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Sample records for assessing male reproductive

  1. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  2. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male ...

  3. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  4. Thyroid and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  5. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  6. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.

  7. Safety assessment of Hibiscus sabdariffa after maternal exposure on male reproductive parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea L; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) is a species widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of some disorders. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa (HS) on the development of the male reproductive tract in rats following in utero exposure. Pregnant rats received 250 or 500 mg/kg of HS extract or vehicle from gestational day 12 until day 21 of lactation. Both doses of HS increased the body weight of male offspring at weaning, without compromising the puberty onset parameters. At puberty, there was a significant increase in the vas deferens absolute weight and a significant reduction in the relative weight of kidney at higher dose. These animals also presented a significant reduction in the sperm number in the caput/corpus of epididymis after exposure to both doses and a reduction in the sperm number in the cauda epididymis for the lower dose. At adulthood, the highest dose significantly reduced the sperm production in relation to controls and both doses provoked a reduction in the relative sperm number in the epididymis without affecting the sperm morphology. These findings demonstrated that maternal exposure to H. sabdariffa can adversely influence the male reproductive system in rats.

  8. [Male sexual and reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Marin, Sandra C; Vásquez-Salazar, Edwin A

    2012-01-01

    Analysing scientific publications about male sexual and reproductive health in Colombia during the last two decades and determining the main findings about knowledge regarding the topic in Colombia. A systematic review was made of scientific publications in international databases concerned with male sexual and reproductive health in Colombia. Inclusion criteria concerned research concerning heterosexual males or men and women from 1990 to 2010 in both English and Spanish. Sexual health has mainly been approached quantitatively and, more recently, qualitatively. Only 4 (12.5 %) of the 32 articles analysed dealt with an adult population; most were orientated towards a younger population (i.e. school and university students) who were questioned about their knowledge and perception of risk behaviour and conduct regarding sexual and reproductive health; no articles were found which inquired about older males' sexual health, only 1 article explored aspects related to erectile dysfunction and none emphasised cultural aspects related to a particular region. Few studies were found concerning male sexual health; health policy and services were centred on female needs, thereby limiting male participation and/or identifying their needs in this area. Including cultural diversity and gender, especially from a male perspective, represents a challenge for the integral design of sexual and reproductive health programmes and services in Colombia.

  9. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  10. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  11. Reproductive system: part one--male anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Brendan

    This article, the first in a four-part series, explores the core anatomy of the male human reproductive system. Part two will focus on its physiology and function. Part three and four will explore the female human reproductive anatomy and its reproductive physiology. The series should enhance the reader's theory and practice when caring for patients with reproductive or sexual health needs.

  12. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    Growing evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies points to a synchronized increase in the incidence of male reproductive problems, such as genital abnormalities, testicular cancer, reduced semen quality, and subfertility. Together these male reproductive problems may reflect the existence...... affecting genetically susceptible individuals. We recommend that future epidemiological studies on trends in male reproduction do not focus on one symptom only, but take all aspects of TDS into account. The potential impact of adverse environmental factors and the role of genetic polymorphisms involved...

  13. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  14. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Susan L; Euling, Susan Y; Gray, L Earl; Benson, Robert; Foster, Paul

    2013-09-15

    A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Susan L., E-mail: makris.susan@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, (Mail code 8623P), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, (Mail code 8623P), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Gray, L. Earl [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, (MD-72), Highway 54, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, (Mail code 8P-W), 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Foster, Paul M.D. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233 (MD K2-12), Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data.

  16. Male reproductive suppression: not a social affair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zizzari, Z. Valentina; Jessen, Andrea; Koene, Joris M.

    2017-01-01

    In the animal kingdom there are countless strategies via which males optimize their reproductive success when faced with male–male competition. These male strategies typically fall into two main categories: pre- and post-copulatory competition. Within these 2 categories, a set of behaviors, referred

  17. Male reproductive health and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Male infertility impacts a substantial proportion of men and has serious implication for a man's quality of life. Advances in reproductive technology may allow men to bypass urologic care in order to achieve their family planning goals. Recent data suggests that male reproductive failure may be a harbinger of future urologic diseases, including prostate cancer (CaP), thus emphasizing the importance of dedicated urologic evaluation and care for all male infertility patients. We will review the epidemiologic data that explores an association between male reproductive health and CaP. We will review the potential biologic mechanisms that may underlie this association, and explore possible reasons for inconsistencies in study findings. Studies of the association between male infertility and CaP are inconsistent. Despite this, the association between reproductive health in a man's fourth decade (30s) and his development of aggressive CaP in his sixth decade (50s) should not be ignored. These findings, combined with the robustness of the potential common underlying mechanisms, provide a foundation for future studies of male reproductive health that are more specific in their approach to answering questions about the association between male reproductive failure and future systemic disease.

  18. Integrative data analysis of male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edsgard, Stefan Daniel

    During the last decades a decline in male reproductive health has been observed in Nordic countries, and particularly in Denmark. Testicular cancer is the most fatal form of male reproductive disorders, and despite high remission rates it is typically accompanied with infertility. The main topic...... of this thesis is the identification of the molecular basis of male reproductive disorders, with a special focus on testicular cancer. To this end, clinical samples were characterized by microarraybased transcription and genomic variation assays and molecular entities were identified by computational analysis...... of such data in conjunction with data from publicly available repositories. This thesis presents an introduction to disease genetics and molecular systems biology, followed by four studies that each provide detailed clues to the etiology of male reproductive disorders. Finally, a fifth study illustrates...

  19. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...... their intake of beer, wine and liquor during the week prior to their visit. Semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, percentage motile and morphologically normal sperm) and serum reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and inhibin B and free testosterone) were...

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood...... development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some...... studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable...

  1. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. in the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time. incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...... that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common...

  2. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...... that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common...

  3. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...

  4. The comet assay in male reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Cemeli, E; Anderson, D

    2009-02-01

    Due to our lifestyle and the environment we live in, we are constantly confronted with genotoxic or potentially genotoxic compounds. These toxins can cause DNA damage to our cells, leading to an increase in mutations. Sometimes such mutations could give rise to cancer in somatic cells. However, when germ cells are affected, then the damage could also have an effect on the next and successive generations. A rapid, sensitive and reliable method to detect DNA damage and assess the integrity of the genome within single cells is that of the comet or single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The present communication gives an overview of the use of the comet assay utilising sperm or testicular cells in reproductive toxicology. This includes consideration of damage assessed by protocol modification, cryopreservation vs the use of fresh sperm, viability and statistics. It further focuses on in vivo and in vitro comet assay studies with sperm and a comparison of this assay with other assays measuring germ cell genotoxicity. As most of the de novo structural aberrations occur in sperm and spermatogenesis is functional from puberty to old age, whereas female germ cells are more complicated to obtain, the examination of male germ cells seems to be an easier and logical choice for research and testing in reproductive toxicology. In addition, the importance of such an assay for the paternal impact of genetic damage in offspring is undisputed. As there is a growing interest in the evaluation of genotoxins in male germ cells, the comet assay allows in vitro and in vivo assessments of various environmental and lifestyle genotoxins to be reliably determined.

  5. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-01-01

    . Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor...... semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent...... to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography....

  6. Male responsibility for reproductive health. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, I; Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Before the advent of the oral contraceptive pill, men were more involved in family planning and other aspects of reproductive health. Then, if a couple wished to practice family planning, they were largely limited to withdrawal, periodic abstinence, and condom use, all practices which require the man's participation. Hormonal methods for women and the subsequent development of IUDs and modern surgical sterilization fostered the development of a family planning services community focused upon women rather than men. The challenge is now to increase the degree of male responsibility for family planning by expanding services in ways which protect the reproductive health of both men and women, and by encouraging greater sensitivity to gender issues. Adding reproductive health services for men can be done without reducing the level of services available for women. However, while PROFAMILIA clinics, which offer a wide range of male reproductive health services, have found ways to encourage male participation, an enormous gap exists between the rhetoric of promoting male involvement and the actual realities of female-oriented reproductive health programs. Obstacles include men's reluctance to use services, lack of knowledge among men about their own and women's sexuality, lack of communication by men about sexuality in their relationships, male beliefs in sexual myths, health providers' and false assumptions and generalizations about men. The authors discuss the need to encourage men to support women's contraceptive choices, to increase communication between partners, to increase the use of male methods, to improve men's behavior for the prevention of STDs, to address men's reproductive health needs, and to encourage men to become more aware of related family issues.

  7. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...

  8. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  10. Male partner reproductive coercion among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Elian A; Miller, Elizabeth; Zhao, Xinhua; Sileanu, Florentina E; Mor, Maria K; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-10-19

    Male partner reproductive coercion is defined as male partners' attempts to promote pregnancy through interference with women's contraceptive behaviors and reproductive decision-making. Male partners may try to promote pregnancy through birth control sabotage such as taking away or destroying their partners' contraceptives, refusing to wear condoms, and/or verbally pressuring their partners to abstain from contraceptive use. Reproductive coercion is associated with an elevated risk for unintended pregnancy. Women who experience intimate partner violence, who are in racial/ethnic minorities, and who are of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to experience reproductive coercion. Women veterans who use Veterans Affairs for health care may be particularly vulnerable to reproductive coercion because they are disproportionally from racial/ethnic minority groups and experience high rates of intimate partner violence. We sought to examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of reproductive coercion among women veterans who are served by the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. We analyzed data from a national telephone survey of women veterans aged 18-44 years, with no history of sterilization or hysterectomy, who had received care within the Veterans Affairs system in the previous 12 months. Participants who had sex with men in the last year were asked if they experienced male partner reproductive coercion. Adjusted logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between participant characteristics and male partner reproductive coercion and the relationship between reproductive coercion and the outcomes of contraceptive method used at last sex and pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in the last year. Among the 1241 women veterans in our study cohort, 11% reported experiencing male partner reproductive coercion in the past year. Black women, younger women, and single women were more likely to report reproductive coercion than their white, older, and

  11. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...... environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...... and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention....

  12. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  13. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...

  14. Assessment of the male reproductive system in the preweaning rat following Mn/sub 3/O/sub 4/ exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskey, J.W.; Rehnberg, G.L.; Hein, J.F.; Laws, S.C.; Edens, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    Long-Evans rat pups were dosed orally from birth to 21 d with particulate mn/sub 3/O/sub 4/ to obtain a daily dose of 0, 71, or 214 ..mu..g Mn/body weight . d. Assessments of the hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular functions were determined by measuring the endogenous or stimulated serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and/or testosterone (T) at 21 or 28 d of age. Body, testes, and seminal vesicles weight and tissue concentrations of Mn were also evaluated. Only slight Mn treatment effects were seen in body and testes weights. No effects were seen either on unstimulated or stimulated FSH or LH serum concentrations. Although no Mn treatment effects were seen on endogenous or 2 h human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulate serum T concentrations, there was a reduction in the serum T following 7 d of hCG stimulation. The hypothalamic Mn concentrations in animals with these reproductive effects were three times those where alterations in the dopaminergic pathway have been reported. However, no indication of hypothalamic or pituitary malfunction was found. These results suggest that the site of Mn damage that causes depression of sustained serum T concentration is in the testicular Leydig cell.

  15. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    Scientific interest in morbidity in children born small for gestational age (SGA) has increased considerably over the last few decades. The elevated risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood in individuals born SGA has been well documented, whereas data on gonadal development are...... of individual study results, the combined evidence from all data leaves little doubt that fetal growth restriction is associated with increased risk of male reproductive health problems, including hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer....

  16. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  17. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.

  18. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  19. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of the FGDs had all-male participants, four all-female. The factors that influence male involvement in reproductive health emerged in two themes, namely gender norms and the traditional approaches used to implement reproductive health and family planning programs. Any strategy taken to involve men in reproductive ...

  20. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  1. Imaging the male reproductive tract: current trends and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Spermon, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The male reproductive system encompasses several organs: the testes, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis. The function of this system is to accomplish reproduction. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET), are

  2. Different reproductive strategies in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, E E

    1991-08-01

    The claim for a connection between stressful, unstable childhood environments and early pubertal maturation has only modest empirical support. However, granting the claim for purposes of discussion, and taking an evolutionary perspective, it is argued here that early puberty need not imply a shift from a "quality" toward a "quantity" reproductive strategy. Indeed, for females to make such a shift when they cannot count on secure pair bonding or paternal investment from a male would not serve their inclusive fitness interests; indeed, probably the reverse. Delayed puberty among juveniles with secure, long-continued bonds with the parental generation may serve a different evolutionary function: to minimize inbreeding. Nonevolutionary factors are more than adequate to account for precocious sexuality in individuals with stressful childhood histories.

  3. Reproductive toxicological aspects of chromium in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, E.

    1994-12-31

    To expand our present understanding of the effects of chromium on male fertility a number of studies were designed to achieve this through the use of chromium intoxicated experimental animals and through investigation of sexual hormones and sperm quality in welders. Also in view of the lack of an experimental model for effects of noxious substance on the epididymal spermatozoa the main objectives of the series of studies reviewed here were: A. To establish a model for evaluation of epididymal sperm count and motility in the rat. B. To investigate and compare the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on epididymal spermatozoa. Further to describe the effects of low-dose long-time exposure of rats to the most toxicological interesting chromium oxidative state - hexavalent chromium. C. By the use of autoradiography and {gamma}-countinuing to expand the present knowledge on the distribution of chromium in the body with special reference to the male reproductive organs. D. To describe the effects of exposure to hexavalent chromium in welding fume on levels of sexual hormones and semen parameters in welders. (EG).

  4. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment.......99-1.01) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01) for every one-unit increase in female and male weekly alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation, respectively. In conclusion, this study did not show significant associations between male or female alcohol consumption and odds of live birth after...... assisted reproductive treatment....

  5. Decreased male reproductive success in association with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Mika H; Grady, John P; Ng, Yi Shiau; Alston, Charlotte L; Gorman, Grainne S; Taylor, Robert W; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Doug M

    2017-10-01

    The reproductive success of men with mitochondrial disease is to date unreported. We compared the age- and era-adjusted reproductive success of 94 British male patients with mitochondrial disease to that of the UK general male population. The reproductive success of men with mitochondrial disease was 65% of that in the general population (95% confidence interval: 53%; 79%), and the effect magnitude was related to the disease severity. This contrasts with the two previous studies finding that the reproductive success of women with mitochondrial DNA disease is not impaired. We conclude that the reproductive health of men with mitochondrial disease merits increased clinical attention.

