissions from natural gas use by an Australian Major User are approximately 50% less than the emissions from Victorian brown coal and approximately 38% less than the emissions from Australian average black coal. Australian Best Practice gas fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 514 and 658 kg CO 2 e/MWh. By comparison, Australian Best Practice coal-fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 907 and 1,246 kg CO 2 e/MWh for black and brown coal respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian Best Practice gas-fired electricity generation using combined cycle gas turbines (including full fuel cycle emissions) vary from 41% to 46% of the emissions from brown coal-fired electricity generation and 57% to 64% of emissions from black coal-fired electricity generation. Greenhouse gas emissions from direct gas supply water heating range from 1,470 to 2,042 kilograms per annum. This compares with emissions of 1,922 to 2,499 kg for electric heating from gas-fired electricity generation and 3,975 to 5,393 kg for coal-fired electricity generation. The implications for greenhouse policy nationally are also discussed, emphasising the need to review national energy policy, currently tied to 'fuel neutrality' doctrine

  20. Verification of Carbon Sink Assessment. Can We Exclude Natural Sinks?

    Alexandrov, G.; Yamagata, Y

    2004-01-01

    Any human-induced terrestrial sink is susceptible to the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, climate variability and other natural or indirect human-induced factors. It has been suggested in climate negotiations that the effects of these factors should be excluded from estimates of carbon sequestration used to meet the emission reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper focuses on the methodologies for factoring out the effects of atmospheric and climate variability/change. We estimate the relative magnitude of the non-human induced effects by using two biosphere models and discuss possibilities for narrowing estimate uncertainty

  1. Use of 15N Natural Abundance and N Species Concentrations to Assess N-Cycling in Constructed and Natural Coastal

    Aelion, W.C.M.; Engle, M.R.; Aelion, W.C.M.; Ma, H.

    2010-01-01

    Natural abundance of N stable isotopes used in combination with concentrations may be useful indicators of N-cycling in wetlands. Concentrations and 15 N signatures of NO 3 -, NH 4 and sediment organic nitrogen (SON) were measured in two impacted coastal golf course retention ponds and two natural marshes. Limited NO 3 was detected in natural site surface water or pore water, but both isotopic signature and concentrations of NO 3 - in surface water of impacted sites indicated anthropogenic inputs. In natural sites, NH 4 concentrations were greatest in deeper pore water and least in surface water, suggesting diffusion predominates. The natural sites had greater % SON, and 15 N indicated that the natural sites also had greater NH 4 + released from SON mineralization than impacted sites. In NO 3 --limited systems, neither concentrations nor 15 N natural abundance was able to provide information on N-cycling, while processes associated with NH 4 + were better elucidated by using both concentrations and 15 N natural abundance

  2. Use of N Natural Abundance and N Species Concentrations to Assess N-Cycling in Constructed and Natural Coastal Wetlands

    C. Marjorie Aelion

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural abundance of N stable isotopes used in combination with concentrations may be useful indicators of N-cycling in wetlands. Concentrations and N signatures of NO3−, NH4+, and sediment organic nitrogen (SON were measured in two impacted coastal golf course retention ponds and two natural marshes. Limited NO3− was detected in natural site surface water or pore water, but both isotopic signature and concentrations of NO3− in surface water of impacted sites indicated anthropogenic inputs. In natural sites, NH4+ concentrations were greatest in deeper pore water and least in surface water, suggesting diffusion predominates. The natural sites had greater %SON, and N indicated that the natural sites also had greater NH4+ released from SON mineralization than impacted sites. In NO3−-limited systems, neither concentrations nor N natural abundance was able to provide information on N-cycling, while processes associated with NH4+ were better elucidated by using both concentrations and N natural abundance.

  3. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System

    US Agency for International Development — CPARS is a web-based system used to input data on contractor performance. Reports from the system are used as an aid in awarding contracts to contractors that...

  5. Assessing natural hazards in forestry for risk management: a review

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Axel Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of how to integrate risk assessment into forest management and therefore provide a comprehensive review of recent and past literature on risk analysis and modeling and, moreover, an evaluation and summary on these papers. We provide a general scheme on how to integrate concepts of risk into forest management decisions. After an overview of the...

  6. A method of quantitative risk assessment for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas

    Jo, Young-Do; Ahn, Bum Jong

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in many countries are moving away from prescriptive approaches for keeping natural gas pipelines safe. As an alternative, risk management based on a quantitative assessment is being considered to improve the level of safety. This paper focuses on the development of a simplified method for the quantitative risk assessment for natural gas pipelines and introduces parameters of fatal length and cumulative fatal length. The fatal length is defined as the integrated fatality along the pipeline associated with hypothetical accidents. The cumulative fatal length is defined as the section of pipeline in which an accident leads to N or more fatalities. These parameters can be estimated easily by using the information of pipeline geometry and population density of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). To demonstrate the proposed method, individual and societal risks for a sample pipeline have been estimated from the historical data of European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group and BG Transco. With currently acceptable criteria taken into account for individual risk, the minimum proximity of the pipeline to occupied buildings is approximately proportional to the square root of the operating pressure of the pipeline. The proposed method of quantitative risk assessment may be useful for risk management during the planning and building stages of a new pipeline, and modification of a buried pipeline

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...... with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE...

  8. Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the DOE Hanford Site

    Snow, Robert L.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the DOE's Hanford Site, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. This review is an update and expansion to the September 2010 review of PNNL-19751, Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic).

  9. Conflicting Epistemologies and Inference in Coupled Human and Natural Systems

    Garcia, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Last year, I presented a model that projects per capita water consumption based on changes in price, population, building codes, and water stress salience. This model applied methods from hydrological science and engineering to relationships both within and beyond their traditional scope. Epistemologically, the development of mathematical models of natural or engineered systems is objectivist while research examining relationships between observations, perceptions and action is commonly constructivist or subjectivist. Drawing on multiple epistemologies is common in, and perhaps central to, the growing fields of coupled human and natural systems, and socio-hydrology. Critically, these philosophical perspectives vary in their view of the nature of the system as mechanistic, adaptive or constructed, and the split between aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Interdisciplinary research is commonly cited as a way to address the critical and domain crossing challenge of sustainability as synthesis across perspectives can offer a more comprehensive view of system dynamics. However, combining methods and concepts from multiple ontologies and epistemologies can introduce contradictions into the logic of inference. These contractions challenge the evaluation of research products and the implications for practical application of research findings are not fully understood. Reflections on the evaluation, application, and generalization of the water consumption model described above are used to ground these broader questions and offer thoughts on the way forward.

  10. Azolla-anabaena-bacteria system as a natural microcosm

    Carrapico, Francisco J.

    2002-02-01

    Azolla is an aquatic fern that contains a permanent endosymbiotic prokaryotic community (cyanobacteria and bacteria) inside of the cavity in the leaf dorsal lobe of the pteridophyte. This is a unique situation and can be seen as a microcosm inside of an organism and also can be considered a good example of a living model for biological and environmental studies. These symbionts are specific of this symbiosis and lives immobilized in a mucilaginous fibrillar network, which fills part of the cavity. The symbionts works as immobilized organisms in a natural system that can be used as a model for biotechnological research and in biologically based life support systems. The nature and the complexity of this system is simultaneously a reference and a challenge for the research in the communication between the two levels of nature organization (microcosm and mesocosm), and can also be used as a reference for the design of new environmental engineered symbiotic systems that include man as a prelude to life in space.

  11. Digital system to monitor the natural frequency of mechanical resonators

    Brengartner, Tobias; Siegel, Michael; Urban, Martin; Monse, Benjamin; Frühauf, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical resonators are often used in process or condition monitoring. They are used for liquid-level limit detection or for viscosity and density sensing. Therefore, the resonator is preferably actuated at its natural frequency. In industrial applications, this is achieved by analogue closed resonant circuits. These circuits have been established because of the low energy consumption and low component costs. Due to the future trend of microprocessors, digital systems are now an interesting alternative and can achieve better results compared to analogue realizations. In this context, this paper presents a novel digital system for monitoring the natural frequency of mechanical resonators. The system is realized with newly developed algorithms and is based on a simple signal processing procedure with minimum computational cost. This allows the use of a low-power microcontroller, thus making the system interesting for industrial use. It is shown that the natural frequency can be measured in respect of high industrial requirements on reliability, fastness and accuracy, combined with the possibility of reducing energy consumption. (paper)

  12. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Due to the topographical conditions in Switzerland, the highways and the railway lines are frequently exposed to natural hazards as rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and others. With the rising incidence of those natural hazards, protection measures become an important political issue. However, they are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. Furthermore risks are distributed in space and time. Consequently, important decision problems to the public sector decision makers are derived. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained consequently considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. With a Geographical Information System adapted to run with a tool developed to manage Risk analysis it is possible to survey the data in time and space, obtaining an important system for managing natural risks. As a framework, we adopt the Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). It offers a complete framework for the analysis and assessment of risks due to natural hazards, ranging from hazard assessment for gravitational natural hazards, such as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, floodings, debris flows and avalanches, to vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, and the integration into land use planning at the cantonal and municipality level. The scheme is limited to the direct consequences of natural hazards. Thus, we develop a

  13. Assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity in Natural Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation

    Ronchi, Silvia; Salata, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, a legislative proposal has been set to reform the role and the functions of natural protected areas promoting their aggregation (or the abolition) pursuing a better efficiency for their administration and economic saving. The system of natural protected areas is composed of different conservation levels: there are the Natural parks, established in the ‘80 by national or regional institution for the safeguard of natural elements, the Natura 2000 -Habitat 92/43/CEE promoted by European Union, with conservation measures for maintaining or restoring habitats and species of Communitarian interest, and the local parks of supra-municipal interest (namely PLIS) created by single municipalities or their aggregation aimed at limiting the soil sealing process. The hierarchical level of protection has determined differences in the management of the areas which leads to various approaches and strategies for biodiversity conservation and integrity. In order to assess strengths and weaknesses of the legislative initiative, the new management framework should be designed, considering the ecosystem characteristics of each natural protected area to define the future opportunities and critics, rather than, in the extreme case, remove the level of protection due to the absence of valuable ecosystem conditions. The paper provides an operative support to better apply the legislative proposal investigating the dynamics that affect all protected areas using the land take process as a major threat to biodiversity conservation in natural zones. The land take process is explored using the Land Use Change analysis (LUCa) as a possible way to determine the impact and the environmental effects of land transitions. LUCa is also useful to determine the loss of protected zones capacity to support Ecosystem Services. Finally, the assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity (ESC) index expresses the ability of each LULC to provide ES and, in particular, the Ecological

  14. Targeting natural antioxidant compounds to the brain: a metabolomic assessment

    Fornasaro, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    2013/2014 A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with a decreased risk of brain diseases. Some plant-specific compounds occurring in fruits and vegetables, such as flavonoids, have been found to exert neuroprotection, thus decreasing neurological disease risk. The current hypothesis is that neuroprotection is due to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids. The main aims of this PhD thesis were: i) to assess whether some flavonoids are transported from the blood into the ...

  15. Virus Database and Online Inquiry System Based on Natural Vectors.

    Dong, Rui; Zheng, Hui; Tian, Kun; Yau, Shek-Chung; Mao, Weiguang; Yu, Wenping; Yin, Changchuan; Yu, Chenglong; He, Rong Lucy; Yang, Jie; Yau, Stephen St

    2017-01-01

    We construct a virus database called VirusDB (http://yaulab.math.tsinghua.edu.cn/VirusDB/) and an online inquiry system to serve people who are interested in viral classification and prediction. The database stores all viral genomes, their corresponding natural vectors, and the classification information of the single/multiple-segmented viral reference sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information. The online inquiry system serves the purpose of computing natural vectors and their distances based on submitted genomes, providing an online interface for accessing and using the database for viral classification and prediction, and back-end processes for automatic and manual updating of database content to synchronize with GenBank. Submitted genomes data in FASTA format will be carried out and the prediction results with 5 closest neighbors and their classifications will be returned by email. Considering the one-to-one correspondence between sequence and natural vector, time efficiency, and high accuracy, natural vector is a significant advance compared with alignment methods, which makes VirusDB a useful database in further research.

  16. Automated assessment of patients' self-narratives for posttraumatic stress disorder screening using natural language processing and text mining

    He, Qiwei; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; de Vries, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Patients’ narratives about traumatic experiences and symptoms are useful in clinical screening and diagnostic procedures. In this study, we presented an automated assessment system to screen patients for posttraumatic stress disorder via a natural language processing and text-mining approach. Four

  17. Performance study of an innovative natural gas CHP system

    Fu, Lin; Zhao, Xiling; Zhang, Shigang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Zuoliang

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovation and changes in the economic and regulatory environment have resulted in increased attention to distributed energy systems (DES). Combined cooling heating and power (CHP) systems based on the gas-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) are increasingly used as small-scale distribution co-generators. This paper describes an innovative ICE-CHP system with an exhaust-gas-driven absorption heat pump (AHP) that has been set up at the energy-saving building in Beijing, China. The system is composed of an ICE, an exhaust-gas-driven AHP, and a flue gas condensation heat exchanger (CHE), which could recover both the sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. The steady performance and dynamic response of the innovative CHP system with different operation modes were tested. The results show that the system's energy utilization efficiency could reach above 90% based on lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas; that is, the innovative CHP system could increase the heat utilization efficiency 10% compared to conventional CHP systems, and the thermally activated components of the system have much more thermal inertia than the electricity generation component. The detailed test results provide important insight into CHP performance characteristics and could be valuable references for the control of CHP systems. The novel CHP system could take on a very important role in the CHP market. (author)

  18. Modeling of leak detection system for high pressure transmission system of natural gas

    Qureshi, S.A.; Paracha, Z.J.; Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Gas Industry can be considered as one of the most important industries in the economy of any country. Safe Transportation of Gas is thus considered to be vital because interruption of Supply of Gas to consumers not only causes domestic problems but also loss of revenue to country. Now most of power generation Sector has switched over their system to Natural Gas. So, interruption of supply to this sector can cause a lot of problems. This paper has provided assessment of technology approach and formulated this approach for Leak Detection Model in High Pressure Transmission system for current and future operations, which will improve the efficiency of any transmission company to a great extent. This model can be extremely helpful in conditions of Rupture Emergencies or Leakage because of corrosive conditions of Pipeline to manage the situation of resources in pipeline network. Any exceptional readings or messages should alert the user to the fact that something is wrong with the system. Such a system helps a lot in the safe and efficient management of pipeline network. The data and information provided by the Leak Detection System applications will allow for efficient and safe pipeline operation maximizing profitability over the pipeline's service lifetime. (author)

  19. Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security

    2013-05-15

    installation of natural gas generation or cogeneration plants to increase their energy security from the typical three days using diesel supplies to weeks-to...better quantify the regional impact of natural gas for energy security. Modeling and simulation could identify those regions and DoD installations that...Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security N. Judson 15 May 2013 Prepared for the

  20. Emergent Properties in Natural and Artificial Dynamical Systems

    Aziz-Alaoui, M.A

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the science of complexity is the study of emergent properties arising through dynamical processes in various types of natural and artificial systems. This is the aim of this book, which is the outcome of a discussion meeting within the first European conference on complex systems. It presents multidisciplinary approaches for getting representations of complex systems and using different methods to extract emergent structures. This carefully edited book studies emergent features such as self organization, synchronization, opening on stability and robustness properties. Invariant techniques are presented which can express global emergent properties in dynamical and in temporal evolution systems. This book demonstrates how artificial systems such as a distributed platform can be used for simulation used to search emergent placement during simulation execution.

  1. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    , and they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the peak hour......Local combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy conversion capacity. In particular they supply a large share of the district heating networks with heat. At the same time they are important consumers as seen from the gas network system...... characteristics of the electricity and gas systems will be investigated. The point is here that the two systems will tend to have peak demand during the same hours. This is the typical situation, since load is high during the same hours of the day and of the year. Moreover, the random variations in the load...

  2. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  3. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report

  4. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  5. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  6. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    1994-02-01

    Lacking a detailed characterization of the resource base and a comprehensive borehole-to-burnertip evaluation model of the North American natural gas system, past R ampersand D, tax and regulatory policies have been formulated without a full understanding of their likely direct and indirect impacts on future gas supply and demand. The recent disappearance of the deliverability surplus, pipeline deregulation, and current policy debates about regulatory initiatives in taxation, environmental compliance and leasing make the need for a comprehensive gas evaluation system critical. Traditional econometric or highly aggregated energy models are increasingly regarded as unable to incorporate available geologic detail and explicit technology performance and costing algorithms necessary to evaluate resource-technology-economic interactions in a market context. The objective of this research is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the natural gas system, including resource base, exploration and development, extraction technology performance and costs, transportation and storage and end use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level and the impact of alternative extraction technologies on well productivity and economics. GSAM evaluates the complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives in the context of the evolving gas markets. Scheduled for completion in 1995, a prototype is planned for early 1994. ICF Resources reviewed relevant natural gas upstream, downstream and market models to identify appropriate analytic capabilities to incorporate into GSAM. We have reviewed extraction technologies to better characterize performance and costs in terms of GSAM parameters

  7. An approach for assessing ALWR passive safety system reliability

    Hake, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Many advanced light water reactor designs incorporate passive rather than active safety features for front-line accident response. A method for evaluating the reliability of these passive systems in the context of probabilistic risk assessment has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This method addresses both the component (e.g. valve) failure aspect of passive system failure, and uncertainties in system success criteria arising from uncertainties in the system's underlying physical processes. These processes provide the system's driving force; examples are natural circulation and gravity-induced injection. This paper describes the method, and provides some preliminary results of application of the approach to the Westinghouse AP600 design

  8. Safety management system needs assessment.

    2016-04-01

    The safety of the traveling public is critical as each year there are approximately 200 highway fatalities in Nebraska and numerous crash injuries. The objective of this research was to conduct a needs assessment to identify the requirements of a sta...