  6. [Occupational medical research of male reproductive capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P

    1993-04-05

    During the past 15 years, approximately 50 occupational medical sperm quality investigations have been carried out in the world as a whole. The discovery of reduced testicular function among workers exposed to the chemical agent dibromochloropropane (DBCP) was an important incitment for the conduct of these investigations. These have not demonstrated new occupational medical influences with as dramatic an effect as DBCP but moderately reduced sperm quality has, however, been proved or suspected after occupational exposure to a series of other agents: certain cell poisons (ethylene dibromide, carbaryl, chlordecone), certain glycoethers (in paint, glue, printing inks, antifreeze solutions), certain organic solvents e.g. styrene (plastic casting), choroprene (plastic production), low exposure to lead, metal welding, thermal influences and high frequent electromagnetic fields (300 kHz-300 mHz). Only a few investigations illustrate the significance of the male factors for infertility and delay before deliberate pregnancy and there are still no well-proved examples of human paternal teratogenic agents or carcinogens. Our present knowledge only serves to prevent a limited proportion of reproductory failure in men. Reports of decreased sperm quality in the population and the influence of the environment on reproduction in domestic animals indicate that further investigations are necessary. Longitudinal investigations of sperm quality together with investigations of fertility or delay till deliberate pregnancy are proposed subjects for future strategy.

  7. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  8. Assessing reproductive and endocrine parameters in male largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) along a contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J A; Olivier, H M; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Eilts, B E; Torres, L; Patiño, R; Nilsen, E; Goodbred, S L

    2014-06-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are stable, bioaccumulative, and widely found in the environment, wildlife, and the human population. To explore the hypothesis that reproduction in male fish is associated with environmental exposures in the lower Columbia River (LCR), reproductive and endocrine parameters were studied in male resident, non-anadromous largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) (LSS) in the same habitats as anadromous salmonids having conservation status. Testes, thyroid tissue and plasma collected in 2010 from Longview (LV), Columbia City (CC), and Skamania (SK; reference) were studied. Sperm morphologies and thyrocyte heights were measured by light microscopy, sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with luciferase, and plasma vitellogenin (VTG), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) by immunoassay. Sperm apoptosis, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and reproductive stage were measured by flow cytometry. Sperm quality parameters (except counts) and VTG were significantly different among sites, with correlations between VTG and 7 sperm parameters. Thyrocyte heights, T4, T3, gonadosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor differed among sites, but not significantly. Sperm quality was significantly lower and VTG higher where liver contaminants and water estrogen equivalents were highest (LV site). Total PCBs (specifically PCB-138, -146, -151, -170, -174, -177, -180, -183, -187, -194, and -206) and total PBDEs (specifically BDE-47, -100, -153, and -154) were negatively correlated with sperm motility. PCB-206 and BDE-154 were positively correlated with DNA fragmentation, and pentachloroanisole and VTG were positively correlated with sperm apoptosis and negatively correlated with ATP. BDE-99 was positively correlated with

  9. Toxicology of male reproduction in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Celis, R; Pedrón-Nuevo, N; Feria-Velasco, A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental contaminants can interfere with the male reproduction function. A review is presented of those pollutants with adverse effects on human reproduction. The possible effects of occupational and environmental exposure to various substances on male reproductive health are evaluated. This analysis considers studies showing damage of men exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons, other organic compounds, heavy metals and some physical agents, and some lifestyles, such as continuous stress, alcohol consumption, cigarette and marijuana smoking, and other addictions. Possible influences of these agents on the neuroendocrine system with the decrease of male fertility during the last decades are also discussed.

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is known as important antioxidant to protect the reproductive system. The free radicals are continuously produced in last few years due to metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. These free radicals are responsible for the production of oxidative stress in animal bodies. This production of extensive amount of oxidative stress caused the detrimental effects on the sperm and various other male parameters. This imbalance between the antioxidants and oxidative stress, leads to the condition of infertility in male. Antioxidants play an important role for eliminating of these free radicals. Vitamin E is one of the best antioxidants for the removal of oxidative stress in male reproductive system. Its use increases the reproductive functions and efficiency of male reproductive system. The deficiency of this vitamin leads to degeneration of germinal epithelium and Leydig cells in seminiferous tubules. The use of selenium and vitamin E has the synergistic effects on the male reproductive system. The objective of this review was to collect the beneficial roles of this vitamin along selenium on reproductive system of birds and different animals. This review will also collect the different doses along the beneficial roles on different parameters of male reproductive system.

  11. Reproductive disorders among male and female greenhouse workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Hooiveld, M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Roeleveld, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive disorders in male and female greenhouse workers. In 2002, data were collected from 4872 Dutch greenhouse workers and 8133 referents through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on reproductive disorders of the most recent pregnancy,

  12. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male...... reproductive skew with decreasing size variation among males under natural conditions. (c) 2006 The Author Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  13. Gene-environment interaction and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Yvonne L

    2010-01-01

    As genetic factors can hardly explain the changes taking place during short time spans, environmental and lifestyle-related factors have been suggested as the causes of time-related deterioration of male reproductive function. However, considering the strong heterogeneity of male fecundity between...... and within populations, genetic variants might be important determinants of the individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of environment or lifestyle. Although the possible mechanisms of such interplay in relation to the reproductive system are largely unknown, some recent studies have indicated...... that specific genotypes may confer a larger risk of male reproductive disorders following certain exposures. This paper presents a critical review of animal and human evidence on how genes may modify environmental effects on male reproductive function. Some examples have been found that support this mechanism...

  14. ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... within the ventral floor of the cloaca and consists of two corpora cavernosa in between which was the ... The male reproductive anatomy of the African sideneck turtle is similar ... within the abdominal and pelvic regions of.

  15. Male reproductive organs are at risk from environmental hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    are the best documented risk factors for impaired male reproductive function and include physical exposures (radiant heat, ionizing radiation, high frequency electromagnetic radiation), chemical exposures (some solvents as carbon disulfide and ethylene glycol ethers, some pesticides as dibromochloropropane...

  16. Gene-environment interaction and male reproductive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Yvonne L.; Rylander, Lars; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2010-01-01

    As genetic factors can hardly explain the changes taking place during short time spans, environmental and lifestyle-related factors have been suggested as the causes of time-related deterioration of male reproductive function. However, considering the strong heterogeneity of male fecundity between and within populations, genetic variants might be important determinants of the individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of environment or lifestyle. Although the possible mechanisms of such interplay in relation to the reproductive system are largely unknown, some recent studies have indicated that specific genotypes may confer a larger risk of male reproductive disorders following certain exposures. This paper presents a critical review of animal and human evidence on how genes may modify environmental effects on male reproductive function. Some examples have been found that support this mechanism, but the number of studies is still limited. This type of interaction studies may improve our understanding of normal physiology and help us to identify the risk factors to male reproductive malfunction. We also shortly discuss other aspects of gene-environment interaction specifically associated with the issue of reproduction, namely environmental and lifestyle factors as the cause of sperm DNA damage. It remains to be investigated to what extent such genetic changes, by natural conception or through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, are transmitted to the next generation, thereby causing increased morbidity in the offspring. PMID:20348940

  17. The evolution of alternative reproductive tactics in male cardiocondyla ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Oettler; Jan Oettler; Jürgen Heinz

    2010-11-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are often associated with discontinuous variation in morphology but may evolve independent from each other. Based on life-history data and a phylogeny we examine how male morphology and reproductive behavior are linked in the evolution of the ant genus Cardiocondyla. Wingless Cardiocondyla males engage in lethal fighting for access to female sexuals, whereas winged males disperse and mate away from the nest. This basic pattern shows considerable variation across species. A phylogeny based on ∼3 kbp sequence data shows that male diphenism and lethal fighting are ancestral traits tightly linked in evolution. Winged males were lost convergently in several species groups, apparently in response to the low probability of encountering female sexuals in nests without a resident fighter male. An early dichotomy separates two clades with alternative male morphologies and fighting behavior, but phenotype and fighting strategy are not correlated with the presence of winged males.

  18. Reproductive success in wild and hatchery male coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D; Garner, Shawn R; Fleming, Ian A; Gross, Mart R

    2015-08-01

    Salmon produced by hatcheries have lower fitness in the wild than naturally produced salmon, but the factors underlying this difference remain an active area of research. We used genetic parentage analysis of alevins produced by experimentally mixed groups of wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to quantify male paternity in spawning hierarchies. We identify factors influencing paternity and revise previously published behavioural estimates of reproductive success for wild and hatchery males. We observed a strong effect of hierarchy size and hierarchy position on paternity: in two-male hierarchies, the first male sired 63% (±29%; s.d.) of the alevins and the second male 37% (±29%); in three-male hierarchies, the first male sired 64% (±26%), the second male 24% (±20%) and the third male 12% (±10%). As previously documented, hatchery males hold inferior positions in spawning hierarchies, but we also discovered that hatchery males had only 55-84% the paternity of wild males when occupying the same position within a spawning hierarchy. This paternity difference may result from inferior performance of hatchery males during sperm competition, female mate choice for wild males, or differential offspring survival. Regardless of its cause, the combination of inferior hierarchical position and inferior success at a position resulted in hatchery males having only half (51%) the reproductive success of wild males.

  19. Antidiabetic therapies and male reproductive function: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Escada-Rebelo, S; Silva, A F; Sousa, M I; Ramalho-Santos, J; Amaral, S

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing at alarming rates in recent years, thus jeopardizing human health worldwide. Several antidiabetic drugs have been introduced in the market to manage glycemic levels, and proven effective in avoiding, minimizing or preventing the appearance or development of diabetes mellitus-related complications. However, and despite the established association between such pathology and male reproductive dysfunction, the influence of these therapeutic interventions on such topics have been scarcely explored. Importantly, this pathology may contribute toward the global decline in male fertility, giving the increasing preponderance of diabetes mellitus in young men at their reproductive age. Therefore, it is mandatory that the reproductive health of diabetic individuals is maintained during the antidiabetic treatment. With this in mind, we have gathered the available information and made a critical analysis regarding the effects of several antidiabetic drugs on male reproductive function. Unlike insulin, which has a clear and fundamental role on male reproductive function, the other antidiabetic therapies' effects at this level seem incoherent. In fact, studies are highly controversial possibly due to the different experimental study approaches, which, in our opinion, suggests caution when it comes to prescribing such drugs to young diabetic patients. Overall, much is still to be determined and further studies are needed to clarify the safety of these antidiabetic strategies on male reproductive system. Aspects such as the effects of insulin levels variations, consequent of insulin therapy, as well as what will be the impact of the side effect hypoglycemia, common to several therapeutic strategies discussed, on the male reproductive system are still to be addressed. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Male Participation in Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Fayoyin

    This paper examines male participation programs designed to improve sexual and reproductive health in Africa. It uses male participation as a model for larger development, democracy and good governance outcomes in African countries. The paper begins by exploring the conceptual and programmatic underpinnings for ...

  1. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of adverse consequences of infertility on reproductive health is increasingly ..... pathology.[67] It was concluded that endocrinopathies are common in azoospermia and their contribution to male infertility is great. Other studies in Nigeria recognized that azoospermia is a ..... Fertility concerns for the aging male. Urology. 2011 ...

  2. Male participation in promoting sexual and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper suggests the design and execution of male participation grounded in human rights based approach to program for wider development agenda and good governance initiatives in Africa.` Keywords: social mobilization, male engagement, social change, reproductive health, gender equality, social innovation ...

  3. Male reproductive skew is higher in bonobos than chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbeck, Martin; Langergraber, Kevin E; Fruth, Barbara; Vigilant, Linda; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2017-07-10

    The two closest living relatives of humans, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), share many traits that are common in humans but rare in other mammals, including societies with high fission-fusion dynamics, male philopatry, female dispersal and extensive social bonding among unrelated individuals [1]. The major difference between these two species is that male aggression is more frequent and intense in male-dominated chimpanzees than in bonobos, where the highest-ranking individuals are female [1]. One potential explanation is that because periods of female sexual receptivity and attractiveness are more extended in bonobos [2], males compete less intensely for each mating opportunity. This would reduce the strength of selection for traits that lead to success in direct contest competition between males and in sexual coercion of females, thus increasing the potential for female choice [3]. Accordingly, it has been predicted that the influence of male dominance rank on reproductive success and the extent of male reproductive skew should be lower in bonobos than in chimpanzees [1]. Although relevant for understanding the evolution of the unusual levels of egalitarianism and cooperation found in human hunter-gatherers [4], comparative analyses in the genus Pan have been limited by the scanty paternity data available for wild bonobos [5]. Here, we show using the largest sample of paternity data available that, contrary to expectation, male bonobos have a higher reproductive skew and a stronger relationship between dominance rank and reproductive success than chimpanzees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The functional anatomy of the male reproductive system in Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    297. The functional anatomy of the male reproductive system in Penaeus indicus. H.F.B. Champion. Department of Zoology, University of Zululand, Private Bag Xl 001, KwaDlangezwa, 3886. Received 2.J April 1986; accepted 29 May 1987. A histological reconstruction of the main anatomical features of the male ...

  5. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Genet. 95, 725–727] ... ous social cues (e.g. number of rivals, sex ratio and female mating status) to .... Progeny sired by the first males were all red eyed, whereas those sired by the ...

  6. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  7. Integrating Male Reproductive Health Services: One University Clinic's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ainat; Giannetti, Mary; Hynes, Robert; Favre, Martha

    2017-01-02

    Attending a college or university opens a new chapter in a young man's life, and with it comes new experiences, freedoms, and responsibilities. Young adult males in particular are prone to risky behaviors as a result of peer pressure, and this can affect their health. As a result of this risky behavior, reproductive and sexual health could be compromised. Historically, reproductive health (RH) services have predominantly served women and undeserving men. Young men have significant reproductive health risks in the form of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Male sexual behaviors directly affect their female partners' health, and their shared decisions about reproductive health play an important part in preventing unintended pregnancies. The office of Population Affairs, Office of Family Planning (OFP), in partnership with five agencies and one research-coordinating center, has implemented a four-year comprehensive service delivery model to increase the number of males accessing family planning, reproductive health services. This paper describes the process of implementing male reproductive health services in a university clinic in western Massachusetts. The Service Innovation Model includes: 1) restructuring the clinic environment (physical setting, materials, and Internet presence), 2) staff training, and 3) campus outreach.

  8. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene-environment interaction and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Yvonne L

    2010-01-01

    of reproduction, namely environmental and lifestyle factors as the cause of sperm DNA damage. It remains to be investigated to what extent such genetic changes, by natural conception or through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, are transmitted to the next generation, thereby causing increased morbidity......As genetic factors can hardly explain the changes taking place during short time spans, environmental and lifestyle-related factors have been suggested as the causes of time-related deterioration of male reproductive function. However, considering the strong heterogeneity of male fecundity between...... and within populations, genetic variants might be important determinants of the individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of environment or lifestyle. Although the possible mechanisms of such interplay in relation to the reproductive system are largely unknown, some recent studies have indicated...