  9. Study on evaluation method for potential effect of natural phenomena on a HLW disposal system

    Kawamura, Makoto; Makino, Hitoshi; Umeda, Koji; Osawa, Hideaki; Seo, Toshihiro; Ishimaru, Tsuneaki

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation for the potential effect of natural phenomena on a HLW disposal system is an important issue in safety assessment. A scenario construction method for the effects on a HLW disposal system condition and performance has been developed for two purposes: the first being effective elicitation and organization of information from investigators of natural phenomena and performance assessor and the second being, maintenance of traceability of scenario construction processes with suitable records. In this method, a series of works to construct scenarios is divided into pieces to facilitate and to elicit the features of potential effect of natural phenomena on a HLW disposal system and is organized to create reasonable scenarios with consistency, traceability and adequate conservativeness within realistic view. (author)

  10. GeoCEGAS: natural gas distribution management system

    Ribeiro, Lorena C.J. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Targa, Fernando O. [Gestao Empresarial e Informatica Ltda. (GEMPI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This Technical Paper approach the conception, architecture, design, construction, and implementation of GeoCEGAS, a spatially enabled corporate management information system, oriented to store and provide Web access, to information associated with the natural gas distribution network, owned by CEGAS. This paper reports business processes, business entities and business intelligence approached on the project, as well as an overview of system architecture, applications, and technology used on the implementation of GeoCEGAS. Finally, is presented an introduction to the work methodology used, as well a synopsis of benefits achievements. (author)

  11. Advanced and natural interaction system for motion-impaired users

    Manresa Yee, Cristina Suemay

    2009-01-01

    Human-computer interaction is an important area that searches for better and more comfortable systems to promote communication between humans and machines. Vision-based interfaces can offer a more natural and appealing way of communication. Moreover, it can help in the e-accessibility component of the e-inclusion. The aim is to develop a usable system, that is, the end-user must consider the use of this device effective, efficient and satisfactory. The research's main contribution is SINA, a ...

  12. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  13. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  14. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  15. 1998 FFTF annual system assessment reports

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-01-01

    The health of FFTF systems was assessed assuming a continued facility standby condition. The review was accomplished in accordance with the guidelines of FFTF-EI-083, Plant Evaluation Program. The attached document includes an executive summary of the significant conclusions and assessment reports for each system evaluated

  16. 1998 FFTF annual system assessment reports

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-03-19

    The health of FFTF systems was assessed assuming a continued facility standby condition. The review was accomplished in accordance with the guidelines of FFTF-EI-083, Plant Evaluation Program. The attached document includes an executive summary of the significant conclusions and assessment reports for each system evaluated.

  17. Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Bursian, Steven J.; Alexander, C.R.; Cacela, Dave; Cunningham, Fred L.; Dean, Karen M.; Dorr, Brian S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Harr, Kendall E.; Healy, Katherine A.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Kennedy, Lisa V.; Link, Jane E.; Maggini, Ivan; Moye, John K.; Perez, Christina R.; Pritsos, Chris A.; Shriner, Susan A.; Trust, Kinberly A.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010. During the spill, more than 8500 dead and impaired birds representing at least 93 avian species were collected. In addition, there were more than 3500 birds observed to be visibly oiled. While information in the literature at the time helped to identify some of the effects of oil on birds, it was not sufficient to fully characterize the nature and extent of the injuries to the thousands of live oiled birds, or to quantify those injuries in terms of effects on bird viability. As a result, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed various assessment activities to inform NRDA injury determination and quantification analyses associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including avian toxicity studies. The goal of these studies was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to 1–20 ml of artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil kg bw-1 day-1 from one to 28 days or one to five applications of oil to 20% of the bird's surface area. It was thought that these exposure levels would not result in immediate or short-term mortality but might result in physiological effects that ultimately could affect avian survival, reproduction and health. These studies included oral dosing studies, an external dosing study, metabolic and flight performance studies and field-based flight studies. Results of these studies indicated changes in hematologic endpoints including formation of Heinz bodies and changes in cell counts

  18. Environmental impact analysis of batik natural dyes using life cycle assessment

    Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Sari, Diana Puspita; Purwanggono, Bambang; Hermawan, Andy Tri

    2017-11-01

    The use of natural dyes for batik dyeing is fewer than synthetic dyes because of its limitations in the application such complexity in manufacture and usage. For ease of use, natural dyes need to be processed into instant products. Extract of natural dyes are generally produced in liquid form that are less practical in long-term use. Dye powder obtained by drying the liquid extract using spray dryer. Production process of liquid natural dye is simpler and require less energy but need more energy for transporting. It is important to know which type of natural dyes should be produced based on their environmental impact. This research aim to compare environmental impact between liquid and powder natural dyes and also to find relative contribution of different stage in life cycle to total environmental impact. The appropriate method to analyze and compare the environmental impacts of powder and liquid natural dyes is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The "cradle to grave" approach used to assess environmental impact of powder and liquid natural dyes of Jalawe rind throughout production process of natural dyes, distribution and use of natural dyes for coloring batik. Results of this research show that powder natural dyes has lower environmental impacts than liquid natural dyes. It was found that distribution, mordanting and packaging of liquid dyes have big contribution to environmental impact.

  19. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  20. Systemic assessment as a new tool to assess student learning

    IICBA01

    students' systemic thinking level developed in organic chemistry is strongly related to a deeper understanding of the relevant chemistry concepts (7) .In this regards we will illustrate five types of SAQ,s in heterocyclic chemistry based on systemics to assess students at synthesis and analysis learning levels. We experiment ...

  1. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    Spurgin, A.J.; Hallam, J.W.; Spurgin, J.P.; Singh, A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the OPERAS project. It discusses the background which led to the design of the PC-based data collection and analysis system connected to plant training simulators including those used for nuclear power plants. The usefulness of a system like OPERAS was perceived during an earlier EPRI project, the Operator Reliability Experiments project, by EPRI and PG and E. The data collection and analysis approaches used in OPERAS were developed during the ORE project. The paper not only discusses the design of OPERAS but discusses the functions performed and the current experiences with the two prototype systems. Also listed are potential uses of OPERAS by utility personnel in Operations, Training and PRA groups

  2. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    Shigang Chao; Xinwei Lu; Mengmeng Zhang; Long Pang

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  3. Natural resources damage assessments at Department of Energy facilities - using the CERCLA process to minimize natural resources injuries

    Bascietto, J.J.; Martin, J.F.; Duke, C.S.; Gray, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty years of research, development and production in support of national defense have left the Department of Energy (DOE) with numerous radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste sites requiring environmental restoration and remediation. The responsibilities for DOE associated with releases of these wastes into the environment are driving major efforts to characterize contamination problems and identify and implement environmental restoration and remediation alternatives. The subject of this paper is the recently issued DOE guidance to minimize the basis for damage claims for injuries to natural resources on, over and under lands owned or controlled by DOE associated with the releases of hazardous substances from DOE facilities. Depending on the regulatory authority governing the facility, the preferred means of evaluating the possibility of injury to natural resources is the preparation of an ecological risk assessment or an environmental evaluation. As both the natural resource trustee and lead agency at facilities under its control, DOE receives dual responsibility requiring site remediation if necessary, and that any injured natural resources be restored, or that compensation for the injuries is made. Several executive and legislative sources of authority and responsibility with regard to lead agencies and trustees of natural resources will be detailed. Also, ongoing remedial investigation/feasibility study work at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project near Fernald, Ohio will be described as an example of how this guidance can be applied

  4. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    Wu Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs, thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  5. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  6. Natural disaster risk analysis for critical infrastructure systems: An approach based on statistical learning theory

    Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis has historically been developed for situations in which measured data about the overall reliability of a system are limited and expert knowledge is the best source of information available. There continue to be a number of important problem areas characterized by a lack of hard data. However, in other important problem areas the emergence of information technology has transformed the situation from one characterized by little data to one characterized by data overabundance. Natural disaster risk assessments for events impacting large-scale, critical infrastructure systems such as electric power distribution systems, transportation systems, water supply systems, and natural gas supply systems are important examples of problems characterized by data overabundance. There are often substantial amounts of information collected and archived about the behavior of these systems over time. Yet it can be difficult to effectively utilize these large data sets for risk assessment. Using this information for estimating the probability or consequences of system failure requires a different approach and analysis paradigm than risk analysis for data-poor systems does. Statistical learning theory, a diverse set of methods designed to draw inferences from large, complex data sets, can provide a basis for risk analysis for data-rich systems. This paper provides an overview of statistical learning theory methods and discusses their potential for greater use in risk analysis

  7. System for assessing classroom attention.

    Raca Mirko; Dillenbourg Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a preview of our system for automatically evaluating attention in the classroom. We demonstrate our current behaviour metrics and preliminary observations on how they reflect the reactions of people to the given lecture. We also introduce foundations of our hypothesis on peripheral awareness of students during lectures.

  8. Designing Service-Oriented Chatbot Systems Using a Construction Grammar-Driven Natural Language Generation System

    Jenkins, Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Service oriented chatbot systems are used to inform users in a conversational manner about a particular service or product on a website. Our research shows that current systems are time consuming to build and not very accurate or satisfying to users. We find that natural language understanding and natural language generation methods are central to creating an e�fficient and useful system. In this thesis we investigate current and past methods in this research area and place particular emph...

  9. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  10. Assessing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas Fired Power Plants

    Hajny, K. D.; Shepson, P. B.; Rudek, J.; Stirm, B. H.; Kaeser, R.; Stuff, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is often discussed as a "bridge fuel" to transition to renewable energy as it only produces 51% the amount of CO2 per unit energy as coal. This, coupled with rapid increases in production fueled by technological advances, has led to a near tripling of natural gas used for electricity generation since 2005. One concern with this idea of a "bridge fuel" is that methane, the primary component of natural gas, is itself a potent greenhouse gas with 28 and 84 times the global warming potential of CO2 based on mass over a 100 and 20 year period, respectively. Studies have estimated that leaks from the point of extraction to end use of 3.2% would offset the climate benefits of natural gas. Previous work from our group saw that 3 combined cycle power plants emitted unburned CH4 from the stacks and leaked additional CH4 from equipment on site, but total loss rates were still less than 2.2%. Using Purdue's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) we completed additional aircraft based mass balance experiments combined with passes directly over power plant stacks to expand on the previous study. In this work, we have measured at 12 additional natural gas fired power plants including a mix of operation types (baseload, peaking, intermediate) and firing methods (combined cycle, simple thermal, combustion turbine). We have also returned to the 3 plants previously sampled to reinvestigate emissions for each of those, to assess reproducibility of the results. Here we report the comparison of reported continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) data for CO2 to our emission rates calculated from mass balance experiments, as well as a comparison of calculated CH4 emission rates to estimated emission rates based on the EPA emission factor of 1 g CH4/mmbtu natural gas and CEMS reported heat input. We will also discuss emissions from a coal-fired plant which has been sampled by the group in the past and has since converted to natural gas. Lastly, we discuss the

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  12. Evaluation of system codes for analyzing naturally circulating gas loop

    Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state natural circulation data obtained in a 7 m-tall experimental loop with carbon dioxide and nitrogen are presented in this paper. The loop was originally designed to encompass operating range of a prototype gas-cooled fast reactor passive decay heat removal system, but the results and conclusions are applicable to any natural circulation loop operating in regimes having buoyancy and acceleration parameters within the ranges validated in this loop. Natural circulation steady-state data are compared to numerical predictions by two system analysis codes: GAMMA and RELAP5-3D. GAMMA is a computational tool for predicting various transients which can potentially occur in a gas-cooled reactor. The code has a capability of analyzing multi-dimensional multi-component mixtures and includes models for friction, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and multi-component molecular diffusion. Natural circulation data with two gases show that the loop operates in the deteriorated turbulent heat transfer (DTHT) regime which exhibits substantially reduced heat transfer coefficients compared to the forced turbulent flow. The GAMMA code with an original heat transfer package predicted conservative results in terms of peak wall temperature. However, the estimated peak location did not successfully match the data. Even though GAMMA's original heat transfer package included mixed-convection regime, which is a part of the DTHT regime, the results showed that the original heat transfer package could not reproduce the data with sufficient accuracy. After implementing a recently developed correlation and corresponding heat transfer regime map into GAMMA to cover the whole range of the DTHT regime, we obtained better agreement with the data. RELAP5-3D results are discussed in parallel.

  13. Uruguay; Financial System Stability Assessment

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    The buffers built in the aftermath of Uruguay’s 2002 banking crisis have shielded the financial sector from the effects of the global financial turmoil. Growth has been robust and the outlook continues to be favorable. However, inflation persists but capital inflows have improved, and policy measures have been taken in response. Uruguay exhibits no obvious signs of near-term domestic macrofinancial vulnerability. The external risks to the economy and the financial system come from a fragile g...

  14. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  15. The Imbalance of Water in Nature as System

    Kontar, V. A.; Imbalance of Water in Nature

    2011-12-01

    Consider some of the water-containing area. Choose some the factors which we consider important to the system. The system contains a system factors, and the external environment these factors doesn't contain. Between the system and the external environment must be some flows into the system, out of the system and along the border. If the flows into and out of the system are not equal, that means within the system exactly something is happening. But the equality of the flows into and out of the system does not mean that within the system nothing happens. It is extremely important to determine the time factor. Everything has a beginning and an end. Each factor has its own life from 0 to 1, as well as their watches. Thus that within the system and the environment at the same time are going a lot of the watches and each watch is going by their own pace. System-wide time is needed to describe the system as a whole and to be able to re-measure the individual time of each factor. It is also very important to identify each factor of the system, environment and border. Definition of each particular factor depends on the level of our knowledge. There are many examples where one factor was divided into several, and vice versa, several factors have combined in one or even disappear as a non-existent. Each factor is determined by specific people for reasons of convenience, the specific of tasks, the possible accuracy of measurement, available resources, etc. The development of the science and applications are going to the direction of the clearer separation of factors and the precision of their measurements. Now is extremely important to more clearly define the boundaries of systems, factors and the allowed accuracy of their measurements. With such a revision, many previously balanced situations become to the imbalance. There are many specific details for each case, but they do not change the basic approach described above. If not clearly resolved the questions listed above so

  16. Probabilistic disaggregation of a spatial portfolio of exposure for natural hazard risk assessment

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    In natural hazard risk assessment situations are encountered where information on the portfolio of exposure is only available in a spatially aggregated form, hindering a precise risk assessment. Recourse might be found in the spatial disaggregation of the portfolio of exposure to the resolution...... of a portfolio of buildings in two communes in Switzerland and the results are compared to sample observations. The relevance of probabilistic disaggregation uncertainty in natural hazard risk assessment is illustrated with the example of a simple flood risk assessment....

  17. Impact, adaptation and vulnerability of natural and human systems in Europe

    Martin, Eric; Salas y Melia, David; Delire, Christine; Lemonsu, Aude; Masson, Valery; Badeau, Vincent; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Pigeon, Gregoire; Regimbeau, Mathieu; Viguie, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the observed and projected impacts of climate change on human and natural systems, their vulnerability and adaptation options. It provides insight into the main results related to hydrology, agriculture, natural ecosystems, transport, energy, tourism, infrastructures, health and social aspects. This article presents the main results concerning Europe that were compiled in the contribution of Working Group II to the IPCC fifth assessment report published in 2014. Several studies focused on mainland France are also presented, without claiming to be exhaustive. (authors)

  18. Assessment of the impacts of gold mining on soil and vegetation in Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Meer, van der P.J.; Brink, van den N.W.; Tjon, K.; Atmopawiro, V.P.; Ouboter, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the assessment of the impacts of small scale gold-mining on soil and vegetation in Brownsberg Nature Park. In the past 10 years small-scale gold mining with heavy machinery has been illegally practiced within Brownsberg Nature Park (BNP). During this process the vegetation and

  19. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  20. Developing an Instrument for Assessing Students' Concepts of the Nature of Technology

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nature of technology has been rarely discussed despite the fact that technology plays an essential role in modern society. It is important to discuss students' concepts of the nature of technology, and further to advance their technological literacy and adaptation to modern society. There is a need to assess high school students'…

  1. Progressive nature of heart failure and systems biology

    George E. Louridas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progressive nature of heart failure (HF is the predominant cause for the clinical course that the HF syndrome is taking. Systems biology methodology is of the utmost importance to explain and comprehend the built-in mechanisms of adverse clinical progression. Various heart diseases produce myocardial damage with subsequent left ventricular remodeling which is the principal underlying pathophysiological mechanism for the clinical progression of HF. The self-organized positive feedback stabilization mechanisms of left ventricular remodeling, adrenergic stimulation and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and natriuretic peptide systems, are hierarchical adaptive processes. These adaptive processes are responsible for further left ventricular remodeling with subsequent clinical deterioration and for the emergence of clinical phenotypes. These mechanisms are counteracted with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers in an attempt to improve the adverse clinical phenomena of HF progression in a new but clinically worse stabilization level. In this review our intention is to underline the progressive nature of the HF syndrome and to demonstrate the significance of ventricular remodeling and the role of self-organized positive feedback adaptive processes.