  10. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  11. Effects of cow's milk on reproduction in ICR male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Xia; Ebine, Naoyuki; Aoki, Kazuo; Kusunoki, Masahiro; Misumi, Junichi

    2009-04-01

    To study the effects of Cow's milk on the reproduction in male mice. Twenty-four male mice were divided randomly into two groups: milk group (M) and control group (C). Each mouse was given 10 mL milk per day from 4 to 16 weeks in the group M. At the age of 17 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed. Serum testosterone was decreased in the group M (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in weight of testes, seminal vesicle or adrenal gland of mice between the groups C and M. However, the weight of seminal vesicle decreased when expressed in g/100 g body weight in the group M. Epididymal sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and sperm head number were not affected by milk. Cow's milk has adverse effects on the reproductive system in ICR male mice. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific effects of milk on reproductive health.

  12. Concepts in diagnosis and therapy for male reproductive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaye, Herman; Krausz, Csilla; Oates, Robert D

    2017-07-01

    An accurate medical history and directed physical examination are essential in diagnosis of male infertility. We review the hormonal assessments and specific genetic analyses that are useful additional tests, and detail other evidence-based examinations that are available to help guide therapeutic strategies. By contrast with female infertility treatments-especially hormonal manipulations to stimulate or enhance oocyte production-spermatogenesis and sperm quality abnormalities are much more difficult to affect positively. In general, a healthy lifestyle can improve sperm quality. A few men have conditions in which evidence-based therapies can increase their chances for natural conception. In this second of two papers in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology Series on male reproductive impairment, we examine the agreements and controversies that surround several of these conditions. When we are not able to cure, correct, or mitigate the cause of conditions such as severe oligozoospermia, non-remedial ductal obstruction, and absence of sperm fertilising ability, assisted reproductive technologies, such as in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), can be used as an adjunctive measure to allow for biological paternity. Not considered possible just two decades ago, azoospermia due to testicular failure, including 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), is now treatable in approximately 50% of cases when combining surgical harvesting of testicular sperm and ICSI. Although genetic fatherhood is now possible for many men previously considered sterile, it is crucial to discover and abrogate causes as best possible, provide reliable and evidenced-based therapy, consider seriously the health and wellness of any offspring conceived, and always view infertility as a possible symptom of a more general or constitutional disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Aitken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1. The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1 needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceivedin vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line.

  14. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J. J. M.; Knijnenburg, S. L.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Caron, H. N.; Beerendonk, C. C. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for assisted

  15. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J.J.M.; Knijnenburg, S.L.; Pal, H.J. van der; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Caron, H.N.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kremer, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for

  16. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the ...

  17. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study explored factors that influence male involvement in reproductive health in western Kenya. Qualitative study design was used. From December 2008 to February 2009, data were collected via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) at three provinces of western Kenya. Twelve in-depth interviews ...

  18. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    to infertility and related treatments. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors...

  19. Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

  20. Environmental hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  1. Heritability of reproductive hormones in adult male twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, E.A.M.; Lambalk, C.B.; Boomsma, D.I.; van der Sluis, S.; Blankenstein, M.A.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Posthuma, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Proper functioning of the male reproductive axis depends on complex feedback systems between several hormones. In this study, the genetic contribution of various endocrine components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis is evaluated and previously observed differences in FSH and

  2. Anatomy of the male reproductive organs of the African sideneck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topographic anatomy of the male reproductive organs of the African sideneck (Pelusios castaneus) turtle was explored through dissection. The testis and epididymis were attached to the peritoneal wall in all the turtles examined, posterior to the lungs, ventrolateral to the kidneys. The testes were yellow, smooth and ...

  3. The functional anatomy of the male reproductive system in Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A histological reconstruction of the main anatomical features of the male reproductive system in Penaeus indicus is presented. The passage of spermatozoa and associated secretions from the testis to the terminal ampoule is described, as is the formation of the spermatophoric mass. The origins and possible functions of ...

  4. Male reproductive complications of diabetes mellitus and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These specific plants were predominantly used because of the antioxidant capacity of their bioactive phytoconstituents. This review focuses on reproductive dysfunctions commonly suffered by male diabetic patients and medicinal plants that have been tested and reported for their roles in ameliorating such dysfunctions.

  5. Estrogens and male reproduction: a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carreau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian testis serves two main functions: production of spermatozoa and synthesis of steroids; among them estrogens are the end products obtained from the irreversible transformation of androgens by a microsomal enzymatic complex named aromatase. The aromatase is encoded by a single gene (cyp19 in humans which contains 18 exons, 9 of them being translated. In rats, the aromatase activity is mainly located in Sertoli cells of immature rats and then in Leydig cells of adult rats. We have demonstrated that germ cells represent an important source of estrogens: the amount of P450arom transcript is 3-fold higher in pachytene spermatocytes compared to gonocytes or round spermatids; conversely, aromatase activity is more intense in haploid cells. Male germ cells of mice, bank voles, bears, and monkeys express aromatase. In humans, we have shown the presence of a biologically active aromatase and of estrogen receptors (alpha and ß in ejaculated spermatozoa and in immature germ cells in addition to Leydig cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the amount of P450arom transcripts is 30% lower in immotile than in motile spermatozoa. Alterations of spermatogenesis in terms of number and motility of spermatozoa have been described in men genetically deficient in aromatase. These last observations, together with our data showing a significant decrease of aromatase in immotile spermatozoa, suggest that aromatase could be involved in the acquisition of sperm motility. Thus, taking into account the widespread localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors in testicular cells, it is obvious that, besides gonadotrophins and androgens, estrogens produced locally should be considered to be physiologically relevant hormones involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

  6. Chonopeltis australis (Crustacea) male reproductive system morphology; sperm transfer and review of reproduction in Branchiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, Lourelle Alicia Martins; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of the male reproductive system as well as sperm transfer in Branchiura has been described for Dolops ranarum and Argulus japonicus. In this study, the reproductive system and accessory structures are described for male Chonopeltis australis using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For the first time, we describe sperm transfer by means of a spermatophore in this genus. The internal and external morphology and mechanism of sperm transfer is compared with other Branchiura, where it has been described. The morphology of the reproductive system of C. australis is similar to that of D. ranarum while the accessory structures and the spermatophore produced are similar to that of A. japonicus. A revision of the definition of Branchiura with respect to reproduction is provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Factors associated with male involvement in reproductive care in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men’s active involvement in reproductive healthcare has shown to be positively associated with maternal and child health outcomes. Bangladesh has made appreciable progress in its pursuance of maternal mortality related goals in the framework of the MDGs. However, there remains a lot to be accomplished to realise the long-term goals for which active participation of male counterparts in reproductive care is crucial. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate factors associated with male involvement in reproductive health among Bangladeshi men. Methods We used data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS conducted in 2011. Study participants were 1196 married men, aged between 15 and 69 years and living in both urban and rural households. Level of male involvement (outcome variable was measured based on the responses on knowledge, awareness and practice regarding reproductive health. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models were performed for data analysis. Results Out of 1196 participants, only 40% were found to be active about partners’ reproductive healthcare. Chi-square test showed significant association between active involvement and ever hearing about family planning (FP in television, learning about FP through community health events, community health workers and poster/billboard. Results from logistic regression analysis revealed that type of residency [p = 0.004, AOR = 0.666, 95% CI = 0.504–0.879], literacy [secondary/higher education- p = 0.006. AOR = 0.579, 95% CI = 0.165–0.509], learning about family planning from Newspaper [p < 0.001. AOR = 1.952, 95% CI = 1.429–2.664], and television [p = 0.017. AOR = 1.514 95% CI = 1.298–1.886], and having been communicated about family planning by community health workers [p = 0.017. AOR = 1.946, 95% CI = 1.129–3.356] were significantly associated

  8. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  9. Novel concepts in the aetiology of male reproductive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaye, Herman; Krausz, Csilla; Oates, Robert D

    2017-07-01

    Infertility is a widespread problem and a male contribution is involved in 20-70% of affected couples. As a man's fertility relies on the quantity and quality of his sperm, semen analysis is generally used as the proxy to estimate fertility or gain insight into the underlying reasons for infertility. Male reproductive impairment might result from factors that affect sperm production, quality, function, or transport. Although in most men the origin of infertility remains unexplained, genetic causes are increasingly being discovered. In this first of two papers in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology Series on male reproductive impairment, we propose a novel, clinically based aetiological construct with a genetic focus, and consider how this might serve as a helpful way to conceptualise a diagnostic algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A link between hypothyroidism, obesity and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system.

  11. Human leukocyte antigen-G within the male reproductive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly...... by “priming” the woman’s immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast...

  12. The effects of photoperiod and food intake on reproductive development in male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R J; Marinovic, A C; Moffatt, C A; Kriegsfeld, L J; Kim, S

    1997-11-01

    Seasonal breeding is a tactic that has evolved in rodents that limits reproduction to specific times of the year to increase reproductive success. In order to time breeding accurately, many animals respond to changes in daily photoperiod. Short day lengths inhibit breeding in many nontropical rodent species. Restricted food availability can also inhibit reproductive function among some individuals in these so-called "photoperiodic" populations. Rodents born at the end of the breeding season typically delay sexual maturation until the following spring. Prepubertal rodents exposed to day lengths that are Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii). Short-day mice fed ad lib delayed gonadal development for 5-7 months, but eventually achieved reproductive maturity. The reproductive function of short-day mice fed ad lib was indistinguishable from long-day control animals when assessed at week 32. Long-day food-restricted mice exhibited an intermediate level of gonadal development and function. Short-day food-restricted deer mice also inhibited reproductive growth, but failed to demonstrate reproductive maturity by week 32 of the study. Taken together, these results suggest that retardation of reproductive development by food restriction is only superficially similar to the delay in reproductive maturation imposed by short day exposure. It does not appear that male deer mice escape from the inhibitory effects of food restriction to attain sexual development.

  13. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined.

  14. Environmental contaminants: Is male reproductive health at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C Yan

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis b...

  15. Effects of Propoxur on the Reproductive System of Male Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive toxicity of propoxur (2-isopropoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate), a carbamate pesticide, was investigated in adult male Wistar rats exposed to 0, 1.73, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 successive days. Results obtained from this study showed a significant (p 0,05) sur la gestation, les indices de la ...

  16. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  18. Recent Advances in Heavy Metals Induced Effect on Male Reproductive Function—A Retrospective

    OpenAIRE

    A.Roy Chowdhury

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive hazards from metal exposure in males are one of the fastest growing areas of concern in toxicology today. Exposure to different heavy metals causes irreversible toxic insult to male reproductive system. Heavy metals produce cellular impairments at structural and functional level in male reproductive system. The effect of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium and arsenic on male reproduction has been studied in details in various experimental species. But data on ...

  19. A Perspective on the Evolving Landscape in Male Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-03-01

    Men's health and aging are emerging as important areas of research opportunity because of advances in reproductive biology and the recognition of men's health as a unique and important aspect of public health. A perspective of the evolving landscape in male reproductive medicine. Remarkable discoveries in reproductive biology have greatly advanced the treatment of erectile dysfunction, androgen deficiency, infertility, hormone sensitive cancers, and prostate diseases. Although the off-label use of testosterone in middle-aged and older men has grown, the management of androgen deficiency syndromes remains suboptimal. There is a pressing need for wider adoption of accurate testosterone assays and harmonized reference ranges and large randomized trials of testosterone's efficacy and cardiovascular and prostate safety. The transformation in idealized body image towards greater muscularity has contributed to increasing prevalence of body image disorders and the use of muscle building drugs in men. Therapeutic options for fertility regulation in men remain limited, the pathophysiologic basis of infertility in a vast majority of infertile men remains unknown, and assisted reproductive technologies remain inaccessible to many infertile men. Much of the dogma on testosterone's binding to its binding proteins remains inaccurate, and the role of free and albumin-bound testosterone poorly understood. The reproductive health of cancer survivors and the availability of wider contraceptive choices for men are other areas of unmet need. Suboptimal care of transgender persons has framed transgender medicine as an important healthcare disparities issue. Transformative changes in societal attitudes towards men's sexual health, body image, and gender identity, and in the economics of reproductive healthcare services, offer extraordinary opportunities for translational science that is patient focused, mechanism based, and integrated with healthcare.

  20. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of Icariin on Reproductive Functions in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoxin Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects and potential mechanism(s of action of icariin on the reproductive functions of male rats. Adult rats were treated orally with icariin at doses of 0 (control, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight for 35 consecutive days. The results show that icariin had virtually no effect on the body weight or organ coefficients of the testes or epididymides. However, 100 mg/kg icariin significantly increased epididymal sperm counts. In addition, 50 and 100 mg/kg icariin significantly increased testosterone levels. Real-time PCR suggests icariin may be involved in testosterone production via mRNA expression regulation of genes such as peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR. Furthermore, 100 mg/kg icariin treatment also affected follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR and claudin-11 mRNA expression in Sertoli cells. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in the testes; 50 and 100 mg/kg icariin treatment improved antioxidative capacity, while 200 mg/kg icariin treatment upregulated oxidative stress. These results collectively suggest that icariin within a certain dose range is beneficial to male reproductive functions; meanwhile, higher doses of icariin may damage reproductive functions by increasing oxidative stress in the testes.

  2. Sexual selection leads to a tenfold difference in reproductive success of alternative reproductive tactics in male Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentelier, Cédric; Lepais, Olivier; Larranaga, Nicolas; Manicki, Aurélie; Lange, Frédéric; Rives, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    The precocious maturation of some male Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) has become a textbook example of alternative mating tactics, but the only estimates of reproductive success available so far are either the collective contribution of precocious males to reproduction in the wild or individual reproductive success in oversimplified experimental conditions. Using genetic parentage analysis on anadromous and precocious potential spawners and their offspring, we quantified components of individual reproductive success of both tactics in a natural population. On average, precocious males produced 2.24 (variance 67.62) offspring, against 27.17 (3080) for anadromous males. For both tactics, most of the variance in reproductive success was due to mating success, with 83 % of precocious males having no mate, against 50 % for anadromous males. Body size increased reproductive success of anadromous males and tended to decrease precocious males' reproductive success. Although these results do not solve the coexistence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in Atlantic salmon, their inclusion in comprehensive models of lifetime reproductive success should shed light on the evolution of precocious maturation in Atlantic salmon and its effect on the selection of phenotypic traits.