  2. Risk assessment of natural disasters in the course of selection of nuclear waste disposal

    Wu Weicheng; Ai Guigen

    1995-01-01

    Natural disasters are calamities which bring about enormous damage to human beings and their accommodations and equipment. Based on the research of disaster risk and example study of volcanism, we tried to carry out the risk assessment of natural disasters which potentially occur in the candidate area of nuclear waste disposal by three steps of analyses, defining the most frequent occurring area of disasters, determining the parameters of risk assessment and dividing the most dangerous site and risk grades

  3. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  4. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts

  5. Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability

    2017-12-01

    addition to the six cognitive ability constructs, there are two motivational attributes that are highly relevant to systems thinking performance...roles of the habenular complex, the reward system , and the cingulate motor area revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of...Technical Report 1362 Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability Cory Adis Michelle Wisecarver Chelsey Raber Personnel

  6. Assessment methodology for air defence control systems

    Oosthuizen, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Command and Control, humans have to make sense of the situation to support decision making on the required action. Development of an Air Defence Control system through a Systems Engineering process starts with assessment of existing systems...

  7. Electron linear accelerator system for natural rubber vulcanization

    Rimjaem, S.; Kongmon, E.; Rhodes, M. W.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.

    2017-09-01

    Development of an electron accelerator system, beam diagnostic instruments, an irradiation apparatus and electron beam processing methodology for natural rubber vulcanization is underway at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The project is carried out with the aims to improve the qualities of natural rubber products. The system consists of a DC thermionic electron gun, 5-cell standing-wave radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator (linac) with side-coupling cavities and an electron beam irradiation apparatus. This system is used to produce electron beams with an adjustable energy between 0.5 and 4 MeV and a pulse current of 10-100 mA at a pulse repetition rate of 20-400 Hz. An average absorbed dose between 160 and 640 Gy is expected to be archived for 4 MeV electron beam when the accelerator is operated at 400 Hz. The research activities focus firstly on assembling of the accelerator system, study on accelerator properties and electron beam dynamic simulations. The resonant frequency of the RF linac in π/2 operating mode is 2996.82 MHz for the operating temperature of 35 °C. The beam dynamic simulations were conducted by using the code ASTRA. Simulation results suggest that electron beams with an average energy of 4.002 MeV can be obtained when the linac accelerating gradient is 41.7 MV/m. The rms transverse beam size and normalized rms transverse emittance at the linac exit are 0.91 mm and 10.48 π mm·mrad, respectively. This information can then be used as the input data for Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the electron beam penetration depth and dose distribution in the natural rubber latex. The study results from this research will be used to define optimal conditions for natural rubber vulcanization with different electron beam energies and doses. This is very useful for development of future practical industrial accelerator units.

  8. Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems

    Kim, J.I.

    1989-06-01

    The progress in the research area of the community project MIRAGE: 'Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquatic systems' has been reviewed. This programme belongs to a specific research and technical development programme for the European Atomic Energy Community in the field of management and storage of radioactive waste. The review summarizes research progresses in subject areas: complexation with organics, colloid generation in groundwater and basic retention mechanisms in the framework of the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. The subject areas are being investigated by 23 laboratories under interlaboratory collaborations or independent studies. (orig.)

  9. The future of the European natural gas market: A quantitative assessment

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2010-01-01

    The debate over the availability of conventional natural gas has been nearly as strong as that for conventional oil. In Europe, the debate is strengthened due to the region's dependence on natural gas from outside countries. In addition, concern has been expressed by some energy experts in recent years about an imminent shortage of natural gas from Europe, caused supposedly by dwindling natural gas resources. Thus, the purpose of this analysis is to address the concern by assessing the availability of natural gas in the region. This is done by estimating a cumulative availability curve showing natural gas endowment versus production costs. The findings indicate that natural gas in Europe is more available and economic than often assumed. Increased research and development of this potential could help increase energy security in the region. (author)

  10. Attrition of Tyee Formation Sandstone in a Natural Fluvial System

    brandes, J. B.; Sanfilippo, J. D.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    The data from this study will provide a rate of attrition with respect to change in volume, time and distance in a natural stream setting. Sandstone gravel attrition has been observed in previous studies with the use of rock tumblers, but measurements in natural systems are rare or absent. This study will use rocks with implanted passive integrated transponders (PIT) tags to track sediment movement. The study area is a natural mountain stream of approximately 4m width and 1m depth. This study is part of larger study of sediment transport. The rock volumes will be recorded prior to placement in an active channel using water displacement, the specific location along the channel will be recorded, and each tracer rock will be tracked using its individual radio frequency identification (RFID) number. Tracer rock deployment will occur before the annual high-water season. After one rainy season, the rocks will be located and removed from the stream using a radio frequency mobile radio frequency tracker. Their travel distances will be recorded and final volumes determined. Differences between initial and final volumes and travel distances will yield a distribution of attrition rates and, therefore, a mean gravel attrition rate.

  11. Benchmarking Discount Rate in Natural Resource Damage Assessment with Risk Aversion.

    Wu, Desheng; Chen, Shuzhen

    2017-08-01

    Benchmarking a credible discount rate is of crucial importance in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and restoration evaluation. This article integrates a holistic framework of NRDA with prevailing low discount rate theory, and proposes a discount rate benchmarking decision support system based on service-specific risk aversion. The proposed approach has the flexibility of choosing appropriate discount rates for gauging long-term services, as opposed to decisions based simply on duration. It improves injury identification in NRDA since potential damages and side-effects to ecosystem services are revealed within the service-specific framework. A real embankment case study demonstrates valid implementation of the method. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Use of cloud computing technology in natural hazard assessment and emergency management

    Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-12-01

    During a natural hazard event, the most up-to-date data needs to be in the hands of those on the front line. Decision support system tools can be developed to provide access to pre-made outputs to quickly assess the hazard and potential risk. However, with the ever growing availability of new satellite data as well as ground and airborne data generated in real-time there is a need to analyze the large volumes of data in an easy-to-access and effective environment. With the growth in the use of cloud computing, where the analysis and visualization system can grow with the needs of the user, then these facilities can used to provide this real-time analysis. Think of a central command center uploading the data to the cloud compute system and then those researchers in-the-field connecting to a web-based tool to view the newly acquired data. New data can be added by any user and then viewed instantly by anyone else in the organization through the cloud computing interface. This provides the ideal tool for collaborative data analysis, hazard assessment and decision making. We present the rationale for developing a cloud computing systems and illustrate how this tool can be developed for use in real-time environments. Users would have access to an interactive online image analysis tool without the need for specific remote sensing software on their local system therefore increasing their understanding of the ongoing hazard and mitigate its impact on the surrounding region.

  13. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information and remote sensing are proper tools to enhance functional strategies for increasing awareness on natural hazards and risks and for supporting research and operational activities devoted to disaster reduction. An improved Earth Sciences knowledge coupled with Geomatics advanced technologies has been developed by the joint research group and applied by the ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action) centre, within its partnership with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) with the goal of reducing human, social, economic and environmental losses due to natural hazards and related disasters. By cooperating with local and regional authorities (Municipalities, Centro Funzionale of the Aosta Valley, Civil Protection Agency of Regione Piemonte), data on natural hazards and risks have been collected, compared to national and global data, then interpreted for helping communities and civil protection agencies of sensitive mountain regions to make strategic choices and decisions to better mitigation and adaption measures. To enhance the application of GIS and Remote-sensing technologies for geothematic mapping of geological and geomorphological risks of mountain territories of Europe and Developing Countries, research activities led to the collection and evaluation of data from scientific literature and historical technical archives, for the definition of predisposing/triggering factors and evolutionary processes of natural instability phenomena (landslides, floods, storms, …) and for the design and implementation of early-warning and early-impact systems. Geodatabases, Remote Sensing and Mobile-GIS applications were developed to perform analysis of : 1) large climate-related disaster (Hurricane Mitch, Central America), by the application of remote sensing techniques, either for early warning or mitigation measures at the national and international scale; 2) distribution of slope instabilities at the regional scale (Aosta

  14. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Birutė Mikulskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation and development of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports, the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system. A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed. Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in the strategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  15. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Algirdas Astrauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation anddevelopment of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports,the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system.A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed.Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in thestrategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  16. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  17. Water: Challenges at the Intersection of Human and Natural Systems

    Futrell, J.H.; Gephart, R. E.; Kabat-Lensch, E.; McKnight, D. M.; Pyrtle, A.; Schimel, J. P.; Smyth, R. L.; Skole, D. L. Wilson, J. L.; Gephart, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    There is a growing recognition about the critical role water plays in sustaining people and society. This workshop established dialog between disciplinary scientists and program managers from diverse backgrounds in order to share perspectives and broaden community understanding of ongoing fundamental and applied research on water as a complex environmental problem. Three major scientific themes emerged: (1) coupling of cycles and process, with emphasis on the role of interfaces; (2) coupling of human and natural systems across spatial and temporal scales; and (3) prediction in the face of uncertainty. In addition, the need for observation systems, sensors, and infrastructure; and the need for data management and synthesis were addressed. Current barriers to progress were noted as educational and institutional barriers and the integration of science and policy.

  18. Natural Preconditioning and Iterative Methods for Saddle Point Systems

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The solution of quadratic or locally quadratic extremum problems subject to linear(ized) constraints gives rise to linear systems in saddle point form. This is true whether in the continuous or the discrete setting, so saddle point systems arising from the discretization of partial differential equation problems, such as those describing electromagnetic problems or incompressible flow, lead to equations with this structure, as do, for example, interior point methods and the sequential quadratic programming approach to nonlinear optimization. This survey concerns iterative solution methods for these problems and, in particular, shows how the problem formulation leads to natural preconditioners which guarantee a fast rate of convergence of the relevant iterative methods. These preconditioners are related to the original extremum problem and their effectiveness - in terms of rapidity of convergence - is established here via a proof of general bounds on the eigenvalues of the preconditioned saddle point matrix on which iteration convergence depends.

  19. Views of nature of science questionnaire: Toward valid and meaningful assessment of learners' conceptions of nature of science

    Lederman, Norm G.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bell, Randy L.; Schwartz, Renée S.

    2002-08-01

    Helping students develop informed views of nature of science (NOS) has been and continues to be a central goal for kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12) science education. Since the early 1960s, major efforts have been undertaken to enhance K-12 students and science teachers' NOS views. However, the crucial component of assessing learners' NOS views remains an issue in research on NOS. This article aims to (a) trace the development of a new open-ended instrument, the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS), which in conjunction with individual interviews aims to provide meaningful assessments of learners' NOS views; (b) outline the NOS framework that underlies the development of the VNOS; (c) present evidence regarding the validity of the VNOS; (d) elucidate the use of the VNOS and associated interviews, and the range of NOS aspects that it aims to assess; and (e) discuss the usefulness of rich descriptive NOS profiles that the VNOS provides in research related to teaching and learning about NOS. The VNOS comes in response to some calls within the science education community to go back to developing standardized forced-choice paper and pencil NOS assessment instruments designed for mass administrations to large samples. We believe that these calls ignore much of what was learned from research on teaching and learning about NOS over the past 30 years. The present state of this line of research necessitates a focus on individual classroom interventions aimed at enhancing learners' NOS views, rather than on mass assessments aimed at describing or evaluating students' beliefs.

  20. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  1. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  2. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Portable reconfigurable detection and assessment system

    Blattman, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapidly changing geopolitical issues throughout the world have made the ability to effectively respond to political, military, terrorist and peace-keeping requirements increasingly important. Recent Middle East events indicate a continuing escalation in these activities. These activities are defining the requirements for a rapidly deployable, portable, real-time detection and assessment operational security system that is reconfigurable to site specific threats. This paper describes such a system Mobile Operational Detection and Assessment system (MODAS); a commercially-off-the shelf (COTS) integrated and reconfigurable hardware/software system solution for the ever-changing geopolitical security issues of the Nineties

  5. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  6. Online Faculty Development and Assessment System (OFDAS)

    Villar, Luis M.; Alegre, Olga M.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth of online learning has led to the development of faculty inservice evaluation models focused on quality improvement of degree programs. Based on current "best practices" of student online assessment, the Online Faculty Development and Assessment System (OFDAS), created at the Canary Islands, was designed to serve the…

  7. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  8. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region, by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow to identify and prioritize relative hotspots and targets which are more likely to be affected by flood and support the development of relevant and strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. Moreover, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity).

  9. Morocco; Financial System Stability Assessment: Update

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an update to the Financial System Stability Assessment on Morocco. Major reforms have been achieved since the 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) within a policy of actively promoting economic and financial sector opening. The 2002 FSAP recommendations have been largely implemented. Although the financial system is stable and considerably more robust than in the past, the liberalization of capital flows and increased exchange rate flexibility present challenges...

  10. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  11. Systemic Assessment as a new tool for assessing students learning ...

    Systemic Assessment [SA] has been shown to be highly effective new tool in raising the level of students academic achievements, improve their ability to learn by enhancing the process of teaching and learning, and converts students from surface to deep learning. It also allow teacher to monitor students learning ...

  12. SYSTEMIC ASSESSMENT [SA] AS A TOOL TO ASSESS STUDENT ...

    Temechegn

    our studies on Systemic Assessment [SA] [5-8] is an ongoing process of .... schema can be considered as a single element in working memory [9]. This is ... our students from surface learning to deep learning of chemical processes in sodium ...

  13. Design of a Natural Gas Liquefaction System with Minimum Components

    Bergese, Franco

    2004-01-01

    In this work an economic method for liquefying natural gas by diminishing its temperature by means of the Joule-Thomson effect is presented.The pressures from and to which the gas must be expanded arose from a thermodynamic calculation optimizing the cost per unit mass of Liquefied Natural Gas LNG).It was determined that the gas should be expanded from 200 atm to 4 atm.This expansion ratio can be used in different scales.Large Scale: liquefaction of gas at well.It takes advantage of the fact that the gas inside the well is stored at high pressure.The gas is expanded in a valve / nozzle and then compressed to the pressure of the local pipeline system.The objective of this project is to export natural gas as LNG, which is transported by ships to the markets of consumption.Using this method of liquefaction, the LNG production levels are limited to a fraction of the production of the well, due to the injection of the un condensed gas into the local pipelines system.Medium Scale: A high pressure pipeline is the source of the gas.The expansion is performed and then the gas is again compressed to the pressure of a lower pressure pipeline into which the gas is injected.The pressure reductions of natural gas are performed nearby big cities.The aim of this project scale is the storage of fuel for gas thermal power plants during periods of low energy consumption for later burning when the resource is limited. Another possibility that offers this size of plant is the transportation of gas to regions where the resource is unavailable.This transportation would be carried out by means of cistern trucks, in the same way that conventional liquid fuels are transported.Small scale: the place of production would be a CNG refueling station. The source of gas is in this case a gas pipeline of urban distribution and the gas should be compressed with the compressor of the refueling station.Compressors have generally low loading factor and the periods of time when they are not producing

  14. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    1978-09-01

    The first part of the present paper describes the basic assessment procedure that is adopted in the analysis of the three generic nuclear systems. Once-through, fast breeder, and thermal recycle systems are then treated in Sections II, III, and IV, respectively. In each of these sections, a reference system is examined, possible technical and institutional improvements are considered, and alternative system types are indicated. Section V then discusses the relative proliferation resistance of the three generic systems. Although this paper emphasizes the analysis and comparison of individual fuel cycle alternatives, Section V indicates briefly how these analyses then have to be considered in a broader context where systems coexist

  15. The systemic nature of mustard lung: Comparison with COPD patients

    Shahriary Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin (IL, chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.

  16. Heavy ion fusion systems assessment - An overview

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Zuckerman, D.S.; Billman, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    A study is underway to evaluate the technical performance and economic attractiveness of linear induction-driven Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) as an energy source for electrical power generation. This study is a cooperative effort of several national laboratories, universities, industrial contractors and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) under the leadership of Los Alamos National Laboratory. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, assisted by Titan Systems, Inc, has the responsibility to integrate the cost and performance models of the driver, reactor and balance of plant systems, evaluate different system options and assess the overall technical and economic performance of an HIF power plant. Individual system options have been designed and analyzed by the other participants in the DOE-sponsored parent study and are provided for system integration and evaluation. This paper describes the integration and evaluation effort for the HIF Systems Assessment. Specific areas discussed include, the definition of Systems Requirements, the development of Assessment Methodology, the characterization of System Options, the description of Systems Assessment Code, the assessment of Code Results, the ranking of System Options, the selection of Attractive System Options, and the determination of Preferred Operating Parameter Space. The initial study effort was to define the system requirements from the standpoint of the overall power plant. This was accomplished by establishing overall power plant performance goals and specifications. The plant was assumed to be dedicated only to electrical power production in the 2020 time frame enabling the study to look beyond developmental and startup difficulties. The net plant output was defined to be between 400 and 1500 MWe which would allow investigating the effect of plant size

  17. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...

  18. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  19. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  20. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  1. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.-PETROBRAS, Av. Almirante Barroso, 81, 12 andar, Centro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 20031-004 (Brazil); Eugenio Leal, Jose, E-mail: jel@puc-rio.br [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Department of Industrial Engineering, R. Marques de S. Vicente 225, Gavea. Rio de Janeiro RJ 22451-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Fabricio [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Department of Industrial Engineering, R. Marques de S. Vicente 225, Gavea. Rio de Janeiro RJ 22451-900 (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: > We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. > The system may be applied to new or existing projects. > The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. > An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. > The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  2. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    Pereira dos Santos, Sidney; Eugenio Leal, Jose; Oliveira, Fabricio

    2011-01-01

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: → We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. → The system may be applied to new or existing projects. → The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. → An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. → The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  3. An approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk from natural disasters in a geographic region

    Zlateva, Plamena; Stoyanov, Krasimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk of a certain geographic region on the basis of quantitative and qualitative datum about the potential natural disasters. A fuzzy logic model is designed. The type of the threats, consequences and interdependencies between infrastructure objects are taken into account. The geographic region is considered as a complex system of interconnected and mutually influencing elements. The expected damages are directly and/or indirectly connected with life quality deterioration. Keywords: Risk, Geo-ecological risk, Damages, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Natural disasters

  4. Extending topological surgery to natural processes and dynamical systems.

    Stathis Antoniou

    Full Text Available Topological surgery is a mathematical technique used for creating new manifolds out of known ones. We observe that it occurs in natural phenomena where a sphere of dimension 0 or 1 is selected, forces are applied and the manifold in which they occur changes type. For example, 1-dimensional surgery happens during chromosomal crossover, DNA recombination and when cosmic magnetic lines reconnect, while 2-dimensional surgery happens in the formation of tornadoes, in the phenomenon of Falaco solitons, in drop coalescence and in the cell mitosis. Inspired by such phenomena, we introduce new theoretical concepts which enhance topological surgery with the observed forces and dynamics. To do this, we first extend the formal definition to a continuous process caused by local forces. Next, for modeling phenomena which do not happen on arcs or surfaces but are 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional, we fill in the interior space by defining the notion of solid topological surgery. We further introduce the notion of embedded surgery in S3 for modeling phenomena which involve more intrinsically the ambient space, such as the appearance of knotting in DNA and phenomena where the causes and effect of the process lies beyond the initial manifold, such as the formation of black holes. Finally, we connect these new theoretical concepts with a dynamical system and we present it as a model for both 2-dimensional 0-surgery and natural phenomena exhibiting a 'hole drilling' behavior. We hope that through this study, topology and dynamics of many natural phenomena, as well as topological surgery itself, will be better understood.

  5. Review and assessment of information kiosk systems

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the current state-of-the-art and assesses the progress that is being made, in Kiosk Information Systems. This information will be used in developing a kiosk system for the Metro Dade Transit Agency (MDTA), which has recently been ...

  6. Assessment of laboratory logistics management information system ...

    Introduction: Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods: ...

  7. Improved airfield damage assessment System (IADAS) capstone

    2017-09-01

    that the Air Force Civil Engineer career field is prepared for the future of expeditionary warfare by integrating the latest technology into TTPs...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release...alternatives for improving the timeliness of airfield damage assessment. The systems engineering methods used included a morphological box and Pugh matrix

  8. A model integrating social-cultural concepts of nature into frameworks of interaction between social and natural systems

    Muhar, Andreas; Raymond, Christopher M.; van den Born, Riyan J.G.

    2018-01-01

    relationship at both individual and collective levels. We highlight the relevance of individual and collective understandings of the human-nature relationship as influencing factors for environmental behaviour, which may be reflected in natural resource management conflicts, and review the diversity......Existing frameworks for analysing interactions between social and natural systems (e.g. Social-Ecological Systems framework, Ecosystem Services concept) do not sufficiently consider and operationalize the dynamic interactions between people's values, attitudes and understandings of the human-nature....... Integrating this model into existing frameworks provides a tool for the exploration of how social-cultural concepts of nature interact with existing contexts to influence governance of social-ecological systems....

  9. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  10. The Episodic Nature of Experience: A Dynamical Systems Analysis.

    Sreekumar, Vishnu; Dennis, Simon; Doxas, Isidoros

    2017-07-01

    Context is an important construct in many domains of cognition, including learning, memory, and emotion. We used dynamical systems methods to demonstrate the episodic nature of experience by showing a natural separation between the scales over which within-context and between-context relationships operate. To do this, we represented an individual's emails extending over about 5 years in a high-dimensional semantic space and computed the dimensionalities of the subspaces occupied by these emails. Personal discourse has a two-scaled geometry with smaller within-context dimensionalities than between-context dimensionalities. Prior studies have shown that reading experience (Doxas, Dennis, & Oliver, 2010) and visual experience (Sreekumar, Dennis, Doxas, Zhuang, & Belkin, 2014) have a similar two-scaled structure. Furthermore, the recurrence plot of the emails revealed that experience is predictable and hierarchical, supporting the constructs of some influential theories of memory. The results demonstrate that experience is not scale-free and provide an important target for accounts of how experience shapes cognition. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Nature engineered diatom biosilica as drug delivery systems.

    Uthappa, U T; Brahmkhatri, Varsha; Sriram, G; Jung, Ho-Young; Yu, Jingxian; Kurkuri, Nikita; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Altalhi, Tariq; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Kurkuri, Mahaveer D

    2018-05-14

    Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae covered with siliceous cell wall, are also called frustule. These are the most potential naturally available materials for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility, high surface area, low cost and ease of surface modification. Mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 have been extensively used in drug delivery area. Their synthesis is challenging, time consuming, requires toxic chemicals and are energy intensive, making the entire process expensive and non-viable. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative materials. Surprisingly, nature has provided some exciting materials called diatoms; biosilica is one such a material that can be potentially used as a drug delivery vehicle. The present review focuses on different types of diatom species used in drug delivery with respect to their structural properties, morphology, purification process and surface functionalization. In this review, recent advances along with their limitations as well as the future scope to develop them as potential drug delivery vehicles are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. RSAS: a Reactor Safety Assessment System

    Sebo, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.; Bray, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RSAS is being developed for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. The system generates situation assessments for the NRC Reactor Safety Team based on a limited number of plant parameters, known operator actions, and plant status data. The RSAS rule base currently covers one reactor type. The extension of the rule base to other reactor types is also discussed

  13. Weak vs. strong invaders of natural plant communities: Assessing invasibility and impact

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    In response to the profound threat of exotic species to natural systems, much attention has been focused on the biotic resistance hypothesis, which predicts that diverse communities should better resist invasions. While studies of natural communities generally refute this hypothesis, reporting positive relationships between native species diversity and invasibility,...

  14. Quantitative risk assessment of digitalized safety systems

    Shin, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hym Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jun [UNIST, Ulasn (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A report published by the U.S. National Research Council indicates that appropriate methods for assessing reliability are key to establishing the acceptability of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in safety-critical plants such as NPPs. Since the release of this issue, the methodology for the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems has been studied. However, there is still no widely accepted method. Kang and Sung found three critical factors for safety assessment of digital systems: detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, software reliability quantification, and network communication risk. In reality the various factors composing digitalized I and C systems are not independent of each other but rather closely connected. Thus, from a macro point of view, a method that can integrate risk factors with different characteristics needs to be considered together with the micro approaches to address the challenges facing each factor.

  15. 5th Total System Performance Assessment Workshop

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-07-01

    Research items on safety assessment of high-level waste repository have been proposed by external invited experts outside KAERI and discussed extensively during the annual 5th performance assessment workshop prepared by safety assessment group in KAERI. This could be useful to set up R and D plans necessary for the next phase of mid- and long-term reaserch area regarding the safety assessment of high-level waste repository. Through the research and the presentation, HLW-related research and development area including such specific research items as current status of HLW safety assessment research, current requirement for the licensing of the repository system, priority on research area, data base building for the safety assessment, source-term modeling as well as safety case, among many others, have been discussed and summarized

  16. Thermal dimensioning of wet natural draft cooling systems

    Bourillot, Claudine.

    1975-01-01

    The conventional models of calculating wet natural draft cooling systems include two different parts. First, the thermal calculation of the dispersion is made either with an ''exact'' method of separating convection and evaporation phenomena and taking account for the steam in exces in the saturated air, or with a ''simplified'' method considering the heat transfer in the whole as resulting of a difference in enthalpies. (The latter is the Merkel theory). Secondly, the draft equation is solved for calculating air flow rate. Values of the mass transfer coefficients and pressure drops of the dispersion being needed for the computation, test bench measurements are made by the designers. As for counter-current cooling systems the models of the dispersion calculation are one-dimensional models not allowing the radial flow and air temperature distributions to be simulated; exchanges inside the rain zone are also neglected. As for crossed-current cooling systems the flow geometry entails a more complicated two-dimensional model to be used for the dispersion. In both cases, the dependence on meteorological factors such as wind, height gradients of temperature, or sunny features are disregarded [fr

  17. Markerless client-server augmented reality system with natural features

    Ning, Shuangning; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo

    2017-10-01

    A markerless client-server augmented reality system is presented. In this research, the more extensive and mature virtual reality head-mounted display is adopted to assist the implementation of augmented reality. The viewer is provided an image in front of their eyes with the head-mounted display. The front-facing camera is used to capture video signals into the workstation. The generated virtual scene is merged with the outside world information received from the camera. The integrated video is sent to the helmet display system. The distinguishing feature and novelty is to realize the augmented reality with natural features instead of marker, which address the limitations of the marker, such as only black and white, the inapplicability of different environment conditions, and particularly cannot work when the marker is partially blocked. Further, 3D stereoscopic perception of virtual animation model is achieved. The high-speed and stable socket native communication method is adopted for transmission of the key video stream data, which can reduce the calculation burden of the system.

  18. Nature-aligned approaches to form students’ system motivation

    Marina V. Ulyanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the society involves the transition of the society from the current evolutional stage to a higher stage without revolutionary destruction of the existing frames of society. An individual, playing a prominent role in human history from time to time, is able to provide for the evolution of consciousness of the whole community, appearing on the top of the evolutional cone in the moment of passing of the system to the qualitatively new stage of its development. Only an integral individual, a person-creator possessing a high potential of harmony is able to accomplish such transition. The golden proportion of the social structure of the society implies a certain correlation of ontological categories of people, having personality orientation that characterizes them as a creator, consumer or destroyer. The modern approaches to education involve motivating a human being to self-improvement all his/her lifelong. The question is that, how much pedagogical systems correspond to the laws of harmony, which provide formation of social strata golden proportion structure considered not from the perspective of class position, but from the perspective of creative personality orientation. The analysis of the existing educational approaches showed, that the best indices satisfying the set social problem belong to noospheric pedagogics, based on nature-aligned methodology of teaching academic disciplines. It is built on principles of health protection and health development, intellectual potential, system motivation of an individual to self-perfection. Nature-aligned educational methodology is personality oriented and enables the student to accomplish object-subject transformation in the process of education, as a result of which, following the receipt of special educational knowledge, abilities and skills, he/she gets common educational abilities and skills, on the basis of which the processes of self-actualization, self

  19. Multiscale Methodological Framework to Derive Criteria and Indicators for Sustainability Evaluation of Peasant Natural Resource Management Systems

    López Ridaura, S.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Design and implementation of more sustainable natural resource management systems is the current objective of many research institutions, development agencies, NGOs and other stakeholders. But, how to assess whether a system is sustainable? How do we know whether the alternatives designed will

  20. Statistical reliability assessment of software-based systems

    Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.; Haapanen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Plant vendors nowadays propose software-based systems even for the most critical safety functions. The reliability estimation of safety critical software-based systems is difficult since the conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. Due to lack of operational experience and due to the nature of software faults, the conventional reliability estimation methods can not be applied. New methods are therefore needed for the safety assessment of software-based systems. In the research project Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA), financed together by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. This volume in the OHA-report series deals with the statistical reliability assessment of software based systems on the basis of dynamic test results and qualitative evidence from the system design process. Other reports to be published later on in OHA-report series will handle the diversity requirements in safety critical software-based systems, generation of test data from operational profiles and handling of programmable automation in plant PSA-studies. (orig.) (25 refs.)

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices in different soil samples from Assiut governorate

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Hefni, M.A.; El-Kamel, A.H; Nesreen, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazard radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. Determine the radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in surface and 20 cm soil samples collected beside Assiut fertilizer plant, Assiut government in south Upper Egypt, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure. The contents of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3”x 3”]. The total absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk and the external hazard index, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were calculated

  2. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additive...

  3. Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks

    Mahan, C.G.; Vanderhorst, J.P.; Young, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge-a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

  4. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment.

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Terrestrial ecological systems and natural communities of Nebraska

    Department of the Interior — Over two decades ago, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and state natural heritage programs developed the “coarse filter/fine filter” approach to preserving biological...

  6. Characterization of natural ventilation in wastewater collection systems.

    Ward, Matthew; Corsi, Richard; Morton, Robert; Knapp, Tom; Apgar, Dirk; Quigley, Chris; Easter, Chris; Witherspoon, Jay; Pramanik, Amit; Parker, Wayne

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize natural ventilation in full-scale gravity collection system components while measuring other parameters related to ventilation. Experiments were completed at four different locations in the wastewater collection systems of Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Los Angeles, California, and the King County Wastewater Treatment District, Seattle, Washington. The subject components were concrete gravity pipes ranging in diameter from 0.8 to 2.4 m (33 to 96 in.). Air velocity was measured in each pipe using a carbon-monoxide pulse tracer method. Air velocity was measured entering or exiting the components at vents using a standpipe and hotwire anemometer arrangement. Ambient wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity; headspace temperature and relative humidity; and wastewater flow and temperature were measured. The field experiments resulted in a large database of measured ventilation and related parameters characterizing ventilation in full-scale gravity sewers. Measured ventilation rates ranged from 23 to 840 L/s. The experimental data was used to evaluate existing ventilation models. Three models that were based upon empirical extrapolation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermodynamics, respectively, were evaluated based on predictive accuracy compared to the measured data. Strengths and weaknesses in each model were found and these observations were used to propose a concept for an improved ventilation model.

  7. natural

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  8. Natural Resource Information System. Volume 2: System operating procedures and instructions

    1972-01-01

    A total computer software system description is provided for the prototype Natural Resource Information System designed to store, process, and display data of maximum usefulness to land management decision making. Program modules are described, as are the computer file design, file updating methods, digitizing process, and paper tape conversion to magnetic tape. Operating instructions for the system, data output, printed output, and graphic output are also discussed.

  9. Thermo-economic assessment of externally fired micro-gas turbine fired by natural gas and biomass: Applications in Italy

    Pantaleo, A.M.; Camporeale, S.M.; Shah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic analysis of natural gas/biomass fired microturbine is proposed. • Energy efficiency, capex, opex and electricity revenues trade-offs are assessed. • The optimal biomass energy input is 70% of total CHP consumption. • Industrial/tertiary heat demand and baseload/heat driven operation is assessed. • The main barriers of small scale CHP systems in Italy are overviewed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a thermo-economic assessment of small scale (100 kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) plants fired by natural gas and solid biomass. The focus is on dual fuel gas turbine cycle, where compressed air is heated in a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) using the hot gases produced in a biomass furnace, before entering the gas combustion chamber. The hot air expands in the turbine and then feeds the internal pre-heater recuperator, Various biomass/natural gas energy input ratios are modeled, ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% biomass. The research assesses the trade-offs between: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost of high biomass input rate and (ii) higher primary energy savings and revenues from bio-electricity feed-in tariff in case of high biomass input rate. The influence of fuel mix and biomass furnace temperature on energy conversion efficiencies, primary energy savings and profitability of investments is assessed. The scenarios of industrial vs. tertiary heat demand and baseload vs. heat driven plant operation are also compared. On the basis of the incentives available in Italy for biomass electricity and for high efficiency cogeneration (HEC), the maximum investment profitability is achieved for 70% input biomass percentage. The main barriers of these embedded cogeneration systems in Italy are also discussed

  10. The impact of natural hazard on critical infrastructure systems: definition of an ontology

    Dimauro, Carmelo; Bouchon, Sara; Frattini, Paolo; Giusto, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    According to the Council of the European Union Directive (2008), 'critical infrastructure' means an asset, system or part thereof which is essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. Critical infrastructure networks are exposed to natural events, such as floods, storms, landslides, earthquakes, etc. Recent natural disasters show that socio-economic consequences can be very much aggravated by the impact on these infrastructures. Though, there is still a lack of a recognized approach or methodology to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructure assets against natural threats. The difficulty to define such an approach is increased by the need to consider a very high number of natural events, which differ in nature, magnitude and probability, as well as the need to assess the vulnerability of a high variety of infrastructure assets (e.g. bridges, roads, tunnels, pipelines, etc.) To meet this challenge, the objective of the THREVI2 EU-CIPS project is to create a database linking the relationships between natural hazards and critical infrastructure assets. The query of the database will allow the end-users (critical infrastructure protection authorities and operators) to identify the relevant scenarios according to the own priorities and criteria. The database builds on an ontology optimized for the assessment of the impact of threats on critical infrastructures. The ontology aims at capturing the existing knowledge on natural hazards, critical infrastructures assets and their related vulnerabilities. Natural phenomena that can threaten critical infrastructures are classified as "events", and organized in a genetic-oriented hierarchy. The main attributes associated to each event are the probability, the magnitude and the "modus". The modus refers to the

  11. A Risk Assessment System with Automatic Extraction of Event Types

    Capet, Philippe; Delavallade, Thomas; Nakamura, Takuya; Sandor, Agnes; Tarsitano, Cedric; Voyatzi, Stavroula

    In this article we describe the joint effort of experts in linguistics, information extraction and risk assessment to integrate EventSpotter, an automatic event extraction engine, into ADAC, an automated early warning system. By detecting as early as possible weak signals of emerging risks ADAC provides a dynamic synthetic picture of situations involving risk. The ADAC system calculates risk on the basis of fuzzy logic rules operated on a template graph whose leaves are event types. EventSpotter is based on a general purpose natural language dependency parser, XIP, enhanced with domain-specific lexical resources (Lexicon-Grammar). Its role is to automatically feed the leaves with input data.