  3. Expression of Attractin in male reproductive tract of human and mice and its correlation with male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Ming, Yu; Li, Jie; Chi, Yan; Li, Hong-Gang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2014-10-01

    The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis and semen of human and male mice was investigated. Human testis and semen samples were all collected from Reproductive Center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University in December, 2012. Testis samples were collected from 7 cases of obstructive azoospermias when they were subjected to diagnosed testis biopsy, and 30 normal human semen samples were obtained from those cases of semen analysis. Adult mice testis tissues were obtained from 10 2-month-old male BALB/c mice, and 60 male mice at different ages were classified into 10 groups (day 1, 5, 10, 15, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, and 120 respectively, n=6 each). The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Human semen samples were centrifuged into sperm plasma (SP) and sperm extract (SE), and mice sperm samples were collected from the epididymis of 10 adult male BALB/c mice. Western blotting was used to determine the Attractin protein expression level. Attractin mRNA and protein were expressed in the testis of both patients with obstructive azoospermias and adult Bcl/B mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that no Attractin mRNA was detectable in day 1 male BALB/c mice group. The Attractin mRNA and protein levels were low on the day 10, and increased with age until day 56. On the day 120, the expression levels of Attractin were decreased. As for human semen samples, Attractin protein was expressed in both SP and SE, but didn't exist in samples from the epididymis of male BALB/c mice. It was suggested that Attractin acted as a novel active substance and was involved in male reproduction in both human and BALB/c mice, but it exerted a different expression profile in different mammal species.

  4. Male dimorphism and alternative reproductive tactics in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Machado, Glauco

    2014-11-01

    Strong sexual selection may lead small males or males in poor condition to adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) as a way to avoid the risk of being completely excluded from the mating pool. ARTs, sometimes accompanying morphological dimorphism among males, are taxonomically widespread, especially common in arthropods. Here we review the current knowledge on ARTs and male dimorphism in a diverse but relatively overlooked group of arachnids, the order Opiliones, popularly known as harvestmen or daddy long-legs. We begin with a summary of harvestman mating systems, followed by a review of the two lines of evidence for the presence of ARTs in the group: (1) morphological data from natural populations and museum collections; and (2) behavioral information from field studies. Despite receiving less attention than spiders, scorpions and insects, our review shows that harvestmen are an exciting group of organisms that are potentially great models for sexual selection studies focused on ARTs. We also suggest that investigating the proximate mechanisms underlying male dimorphism in the order would be especially important. New research on ARTs and male dimorphism will have implications for our understanding of the evolution of mating systems, sperm competition, and polyandry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Roles of autophagy in male reproductive development in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru eHanamata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, its roles during reproductive development had remained poorly understood. Quantitative live cell imaging techniques for the autophagic flux and genetic studies in several plant species have recently revealed significant roles of autophagy in developmental processes, regulation of PCD and lipid metabolism. We here review the novel roles of autophagic fluxes in plant cells, and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on male reproductive development during the pollen maturation.

  6. Environmental contaminants: Is male reproductive health at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2011-10-01

    Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies.

  7. Regional differences and temporal trends in male reproductive health disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    can disrupt the hormone dependent pathways responsible for fetal gonadal development, subsequently leading to TDS-like symptoms. In humans, fetal exposure to endocrine disrupting substances may play a role, although genetic factors are probably also involved. Recent studies indicate that exposure...... to endocrine disrupters also in adulthood may affect semen quality and reproductive hormones. Causal relationships are inherently difficult to establish in humans, and a clear connection between the disorders and specific toxicants has not been established. It seems likely that the cumulative effects...... of various low-dose exposures to endocrine disrupters in our environment are responsible for the adverse effects in the male reproductive system. Semen quality may be the most sensitive marker of adverse environmental exposures, and we suggest that standardized surveillance studies of semen quality...

  8. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. Th...... mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential........ The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell...... is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses...

  9. Selection for alternative male reproductive tactics alters intralocus sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesnar Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Miler, Krzysztof; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) arises when fitness optima for a shared trait differ between the sexes; such conflict may help maintain genetic variation within populations. Sex-limited expression of sexually antagonistic traits may help resolve the conflict, but the extent of this resolution remains a subject of debate. In species with alternative male reproductive tactics, unresolved conflict should manifest more in a more sexually dimorphic male phenotype. We tested this prediction in the bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini), a species in which aggressive fighters coexist with benign scramblers. To do this, we established replicated lines in which we increased the proportion of each of the alternative male morphs using artificial selection. After approximately 40 generations, the proportion of fighters and scramblers stabilized at >0.9 in fighter- and scrambler-selected lines, respectively. We then measured several female fitness components. As predicted by IASC theory, female fecundity and longevity were lower in lines selected for fighters and higher in lines selected for scramblers. This finding indicates that sexually selected phenotypes are associated with an ontogenetic conflict that is not easily resolved. Furthermore, we suggest that IASC may be an important mechanism contributing to the maintenance of genetic variation in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Ruminant Reproduction — A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, Len; Malla, Bilal Ahmad; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids such as n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are critical nutrients, used to improve male reproductive performance through modification of fatty acid profile and maintenance of sperm membrane integrity, especially under cold shock or cryopreservation condition. Also, PUFA provide the precursors for prostaglandin synthesis and can modulate the expression patterns of many key enzymes involved in both prostaglandin and steroid metabolism. Many studies carried out on diets supplemented with PUFA have demonstrated their capability to sustain sperm motility, viability and fertility during chilling and freezing as well as improving testis development and spermatogenesis in a variety of livestock species. In addition to the type and quantity of dietary fatty acids, ways of addition of PUFA to diet or semen extender is very crucial as it has different effects on semen quality in male ruminants. Limitation of PUFA added to ruminant ration is due to biohydrogenation by rumen microorganisms, which causes conversion of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, leading to loss of PUFA quantity. Thus, many strategies for protecting PUFA from biohydrogenation in rumen have been developed over the years. This paper reviews four aspects of PUFA in light of previous research including rumen metabolism, biological roles, influence on reproduction, and strategies to use in male ruminants. PMID:26954196

  11. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Ruminant Reproduction — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Len Van Tran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids such as n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are critical nutrients, used to improve male reproductive performance through modification of fatty acid profile and maintenance of sperm membrane integrity, especially under cold shock or cryopreservation condition. Also, PUFA provide the precursors for prostaglandin synthesis and can modulate the expression patterns of many key enzymes involved in both prostaglandin and steroid metabolism. Many studies carried out on diets supplemented with PUFA have demonstrated their capability to sustain sperm motility, viability and fertility during chilling and freezing as well as improving testis development and spermatogenesis in a variety of livestock species. In addition to the type and quantity of dietary fatty acids, ways of addition of PUFA to diet or semen extender is very crucial as it has different effects on semen quality in male ruminants. Limitation of PUFA added to ruminant ration is due to biohydrogenation by rumen microorganisms, which causes conversion of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, leading to loss of PUFA quantity. Thus, many strategies for protecting PUFA from biohydrogenation in rumen have been developed over the years. This paper reviews four aspects of PUFA in light of previous research including rumen metabolism, biological roles, influence on reproduction, and strategies to use in male ruminants.

  12. Relaxin-like peptides in male reproduction - a human perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivell, Richard; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2017-05-01

    The relaxin family of peptide hormones and their cognate GPCRs are becoming physiologically well-characterized in the cardiovascular system and particularly in female reproductive processes. Much less is known about the physiology and pharmacology of these peptides in male reproduction, particularly as regards humans. H2-relaxin is involved in prostate function and growth, while insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a major product of the testicular Leydig cells and, in the adult, appears to modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival. In the fetus, INSL3 is a key hormone expressed shortly after sex determination and is responsible for the first transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Importantly, INSL3 is becoming a very useful constitutive biomarker reflecting both fetal and post-natal development. Nothing is known about roles for INSL4 in male reproduction and only very little about relaxin-3, which is mostly considered as a brain peptide, or INSL5. The former is expressed at very low levels in the testes, but has no known physiology there, whereas the INSL5 knockout mouse does exhibit a testicular phenotype with mild effects on spermatogenesis, probably due to a disruption of glucose homeostasis. INSL6 is a major product of male germ cells, although it is relatively unexplored with regard to its physiology or pharmacology, except that in mice disruption of the INSL6 gene leads to a disruption of spermatogenesis. Clinically, relaxin analogues may be useful in the control of prostate cancer, and both relaxin and INSL3 have been considered as sperm adjuvants for in vitro fertilization. This article is part of a themed section on Recent Progress in the Understanding of Relaxin Family Peptides and their Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.10/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Establishment of assisted reproduction technologies in female and male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Maltzan, J; Blottner, S; Proudfoot, J; Fritsch, G; Fassbender, M; Quest, M; Hildebrandt, T B

    2001-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography, electroejaculation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa were applied to the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) to establish non-invasive protocols for assessing the reproductive health of one of the most endangered African canids. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on immobilized male (n = 2) and female (n = 5) captive wild dogs. The testes and epididymides of the male dogs were imaged transcutaneously, followed by electrostimulation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa. The sonomorphology of the female and male urogenital tracts was characterized. In females, the vagina, cervix, non-pregnant uterus and ovary were imaged and the reproductive health of each female was evaluated. The sonographic assessment helped to identify one pyometra and extensive abdominal fat deposits in two other individuals in which pyometra had been suspected. Images of the adrenal glands showed differences in size among individuals of the same breeding group. Whether these differences were related to the dominance hierarchy remains to be determined. In males, visualization of the prostate gland, testis and epididymis indicated sexual maturity. Three ejaculatory fractions (1.0, 1.5 and 0.5 ml, with 50, 95 and 95% motility, respectively; 1.125 x 10(8) spermatozoa per ejaculate) were collected from one male. The motility of each of these fractions after thawing was 0, 30 and 40%, respectively. Electrostimulation of the second male, in which a cystic structure in a testis had been identified by sonography, resulted in an aspermic ejaculate (0.5 and 1.0 ml). These technologies provided basic data on reproduction in female and male African wild dogs and were an efficient way to evaluate reproductive health.

  14. Herbivory differentially affects male and female reproductive traits of Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, V P; Nicotra, A B; Cunningham, S A

    2004-09-01

    Herbivory is an important selection pressure in the life history of plants. Most studies use seed or fruit production as an indication of plant fitness, but the impact of herbivory on male reproductive success is usually ignored. It is possible that plants compensate for resources lost to herbivory by shifting the allocation from seed production to pollen production and export, or vice versa. This study examined the impact of herbivory by Helix aspersa on both male and female reproductive traits of a monoecious plant, Cucumis sativus. The effects of herbivory on the relative allocation to male and female flowers were assessed through measurements of the number and size of flowers of both sexes, and the amount of pollinator visitation. We performed two glasshouse experiments; the first looked at the impact of three levels of pre-flowering herbivory, and the second looked at four levels of herbivory after the plants had started to flower. We found that herbivory during the flowering phase led to a significant increase in the number of plants without male flowers. As a consequence there was significantly less pollen export from this population, as estimated by movement of a pollen analog. The size of female flowers was reduced by severe herbivory, but there was no affect on pollen receipt by the female flowers of damaged plants. The decrease in allocation to male function after severe herbivory may be adaptive when male reproductive success is very unpredictable.

  15. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  16. Cypermetherin toxic effects on spermatogenesis and male mouse reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Bencheikh, F; Harzallah, D; Boussahel, S; Belgeit, A; Merghem, M; Bouriche, H

    2010-01-01

    Cypermetherin has been implicated in the development of a variety of reproductive disorders in humans and infertility in wild life, where it increases the death rate of the offspring and induces aggressiveness (Elbetieha et al., 2001). Studies in workers exposed to handling of agro pesticides indicate that they have defects in their reproduction capabilities characterized by infertility and/or a decrease in the fertilizing potential, fetal death. In this study, mice weighing 30-35 g were used, separated in 3 groups, (1) control (2) vehicle (oil) and (3) experimental (Cypermetherin and oil). The animals were gavaged by 1/5, 1/20 LD50 for 2 and 4 weeks respectively, and with 1/5 LD50 for 12 weeks, then sacrificed. Epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated with respect to quantity, motility and morphology. The histology of testis and epididymis was also studied. Sperm count decreased by around 20% in treated animals compared with control. Teratology observations showed a clear modification of sperm morphology, especially the flagella. Testicular and epididymal morphology was also impaired. It is concluded that Cypermetherin may cause morphological and functional alteration of the male reproductive tract.

  17. Possible influence of vitamin D on male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisen, Ida Marie; Bøllehuus Hansen, Lasse; Mortensen, Li Juel; Lanske, Beate; Juul, Anders; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile signaling molecule with an established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. In recent years the spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and a reproductive role is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the gonads, reproductive tract, and human spermatozoa. Interestingly, expression levels of VDR and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality and are higher expressed in spermatozoa from normal than infertile men. VDR mediates a non-genomic increase in intracellular calcium concentration, sperm motility, and induces the acrosome reaction. Furthermore, functional animal model studies have shown that vitamin D is important for sex steroid production, estrogen signaling, and semen quality. Cross-sectional clinical studies have supported the notion of a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level and semen quality in both fertile and infertile men. However, it remains to be determined whether this association reflects a causal effect. The VDR is ubiquitously expressed and activated vitamin D is a regulator of insulin, aromatase, and osteocalcin. Hence, it is plausible that the influence of vitamin D on gonadal function may be mediated indirectly through other vitamin D regulated endocrine factors. Recent studies have indicated that vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for couples in need of assisted reproductive techniques as high serum vitamin D levels were found to be associated with a higher chance of achieving pregnancy. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine whether systemic changes in vitamin D metabolites can influence semen quality, fertility, and sex steroid production in infertile men. In this review known and possible future implications of vitamin D in human male reproduction function will be discussed. Copyright © 2016

  18. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  19. SOT Risk Assessment: Complex mixtures of anti-androgens at concentrations below individual chemical effect levels produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is an invited webinar to the Society of Toxicology Risk Assessment Specialty Section (co-hosted by the Mixtures Specialty Section) as part of their monthly webinar series. The webinar is scheduled for 3:00PM on Wednesday September 13th.

  20. Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.

  1. Impairment of male reproductive function after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Hirotsu, Camila; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of sleep loss on sexual behavior, hormone levels, sperm parameters, and testis-specific gene expression in male rats. Experimental research. Animal laboratory. Male adult Wistar-Hannover rats. Sexually experienced rats were subjected to paradoxic sleep deprivation (PSD) for 96 hours or sleep restriction (SR) for 21 days or kept in their home cage as control (CTRL). Sexual behavior, hormone levels, sperm parameters and expression of stress and nitric oxide-related genes were evaluated. PSD significantly decreased sexual behavior compared with the CTRL group, whereas SR had no effect. The PSD group had significantly lower testosterone levels than the CTRL group. Both PSD and SR groups had lower sperm viabilities than the CTRL group. The decrease in the number of live sperm compared with the CTRL group was larger in the PSD group than in the SR group. Regarding testicular gene expression, both PSD and SR led to an increase of iNOS and hydroxysteroid 11β-dehydrogenase 1 expressions compared with the CTRL group. These changes were more pronounced in the PSD group. A significant increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was observed in the PSD groups compared with the CTRL group. No changes were observed in dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 and casein kinase 2β-polypeptide expressions. Sleep loss can promote marked changes in the male reproductive system of rats, particularly affecting spermatic function in part by interfering in the testicular nitric oxide pathway. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danmaigoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum. Thirty male bats (adults n=17 and juveniles n=13 were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31±6.30 g, 12.14±0.19 cm and 69.54±7.68 g, 7.77±0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  3. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A.; Onu, J. E.; Sonfada, M. L.; Umaru, M. A.; Hena, S. A.; Mahmuda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  4. Condition dependence of male and female reproductive success: insights from a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Tim; Chapuis, Elodie

    2016-02-01

    Sexually selected traits are predicted to show condition dependence by capturing the genetic quality of its bearer. In separate-sexed organisms, this will ultimately translate into condition dependence of reproductive success of the sex that experiences sexual selection, which is typically the male. Such condition dependence of reproductive success is predicted to be higher in males than females under conditions promoting intense sexual selection. For simultaneous hermaphrodites, however, sex allocation theory predicts that individuals in poor condition channel relatively more resources into the male sex function at the expense of the female function. Thus, male reproductive success is expected to be less condition dependent than female reproductive success. We subjected individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic snail Physa acuta to two feeding treatments to test for condition dependence of male and female reproductive success under varying levels of male-male competition. Condition dependence was found for female, but not for male, reproductive success, meaning that selection on condition is relatively stronger through the female sex function. This effect was consistent over both male-male competition treatments. Decomposition of male and female reproductive performance revealed that individuals in poor condition copulated more in their male role, indicating an increased male allocation to mate acquisition. These findings suggest that sex-specific condition dependence of reproductive success is at least partially driven by condition-dependent sex allocation. We discuss the implications of condition-dependent sex allocation for the evolution of sexually selected traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites.

  5. Age-specific survival and reproductive probabilities: evidence for senescence in male fallow deer (Dama dama)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. G. McElligott; R. Altwegg; T. J. Altwegg

    2002-01-01

    ...–fitting model revealed that fallow bucks have four life–history stages: yearling, pre–reproductive, prime–age and senescent. Pre–reproductive males (2 and 3 years old) had the highest survival...

  6. Role of male reproductive tract CD52 (mrt-CD52) in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Koji; Ito, Koichi; Hasegawa, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    Human CD52 antigen is a highly glycosylated molecule with an unusually small core peptide exclusively expressed on lymphocytes and mature sperm. In the male reproductive tract, it is secreted mainly from the epididymis and inserted into the sperm membrane via the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor during the passage of the spermatozoa through the epididymis. It has recently been found that the male reproductive tract CD52 (mrt-CD52) is a target antigen of human monoclonal antibody (Mab H6-3C4) obtained from an antisperm antibody-mediated infertile woman. The Mab H6-3C4 shows strong sperm-immobilizing activity with complement and specifically recognizes the N-linked carbohydrate epitope of sperm CD52 but not lymphocyte CD52. Lectin binding assays have revealed the presence of both O-linked as well as N-linked carbohydrate moieties in human mrt-CD52. Mouse monoclonal antibody (1 G12) reacting to human mrt-CD52 strongly inhibits penetration of human spermatozoa to the zona denuded hamster oocyte. Mouse CD52 is similar to human CD52 in biological and immunological characteristics. Male and female mice immunized with naturally-occurring mouse mrt-CD52 molecules produce antibodies against the cognate antigen yielding antisera with complement-dependent mouse sperm immobilizing activities.

  7. Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Francesco; Maggi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    parameters. Scrotal and transrectal US (TRUS) are useful in detecting congenital uni- or bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD), which may be associated with epididymis, seminal vesicles (SV) or kidney abnormalities/agenesis. TRUS plays a key role in assessing obstructive azoospermia and detecting distal CBAVD or anomalies related to ejaculatory ducts obstruction, such as ejaculatory duct abnormalities, prostate median cysts or SV enlargement/emptying impairment. TRUS findings lead to operational decision-making, such as testicular sperm extraction in the case of CBAVD, cyst aspiration in the case of a large prostatic median cyst, and surgical treatment if ejaculatory duct abnormalities are observed. TRUS may reveal prostate volume reduction (suggestive of hypogonadism) or enlargement, which can be related to aging or even metabolic abnormalities. Finally, TRUS may reveal prostate and SV echo-texture abnormalities suggestive of inflammation or SV stasis. MGT-CDUS is a useful tool in detecting abnormalities related to impaired male reproductive health. However, it suffers from a lack of standardization and often produces subjective/vague diagnoses. To fill this gap, the European Academy of Andrology has promoted an ongoing multicenter study aimed at defining the MGT-CDUS characteristics of healthy, fertile men. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Residency time as an indicator of reproductive restraint in male burying beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee N Smith

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles.

  9. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... of action. Dams inhaled 20 mg/m(3) of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h/day on day 7-19 during pregnancy. Male offspring were killed on day 170 after birth. The dams that had inhaled SRM2975 delivered offspring, which in adulthood had reduced daily sperm...

  10. Complex courtship displays facilitate male reproductive success and plasticity in signaling across variable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. WILGERS, Eileen A. HEBETS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective signal transmission is essential for communication. In environments where signal transmission is highly variable, signalers may utilize complex signals, which incorporate multiple components and modalities, to maintain effective communication. Male Rabidosa rabida wolf spiders produce complex courtship signals, consisting of both visual and seismic components. We test the hypothesis that the complex signaling of R. rabida contributes to male reproductive success in variable signaling environments. We first examine the condition-dependence of ornamentation (a presumed visual signal and seismic signal components and find that both may provide potentially redundant information on foraging history. Next, we assessed reproductive success across manipulated signaling environments that varied in the effectiveness of visual and/or seismic signal transmission. In environments where only one signal could be successfully transmitted (e.g., visual or seismic, pairs were still able to successfully copulate. Additionally, we found that males altered their courtship display depending on the current signaling environment. Specifically, males reduced their use of a visual display component in signaling environments where visual signal transmission was ablated. Incorporating signals in multiple modalities not only enables R. rabida males to maintain copulation success across variable signaling environments, but it also enables males to adjust their composite courtship display to current signaling conditions [Current Zoology 57 (2: 175–186, 2011].

  11. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  12. An update on the clinical assessment of the infertile male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility is directly or indirectly responsible for 60% of cases involving reproductive-age couples with fertility-related issues. Nevertheless, the evaluation of male infertility is often underestimated or postponed. A coordinated evaluation of the infertile male using standardized procedures improves both diagnostic precision and the results of subsequent management in terms of effectiveness, risk and costs. Recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART have made it possible to identify and overcome previously untreatable causes of male infertility. To properly utilize the available techniques and improve clinical results, it is of the utmost importance that patients are adequately diagnosed and evaluated. Ideally, this initial assessment should also be affordable and accessible. We describe the main aspects of male infertility evaluation in a practical manner to provide information on the judicious use of available diagnostic tools and to better determine the etiology of the most adequate treatment for the existing condition.

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Within the Male Reproductive System: Implications for Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by "priming" the woman's immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta during pregnancy has been well described. Highly variable amounts of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in seminal plasma from different men have been reported, and the concentration of sHLA-G is associated with HLA-G genotype. A first pilot study indicates that the level of sHLA-G in seminal plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings.

  14. Sexual cannibalism increases male material investment in offspring: quantifying terminal reproductive effort in a praying mantis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William D; Barry, Katherine L

    2016-06-29

    Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of both male-derived somatic materials and ejaculate materials into the eggs and soma of the female. Our results show that male somatic investment contributes to production of offspring. The eggs and reproductive tissues of cannibalistic females contained significantly more male-derived amino acids than those of non-cannibalistic females, and there was an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to sexual cannibalism. Sexual cannibalism thus increases male material investment in offspring. We also show that males provide substantial investment via the ejaculate, with males passing about 25% of their radiolabelled amino acids to females via the ejaculate even in the absence of cannibalism. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, Larry; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract Development for Use in Predictive Toxicology (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  17. Familiarity breeds progeny: sociality increases reproductive success in adult male ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ben T; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2011-01-01

    The ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is the only coati species in which social groups contain an adult male year round, although most males live solitarily. We compared reproductive success of group living and solitary adult male coatis to determine the degree to which sociality affects reproductive success. Coati mating is highly seasonal and groups of female coatis come into oestrus during the same 1-2 week period. During the mating season, solitary adult males followed groups and fought with the group living male. This aggression was presumably to gain access to receptive females. We expected that high reproductive synchrony would make it difficult or impossible for the one group living male to monopolize and defend the group of oestrous females. However, we found that group living males sired between 67-91% of the offspring in their groups. This reproductive monopolization is much higher than other species of mammals with comparably short mating seasons. Clearly, living in a group greatly enhanced a male's reproductive success. At the same time, at least 50% of coati litters contained offspring sired by extra-group males (usually only one offspring per litter); thus, resident males could not prevent extra-group matings. The resident male's reproductive advantage may reflect female preference for a resident male strong enough to fend off competing males. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in three different body fluids and male reproductive parameters: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Jorge; López-Espín José J; Moreno-Grau Stella; Elvira-Rendueles Belén; García-Sánchez Antonio; Martínez-García María J; Vergara-Juárez Nuria; Roca Manuela; Moreno José M; Mendiola Jaime; Bernabeu Rafael; Torres-Cantero Alberto M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. Methods The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury) in three different body fluids. Sixty one men...

  19. Adverse effects of diisooctyl phthalate on the male rat reproductive development following prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Alain; Cossec, Benoit; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Denis, Flavien; Burgart, Manuella

    2013-12-01

    In a first study, rats were given diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP, CAS 27554-26-3) at 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1g/kg/day, by gavage, on gestation days 6-20 (GD). There was a significant increase in resorptions at 1g/kg/day and a reduction in fetal weights at 0.5 and 1g/kg/day. Malpositioned testes were observed in fetuses at 1g/kg/day, and supernumerary lumbar ribs and ossification delay at 0.5 and 1g/kg/day. In a follow-up study, DIOP administered on GD 12-19 reduced fetal testicular testosterone at 0.1g/kg/day and above. Finally, postnatal reproductive assessment was conducted in adult male offspring prenatally exposed to DIOP on GD 12-21. Abnormalities of reproductive system (e.g. hypospadias, non scrotal testes, and hypospermatogenesis) were observed in a few adult males at 0.5g/kg/day, and with a high incidence at 1g/kg/day. Thus, DIOP displayed an antiandrogenic activity and disrupted the male reproductive development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nicotine alters male reproductive hormones in male albino rats: The role of cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun P Oyeyipo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The use of nicotine through smoking remains a serious health problem. It has been associated with reduced fertility, although the mechanism responsible is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nicotine-induced infertility is associated with altered male reproductive hormones in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided equally into five groups and treated orally for thirty days. Group I, which served as the control received 0.2 ml/kg normal saline, Group II and III received 0.5 mg/kg (low dose and 1.0 mg/kg (high dose body weight of nicotine, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups were gavaged with 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine but were left untreated for another 30 days. These groups served as the recovery groups. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormones (FSH, and prolactin using radioimmunoassay. Results: Results showed that nicotine administration significantly decreased (P < 0.05 testosterone in the low and high treated groups and FSH in the high dose treated group when compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in mean LH and prolactin level in the high dose treated group when compared with the control. However, the values of the recovery groups were comparable with the control. Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that nicotine administration is associated with distorted reproductive hormones in male rats although ameliorated by nicotine cessation. It is plausible that the decreased testosterone level is associated with testicular dysfunction rather than a pituitary disorder.

  1. Male takeovers are reproductively costly to females in hamadryas baboons: a test of the sexual coercion hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Polo

    Full Text Available During male takeovers, in addition to fighting off the female's current mating partner, males may exhibit intense aggressive mate guarding of the newly acquired females. Recent studies indicate that coercive sexual aggression by males is an important strategy through which sexual conflict is expressed. Previous tests of the sexual coercion hypothesis in primates have focused on assessing if female mate choice is effectively reduced by male aggression, however, only one recent study has tested a critical prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that male coercion is reproductively costly to victim females. The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females' inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals. We discuss how several factors may contribute to this reproductive cost, including male-female sexual conflict, male-male competition, and female-female competition. Our findings suggest that the male's aggressive herding is the main contributor to the abducted females' immediate reproductive cost. We argue that although some of the male's aggressive herding may be driven by male-male competition, nonetheless, it serves a coercive function as it both constrains the female's mate choice options and hampers her immediate breeding performance. This conclusion is backed up by results obtained in the only other study that has tested the same prediction and which has been carried out in a wild population of hamadryas baboons.

  2. A curvilinear effect of height on reproductive success in human males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Pollet, T.V.; Verhulst, S.; Buunk, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear

  3. A curvilinear effect of height on reproductive success in human males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear

  4. Cytokines in Male Fertility and Reproductive Pathologies: Immunoregulation and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Loveland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Germline development in vivo is dependent on the environment formed by somatic cells and the differentiation cues they provide; hence, the impact of local factors is highly relevant to the production of sperm. Knowledge of how somatic and germline cells interact is central to achieving biomedical goals relating to restoring, preserving or restricting fertility in humans. This review discusses the growing understanding of how cytokines contribute to testicular function and maintenance of male reproductive health, and to the pathologies associated with their abnormal activity in this organ. Here we consider both cytokines that signal through JAKs and are regulated by SOCS, and those utilizing other pathways, such as the MAP kinases and SMADs. The importance of cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of the testis as an immune-privilege site are described. Current research relating to the involvement of immune cells in testis development and disease is highlighted. This includes new data relating to testicular cancer which reinforce the understanding that tumorigenic cells shape their microenvironment through cytokine actions. Clinical implications in pathologies relating to local inflammation and to immunotherapies are discussed.

  5. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C Sikka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA, sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men′s health for reproductive success.

  6. Comparison of male reproductive success in malaria-refractory and susceptible strains of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voordouw Maarten J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In female mosquitoes that transmit malaria, the benefits of being refractory to the Plasmodium parasite are balanced by the immunity costs in the absence of infection. Male mosquitoes, however, gain no advantage from being refractory to blood-transmitted parasites, so that any costs associated with an enhanced immune system in the males limit the evolution of female refractoriness and has practical implications for the release of transgenic males. Methods Aspects of the male cost of carrying Plasmodium-refractory genes were estimated by comparing the males' immune response and reproductive success among strains of Anopheles gambiae that had been selected for refractoriness or extreme susceptibility to the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. The refractory males had a stronger melanization response than males from the susceptible line. Four traits were used as correlates of a male's reproductive success: the proportion of females that were inseminated by a fixed number of males in a cage within a fixed time frame, the proportion of females with motile sperm in their spermathecae, the proportion of ovipositing females, and the mean number of eggs per batch. Results Although there were significant differences among groups of males in sperm motility and oviposition success, these differences in male reproductive success were not associated with the refractory or susceptible male genotypes. Contrary to expectation, females mated to early emerging refractory males laid significantly more eggs per batch than females mated to later emerging susceptible males. Sperm motility and oviposition success were strongly correlated suggesting that variation in sperm motility influences female oviposition and ultimately male reproductive success. Conclusion An increased melanization response in male A. gambiae does not diminish male reproductive success under the experimental protocol used in this study. That refractory

  7. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...... (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non-obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility...