  12. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further

  13. High Altitude Aerial Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Richard T. Wainner; Mickey B. Frish; B. David Green; Matthew C. Laderer; Mark G. Allen; Joseph R. Morency

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective and power-efficient advanced standoff sensing technology able to detect and quantify, from a high-altitude (> 10,000 ft) aircraft, natural gas leaking from a high-pressure pipeline. The advanced technology is based on an enhanced version of the Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) platform developed previously by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). The RMLD combines a telecommunications-style diode laser, fiber-optic components, and low-cost DSP electronics with the well-understood principles of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS), to indicate the presence of natural gas located between the operator and a topographic target. The transceiver transmits a laser beam onto a topographic target and receives some of the laser light reflected by the target. The controller processes the received light signal to deduce the amount of methane in the laser's path. For use in the airborne platform, we modified three aspects of the RMLD, by: (1) inserting an Erbium-doped optical fiber laser amplifier to increase the transmitted laser power from 10 mW to 5W; (2) increasing the optical receiver diameter from 10 cm to 25 cm; and (3) altering the laser wavelength from 1653 nm to 1618 nm. The modified RMLD system provides a path-integrated methane concentration sensitivity {approx}5000 ppm-m, sufficient to detect the presence of a leak from a high capacity transmission line while discriminating against attenuation by ambient methane. In ground-based simulations of the aerial leak detection scenario, we demonstrated the ability to measure methane leaks within the laser beam path when it illuminates a topographic target 2000 m away. We also demonstrated simulated leak detection from ranges of 200 m using the 25 cm optical receiver without the fiber amplifier.

  14. 78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...

    2013-03-18

    ... provide habitat for pink salmon, Dolly Verden, juvenile fish, and marine birds. The Trustees assessed... objectives. The proposed preferred alternative includes the following projects: (1) Remove two trash racks...

  15. Integrated modeling of natural and human systems - problems and initiatives

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J.; Gunnink, J.; Hughes, A.; Moore, R. V.; Peach, D.

    2009-12-01

    Governments and their executive agencies across the world are facing increasing pressure to make decisions about the management of resources in light of population growth and environmental change. In the UK and the Netherlands, for example, groundwater is becoming a scarce resource for large parts of its most densely populated areas. At the same time river and groundwater flooding resulting from high rainfall events are increasing in scale and frequency and sea level rise is threatening the defences of coastal cities. There is also a need for affordable housing, improved transport infrastructure and waste disposal as well as sources of renewable energy and sustainable food production. These challenges can only be resolved if solutions are based on sound scientific evidence. Although we have knowledge and understanding of many individual processes in the natural sciences it is clear that a single science discipline is unable to answer the questions and their inter-relationships. Modern science increasingly employs computer models to simulate the natural, economic and human system. Management and planning requires scenario modelling, forecasts and “predictions”. Although the outputs are often impressive in terms of apparent accuracy and visualisation, they are inherently not suited to simulate the response to feedbacks from other models of the earth system, such as the impact of human actions. Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) are increasingly employing advances in Information Technology to visualise and improve their understanding of geological systems. Instead of 2 dimensional paper maps and reports many GSOs now produce 3 dimensional geological framework models and groundwater flow models as their standard output. Additionally the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of the Netherlands have developed standard routines to link geological data to groundwater models, but these models are only aimed at solving one specific part of the earth

  16. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  17. Assessment of Natural Ventilation Potential for Residential Buildings across Different Climate Zones in Australia

    Zijing Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the natural ventilation potential of residential buildings was numerically investigated based on a typical single-story house in the three most populous climate zones in Australia. Simulations using the commercial simulation software TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool were performed for all seasons in three representative cities, i.e., Darwin for the hot humid summer and warm winter zone, Sydney for the mild temperate zone, and Melbourne for the cool temperate zone. A natural ventilation control strategy was generated by the rule-based decision-tree method based on the local climates. Natural ventilation hour (NVH and satisfied natural ventilation hour (SNVH were employed to evaluate the potential of natural ventilation in each city considering local climate and local indoor thermal comfort requirements, respectively. The numerical results revealed that natural ventilation potential was related to the local climate. The greatest natural ventilation potential for the case study building was observed in Darwin with an annual 4141 SNVH out of 4728 NVH, while the least natural ventilation potential was found in the Melbourne case. Moreover, summer and transition seasons (spring and autumn were found to be the optimal periods to sustain indoor thermal comfort by utilising natural ventilation in Sydney and Melbourne. By contrast, natural ventilation was found applicable over the whole year in Darwin. In addition, the indoor operative temperature results demonstrated that indoor thermal comfort can be maintained only by utilising natural ventilation for all cases during the whole year, except for the non-natural ventilation periods in summer in Darwin and winter in Melbourne. These findings could improve the understanding of natural ventilation potential in different climates, and are beneficial for the climate-conscious design of residential buildings in Australia.

  18. Logistical management system for natural gas distribution; Sistema de gestao logistica para a distribuicao de gas natural

    Arruda, Joao Bosco F; Nobre, Junior, Ernesto F; Praca, Eduardo R [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transportes e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian Federal Government has the very purpose of increasing the participation of the Natural Gas in the primary energy internal supply from 7,5% nowadays to about 12% till 2010. However, for that, it is necessary to eliminate the great impedance represented by the restricted accessibility to the product, due to the high distribution costs involved. So, there is an urgent need for availability of technologies to help natural gas distribution systems. This paper proposes an innovative logistics-based approach on the subject of the natural gas distribution, through a computational tool (GASLOG System) to be applied in the North and Northeastern urban and country areas of Brazil, with initial case study in the city of Fortaleza. In its conception, the GASLOG System focuses on the point-of-view of everyone of the actors involved with the natural gas distribution process trying to respond their particular necessities in the sector. (author)

  19. RECREATION MONITORING OF RESOURCE CONDITIONS IN THE KRONOTSKY STATE NATURAL BIOSPHERE PRESERVE (KAMCHATKA: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT

    Anna Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.

  20. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  1. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  2. Televison assessment and identification system for the plutonium protection system

    Greenwoll, D.A.

    1979-02-01

    This report covers the selection, description, and use of the components comprising the Television Assessment and Identification System in the Hanford Plutonium Protection System. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program

  3. Interactions in Natural Colloid Systems "Biosolids" - Soil and Plant

    Kalinichenko, Kira V.; Nikovskaya, Galina N.; Ulberg, Zoya R.

    2016-04-01

    The "biosolids" are complex biocolloid system arising in huge amounts (mln tons per year) from biological municipal wastewater treatment. These contain clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds (in slightly soluble or unsoluble forms, such as phosphates, sulphates, carbonates, hydroxides, and etc.), cells, humic substances and so on, involved in exopolysaccharides (EPS) net matrix. One may consider that biosolids are the natural nanocomposite. Due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements (heavy metals), vitamins, aminoacids, etc., the biosolids are a depot of bioelements for plant nutrition. Thus, it is generally recognized that most rationally to utilize them for land application. For this purpose the biocolloid process was developed in biosolids system by initiation of microbial vital ability followed by the synthesis of EPS, propagation of ecologically important microorganisms, loosening of the structure and weakening of the coagulation contacts between biosolids colloids, but the structure integrity maintaining [1,2]. It was demonstrated that the applying of biosolids with metabolizing microorganisms to soil provided the improving soil structure, namely the increasing of waterstable aggregates content (70% vs. 20%). It occurs due to flocculation ability of biosolids EPS. The experimental modelling of mutual interactions in systems of soils - biosolids (with metabolizing microorganisms) were realized and their colloid and chemical mechanisms were formulated [3]. As it is known, the most harmonious plant growth comes at a prolonged entering of nutrients under the action of plant roots exudates which include pool of organic acids and polysaccharides [4]. Special investigations showed that under the influence of exudates excreted by growing plants, the biosolids microelements can release gradually from immobilized state into environment and are able to absorb by plants. Thus, the biosolids can serve as an active

  4. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    2011-04-25

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. As part of the... greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source category of the greenhouse gas...

  5. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    2010-04-12

    ...: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 69 / Monday, April... Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... natural gas systems. Specifically, the proposed supplemental rulemaking would require emissions reporting...

  6. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    2010-11-30

    ...: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 229 / Tuesday, November... Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... natural gas systems. This action adds this source category to the list of source categories already...

  7. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    1978-09-01

    The paper focuses on examining the degree to which nuclear systems could be used to acquire nuclear weapons material. It establishes a framework for proliferation resistance assessment and illustrates its applicability through an analysis of reference systems for once-through cycles, breeder cycles and thermal recycle. On a more tentative basis, the approach is applied to various alternative technical and institutional measures. This paper was also submitted to Working Groups 5 and 8

  8. Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment study

    Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1986-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of a fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The resulting cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 100 MWe

  9. Development of natural gas vehicles in China: An assessment of enabling factors and barriers

    Wang, Hongxia; Fang, Hong; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Replacing conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles with natural gas vehicles (NGVs) is necessary if China hopes to significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in the short term. Based on city-level data, this paper analyzes the enabling factors and barriers to China's NGV development. We find that a shortage in natural gas supply and a relatively high price ratio of natural gas compared to gasoline are the main factors impeding China's NGV development. Imbalanced development between natural gas refueling stations and NGVs also hinder the popularity of these lower-carbon vehicles. While various policies have been implemented in recent years to promote NGVs in China, only those encouraging adoption of NGVs by the private sector appear effective. To promote further NGV development in China, the following strategies are proposed: (1) improve natural gas delivery infrastructure across the country; (2) reasonably reduce the relative price of natural gas compared to gasoline; (3) give priority to middle-income and medium-sized cities and towns, since siting natural gas refueling stations is easier in these areas; and (4) promote the use of NGVs in the private sector. -- Highlights: •We assess the effectiveness of NGV policies in China. •Relatively low natural gas price promotes NGV development. •Coordinated development of refueling stations and NGVs is important. •Policies that encourage private NGV development should be adopted. •Middle-income and medium-sized cities are more suitable for developing NGVs

  10. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 using the semiscale natural circulation tests

    Carlson, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    A code development effort creating RELAP5/MOD3 from RELAP5/MOD2 has been completed. Upon completion, a developmental assessment task was performed. One of the problems used for the developmental assessment was the Semiscale Natural Circulation Test. Calculated results from RELAP5/MOD3 are compared to measured data and previously calculated results from RELAP5/MOD2. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 11a: giant sequoias

    York, Robert A.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Meyer, Marc; Hanna, Steve; Tadashi, Moody; Caprio, Anthony C.; Battles, John J.

    2013-01-01

    For natural resource managers in the southern Sierra Nevada, giant sequoia requires very little introduction. It receives great attention as an icon of western forests and as a common namesake with the areas where it occurs. While it is a single component of a very complex system, its attention in this assessment and in general is well deserved. Giant sequoia is one of the few "destination species" that attracts a wide swath of the public by nature of it simply being present. It draws people, who otherwise may not travel, to a natural environment. The result is an expansion of the public’s sense of natural resource stewardship. Because park managers could not achieve their mission without public support, this fostering role of giant sequoia is critical for park natural resources and is important for natural resources in general. Despite its social relevance and physical size, we re-emphasize here that the giant sequoia resource is a relatively small component of the ecosystems of the southern Sierra Nevada. As is the case with all of the resources assessed in the NRCA, we focus on giant sequoia with the understanding that other resources will be considered simultaneously when evaluating management decisions that impact giant sequoia. While we attempt to explicitly address the interaction of giant sequoia with other resources and stressors, we also realize that ultimately managers will integrate much more information than is presented here when making decisions that influence giant sequoia. The autecology and management issues surrounding giant sequoia have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Harvey et al. 1980, Aune 1994, Stephenson 1996). Stephenson (1996), in particular, should be reviewed when considering any management decisions that potentially impact giant sequoia. For those who may not be familiar with giant sequoia ecology, a summary of basic information is provided in a table below. In some parts of this assessment, we reproduce text from Stephenson

  12. Post Disaster Assessment with Decision Support System

    May Florence J. Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at pdrrmcguimaras.herokuapp.com to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.

  13. Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Dual-Porosity Models

    March, Rafael; Doster, Florian; Geiger, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFR's) have received little attention as potential CO2 storage sites. Two main facts deter from storage projects in fractured reservoirs: (1) CO2 tends to be nonwetting in target formations and capillary forces will keep CO2 in the fractures, which typically have low pore volume; and (2) the high conductivity of the fractures may lead to increased spatial spreading of the CO2 plume. Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to understand the physics behind brine-CO2 flow in NFR's. Dual-porosity models are typically used to simulate multiphase flow in fractured formations. However, existing dual-porosity models are based on crude approximations of the matrix-fracture fluid transfer processes and often fail to capture the dynamics of fluid exchange accurately. Therefore, more accurate transfer functions are needed in order to evaluate the CO2 transfer to the matrix. This work presents an assessment of CO2 storage potential in NFR's using dual-porosity models. We investigate the impact of a system of fractures on storage in a saline aquifer, by analyzing the time scales of brine drainage by CO2 in the matrix blocks and the maximum CO2 that can be stored in the rock matrix. A new model to estimate drainage time scales is developed and used in a transfer function for dual-porosity simulations. We then analyze how injection rates should be limited in order to avoid early spill of CO2 (lost control of the plume) on a conceptual anticline model. Numerical simulations on the anticline show that naturally fractured reservoirs may be used to store CO2.

  14. Status of the IAEA coordinated research project on natural circulation phenomena, modelling, and reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Cleveland, J.; Aksan, N.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) titled ''Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. '' This work has been organized within the framework of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Groups for Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors (the TWG-LWR and the TWG-HWR). This CRP is part of IAEA's effort to foster international collaborations that strive to improve the economic performance of future water-cooled nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. Thus far, IAEA has established 12 research agreements with organizations from industrialized Member States and 3 research contracts with organizations from developing Member States. The objective of the CRP is to enhance our understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water-cooled reactors and passive safety systems. The CRP participants are particularly interested in establishing a natural circulation and passive safety system thermal hydraulic database that can be used to benchmark computer codes for advanced reactor systems design and safety analysis. An important aspect of this CRP relates to developing methodologies to assess the reliability of passive safety systems in advanced reactor designs. This paper describes the motivation and objectives of the CRP, the research plan, and the role of each of the participating organizations. (author)

  15. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    Soldat, J.K.; Napier, B.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The program for Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) is managed through PNL's Water and Land Resources Department and is funded through the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). The Ecological Sciences Department was involved in two subtasks under AEGIS: Dose Methodology Development and Reference Site Initial Analysis (RSIA) for a Salt Dome

  16. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We quantify ecotoxicity impacts caused by different solutions to manage stormwater using life cycle assessment. As a novelty, we include emissions of a wide range of pollutants present in runoff. These emissions turn out to be of great importance, especially in decentralized, above surface systems....

  17. Creating permeable fracture networks for EGS: Engineered systems versus nature

    Stephen L Karner

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy has set long-term national goals for the development of geothermal energy that are significantly accelerated compared to historical development of the resource. To achieve these goals, it is crucial to evaluate the performance of previous and existing efforts to create enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Two recently developed EGS sites are evaluated from the standpoint of geomechanics. These sites have been established in significantly different tectonic regimes: 1. compressional Cooper Basin (Australia), and 2. extensional Soultz-sous-Fôrets (France). Mohr-Coulomb analyses of the stimulation procedures employed at these sites, coupled with borehole observations, indicate that pre-existing fractures play a significant role in the generation of permeability networks. While pre-existing fabric can be exploited to produce successful results for geothermal energy development, such fracture networks may not be omnipresent. For mostly undeformed reservoirs, it may be necessary to create new fractures using processes that merge existing technologies or use concepts borrowed from natural hydrofracture examples (e.g. dyke swarms).

  18. Biochar as enhancement material in natural attenuation systems

    Kirmizakis, P.; Doherty, R.; Mendonça, C. A.; Costeira, R.; Allen, C.; Kulakov, L.

    2017-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have gained increasingly popularity over the last years especially in monitoring and clean-up of contaminants. BES are systems that combine wastewater treatment with energy production and resource recovery by harness the electro-activity of microorganisms. BESs consist of two electrodes, an anode and a cathode, separated with a proton-exchange membrane and an external electrical circuit which permits the passage of electrons generated at the anode to the cathode. Here we present a speed up of this natural breakdown process by providing a place to capture the anaerobic contaminants onto Biochar which captures the contaminants and also acts like a high surface area electrode passing electrons to the aerobic environments. For the purpose of this project, identical graphite and Teflon cells were constructed to compare and determine whether a Biochar BES was more efficient than a standard BES and more efficient than Biochar as sorption agent. Current production monitoring used as a real-time view of the process. The Biochar BES out performed both the BES and the Biochar BES in reduction of contaminants across the board. Our results suggest that the maximum growth and electro-activity of the microbial community occurred in the Biochar BES. This is in agreement with microbial findings which suggests that Biochar BES has a less diverse population which is more focused towards degradation and electroactive activity. For further understanding of the results, further geochemical analysis performed to provide additional insight on the process. This works shows clearly the applicability and efficiency of biochar among other electrode and sorption materials and electrical monitoring is versatile experimental tool to the remediation process and can be used as a non-destructive way to indirectly reveal process leading in understanding basic fundamental physical behaviours under specific experimental conditions.

  19. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    2010-01-01

    ...., and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 33 U.S.C. 1321 et seq., are codified at... Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.20...

  20. Combining Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing to Assess Literary Text Comprehension

    Balyan, Renu; McCarthy, Kathryn S.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how machine learning and natural language processing (NLP) techniques can be leveraged to assess the interpretive behavior that is required for successful literary text comprehension. We compared the accuracy of seven different machine learning classification algorithms in predicting human ratings of student essays about…

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming; TOPICAL

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes

  2. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail: jp1@tiscali.co.uk

    2016-01-15

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  3. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Phillips, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  4. Developing an instrument for assessing students' concepts of the nature of technology

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Background:The nature of technology has been rarely discussed despite the fact that technology plays an essential role in modern society. It is important to discuss students' concepts of the nature of technology, and further to advance their technological literacy and adaptation to modern society. There is a need to assess high school students' concepts of the nature of technology. Purpose:This study aims to engage in discourse on students' concepts of the nature of technology based on a proposed theoretical framework. Moreover, another goal is to develop an instrument for measuring students' concepts of the nature of technology. Sample:Four hundred and fifty-five high school students' perceptions of technology were qualitatively analyzed. Furthermore, 530 students' responses to a newly developed questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed in the final test. Design and method:First, content analysis was utilized to discuss and categorize students' statements regarding technology and its related issues. The Student Concepts of the Nature of Technology Questionnaire was developed based on the proposed theoretical framework and was supported by the students' qualitative data. Finally, exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were applied to determine the structure of the items and the internal consistency of each scale. Results:Through a process of instrument development, the Student Concepts of the Nature of Technology Questionnaire was shown to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring students' concepts of the nature of technology. This newly developed questionnaire is composed of 29 items in six scales, namely 'technology as artifacts,' 'technology as an innovation change,' 'the current role of technology in society,' 'technology as a double-edged sword,' 'technology as a science-based form,' and 'history of technology.' Conclusions:The Student Concepts of the Nature of Technology Questionnaire has been confirmed as a reasonably valid and reliable

  5. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  6. Generic Natural Systems Evaluation - Thermodynamic Database Development and Data Management

    Wolery, T W; Sutton, M

    2011-09-19

    Thermodynamic data are essential for understanding and evaluating geochemical processes, as by speciation-solubility calculations, reaction-path modeling, or reactive transport simulation. These data are required to evaluate both equilibrium states and the kinetic approach to such states (via the affinity term or its equivalent in commonly used rate laws). These types of calculations and the data needed to carry them out are a central feature of geochemistry in many applications, including water-rock interactions in natural systems at low and high temperatures. Such calculations are also made in engineering studies, for example studies of interactions involving man-made materials such as metal alloys and concrete. They are used in a fairly broad spectrum of repository studies where interactions take place among water, rock, and man-made materials (e.g., usage on YMP and WIPP). Waste form degradation, engineered barrier system performance, and near-field and far-field transport typically incorporate some level of thermodynamic modeling, requiring the relevant supporting data. Typical applications of thermodynamic modeling involve calculations of aqueous speciation (which is of great importance in the case of most radionuclides), solubilities of minerals and related solids, solubilities of gases, and stability relations among the various possible phases that might be present in a chemical system at a given temperature and pressure. If a phase can have a variable chemical composition, then a common calculational task is to determine that composition. Thermodynamic modeling also encompasses ion exchange and surface complexation processes. Any and all of these processes may be important in a geochemical process or reactive transport calculation. Such calculations are generally carried out using computer codes. For geochemical modeling calculations, codes such as EQ3/6 and PHREEQC, are commonly used. These codes typically provide 'full service' geochemistry

  7. Generic Natural Systems Evaluation - Thermodynamic Database Development and Data Management

    Wolery, T.W.; Sutton, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are essential for understanding and evaluating geochemical processes, as by speciation-solubility calculations, reaction-path modeling, or reactive transport simulation. These data are required to evaluate both equilibrium states and the kinetic approach to such states (via the affinity term or its equivalent in commonly used rate laws). These types of calculations and the data needed to carry them out are a central feature of geochemistry in many applications, including water-rock interactions in natural systems at low and high temperatures. Such calculations are also made in engineering studies, for example studies of interactions involving man-made materials such as metal alloys and concrete. They are used in a fairly broad spectrum of repository studies where interactions take place among water, rock, and man-made materials (e.g., usage on YMP and WIPP). Waste form degradation, engineered barrier system performance, and near-field and far-field transport typically incorporate some level of thermodynamic modeling, requiring the relevant supporting data. Typical applications of thermodynamic modeling involve calculations of aqueous speciation (which is of great importance in the case of most radionuclides), solubilities of minerals and related solids, solubilities of gases, and stability relations among the various possible phases that might be present in a chemical system at a given temperature and pressure. If a phase can have a variable chemical composition, then a common calculational task is to determine that composition. Thermodynamic modeling also encompasses ion exchange and surface complexation processes. Any and all of these processes may be important in a geochemical process or reactive transport calculation. Such calculations are generally carried out using computer codes. For geochemical modeling calculations, codes such as EQ3/6 and PHREEQC, are commonly used. These codes typically provide 'full service' geochemistry, meaning that

  8. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  9. Models of natural computation : gene assembly and membrane systems

    Brijder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with two research areas in natural computing: the computational nature of gene assembly and membrane computing. Gene assembly is a process occurring in unicellular organisms called ciliates. During this process genes are transformed through cut-and-paste operations. We

  10. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    P. Lestaevel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium (NU, a component of the earth’s crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 for male rats and 40 mg·L−1 for female rats. Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L−1 NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function.

  11. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome.

    Lestaevel, P; Grison, S; Favé, G; Elie, C; Dhieux, B; Martin, J C; Tack, K; Souidi, M

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L(-1) for male rats and 40 mg·L(-1) for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L(-1) NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L(-1) NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function.

  12. An emerging methodology of slope hazard assessment for natural gas pipelines

    Zhou, Z.J.; O' Neil, G.; Rizkalla, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A new slope assessment methodology has been developed by TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. in an effort to switch from a reactive to a proactive hazard management approach and to optimize maintenance expenditure. The company operates 37,000 km of natural gas gathering and transmission pipelines, portions of which traverse slopes and stream crossings. The newly developed rainfall-ground movement model provides site-specific ground movement predictions for approximately 1100 slopes and establishes a risk-ranked list of slopes upon which maintenance decisions can be based. The input to the predictive model is derived from internal and public information regarding site conditions. This information serves as input to a pipe-soil interaction model to determine the probability of pipeline failure for each slope. The ground movement for this model is limited to creep-type which is typically less than 100 mm per year. Landslides are not addressed in this paper. A system-wide database has been constructed for slopes to prioritize the slope movement hazards. The slope information includes geotechnical data such as bedrock geology, surficial geology, slope details, precipitation and erosion potential. Information related to the pipeline includes the location, age, size, as well as design pressure and temperature. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Numerical analysis of natural convection in a double-layer immiscible system

    Gubaidullin, A.A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper numerical analysis has been applied to study the natural convection heat transfer in a system composed of two immiscible fluids with uniform internal heat generation in the lower layer or in both layers enclosed in a rectangular or in a semi-circular vessel. The objective of the work is to perform a parametric study to assess the effect of physical properties on the heat transfer characteristics as well as to complement results obtained from experiments by means of CFD simulations for a range of lower Rayleigh number and combine the experimental data and the computational results. (author)

  14. Health risk assessment based on injection of upgraded biogas in natural gas grid

    Leroux, C.; Modelon, H.; Rousselle, C.; Zdanevitch, I.; Evanno, S.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (AFSSET). Results are based on a collective expertise conducted to assess health risks associated with the injection of biogas in the natural gas grid. The complete assessment is published and available on the web site of the Agency; only the major results are presented in this document. Following recommendations issued by AFSSET in 2008, a new study has been initiated to collect and analyze data on the composition of biogas from sewage sludge. The French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS) is in charge of this project. The data will be used to assess the accidental risks (resulting from the upgrading of biogas, transport by pipeline and utilization for energy purposes) and health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas grid). (authors)

  15. Creating a new paradigm for the role of the responsible party in natural resource damage assessments

    Hansen, I.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Texas Natural Resource Trustees are conducting a negotiated rulemaking with representative from environmental groups and the oil industry. The philosophy guiding these rules, which will apply to oil spills that impact coastal waters, is that each spill is a unique circumstance. The particular spill's impact should be objectively assessed through a field investigation. Reliance solely on models or compensation tables is discouraged. The observable environmental impact is an important factor in determining the type of assessment utilized. The negotiated rules will utilize federal rules as guidance and will emphasize inclusion of the responsible party in the decision to conduct an expedited or a comprehensive assessment. The rules will establish time limits for trustee decision and completion of the assessments. The time limits, which can be waived by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, are intended to encourage rapid initiation of restoration, rehabilitation, replacement and acquisition activities. The imposition of time limits will require a new paradigm for the role of the responsible party in natural resource damage assessments. The paradigm will develop through the use of joint assessments, sharing of information, and participation of the responsible party in trustee decisions. The paper will describe a joint assessment used in a recent oil spill

  16. System Dynamics Model to develop resilience management strategies for lifelines exposed to natural hazards

    Pagano, Alessandro; Pluchinotta, Irene; Giordano, Raffaele; Vurro, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Resilience has recently become a key concept, and a crucial paradigm in the analysis of the impacts of natural disasters, mainly concerning Lifeline Systems (LS). Indeed, the traditional risk management approaches require a precise knowledge of all potential hazards and a full understanding of the interconnections among different infrastructures, based on past events and trends analysis. Nevertheless, due to the inner complexity of LS, their interconnectedness and the dynamic context in which they operate (i.e. technology, economy and society), it is difficult to gain a complete comprehension of the processes influencing vulnerabilities and threats. Therefore, resilience thinking addresses the complexities of large integrated systems and the uncertainty of future threats, emphasizing the absorbing, adapting and responsive behavior of the system. Resilience thinking approaches are focused on the capability of the system to deal with the unforeseeable. The increasing awareness of the role played by LS, has led governmental agencies and institutions to develop resilience management strategies. Risk prone areas, such as cities, are highly dependent on infrastructures providing essential services that support societal functions, safety, economic prosperity and quality of life. Among the LS, drinking water supply is critical for supporting citizens during emergency and recovery, since a disruption could have a range of serious societal impacts. A very well-known method to assess LS resilience is the TOSE approach. The most interesting feature of this approach is the integration of four dimensions: Technical, Organizational, Social and Economic. Such issues are all concurrent to the resilience level of an infrastructural system, and should be therefore quantitatively assessed. Several researches underlined that the lack of integration among the different dimensions, composing the resilience concept, may contribute to a mismanagement of LS in case of natural disasters

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of hybrid systems for hydrogen production from biomass and natural gas

    Kassem, N. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Processes

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is an alternative energy carrier, which is expected to significantly contribute to globally sustainable energy systems. It is environmentally friendly with high-energy density that makes it an excellent integrating fuel in transportation and power generation systems. This paper presents an assessment of the techno-economic viability of H{sub 2} production technologies based on hybrid systems using gasified biomass and natural gas combined with high temperature electrochemical shift. Assessment of the well-established thermal processes, high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTEL), and the plasma catalytic reforming (PCR) of light hydrocarbons developed at MIT are included for comparison. The results show that the PCR and HTEL processes are as cost-effective as the thermal steam reforming for H{sub 2} production when deployed on a commercial scale. The natural gas steam reforming (NGSR) is still the most favorable choice in energy and financial terms, while gasified biomass (GB) provides the highest production costs due to the intensive capital cost investments. The cost of H{sub 2} storage in the form of compressed gas or liquefied H{sub 2} also contributes significantly to total cost per kg produced H{sub 2}. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A user need study and system plan for an Arizona Natural Resources Information System report to the Arizona state legislature

    1980-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed and implemented in order to evaluate the current needs for natural resource information in Arizona and to determine which state agencies have information systems capable of coordinating, accessing and analyzing the data. Data and format requirements were determined for the following categories: air quality, animals, cultural resources, geology, land use, soils, water, vegetation, ownership, and social and economic aspects. Hardware and software capabilities were assessed and a data processing plan was developed. Possible future applications with the next generation LANDSAT were also identified.

  19. Automated remedial assessment methodology software system

    Whiting, M.; Wilkins, M.; Stiles, D.

    1994-11-01

    The Automated Remedial Analysis Methodology (ARAM) software system has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in evaluating cleanup options for over 10,000 contaminated sites across the DOE complex. The automated methodology comprises modules for decision logic diagrams, technology applicability and effectiveness rules, mass balance equations, cost and labor estimating factors and equations, and contaminant stream routing. ARAM is used to select technologies for meeting cleanup targets; determine the effectiveness of the technologies in destroying, removing, or immobilizing contaminants; decide the nature and amount of secondary waste requiring further treatment; and estimate the cost and labor involved when applying technologies

  20. System for ecological monitoring and assessment for NPP site environment

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Olejnikov, N.F.; Reznichenko, V.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the Leningrad NPP named after V.I. Lenin the development of a system for ecological monitoring and assessment (EMA) of the environment state and health of personnel and population has started in the EMA program framework. The program of ecological monitoring and assessment coordinates the works on the study of NPP effect on the nature and people, effect of separate factors and their combination, methods and models for the description of the effects, forecasting and evaluation, selection of the optimal protection strategies. Scientific foundations, structure and content of the EMA program are given to coordinate the works carried out according to the program with other works carried out in the country in this direction. The paper deals with the composition of monitoring parameters of the standard system of ecological monitoring of the environment for NPP

  1. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Flechsig, M; Gerlinger, K; Herrmann, N; Klein, R J.T.; Schneider, M; Sterr, H; Schellnhuber, H J

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  2. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Guidelli, Éder José; Kinoshita, Angela; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane (∼0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are sterically

  3. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Guidelli, Eder Jose, E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil); Ramos, Ana Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DQ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ({approx}0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are

  4. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  5. [Climate change risk of nature reserve and its assessment: A case study of Dalinuoer National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region].

    Zhao, Wei; Shen, Wei Shou; Liu, Hai Yue

    2016-12-01

    According to the theoretical framework of addressing climate change based on risk mana-gement and the challenge to nature reserve management under climate change, climate change risk of nature reserve was analyzed and defined. Focus on birds and water habitat, grassland habitat, forest habitat, wetland habitat in Dalinuoer Nature Reserve, risk assessment method of nature reserve under climate change was formulated, climate change risks to Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and its habitats were assessed and predicted. The results showed that, during the period from 1997 to 2010, there was significant volatility in dynamic changes of climate change risks to Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and waterbody, grassland, forest, wetland in the region, Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and its habitats were in status of risk in 1999, 2001, 2005 and 2008, wetland habitat was also in status of risk in 2002 and 2004. Under scenario A, B and C, climate change risks to Dalinuoer Nature Reserve and waterbody, grassland, forest, wetland in the region would be more serious in 2020 and 2030, compared with the 2010 level. Climate change risks to different habitats were different significantly, with most serious climate change risk to wetland habitat due to its sensitivity to climate change and rich bird resources. The effect of climate change on nature reserve and related risk would be aggravated by excess utilization of water resource and grassland resource. As climate change risks had appeared in Dalinuoer Nature Reserve, risk management associated with climate change could greatly help to maintain and enhance biodiversity protection function of nature reserves.

  6. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  7. Assessing the indirect effects due to natural hazards on a mesoscale

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Schwarze, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measuring indirect economic costs and other effects from natural hazards, especially floods in alpine and other mountainous regions, are a necessary part of a comprehensive economic assessment. Their omission seriously affects the relative economic benefits of structural or non structural measures of flood defence. Surpassing controversial, IO-model-based economic estimates, analysing indirect economic effects lead to the key question of identifying and evaluating the drivers of indirect economic effects and resilience to system effects in the regional economy, i.e. at the meso-level. This investigation takes place for the catastrophic floods in summer 2005 in the provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Austria, which caused an estimated € 670 Mio direct loss on private and public assets and severe interruptions in lifeline services. The paper starts out with differentiating the concept of indirect economic costs from direct costs, examing different temporal (short vs. long-term) and spatial (macro-, meso- vs. microeconomic) system boundaries. It surveys common theories of economic resilience and vulnerability at the regional economy level. Indirect effects at the regional economy level can be defined as interferences of the economic exchange of goods and services triggered by breakdowns of transport lines and critical production inputs. The extent and persistence of indirect effects of natural hazards is not only by parameters of the extreme event, such as duration and amplitude of the flood, but much more by resilience parameters of the regional economy such as size of enterprises, the network structure (linkages) of the regional economy, availability of insurance and relief funds, and the stock of inventory. These effects can only be dissected by means of expert judgement and event studies. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted among business practioneers, members of chamber of commerce, civil protection agencies to identify and scale the drivers of

  8. A Green Soundscape Index (GSI): The potential of assessing the perceived balance between natural sound and traffic noise.