  8. Is there any effect of insulin resistance on male reproductive system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Verit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the possible effect of insulin resistance (IR on male reproductive system via evaluation of semen analysis, male sex hormones and serum lipid profiles, and testicular volumes. Methods: After the exclusions, a total of 80 male patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Body Mass Index (BMI, Testicular volume, semen samples, serum hormone/lipid profiles, high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP were obtained from all the subjects. Results: The patients were divided into two groups as study and control according to the presence of IR. There were no statistical differences in terms of age, marriage period, testicular volume, serum levels of hormone and lipid profiles and BMI between the groups. There were no relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and semen volume (r = -0.10, p = 0.37, total sperm count (r = -0.09, p = 0.39, motility (r = -0.15, p = 0.16 and morphology (r = -0.14, p = 0.19. However, HOMA-IR was closely associated with hsCRP levels (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Despite of the documented strong inverse relationships between Diabetes Mellitus (DM and male/female fertility, and also between IR and female infertility via ovarian functions as in polycystic ovary syndrome, to our knowledge, there is no report about any influence of IR on male fertility. DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS have negative influence on fertility. Thus, IR may be accused of causing detrimental effect on male infertility due to hyperinsulinemic state and being one of the components for MetS. Interestingly, due to our preliminary results, we do not found any inverse correlation between IR and male reproductive functions.

  9. Male Takeovers Are Reproductively Costly to Females in Hamadryas Baboons: A Test of the Sexual Coercion Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    During male takeovers, in addition to fighting off the female’s current mating partner, males may exhibit intense aggressive mate guarding of the newly acquired females. Recent studies indicate that coercive sexual aggression by males is an important strategy through which sexual conflict is expressed. Previous tests of the sexual coercion hypothesis in primates have focused on assessing if female mate choice is effectively reduced by male aggression, however, only one recent study has tested a critical prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that male coercion is reproductively costly to victim females. The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females’ inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals. We discuss how several factors may contribute to this reproductive cost, including male-female sexual conflict, male-male competition, and female-female competition. Our findings suggest that the male’s aggressive herding is the main contributor to the abducted females’ immediate reproductive cost. We argue that although some of the male’s aggressive herding may be driven by male-male competition, nonetheless, it serves a coercive function as it both constrains the female’s mate choice options and hampers her immediate breeding performance. This conclusion is backed up by results obtained in the only other study that has tested the same prediction and which has been carried out in a wild population of hamadryas baboons. PMID:24621865

  10. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a co...

  11. Effects of nectar robbing on male and female reproductive success of a pollinator-dependent plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Nossa, Sandra V.; Sánchez, José María; Navarro, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Nectar robbers affect host fitness in different ways and by different magnitudes, both directly and indirectly, and potentially constitute an important part of pollination interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nectar robbing on several variables that characterize the reproductive success of Lonicera etrusca, a pollinator-dependent plant with long, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar. Methods Using fluorescent powder dye as a proxy for pollen, the distance of pollen dispersal was compared for robbed and non-robbed flowers. Artificial nectar robbing treatments were applied to test its effects on four additional measures of reproductive success, namely the quantity of pollen exported, fruit set, seed/ovule ratio and seed weight. Key Results Nectar robbing was not found to have any significant negative consequences on female and male components of reproductive success as determined through the five variables that were measured. Conclusions Although L. etrusca exhibits high levels of nectar robbing and nectar robbers are common floral visitors, no evidence was found of detrimental changes in the components of reproductive success. A combination of morphological and ecological mechanisms is proposed to explain how plants may compensate for the energetic loss caused by the nectar robbers. PMID:26482653

  12. Male reproductive health challenges: appraisal of wives coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Emmanuel O; Omideyi, Adekunbi K; Fadayomi, Theophilus O; Ajayi, Mofoluwake P; Oni, Gbolahan A; Idowu, Adenike E

    2017-07-28

    Systematic studies on the association between men's sexual dysfunction (low sexual desire, ejaculation disorders, erectile dysfunctions, genital ulcers, testicular disorders, prostate cancer or sexually transmitted infections) and marital conflict are emerging. However, the coping strategies adopted by wives in such circumstances are not commonly reported in the literature. Male sexual functioning is vital to the marital relationship, lack of it can result in intolerable cohabitation or relationship breakdown, and could also cause infertility, infidelity, and arouse stigma in Nigeria. The understanding of coping strategies by female partners could guide in the counselling and treatment of men's sexual health problems. Effective coping has the potential to lessen or prevent negative outcomes, and thereby could reduce marital conflict. This study examined the coping strategies adopted by women whose husbands have reproductive health challenges in two of the five states with the highest proportion of divorce/separation in Nigeria. Four focus group discussions were conducted in two local government areas. The women were recruited from a quantitative couple-study for men with sexual health problems. Focus group responses were transcribed and analysed using systematic-content-analysis with thematic organisation of the summaries and systematic typologies of participants' responses. The results revealed the coping strategies employed by women in this environment: seeking guidance from their religious leaders and family doctors, physical-sexual-therapy, abstinence and concubinage. The participants indicated that they encountered difficulties in discussing their husbands' sexual health problems with a third party. The study concludes that husband's sexual ability is crucial to the sustenance of the marital relationship. Religious leaders and family doctors often serve as mediators to husband-wife conflict management. Counselling is recommended in cases of sexual health

  13. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  14. Reproductive Effects on JP-8 Jet Fuel on Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats after Exposure by Oral Gavage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mattie, D. R; Marit, G. B; Cooper, J. R; Sterner, T. R; Flemming, C. D

    2000-01-01

    .... In this report data are presented from two reproductive studies. In the first study male rats were given 0, 750, 1500 or 3000 mg/kg neat JP-8 daily by gavage for 70 days prior to mating with naive females to assess fertility and sperm parameters...

  15. The morphology of the male reproductive structures of Perionyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perionyx excavatus (Oligochaeta) is a vermicomposting earthworm of which the reproductive strategies are little known. In order to obtain more information on this, its reproductive systems were studied. Existing literature on the topic is either contradictory or scant. The investigation was done by examining the gross anatomy ...

  16. Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, C L; Feinberg, D R; Marlowe, F W

    2007-12-22

    The validity of evolutionary explanations of vocal sexual dimorphism hinges upon whether or not individuals with more sexually dimorphic voices have higher reproductive success than individuals with less dimorphic voices. However, due to modern birth control methods, these data are rarely described, and mating success is often used as a second-rate proxy. Here, we test whether voice pitch predicts reproductive success, number of children born and child mortality in an evolutionarily relevant population of hunter-gatherers. While we find that voice pitch is not related to reproductive outcomes in women, we find that men with low voice pitch have higher reproductive success and more children born to them. However, voice pitch in men does not predict child mortality. These findings suggest that the association between voice pitch and reproductive success in men is mediated by differential access to fecund women. Furthermore, they show that there is currently selection pressure for low-pitch voices in men.

  17. The Effects of Perceived Mating Opportunities on Patterns of Reproductive Investment by Male Guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Luke T.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  18. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke T Barrett

    Full Text Available Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection. Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size.

  19. Melatonin and male reproductive health: relevance of darkness and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C S; Rato, L; Martins, A D; Alves, M G; Oliveira, P F

    2015-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin controls several physiological functions that reach far beyond the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Moreover, it can be produced in extra-pineal organs such as reproductive organs. The role of melatonin in the mammalian seasonal and circadian rhythm is well known. Nevertheless, its overall effect in male reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. Melatonin is a very powerful endogenous antioxidant that can also be exogenously taken safely. Interestingly, its antioxidant properties have been consistently reported to improve the male reproductive dysfunctions associated with pathological conditions and also with the exposure to toxicants. Nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its action in the male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Herein, we propose to present an up-to-date overview of the melatonin effects in the male reproductive health and debate future directions to disclose possible sites of melatonin action in male reproductive system. We will discuss not only the role of melatonin during darkness and sleep but also the importance of the antioxidant properties of this hormone to male fertility. Since melatonin readily crosses the physiological barriers, such as the blood-testis barrier, and has a very low toxicity, it appears as an excellent candidate in the prevention and/or treatment of the multiple male reproductive dysfunctions associated with various pathologies.

  20. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-08-07

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.

  1. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably...

  2. Studies of male reproduction in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Ward, D; Lemon, J; Gunn, I; MacCallum, C A; Keeley, T; Blyde, D

    2007-08-01

    Implementation of assisted breeding in the captive African wild dog is restricted by a current lack of knowledge on their reproductive physiology and the apparent difficulty of effectively manipulating the complex social dynamic of the pack in order to conduct reproductive procedures. In this study, we describe protocols for the safe and repeated capture and restraint of the African wild dog (n=7) as well as techniques for assessment of male reproductive function, semen collection and preservation. In a serendipitous finding, captive African wild dogs appeared to display significant seasonal change in male reproduction. Testicular volume and tone, spermatorrhea and the ability to collect semen by electroejaculation all increased significantly during late summer and then subsequently declined by early spring. While there were no detectable seasonal changes in testosterone concentration in the population as whole, the alpha-dominant male in both years of the study, had a highly elevated testosterone concentration compared to subordinate males. Semen collection by electroejaculation during the late summer was most effective in peri-pubertal males (15 months) when all seven electroejaculates were of adequate quality for cryopreservation. In the second breeding season (27 months), there were numerous changes in the pack hierarchy and electroejaculation was not as successful (3/7). The characteristics of electroejaculated semen collected in the breeding season are described for seven animals including the first descriptions and incidence of sperm abnormalities in the species. Semen (n=7) was frozen using a Tris-citrate fructose buffer and final egg yolk and glycerol concentration of 20% and 4%, respectively. Sperm were loaded into 0.25 mL straws, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and then thawed at 37 degrees C. Initial post-thaw survival of spermatozoa was encouraging (% motile: 31.8+/-5.8%; rate: 2.8+/-0.3; % intact plasma membranes: 33.4+/-5.3% and the % of damaged

  3. Male adaptations to minimize sexual cannibalism during reproduction in the funnel-web spider Hololena curta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zunic-Kosi, Alenka; Zhang, Long-Wa; Prentice, Thomas R; McElfresh, J Steven; Chinta, Satya P; Zou, Yun-Fan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2015-12-01

    Males of many spider species risk being attacked and cannibalized while searching for, courting, and mating with conspecific females. However, there are exceptions. We show that the funnel-web spider, Hololena curta, has 3 adaptations that minimize risk to males during courtship and mating, and enhance reproductive success. First, males detected chemical or tactile signals associated with webs of virgin females, and differentiated them from webs of mated females, enabling males to increase encounter rates with virgin females and avoid aggressive mated females. Second, males produced stereotyped vibrational signals during courting which induced female quiescence and suppressed female aggression. Third, when touched by males, sexually receptive females entered a cataleptic state, allowing males to safely approach and copulate. Because males can mate multiple times and the sex ratio in natural populations of H. curta is female biased, overall reproductive output is likely increased by males of this species avoiding sexual cannibalism. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  5. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  6. Effects of Fetal Exposure to Asian Sand Dust on Development and Reproduction in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Arashidani, Keiichi; He, Miao; Takano, Hirohisa; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-11-23

    In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproduction in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproduction have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproduction in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproduction of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproduction of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.

  7. Identifying environmental risk to male reproductive function by occupational sperm studies: logistics and design options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonde, J.P.; Giwercman, A.; Ernst, E.; Joffe, M.; Bisanti, L.; Hoorne M, van M.; Thonneau, P.; Zielhuis, G.; Kiss, P.; Abell, A.; Larsen, S.B.; Danscher, G.; Kolstad, H.

    1996-01-01

    Malfunction of the male reproductive system might be a sensitive marker of environmental hazards, the effects of which may extend beyond reproductive function. The testis is more vulnerable to heat and ionising radiation than any other organ of the body and several xenobiotics are known to disrupt

  8. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Background: Trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumors, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and...

  9. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    was dependent on the magnitude of the size difference between a female and a male. We discuss our results in relation to the cod mating system. Finally, we suggest that the highly skewed distribution of paternity success observed in cod may be a factor contributing to the low effective population size......Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...

  10. Environmental and occupational exposure of metals and their role in male reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-07-01

    This review summarizes the effects of more than 20 metals that, research has indicated, may influence male reproductive health. Though males lack an apparent, easily measurable reproductive cycle, progress has been made in evaluating tests to identify chemical hazards and estimate reproductive health risks. Some agents discussed in this review are well known to have potential toxic effects on the male reproductive system, whereas some are not so well established in toxicology. This review attempts to cover most of the known toxicants and their effects on male fertility. The literature suggests a need for further research in those chemicals that are reactive and capable of covalent interactions in biological systems, as well as those defined as mutagens and/or carcinogens, to cause aneuploidy or other chromosomal aberrations, affect sperm motility in vitro, share hormonal activity or affect hormone action, and those that act directly or indirectly to affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  11. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huho, B.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Killeen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods - Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified

  12. Possible influence of vitamin D on male reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Ida Marie; Hansen, Lasse Bøllehuus; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    for couples in need of assisted reproductive techniques as high serum vitamin D levels were found to be associated with a higher chance of achieving pregnancy. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine whether systemic changes in vitamin D metabolites can influence semen quality, fertility, and sex......Vitamin D is a versatile signaling molecule with an established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. In recent years the spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and a reproductive role is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D...... metabolizing enzymes in the gonads, reproductive tract, and human spermatozoa. Interestingly, expression levels of VDR and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality and are higher expressed in spermatozoa from normal than infertile men...

  13. Evolutionary Dynamics of Male Reproductive Genes in the Drosophila virilis Subgroup

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir H. Ahmed-Braimah; Unckless, Robert L.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2017-01-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) is a potent evolutionary force that can drive rapid changes of reproductive genes within species, and thus has the potential to generate reproductive incompatibilities between species. Male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are major players in postmating interactions, and are important targets of PCSS in males. The virilis subgroup of Drosophila exhibits strong interspecific gametic incompatibilities, and can serve as a model to study the genetic basis of P...