    Kogan, Pablo; Arenas, Jorge P; Bermejo, Fernando; Hinalaf, María; Turra, Bruno

    2018-06-13

    Urban soundscapes are dynamic and complex multivariable environmental systems. Soundscapes can be organized into three main entities containing the multiple variables: Experienced Environment (EE), Acoustic Environment (AE), and Extra-Acoustic Environment (XE). This work applies a multidimensional and synchronic data-collecting methodology at eight urban environments in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. The EE was assessed by means of surveys, the AE by acoustic measurements and audio recordings, and the XE by photos, video, and complementary sources. In total, 39 measurement locations were considered, where data corresponding to 61 AE and 203 EE were collected. Multivariate analysis and GIS techniques were used for data processing. The types of sound sources perceived, and their extents make up part of the collected variables that belong to the EE, i.e. traffic, people, natural sounds, and others. Sources explaining most of the variance were traffic noise and natural sounds. Thus, a Green Soundscape Index (GSI) is defined here as the ratio of the perceived extents of natural sounds to traffic noise. Collected data were divided into three ranges according to GSI value: 1) perceptual predominance of traffic noise, 2) balanced perception, and 3) perceptual predominance of natural sounds. For each group, three additional variables from the EE and three from the AE were applied, which reported significant differences, especially between ranges 1 and 2 with 3. These results confirm the key role of perceiving natural sounds in a town environment and also support the proposal of a GSI as a valuable indicator to classify urban soundscapes. In addition, the collected GSI-related data significantly helps to assess the overall soundscape. It is noted that this proposed simple perceptual index not only allows one to assess and classify urban soundscapes but also contributes greatly toward a technique for separating environmental sound sources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  9. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  10. An assessment of EIA system in India

    Panigrahi, Jitendra K.; Amirapu, Susruta

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. - Highlights: ► An assessment has been carried out on Environmental Clearance under EIA Notification, 2006, MoEF, Government of India. ► EIA system is appraised against systematic evaluation criteria proposed by Ahmad and Wood (2002), Wood (2003), Fuller (1999). ► The analysis reveals reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. ► The paper identifies

  11. An assessment of EIA system in India

    Panigrahi, Jitendra K., E-mail: Jitu@scientist.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Berhampur University, Berhampur-760007 (India); Amirapu, Susruta, E-mail: susrutaa@gmail.com [EIA Department, L and T-RAMBOLL, Hyderabad-500029 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment has been carried out on Environmental Clearance under EIA Notification, 2006, MoEF, Government of India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA system is appraised against systematic evaluation criteria proposed by Ahmad and Wood (2002), Wood (2003), Fuller (1999). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis

  12. The Use of Clinical Interviews to Develop Inservice Secondary Science Teachers' Nature of Science Knowledge and Assessment of Student Nature of Science Knowledge

    Peters-Burton, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…

  13. Assessing waste management systems using reginalt software

    Meshkov, N.K.; Camasta, S.F.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1988-03-01

    A method for assessing management systems for low-level radioactive waste is being developed for US Department of Energy. The method is based on benefit-cost-risk analysis. Waste management is broken down into its component steps, which are generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal. Several different alternatives available for each waste management step are described. A particular waste management system consists of a feasible combination of alternatives for each step. Selecting an optimal waste management system would generally proceed as follows: (1) qualitative considerations are used to narrow down the choice of waste management system alternatives to a manageable number; (2) the costs and risks for each of these system alternatives are evaluated; (3) the number of alternatives is further reduced by eliminating alternatives with similar risks but higher costs, or those with similar costs but higher risks; (4) a trade-off factor between cost and risk is chosen and used to compute the objective function (sum of the cost and risk); and (5) the selection of the optimal waste management system among the remaining alternatives is made by choosing the alternative with the smallest value for the objective function. The authors propose that the REGINALT software system, developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., as an acid for managers of low-level commerical waste, be augmented for application to the managment of DOE-generated waste. Specific recommendations for modification of the REGINALT system are made. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. A computer-aided continuous assessment system

    B. C.H. Turton

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities within the United Kingdom have had to cope with a massive expansion in undergraduate student numbers over the last five years (Committee of Scottish University Principals, 1993; CVCP Briefing Note, 1994. In addition, there has been a move towards modularization and a closer monitoring of a student's progress throughout the year. Since the price/performance ratio of computer systems has continued to improve, Computer- Assisted Learning (CAL has become an attractive option. (Fry, 1990; Benford et al, 1994; Laurillard et al, 1994. To this end, the Universities Funding Council (UFQ has funded the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP. However universities also have a duty to assess as well as to teach. This paper describes a Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA system capable of assisting in grading students and providing feedback. In this particular case, a continuously assessed course (Low-Level Languages of over 100 students is considered. Typically, three man-days are required to mark one assessed piece of coursework from the students in this class. Any feedback on how the questions were dealt with by the student are of necessity brief. Most of the feedback is provided in a tutorial session that covers the pitfalls encountered by the majority of the students.

  15. Reliability Assessment of 2400 MWth Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Natural Circulation Decay Heat Removal in Pressurized Situations

    C. Bassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the 2400 MWth gas-cooled fast reactor concept makes use of passive safety features in combination with active safety systems, the question of natural circulation decay heat removal (NCDHR reliability and performance assessment into the ongoing probabilistic safety assessment in support to the reactor design, named “probabilistic engineering assessment” (PEA, constitutes a challenge. Within the 5th Framework Program for Research and Development (FPRD of the European Community, a methodology has been developed to evaluate the reliability of passive systems characterized by a moving fluid and whose operation is based on physical principles, such as the natural circulation. This reliability method for passive systems (RMPSs is based on uncertainties propagation into thermal-hydraulic (T-H calculations. The aim of this exercise is finally to determine the performance reliability of the DHR system operating in a “passive” mode, taking into account the uncertainties of parameters retained for thermal-hydraulical calculations performed with the CATHARE 2 code. According to the PEA preliminary results, exhibiting the weight of pressurized scenarios (i.e., with intact primary circuit boundary for the core damage frequency (CDF, the RMPS exercise is first focusing on the NCDHR performance at these T-H conditions.

  16. Intelligent Techniques for Power Systems Vulnerability Assessment

    Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

    2002-01-01

    With power grids considered national security matters, the reliable operation of the system is of top priority to utilities.  This concern is amplified by the utility’s deregulation, which increases the system’s openness while simultaneously decreasing the applied degree of control.  Vulnerability Assessment (VA) deals with the power system’s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency.  Such contingencies may include unauthorized tripping, breaks ...

  17. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  18. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  19. A Natural Language Intelligent Tutoring System for Training Pathologists - Implementation and Evaluation

    El Saadawi, Gilan M.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Castine, Melissa; Fine, Jeffrey; Gormley, Robert; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We developed and evaluated a Natural Language Interface (NLI) for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in Diagnostic Pathology. The system teaches residents to examine pathologic slides and write accurate pathology reports while providing immediate feedback on errors they make in their slide review and diagnostic reports. Residents can ask for help at any point in the case, and will receive context-specific feedback. Research Questions We evaluated (1) the performance of our natural language system, (2) the effect of the system on learning (3) the effect of feedback timing on learning gains and (4) the effect of ReportTutor on performance to self-assessment correlations. Methods The study uses a crossover 2×2 factorial design. We recruited 20 subjects from 4 academic programs. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions - two conditions for the immediate interface, and two for the delayed interface. An expert dermatopathologist created a reference standard and 2 board certified AP/CP pathology fellows manually coded the residents' assessment reports. Subjects were given the opportunity to self grade their performance and we used a survey to determine student response to both interfaces. Results Our results show a highly significant improvement in report writing after one tutoring session with 4-fold increase in the learning gains with both interfaces but no effect of feedback timing on performance gains. Residents who used the immediate feedback interface first experienced a feature learning gain that is correlated with the number of cases they viewed. There was no correlation between performance and self-assessment in either condition. PMID:17934789

  20. Substituting natural gas heating for electric heating: assessment of the energy and environmental effects in Ontario

    Rosen, M.A.; Sy, E.; Gharghouri, P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to find practical ways to reduce Ontario's energy consumption and environmental emissions. A major portion of the study focused on the advantages of cogeneration in certain regions and sectors of Ontario. Substituting direct fuel heating with natural gas for electric heating was the principal recommendation. Results of a technical analysis of the effects of substituting electric heating with natural gas heating were described. One of the benefits of this substitution would be reduced fuel energy requirements for direct heating, relative to the two-step process of electricity generation followed by electric heating. It was suggested that natural gas should still be used for electricity generation because natural gas has many advantages as an electricity supply option including reductions in coal and uranium use and related emissions. It was recommended that developers and designers of energy systems seriously consider this option. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. PRECIS -- A probabilistic risk assessment system

    Peterson, D.M.; Knowlton, R.G. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A series of computer tools has been developed to conduct the exposure assessment and risk characterization phases of human health risk assessments within a probabilistic framework. The tools are collectively referred to as the Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System (PRECIS). With this system, a risk assessor can calculate the doses and risks associated with multiple environmental and exposure pathways, for both chemicals and radioactive contaminants. Exposure assessment models in the system account for transport of contaminants to receptor points from a source zone originating in unsaturated soils above the water table. In addition to performing calculations of dose and risk based on initial concentrations, PRECIS can also be used in an inverse manner to compute soil concentrations in the source area that must not be exceeded if prescribed limits on dose or risk are to be met. Such soil contaminant levels, referred to as soil guidelines, are computed for both single contaminants and chemical mixtures and can be used as action levels or cleanup levels. Probabilistic estimates of risk, dose and soil guidelines are derived using Monte Carlo techniques

  2. Improving risk assessment by defining consistent and reliable system scenarios

    B. Mazzorana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the entire procedure of risk assessment for hydrologic hazards, the selection of consistent and reliable scenarios, constructed in a strictly systematic way, is fundamental for the quality and reproducibility of the results. However, subjective assumptions on relevant impact variables such as sediment transport intensity on the system loading side and weak point response mechanisms repeatedly cause biases in the results, and consequently affect transparency and required quality standards. Furthermore, the system response of mitigation measures to extreme event loadings represents another key variable in hazard assessment, as well as the integral risk management including intervention planning. Formative Scenario Analysis, as a supplement to conventional risk assessment methods, is a technique to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a specific case and the potential system behaviour. By two case studies, carried out (1 to analyse sediment transport dynamics in a torrent section equipped with control measures, and (2 to identify hazards induced by woody debris transport at hydraulic weak points, the applicability of the Formative Scenario Analysis technique is presented. It is argued that during scenario planning in general and with respect to integral risk management in particular, Formative Scenario Analysis allows for the development of reliable and reproducible scenarios in order to design more specifically an application framework for the sustainable assessment of natural hazards impact. The overall aim is to optimise the hazard mapping and zoning procedure by methodologically integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge.

  3. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Shaffer, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region’s flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These “coefficients of conservatism” (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region’s flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned “subjectively” by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values (C¯">C¯C¯) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a C¯">C¯C¯ greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI overlapped little. C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the datagenerated C values than when we used the

  4. Experimental studies in a single-phase parallel channel natural circulation system. Preliminary results

    Bodkha, Kapil; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Jana, S.S.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural circulation systems find extensive applications in industrial engineering systems. One of the applications is in nuclear reactor where the decay heat is removed by natural circulation of the fluid under off-normal conditions. The upcoming reactor designs make use of natural circulation in order to remove the heat from core under normal operating conditions also. These reactors employ multiple vertical fuel channels with provision of on-power refueling/defueling. Natural circulation systems are relatively simple, safe and reliable when compared to forced circulation systems. However, natural circulation systems are prone to encounter flow instabilities which are highly undesirable for various reasons. Presence of parallel channels under natural circulation makes the system more complicated. To examine the behavior of parallel channel system, studies were carried out for single-phase natural circulation flow in a multiple vertical channel system. The objective of the present work is to study the flow behavior of the parallel heated channel system under natural circulation for different operating conditions. Steady state and transient studies have been carried out in a parallel channel natural circulation system with three heated channels. The paper brings out the details of the system considered, different cases analyzed and preliminary results of studies carried out on a single-phase parallel channel system.

  5. Localization in Naturally Deformed Systems - the Default State?

    Clancy White, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Based on the extensive literature on localized rock deformation, conventional wisdom would interpret it to be a special behaviour within an anticipated background of otherwise uniform deformation. The latter notwithstanding, the rock record is so rife with transient (cyclic), heterogeneous deformation, notably shear localization, as to characterize localization as the anticipated 'normal' behaviour. The corollary is that steady, homogeneous deformation is significantly less common, and if achieved must reflect some special set of conditions that are not representative of the general case. An issue central to natural deformation is then not the existance of localized strain, but rather how the extant deformation processes scale across tectonic phenomena and in turn organize to enable a coherent(?) descripion of Earth deformation. Deformation is fundamentally quantized, discrete (diffusion, glide, crack propagation) and reliant on the defect state of rock-forming minerals. The strain energy distribution that drives thermo-mechanical responses is in the first instance established at the grain-scale where the non-linear interaction of defect-mediated micromechanical processes introduces heterogeneous behaviour described by various gradient theories, and evidenced by the defect microstructures of deformed rocks. Hence, the potential for non-uniform response is embedded within even quasi-uniform, monomineralic materials, seen, for example, in the spatially discrete evolution of dynamic recrystallization. What passes as homogeneous or uniform deformation at various scales is the aggregation of responses at some characteristic dimension at which heterogeneity is not registered or measured. Nevertheless, the aggregate response and associated normalized parameters (strain, strain rate) do not correspond to any condition actually experienced by the deforming material. The more common types of macroscopic heterogeneity promoting localization comprise mechanically contrasting

  6. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  7. Standardization of natural phenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant

    Huang, J.C.; Hsu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 references, 3 figures

  8. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  9. Transformation processes influencing physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and trace elements in natural water systems

    Salbu, B.; Riise, G.; Oughton, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides and trace elements introduced to aquatic systems, knowledge on source terms, key factors and key processes influencing the speciation is essential. The mobility, bioavailability and subsequent transfer into food chains depend on the physico-chemical forms on radionuclides and trace metals. In addition, transformation processes and especially the interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) influences the distribution pattern. Furthermore, the prevailing climate conditions, e.g. episodic events and temperature are vital for fluxes and for the kinetics of the transformation processes. In the present work processes in catchments and processes associated with acidification, episodic events, climate conditions (temperature) and mixing zone phenomena influencing the speciation of radionuclides and trace metals are highlighted. These processes should be highly relevant for assessing far field consequences of radionuclides potentially released from disposal sites. (authors). 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  11. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  12. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  13. Image quality assessment for video stream recognition systems

    Chernov, Timofey S.; Razumnuy, Nikita P.; Kozharinov, Alexander S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.

    2018-04-01

    Recognition and machine vision systems have long been widely used in many disciplines to automate various processes of life and industry. Input images of optical recognition systems can be subjected to a large number of different distortions, especially in uncontrolled or natural shooting conditions, which leads to unpredictable results of recognition systems, making it impossible to assess their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to perform quality control of the input data of recognition systems, which is facilitated by modern progress in the field of image quality evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the approach to designing optical recognition systems with built-in input image quality estimation modules and feedback, for which the necessary definitions are introduced and a model for describing such systems is constructed. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by the example of solving the problem of selecting the best frames for recognition in a video stream for a system with limited resources. Experimental results are presented for the system for identity documents recognition, showing a significant increase in the accuracy and speed of the system under simulated conditions of automatic camera focusing, leading to blurring of frames.

  14. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    HO, CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH, JIM; WILSON, MICHAEL L.

    1999-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  15. Assessment of Methane Emissions – Impact of Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development

    Nix, Andrew [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Johnson, Derek [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Heltzel, Robert [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Oliver, Dakota [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2018-04-08

    Researchers at the Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions (CAFEE) completed a multi-year program under DE-FE0013689 entitled, “Assessing Fugitive Methane Emissions Impact Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development.” When drilling activity was high and industry sought to lower operating costs and reduce emissions they began investing in dual fuel and dedicated natural gas engines to power unconventional well equipment. From a review of literature we determined that the prime-movers (or major fuel consumers) of unconventional well development were the service trucks (trucking), horizontal drilling rig (drilling) engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump (fracturing) engines. Based on early findings from on-road studies we assessed that conversion of prime movers to operate on natural gas could contribute to methane emissions associated with unconventional wells. As such, we collected significant in-use activity data from service trucks and in-use activity, fuel consumption, and gaseous emissions data from drilling and fracturing engines. Our findings confirmed that conversion of the prime movers to operate as dual fuel or dedicated natural gas – created an additional source of methane emissions. While some gaseous emissions were decreased from implementation of these technologies – methane and CO2 equivalent emissions tended to increase, especially for non-road engines. The increases were highest for dual fuel engines due to methane slip from the exhaust and engine crankcase. Dedicated natural gas engines tended to have lower exhaust methane emissions but higher CO2 emissions due to lower efficiency. Therefore, investing in currently available natural gas technologies for prime movers will increase the greenhouse gas footprint of the unconventional well development industry.

  16. Emergency field water supply system using natural filtration elements

    Vikneswaran, M.; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Ismail, Siti Nor Kamariah

    2018-02-01

    Water is the most important resource in times of emergency and during military missions. In addition, if there is a war in a country, sources of clean water are essential for life. But, the safety and cleanliness of the river water for the campers and hikers still uncertain. Usually, polluted and contaminated river water is not safe to be directly consumed by human. However, this problem can be partly resolved by using water filter where the river water can be consumed directly after the filtration process. In respect of that, this study was conducted to design the filter media for personal water purification system. Hence, the objective of this work also is to develop a personal, portable dual purpose handy water filter to provide an easier way to get safe, clean and healthy drinking water for human wherever they go. The water quality of samples collected before and after filtration were analyzed. Water samples were taken from a waterfall near Lestari Block and Lake beside Marine Centre UPNM Campus. The experimental results were analyzed based on the assessment of water quality parameters. Overall, the analysis of the results showed that the water filter was designed with basic mix tabs aqua filter water purification tablets is showing a better result where it achieve the class I of water quality index (WQI). In details, the water sample taken from waterfall near Lestari Block shown the WQI around 93 which is higher than WQI of water sample from Lake near Marine Centre UPNM which is 86, class II A which can be used for external purpose only.