  14. Genetic variation of male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voordouw Maarten J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For Anopheline mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria, genetic variation in male reproductive success can have important consequences for any control strategy based on the release of transgenic or sterile males. Methods A quantitative genetics approach was used to test whether there was a genetic component to variation in male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae. Swarms of full sibling brothers were mated with a fixed number of females and their reproductive success was measured as (1 proportion of ovipositing females, (2 proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae, (3 proportion of females that produced larvae, (4 number of eggs laid per female, (5 number of larvae per ovipositing female and (6 number of larvae per female. Results The proportion of ovipositing females (trait 1 and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae (trait 2 differed among full sib families, suggesting a genetic basis of mating success. In contrast, the other measures of male reproductive success showed little variation due to the full sib families, as their variation are probably mostly due to differences among females. While age at emergence and wing length of the males were also heritable, they were not associated with reproductive success. Larger females produced more eggs, but males did not prefer such partners. Conclusion The first study to quantify genetic variation for male reproductive success in A. gambiae found that while the initial stages of male reproduction (i.e. the proportion of ovipositing females and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae had a genetic basis, the overall reproductive success (i.e. the mean number of larvae per female did not.

  15. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp......The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...

  16. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume J M Laugier

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.

  17. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, Guillaume J M; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Tayeh, Ashraf; Loiseau, Anne; Osawa, Naoya; Estoup, Arnaud; Facon, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.

  18. Male factor infertility and lack of openness about infertility as risk factors for depressive symptoms in males undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babore, Alessandra; Stuppia, Liborio; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Antonucci, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association between male factor infertility and openness to discussing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment with levels of depression among men undergoing infertility treatment. Cross-sectional. Not applicable. Three hundred forty participants (170 men and their partners) undergoing ART treatments. Administration of a set of questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were detected by means of the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale. Participants' willingness to share their infertility treatment experience with other people was assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. In this study, 51.8% of males chose not to discuss their ART treatments with people other than their partner. In addition, the decision to discuss or not discuss the ART treatments with others was significantly associated with men's depressive symptoms. Male factor infertility was significantly associated with depression when considered together with the decision not to discuss ART treatments with others. A general disposition characterized by a lack of openness with others seemed to be a significant predictor of depression. There is a need for routine fertility care to pay greater attention to men's emotional needs. Before commencing reproductive treatment, male patients may benefit from undergoing routine screening for variables (i.e., male factor infertility and openness to others about ART) that may affect their risk of depression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Green tea polyphenols extend the lifespan of male drosophila melanogaster while impairing reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T; Huey, Jocelyn; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans.

  20. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment: a nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Pinborg, Anja; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation was linked to information on births and abortions. From 1 January 2006 to 30 September 2010, 12,981 women and their partners went through 29,834 treatment cycles. Of these, 22.4% and 20.4% led to a live birth for female abstainers and heavy consumers (>7 drinks/week), respectively. Concerning men, 22.6% and 20.2% of cycles resulted in a live birth for abstainers and heavy consumers (>14 drinks/week), respectively. No statistically significant associations between alcohol consumption and live birth were observed. Adjusted odds ratios from trend analyses were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.01) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01) for every one-unit increase in female and male weekly alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation, respectively. In conclusion, this study did not show significant associations between male or female alcohol consumption and odds of live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Biometric Study of Some Reproductive Components of the Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A biometrical study was conducted on some aspects of the reproductive system of 16 local breed Tom cats (Felis catus domestica) collected within Sokoto metropolis at different ages. The age of the cats was estimated from teeth eruption and wearing and grouped into groups A to E as A (3- 6 months), B(6 months - 1 year), ...

  2. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...

  3. Characterization of reproductive dormancy in male Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubrak, O. I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, U.; Nylin, S.; Nässel, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 24 (2016), č. článku 572. ISSN 1664-042X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster * diapause * reproduction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2016.00572/full

  4. Reproductive and hormonal factors in male and female colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Bijl, A.J.; Kok, C.; Veer, P. van 't

    1994-01-01

    We analysed data from a case-control study in the Netherlands in order to investigate whether reproductive events and hormonal factors are similarly related to colon cancer risk in men and women after adjustment for dietary factors. In total, 232 colon cancer cases (102 women, 130 men) and 259

  5. Fine Structure of the Male Reproductive System and Reproductive Behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Vigoder, Felipe M.; Bruno, Rafaela V.; Soares, Maurilio J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females. Results The male L. longipalpis reproductive system is comprised by a pair of oval-shaped testes linked to a seminal vesicle by vasa deferentia. It follows an ejaculatory duct with an ejaculatory pump (a large bulb enveloped by muscles and associated to tracheas). The terminal endings of the vasa deferentia are inserted into the seminal vesicle by invaginations of the seminal vesicle wall, which is composed by a single layer of gland cells, with well-developed endoplasmic reticulum profiles and secretion granules. Our data suggest that the seminal vesicle acts both as a spermatozoa reservoir and as an accessory gland. Mating experiments support this hypothesis, revealing a decrease in mating frequency after copulation that indicates the effect of putative SFPs. Conclusion Ultrastructural features of the L. longipalpis male seminal vesicle indicated its possible role as an accessory gland. Behavioral observations revealed a reduction in mating frequency of copulated females. Together with transcriptome analyses from male sandfly reproductive organs identifying ESTs encoding orthologs of SFPs, these data indicate the presence of putative L. longipalpis SFPs reducing

  6. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-10-22

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  7. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling. PMID:19849853

  8. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesari Kavindra K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system. This review also addresses: 1 the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2 epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3 finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  9. Effect of gasoline fumes on reproductive function in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owagboriaye, Folarin O; Dedeke, Gabriel A; Ashidi, Joseph S; Aladesida, Adeyinka A; Olooto, Wasiu E

    2017-11-27

    The increase in the frequency of exposure to gasoline fumes and the growing incidence of infertility among humans has been a major concern and subject of discussion over the years in Nigeria. We therefore present the reproductive effect of gasoline fumes on inhalation exposure in 40 male albino rats. The rats were randomized into five experimental treatments (T) with eight rats per treatment. T1 (control) was exposed to distilled water while T2, T3, T4, and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for 1, 3, 5, and 9 h daily respectively for 12 weeks. Serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, oxidative stress markers in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm health assessment, and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction. Significant (p rats exposed to gasoline fume. Significant reductions (p rats were observed. Significant (p rats. Histopathologically, severe degenerative testicular architectural lesions characterized by alterations in all the generations of sperm cells and reduction of interstitial cells were seen in the exposed rats. Gasoline fume is thus said to interfere with spermatogenesis and impair fertility in male gonad.

  10. Changes in male reproductive health and effects of endocrine disruptors in Scandinavian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppari Jorma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many ways during the last decades. The incidence of testicular cancer has rapidly increased in Europe and European-derived populations. Sperm concentrations have declined and sperm motility and morphology have worsened in many areas. Both adverse trends have been shown to be associated with year of birth. Older birth cohorts have better reproductive health than the younger generations. Incidences of cryptorchidism and hypospadias have also increased according to several studies. The reasons for secular trends are unknown, but the rapid pace of the change points to environmental causes. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to influence male reproductive health.

  11. Variance in male reproductive success and sexual size dimorphism in pinnipeds: testing an assumption of sexual selection theory

    OpenAIRE

    González-Suárez, M.; Cassini, Marcelo H.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of evolution by sexual selection for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) postulates that SSD primarily reflects the adaptation of males and females to their different reproductive roles. For example, competition among males for access to females increases male body size because larger males are better able to maintain dominant status than smaller males. Larger dominant males sire most offspring while smaller subordinate males are unsuccessful, leading to skew in reproductive success. Ther...

  12. Dose-dependent adverse effects of salinomycin on male reproductive organs and fertility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Omolara Ojo

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is used as an antibiotic in animal husbandry. Its implication in cancer therapy has recently been proposed. Present study evaluated the toxic effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice. Doses of 1, 3 or 5 mg/kg of Salinomycin were administered daily for 28 days. Half of the mice were sacrificed after 24 h of the last treatment and other half were sacrificed 28 days after withdrawal of treatment. Effects of SAL on body and reproductive organ weights were studied. Histoarchitecture of testis and epididymis was evaluated along with ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells. Serum and testicular testosterone and luteinizing hormones were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured. Spermatozoa count, morphology, motility and fertility were evaluated. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage proteins (CYP11A1 were assessed by Western blotting. Salinomycin treatment was lethal to few mice and retarded body growth in others with decreased weight of testes and seminal vesicles in a dose dependent manner. Seminiferous tubules in testes were disrupted and the epithelium of epididymis showed frequent occurrence of vacuolization and necrosis. Leydig cells showed hypertrophied cytoplasm with shrunken nuclei, condensed mitochondria, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum and increased number of lipid droplets. Salinomycin decreased motility and spermatozoa count with increased number of abnormal spermatozoa leading to infertility. The testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were decreased in testis but increased in serum at higher doses. Depletion of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione with increased lipid peroxidation in both testis and epididymis indicated generation of oxidative stress. Suppressed expression of StAR and CYP11A1 proteins indicates inhibition of

  13. Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uren-Webster, Tamsyn M.; Lewis, Ceri; Filby, Amy L.; Paull, Gregory C. [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Santos, Eduarda M., E-mail: e.santos@exeter.ac.uk [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and are known to adversely affect male reproductive health in mammals through interactions with multiple receptor systems. However, little is known about the risks they pose to fish. This project investigated the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most commonly used phthalate, on the reproductive health of male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Males were treated with 0.5, 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} (body weight) for a period of 10 days via intraperitoneal injection. The effects of the exposure were assessed by analysing fertilisation success, testis histology, sperm DNA integrity and transcript profiles of the liver and testis. A significant increase in the hepatosomatic index and levels of hepatic vitellogenin transcript were observed following exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1}. Exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} also resulted in a reduction in fertilisation success of oocytes spawned by untreated females. However, survival and development of the resulting embryos were unaffected by all treatments, and no evidence of DEHP-induced sperm DNA damage was observed. Exposure to 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} caused alterations in the proportion of germ cells at specific stages of spermatogenesis in the testis, including a reduction in the proportion of spermatozoa and an increase in the proportion of spermatocytes, suggesting that DEHP may inhibit the progression of meiosis. In parallel, exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} increased the levels of two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive genes (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and enoyl-coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ehhadh). These data demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DEHP disrupts spermatogenesis in adult zebrafish with a consequent decrease in their ability to fertilise oocytes spawned by untreated females. Furthermore, our data suggest that the adverse effects caused by

  14. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  15. Male burying beetles extend, not reduce, parental care duration when reproductive competition is high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, P E; Moore, A J; Tregenza, T; Royle, N J

    2015-07-01

    Male parents spend less time caring than females in many species with biparental care. The traditional explanation for this pattern is that males have lower confidence of parentage, so they desert earlier in favour of pursuing other mating opportunities. However, one recent alternative hypothesis is that prolonged male parental care might also evolve if staying to care actively improves paternity. If this is the case, an increase in reproductive competition should be associated with increased paternal care. To test this prediction, we manipulated the level of reproductive competition experienced by burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides (Herbst, 1783). We found that caregiving males stayed for longer and mated more frequently with their partner when reproductive competition was greater. Reproductive productivity did not increase when males extended care. Our findings provide support for the increased paternity hypothesis. Extended duration of parental care may be a male tactic both protecting investment (in the current brood) and maximizing paternity (in subsequent brood(s) via female stored sperm) even if this fails to maximize current reproductive productivity and creates conflict of interest with their mate via costs associated with increased mating frequency. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol on male reproductive system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian Ying; Wang, Guo Xin; Liu, Jia Li; Fan, Jing Jing; Cui, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The current study evaluated effects of zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivative alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) on male mouse semen quality, fertility and serum testosterone concentrations. Adult male mice were exposed to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ZEA or alpha-ZOL at 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 7 days, and then mated with sexually mature untreated female mice. Semen quality, serum testosterone concentrations and fertility of treated mice were assessed. The results showed that the number of abnormal spermatozoa increased and the amount of live spermatozoa decreased significantly in males treated with ZEA at all doses. As well, a significant decrease in spermatozoa with integrated acrosome was observed in mice treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg b.w. alpha-ZOL. Significantly low pregnancy rate was observed when females were mated with ZEA or alpha-ZOL exposed males. Male mice exposed to ZEA had significant reductions in b.w. and relative epididymis weights. However, relative seminal vesicle weights were higher than those of controls. Conversely, significant increases in b.w. and relative preputial gland weight were observed in mice exposed to alpha-ZOL. Testicular and cauda epididymal sperm counts, efficiency of sperm production and serum testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in mice treated with ZEA or alpha-ZOL at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ZEA or alpha-ZOL have adverse effects on reproductive system of adult male mice.

  17. Male reproductive health challenges: appraisal of wives coping strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmanuel O Amoo; Adekunbi K Omideyi; Theophilus O Fadayomi; Mofoluwake P Ajayi; Gbolahan A Oni; Adenike E Idowu

    2017-01-01

    .... Male sexual functioning is vital to the marital relationship, lack of it can result in intolerable cohabitation or relationship breakdown, and could also cause infertility, infidelity, and arouse stigma in Nigeria...

  18. Reproductive conflict in social insects: Male production by workers in a slave-making ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H.

    2005-01-01

    AbstractIn insect societies, workers cooperate but may also pursue their individual interests, such as laying viable male eggs. The case of obligatory slave-making ants is of particular interest because workers do not engage in maintenance activities and foraging. Therefore, worker egg laying...... by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus...... presents the first direct evidence of an almost complete takeover of male reproduction by workers in ants....

  19. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination ofHurnan Semen and Semen-Cervical Mucus. Interaction.20 Furthermore, organisations such as the. WHO and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) now set up international training courses aiming at global standardisation. Micromanipulation of gametes and male infertility.

  20. Neonatal inhalatory anesthetic exposure: reproductive changes in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, A C; Pereira, O C M

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the effects of an inhalatory anesthetic (ethyl ether) during the neonatal period of brain sexual differentiation on the later fertility and sexual behavior of male rats. Animals were exposed to ethyl ether immediately after birth. At adulthood, body weight, testes wet weight, and plasma testosterone levels were not affected; however, neonatal exposure to ether showed alterations on male fertility: a decrease in the number of spermatids and spermatozoa, an increase in the transit time of cauda epididymal spermatozoa and a decrease in daily sperm production. An alteration of sexual behavior was also observed: decreased male sexual behavior and appearance of homosexual behavior when the male rats were castrated and pretreated with exogenous estrogen. Probably, the ether delayed or reduced the testosterone peak of the sexual differentiation period, altering the processes of masculinization and defeminization of the hypothalamus. Our results indicate that perinatal exposure to ethyl ether during the critical period of male brain sexual differentiation, acting as endocrine disruptors, has a long-term effect on the fertility and sexual behavior of male rats, suggesting endocrine disruption through incomplete masculinization and defeminization of the central nervous system.