  17. Safety assessment for Generation IV nuclear systems

    Leahy, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. ISAM is an integrated 'tool-kit' consisting of 5 analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development: 1) qualitative safety features review - QSR, 2) phenomena identification and ranking table - PIRT, 3) objective provision tree - OPT, 4) deterministic and phenomenological analyses - DPA, and 5) probabilistic safety analysis - PSA. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time

  18. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  20. Using assessments to investigate and compare the nature of learning in undergraduate science courses.

    Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Montplaisir, Lisa; Anderson, Elizabeth; Grosz, Nate

    2013-06-01

    Assessments and student expectations can drive learning: students selectively study and learn the content and skills they believe critical to passing an exam in a given subject. Evaluating the nature of assessments in undergraduate science education can, therefore, provide substantial insight into student learning. We characterized and compared the cognitive skills routinely assessed by introductory biology and calculus-based physics sequences, using the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Our results indicate that both introductory sequences overwhelmingly assess lower-order cognitive skills (e.g., knowledge recall, algorithmic problem solving), but the distribution of items across cognitive skill levels differs between introductory biology and physics, which reflects and may even reinforce student perceptions typical of those courses: biology is memorization, and physics is solving problems. We also probed the relationship between level of difficulty of exam questions, as measured by student performance and cognitive skill level as measured by Bloom's taxonomy. Our analyses of both disciplines do not indicate the presence of a strong relationship. Thus, regardless of discipline, more cognitively demanding tasks do not necessarily equate to increased difficulty. We recognize the limitations associated with this approach; however, we believe this research underscores the utility of evaluating the nature of our assessments.

  1. Probabilistic disaggregation model with application to natural hazard risk assessment of portfolios

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    In natural hazard risk assessment, a resolution mismatch between hazard data and aggregated exposure data is often observed. A possible solution to this issue is the disaggregation of exposure data to match the spatial resolution of hazard data. Disaggregation models available in literature are usually deterministic and make use of auxiliary indicator, such as land cover, to spatially distribute exposures. As the dependence between auxiliary indicator and disaggregated number of exposures is ...

  2. Experimental assessment of a wireless communications platform for the built and natural heritage

    Martínez-Garrido, M. I.; Fort González, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have become extremely popular in a number of fields in recent years, the cultural heritage among them. To date, however, communications quality has not been technically validated in any of the various built (churches, museums, archaeological sites) or natural (caves, lava tubes) heritage scenarios. The present study establishes methodology for assessing the quality of wireless communications and validating the network used, both of which are essential to guaranteeing ...

  3. Role of natural analogs in performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories

    Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical models of the flow of water and transport of radionuclides in porous media will be used to assess the ability of deep geologic repositories to safely contain nuclear waste. These models must, in some sense, be validated to ensure that they adequately describe the physical processes occurring within the repository and its geologic setting. Inasmuch as the spatial and temporal scales over which these models must be applied in performance assessment are very large, validation of these models against laboratory and small-scale field experiments may be considered inadequate. Natural analogs may provide validation data that are representative of physico-chemical processes that occur over spatial and temporal scales as large or larger than those relevant to repository design. The authors discuss the manner in which natural analog data may be used to increase confidence in performance assessment models and conclude that, while these data may be suitable for testing the basic laws governing flow and transport, there is insufficient control of boundary and initial conditions and forcing functions to permit quantitative validation of complex, spatially distributed flow and transport models. The authors also express their opinion that, for collecting adequate data from natural analogs, resources will have to be devoted to them that are much larger than are devoted to them at present

  4. Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF) for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources

    Suter II, G.W.

    2003-06-18

    The objective of this research is to provide the DoD with a framework based on a systematic, risk-based approach to assess impacts for management of natural resources in an ecosystem context. This risk assessment framework is consistent with, but extends beyond, the EPA's ecological risk assessment framework, and specifically addresses DoD activities and management needs. MERAF is intended to be consistent with existing procedures for environmental assessment and planning with DoD testing and training. The intention is to supplement these procedures rather than creating new procedural requirements. MERAF is suitable for use for training and testing area assessment and management. It does not include human health risks nor does it address specific permitting or compliance requirements, although it may be useful in some of these cases. Use of MERAF fits into the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process by providing a consistent and rigorous way of organizing and conducting the technical analysis for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) (Sigal 1993; Carpenter 1995; Canter and Sadler 1997). It neither conflicts with, nor replaces, procedural requirements within the NEPA process or document management processes already in place within DoD.

  5. Natural resource management activities at the Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    1993-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) reviews the environmental consequences of ongoing natural resource management activities on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Appendix A contains the Natural Resources Management Plant (NRMP). While several SRS organizations have primary responsibilities for different elements of the plan, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) is responsible for most elements. Of the river scenarios defined in 1985, the High-Intensity Management alternative established the upper bound of environmental consequences; it represents a more intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative established compliance mechanisms for several natural resource-related requirements and maximum practical timber harvesting. Similarly, the Low-Intensity Management alternative established the lower bound of environmental consequences and represents a less intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative also established compliance mechanisms, but defined a passively managed natural area. The Proposed Action of this EA describes the current level of multiple-natural resource management. This EA reviews the proposed action, and the high and low intensity alternative scenarios.

  6. Microbial Assessment and Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Natural Cheeses in Japan

    Firew Kassa Esho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of domestic natural cheese in Japan is increasing year by year. More than ninety percent of domestic natural cheese is produced in Hokkaido region of Japan, while information on its quality and safety related to foodborne pathogens is limited. To assess the microbiological safety of domestic natural cheese, a total of 126 natural cheese samples produced in Hokkaido were collected from December, 2012, to July, 2013. In addition to standard plate count (SPC and coliform counts, the prevalence study of three pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was performed on each sample. Real-time PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer methods were employed for identification of presumptive pathogens. Coliform was detected in 25 samples (19.8% with a minimum of 25 cfu/g and a maximum of more than 3.0 × 106 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from any of the samples. Only one sample (0.80% showed positive PCR amplification for ipaH gene suggesting possible contamination of enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella in this product. Overall results indicate that natural cheeses produced in Hokkaido region were satisfactory microbiological quality according to existing international standards.

  7. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  8. Implementing Management Systems-Based Assessments

    Campisi, John A.; Reese, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    centralized management systems. The resulting corporate management system gives the appearance of an assembly of multiple, nearly independent operating units. The executive management system maintains these separate units, encouraging autonomy and creativity by establishing a minimum of requirements and procedures. In any organization, senior management has a responsibility to ensure that all operating units are meeting requirements. Part of this responsibility is fulfilled by conducting oversight or assurance activities, to determine the effectiveness of established systems in meeting requirements and performance expectations. Internal independent assessment is one of these assurance activities. Independent appraisals are combined with external audits and appraisals, self-assessments, peer reviews, project reviews, and other internal and external audits (e.g., financial, contractual) for a more complete assurance view. At SNL, internal independent appraisals are performed by the Audit Center, which reports directly to the Executive Vice President. ES ampersand H independent appraisals are the responsibility of the ES ampersand H and Quality Assessments Department, with a staff complement of eight. With our organization's charter to perform internal, independent appraisals, we set out to develop an approach and associated tools, which would be useful in the overall SNL environment and within our resource limitations

  9. Implementing Management Systems-Based Assessments

    Campisi, John A.; Reese, Robert T.

    1999-05-03

    centralized management systems. The resulting corporate management system gives the appearance of an assembly of multiple, nearly independent operating units. The executive management system maintains these separate units, encouraging autonomy and creativity by establishing a minimum of requirements and procedures. In any organization, senior management has a responsibility to ensure that all operating units are meeting requirements. Part of this responsibility is fulfilled by conducting oversight or assurance activities, to determine the effectiveness of established systems in meeting requirements and performance expectations. Internal independent assessment is one of these assurance activities. Independent appraisals are combined with external audits and appraisals, self-assessments, peer reviews, project reviews, and other internal and external audits (e.g., financial, contractual) for a more complete assurance view. At SNL, internal independent appraisals are performed by the Audit Center, which reports directly to the Executive Vice President. ES&H independent appraisals are the responsibility of the ES&H and Quality Assessments Department, with a staff complement of eight. With our organization's charter to perform internal, independent appraisals, we set out to develop an approach and associated tools, which would be useful in the overall SNL environment and within our resource limitations.

  10. Assessment of Natural Resource Potential of a Territory for Planning of Investment Development and Construction in Suburban Areas

    Usoltceva Marina; Volkova Yulia; Radchenko Artyom; Guseva Inna; Makarova Tatiana; Garmanov Vitaly; Wenkel Karl-Otto

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the types of assessment and assessment process of the natural environment. A review of judgments about the ecological and geo-ecological assessment of the environment by known academics, environmentalists, physical geographers, geobotanists is made here. In this paper the method of the environmental assessment of natural resource potential within the North-West region of Russia is proposed. Authors divide this method into blocks, which are described in the paper. A produce...

  11. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    NWUuser

    the nature of the services PMSCs provide, war is a business opportunity for all of them. Armed conflicts ... benefactor irrespective of the morality of the cause. This apart ... 15 See Abrahamsen and William 2007 Int'l Relations 237. .... issues. This has had a critical importance to security reform because it indicated, from the ...

  12. Emergency Message Dissemination System for Smartphones During Natural Disasters

    Wu, Xian; Mazurowski, Maciej; Chen, Zhen; Meratnia, Nirvana

    This paper revolves around the concept of utilizing the modern smartphone communication capabilities to transmit messages through an ad hoc network during a disaster, which renders the traditional cellular base station inaccessible. Due to dynamic and decentralized nature of the considered

  13. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    RV

    See Barnett and Kaserman 1993 Issues in Law and Medicine 117; Spital .... judiciary, all organs of state,31 natural persons and juristic persons32 (to the extent ...... resulted inter alia in necrosis and deformation of the areolae of the plaintiff. The .... free of significant vascular or cardiac disease, he was not eligible for a kidney.

  14. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in systems development

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    and the rapid changes in markets for many products. The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems...... for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. The overall aim of this paper is to produce an in-depth understanding...... of possibilities which can be introduced in the design stage compared to the other life cycle stages of the product system. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies...

  15. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. Reliability analysis of 2400 MWth gas-cooled fast reactor natural circulation decay heat removal system

    Marques, M.; Bassi, C.; Bentivoglio, F.

    2012-01-01

    In support to a PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) performed at the design level on the 2400 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, the functional reliability of the decay heat removal system (DHR) working in natural circulation has been estimated in two transient situations corresponding to an 'aggravated' Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA) and a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The reliability analysis was based on the RMPS methodology. Reliability and global sensitivity analyses use uncertainty propagation by Monte Carlo techniques. The DHR system consists of 1) 3 dedicated DHR loops: the choice of 3 loops (3*100% redundancy) is made in assuming that one could be lost due to the accident initiating event (break for example) and that another one must be supposed unavailable (single failure criterion); 2) a metallic guard containment enclosing the primary system (referred as close containment), not pressurized in normal operation, having a free volume such as the fast primary helium expansion gives an equilibrium pressure of 1.0 MPa, in the first part of the transient (few hours). Each dedicated DHR loop designed to work in forced circulation with blowers or in natural circulation, is composed of 1) a primary loop (cross-duct connected to the core vessel), with a driving height of 10 meters between core and DHX mid-plan; 2) a secondary circuit filled with pressurized water at 1.0 MPa (driving height of 5 meters for natural circulation DHR); 3) a ternary pool, initially at 50 C. degrees, whose volume is determined to handle one day heat extraction (after this time delay, additional measures are foreseen to fill up the pool). The results obtained on the reliability of the DHR system and on the most important input parameters are very different from one scenario to the other showing the necessity for the PSA to perform specific reliability analysis of the passive system for each considered scenario. The analysis shows that the DHR system working in natural circulation is

  17. Assessment of proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems

    1979-02-01

    An assessment is made of the proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems. The safeguards aspects are not addressed. Three routes to the acquisition of materials for nuclear weapons are addressed namely; a deliberate political decision by a government involving the use of dedicated facilities, a deliberate political decision by government involving abuse of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and theft by a subnational group. The most sensitive parts of the reference fuel cycle and the alternative technical measures are examined to judge their relative sensitivity. This is done by examining the difference forms in which plutonium can exist in the fuel cycle. The role which different institutional arrangements can play is also evaluated. From this comparative assessment it is concluded that, taking into account the qualitative nature of the assessment, the different stages of development of the various fuel cycles, the various realizations possible in respect of the deployment of facilities within individual countries and the evolutionary nature of the technical and institutional improvements foreseeable no fuel cycle can be made completely free from abuse. Furthermore it appears that following progressive introduction of features that will improve proliferation resistance there will not be significant differences between the various fuel cycles when compared at the point in time when they are introduced into widespread use. Provided such features are developed and implemented there is no reason on proliferation grounds to prefer one cycle to another

  18. A preliminary assessment of the radiological implications of commercial utilization of natural gas from a nuclearly stimulated well

    Jacobs, D G; Struxness, E G [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, C R [El Paso Natural Gas Company, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Widespread utilization of nuclear explosives, in conjunction with the natural gas industry, can result in radiation exposure of sizable population groups. It is prudent to make realistic assessments of such potential radiation exposures before they occur and, unless the expected exposures are clearly insignificant, to consider these exposures in evaluating the net benefit of this particular use of nuclear energy. All pertinent facts relating to such assessments should be made public and presented in such a way that those who are to assume the risks, if any, can make a reasonable judgment as to whether the risks are acceptable. Radioactivity in natural gas from the Gasbuggy cavity has been analyzed prior to and during flaring operations. None of this gas has entered the collection and distribution system, but a theoretical analysis has been made of the hypothetical impact on members of the public that would have occurred if the gas had been introduced into the commercial stream. Dose equivalents have been estimated for both workers and consumers. In this analysis, Gasbuggy gas has been traced through a real gas-collection system and processing plant, as represented by the present situation existing in the San Juan Production Division, El Paso Natural Gas Company. In addition, a number of considerations are presented which would apply to radiation exposure in metropolitan areas. Results of this analysis for the Gasbuggy well indicate hypothetical dose equivalents to various population groups to be well within the annual dose limits suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Projection to a steady-state situation involving extensive natural gas production from many producing wells also resulted in hypothetical dose equivalents within the annual dose limits. Simple extrapolation of the results from this analysis to potential exposures resulting from nuclear stimulation of other gas reservoirs cannot be made on a direct basis, but this method

  19. A preliminary assessment of the radiological implications of commercial utilization of natural gas from a nuclearly stimulated well

    Jacobs, D.G.; Struxness, E.G.; Bowman, C.R.

    1970-01-01

    Widespread utilization of nuclear explosives, in conjunction with the natural gas industry, can result in radiation exposure of sizable population groups. It is prudent to make realistic assessments of such potential radiation exposures before they occur and, unless the expected exposures are clearly insignificant, to consider these exposures in evaluating the net benefit of this particular use of nuclear energy. All pertinent facts relating to such assessments should be made public and presented in such a way that those who are to assume the risks, if any, can make a reasonable judgment as to whether the risks are acceptable. Radioactivity in natural gas from the Gasbuggy cavity has been analyzed prior to and during flaring operations. None of this gas has entered the collection and distribution system, but a theoretical analysis has been made of the hypothetical impact on members of the public that would have occurred if the gas had been introduced into the commercial stream. Dose equivalents have been estimated for both workers and consumers. In this analysis, Gasbuggy gas has been traced through a real gas-collection system and processing plant, as represented by the present situation existing in the San Juan Production Division, El Paso Natural Gas Company. In addition, a number of considerations are presented which would apply to radiation exposure in metropolitan areas. Results of this analysis for the Gasbuggy well indicate hypothetical dose equivalents to various population groups to be well within the annual dose limits suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Projection to a steady-state situation involving extensive natural gas production from many producing wells also resulted in hypothetical dose equivalents within the annual dose limits. Simple extrapolation of the results from this analysis to potential exposures resulting from nuclear stimulation of other gas reservoirs cannot be made on a direct basis, but this method

  20. Artificial intelligence system for the monitoring of natural gas production systems; Intelligente Ueberwachung von Erdgasfoerderanlagen

    Tschaetsch, H.U.

    2001-02-01

    The article explains a novel, artificial intelligence-based system called HISS (Human Interface Supervision System) which has been installed as a prototype for the monitoring of a natural gas production site at Thoense near Hannover/Germany. The system is capable to perform audio-visual and smelling functions, analogous to the human sensory perception. (orig./CB) [German] Die Aufrechterhaltung eines einwandfreien Betriebszustandes von technischen Anlagen durch staendige Kontrollen und regelmaessige Wartungsarbeiten ist haeufig eine aufwendige und kostspielige Angelegenheit. Gleichwohl ist sie - sowohl was die Frage der Sicherheit als auch des Umweltschutzes anbelangt - unentbehrlich. Die Erdgasfoerderanlage Thoense bei Hannover wird von einem intelligenten Ueberwachungssystem, HISS - Human Interface Supervision System, kontrolliert, das die menschlichen Eigenschaften sehen, hoeren und riechen beherrscht. (orig.)