  1. Effects of bisphenol A on male and couple reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2016-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with endocrine-disrupting properties and is suspected to affect human reproduction. The objective of this review was to summarize the potential effects of male exposure to BPA on markers of testicular function and couple reproductive outcomes. Five epidemiologic studies on BPA and reproductive hormones all found significant associations with at least one reproductive hormone; however, no consistent relationships were observed across studies. Six epidemiologic studies evaluated the relation between BPA and semen parameters, and although the majority reported negative associations with various parameters, there were few consistent trends across studies. Finally, three epidemiologic studies examined BPA and couple reproductive outcomes, and only one found an association. Overall, the evidence supporting an association between BPA exposure and adverse male reproductive health outcomes in humans remains limited and inconclusive. Reasons for the discrepancies in results could include, but are not limited to, differences in study populations (e.g., fertile vs. subfertile men), BPA urinary concentrations (occupationally vs. nonoccupationally exposed), misclassification of BPA exposure (e.g., using one urine sample to characterize exposure vs. multiple samples), sample sizes, study design (e.g., cross-sectional vs. prospective), and residual confounding (e.g., due to diet and lifestyle factors). It is also possible that some of the statistically significant findings were due to chance alone. Clearly, further studies are needed to further clarify the role of this ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical on male reproductive health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliatka, D; Lymperi, S; Mastorakos, G; Goulis, D G

    2017-05-01

    The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case-control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved. © 2013 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention.

  5. Associations between Variation in X Chromosome Male Reproductive Genes and Sperm Competitive Ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Greenspan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in reproductive success has long been thought to be mediated in part by genes encoding seminal proteins. Here we explore the effect on male reproductive phenotypes of X-linked polymorphisms, a chromosome that is depauperate in genes encoding seminal proteins. Using 57 X chromosome substitution lines, sperm competition was tested both when the males from the wild-extracted line were the first to mate (“defense” crosses, followed by a tester male, and when extracted-line males were the second to mate, after a tester male (“offfense” crosses. We scored the proportion of progeny sired by each male, the fecundity, the remating rate and refractoriness to remating, and tested the significance of variation among lines. Eleven candidate genes were chosen based on previous studies, and portions of these genes were sequenced in all 57 lines. A total of 131 polymorphisms were tested for associations with the reproductive phenotypes using linear models. Nine polymorphisms in 4 genes were found to show significant associations (at a 5% FDR. Overall, it appears that the X chromosomes harbor abundant variation in sperm competition, especially considering the paucity of seminal protein genes. This suggests that much of the male reproductive variation lies outside of genes that encode seminal proteins.

  6. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved. PMID:23731015

  7. Characterization of a male reproductive transcriptome for Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Kordonowy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents of the genus Peromyscus have become increasingly utilized models for investigations into adaptive biology. This genus is particularly powerful for research linking genetics with adaptive physiology or behaviors, and recent research has capitalized on the unique opportunities afforded by the ecological diversity of these rodents. Well characterized genomic and transcriptomic data is intrinsic to explorations of the genetic architecture responsible for ecological adaptations. Therefore, this study characterizes the transcriptome of three male reproductive tissues (testes, epididymis and vas deferens of Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse, a desert specialist. The transcriptome assembly process was optimized in order to produce a high quality and substantially complete annotated transcriptome. This composite transcriptome was generated to characterize the expressed transcripts in the male reproductive tract of P. eremicus, which will serve as a crucial resource for future research investigating our hypothesis that the male Cactus mouse possesses an adaptive reproductive phenotype to mitigate water-loss from ejaculate. This study reports genes under positive selection in the male Cactus mouse reproductive transcriptome relative to transcriptomes from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse and Mus musculus. Thus, this study expands upon existing genetic research in this species, and we provide a high quality transcriptome to enable further explorations of our proposed hypothesis for male Cactus mouse reproductive adaptations to minimize seminal fluid loss.

  8. 5alpha-reductase 2 inhibition impairs brain defeminization of male rats: reproductive aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Camilla Moreira; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

    2005-09-01

    The present study was carried out to determine whether 5alpha-reductase 2 (5alpha-R2) metabolic pathway plays a key role in brain sexual differentiation. The inhibition of 5alpha-R2 by finasteride (20 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 19 to postnatal day 5 has long-term effects on sexual behavior and reproductive physiology detected only in adult life. Sexual maturation assessed by timing of preputial separation was unchanged. Finasteride-treated males were able to mate with untreated females which became pregnant but exhibited increased rate of pre-implantation loss. The subfertility observed was probably due to abnormally shaped sperm, since the sperm number was not altered. While plasma testosterone was enhanced, LH levels were not changed. The copulatory potential was not affected and all finasteride-treated rats presented male sexual behavior. Despite this, 53% of them showed homosexual behavior when pretreated with estradiol, suggesting an incomplete brain defeminization. These results indicate that 5alpha-R2 acts in brain sexual differentiation of male rats. Moreover, we suggest that 5alpha-R2 not only produces essential metabolites that act together with estradiol in brain sexual differentiation but also protects the brain from the damaging effects of estradiol excess.

  9. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  10. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-01-01

    ,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other...... concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study...... in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs...

  11. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though infertility is not lethal, it has been described as a radical life changing problem that carries with it significant psychological trauma. Male factor infertility is responsible for about 40–50% of all infertility cases. Despite its high prevalence in Nigeria, not much effort has been made at tackling the problem. The impact ...

  12. The Aging Sperm: Is the Male Reproductive Capacity Ticking to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present review summarizes, comprehensively, the mechanisms that tend to relate male aging and semen quality with their consequences on semen parameters. Review of English language‑published research articles from 1980, through 2013 was executed using Medline and Medscape databases. It was found that ...

  13. Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Juhler, René K.

    We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced sem...

  14. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Jong, T.R. de; Waldinger, M.D.; Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the

  15. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    RH; gain knowledge by listening to experts; and strengthen their motivation to participate in male RH programs. Even those who never attend RH clinics will benefit from the seminars. A majority suggested that men and women should be seperated during the seminars to enhance the flow of information: But if we are only ...

  16. Co-evolution of male and female reproductive traits across the Bruchidae (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Eady, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the obvious importance of spermatozoa to individual reproductive success a general explanation of variation in spermatozoan form and function is still lacking. In species with internal fertilization, sperm not only have to interact with the physical and biochemical environment of the female reproductive tract, but frequently face competition from the sperm of rival males. Both sperm competition theory and adaptation to the selective environment of the female reproduc...

  17. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence.

  18. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (p< 0.01, the other effects were not observed in the offspring of experimental group ІІ. In summary, our data show that prenatal exposure of male rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be

  19. Male Reproductive Health: A village based study of camp attenders in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Susmita

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A paucity of information about male reproductive health and a perceived interest in involvement among local men provided the impetus for carrying out a village based male reproductive health camp. The aim was to investigate men's willingness to participate in such camps, and to describe reproductive health problems in men. Methods Structured interviews were carried out with 120 men attending a reproductive health check-up in a village in rural West Bengal, India. General information, details of family planning methods used and data on reproductive health complaints were collected. Clinical examinations were also carried out. Socio-demographic characteristics were compared for men with and without reproductive health and urinary complaints. Results Three quarters of the married men were using contraception, but the majority stated that their wives were responsible for it. The most common reproductive health complaint was urinary problems; 28% had burning on urination, and 22% reported frequent and/or difficult urination. There were few social or demographic differences between men with and without problems. Seventeen percent of the men had clinically diagnosed reproductive health problems, the most common being urethral discharge. None of the men with diagnosed problems were using condoms. Conclusions This study highlights the interest of men in their reproductive health, but also highlights the high proportion of men with problems. In addition, a number of men with clinically diagnosed problems had not reported them in the interviews, illustrating either the reticence to report or the lack of knowledge about symptoms of reproductive health problems. Recommendations for future programmes and research in this field are given.

  20. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2017-01-01

    consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study...... identified 33 papers(28 study populations) fulfilling the eligibility criteria. These provided 85 risk estimates of links between persistent organic pollutants and rapidly metabolized compounds (phthalates and Bisphenol A) and male reproductive disorders. The overall odds ratio (OR) across all exposures...... that this increased risk was driven by any specific disorder. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with a small increased risk of male reproductive disorders following prenatal and postnatal exposure to some persistent environmental chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors...

  1. Biokinetics and dose estimation of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M. [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Homma-Takeda, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Y. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of {sup 65}Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of {sup 65}Zn. (authors)

  2. Emerging Roles for Non-Coding RNAs in Male Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Rodriguez-Enriquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sexual reproduction systems in flowering plants is essential to humankind, with crop fertility vitally important for food security. Here, we review rapidly emerging new evidence for the key importance of non-coding RNAs in male reproductive development in flowering plants. From the commitment of somatic cells to initiating reproductive development through to meiosis and the development of pollen—containing the male gametes (sperm cells—in the anther, there is now overwhelming data for a diversity of non-coding RNAs and emerging evidence for crucial roles for them in regulating cellular events at these developmental stages. A particularly exciting development has been the association of one example of cytoplasmic male sterility, which has become an unparalleled breeding tool for producing new crop hybrids, with a non-coding RNA locus.

  3. Perceptive Costs of Reproduction Drive Aging and Physiology in Male Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvanek, Zachary M.; Lyu, Yang; Gendron, Christi M.; Johnson, Jacob C.; Kondo, Shu; Promislow, Daniel E. L.; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life history traits, including reproductive effort and aging. Here we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating. In the absence of pheromone perception, males are free from reproductive costs on longevity, stress resistance, and fat storage. Both the costs of perception and the benefits of mating are mediated by evolutionarily conserved neuropeptidergic signaling molecules, as well as the transcription factor dFoxo. These results provide a molecular framework in which certain costs of reproduction arise as a result of self-imposed ‘decisions’ in response to perceptive neural circuits, which then orchestrate the control of life-history traits independent of physical or energetic effects associated with mating itself. PMID:28812624

  4. Maternal exposure to benzo[b]fluoranthene disturbs reproductive performance in male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahyoung; Park, Mira; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2011-05-30

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large family of environmentally prevalent toxic compounds generated from the combustion of organic materials and diesel exhaust. Humans and wild animals are exposed to PAHs mostly through dietary intake of contaminated food. Benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) is a common constituent of PAH complexes present in diverse types of food. B[b]F has been found in human milk, raising the demand for the need for risk assessment of offspring after maternal exposure to B[b]F. In the present study, pregnant mice were orally exposed to low doses (2-2000μg/kg body weight) of B[b]F during gestational and lactational periods, and their male offspring were assessed. Maternal B[b]F exposure disturbed normal sperm function in F1 offspring. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the perinatal exposure to B[b]F decreased sperm quality, the testes of young adult F1 mice were examined for changes in expression of steroidogenesis-related and testicular apoptosis mediators and found that aryl hydrocarbon receptor, estrogen receptor α, and a set of proapoptotic proteins including Bax, Noxa, Bad, and Bim were significantly upregulated. Therefore, the current transgenerational animal study implies that consumption of PAH-contaminated diets by mothers may possibly influence their offspring to cause dysfunctional male reproductive function in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Low Exposure to Metals as Male Reproductive Toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, H. Anna; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Pan, Chih-Hong; Diawara, Norou

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the associations between environmentally relevant low metal concentrations and semen quality parameters in men. The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the seminal plasma and urine were measured from 196 male human subjects in Taiwan. Urinary Cd concentrations were negatively associated with sperm viability (P=0.006). Seminal plasma Cu concentrations of the normal group (≥15 × 106/ml) we...

  6. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-09-04

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  8. Androgen correlates of male reproductive effort in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): A multi-level test of the challenge hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Ahmad Fauzan, Panji; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-03-15

    The challenge hypothesis (Wingfield et al., 1990) has been broadly utilised as a conceptual framework to study male androgen correlates of reproductive challenges in mammals. These studies mainly assessed male androgen responsiveness to a general degree of challenge over extended periods of time. Short term co-variation between the socio-sexual challenging context and androgen levels remains, however, largely understudied. We thus aim at providing a multi-level test of the challenge hypothesis by investigating the inter- and intra-individual variations in faecal androgen excretion associated to 1) breeding seasonality, 2) dominance rank, 3) mate-guarding activity and 4) value of the guarded female. We studied long-tailed macaques, a species in which males engage in highly challenging monopolisation of females over discreet periods of time. This particularity allows testing specifically the predicted increase from level B to level C in the challenge hypothesis. The study was carried out during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques. We combined behavioural observations and non-invasive measurements of faecal androgen metabolite (fAM) levels. We found that, as predicted by the challenge hypothesis, male long-tailed macaques respond not only to seasonal but also to short term reproductive challenges by adapting their androgen levels. First, males exhibited a seasonal rise in fAM levels during the mating period which may be triggered by fruit availability as shown by our phenological data. Second, males had increased androgen levels when mate-guarding females and, across mate-guarding periods, males had higher fAM levels when monopolising high-ranking parous females than when monopolising low-ranking ones. Finally, high-ranking males had higher fAM levels than low-ranking males year round. Our study confirms that, in species with a high degree of female monopolisability, androgen may be an important physiological fitness enhancing tool

  9. Winter adaptations of male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) that vary in reproductive responsiveness to photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, C A; DeVries, A C; Nelson, R J

    1993-01-01

    Individuals of many nontropical rodent species restrict breeding to the spring and summer. Seasonal reproductive quiescence putatively reflects the energetic incompatibility of breeding and thermoregulatory activities. However, so-called "out-of-season" breeding occurs in virtually all rodent populations examined, suggesting that the incompatibility can be resolved. Both reproductive inhibition and development of energy-saving adaptations are mediated by environmental photoperiod, but some individuals do not inhibit reproduction in short days. In order to assess the costs and benefits of winter breeding, the present study examined the extent to which male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that maintained summer reproductive function in winter-simulated daylengths also maintained summer thermoregulatory adaptations. Circadian locomotor activity patterns, basal metabolic rate, capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis, nest building, body mass, and daily food consumption were compared among short-day (LD 8:16) regressed males, short-day (LD 8:16) nonregressed males, and long-day (LD 16:8) males. Short-day nonregressed deer mice resembled long-day conspecifics in terms of body mass and nest-building activities; however, the locomotor activity pattern of short-day nonregressed deer mice was similar to that of their short-day regressed conspecifics. Short-day nonregressed prairie voles had body masses similar to those of long-day conspecifics. Regardless of their reproductive response to photoperiod, short-day prairie voles reduced their daily food consumption and wheel-running activity, compared to long-day voles. These results suggest that winter breeding has energetic costs, most likely resulting from maintaining a "summer-like" body mass relative to that of reproductively regressed animals. These costs may be ameliorated to some extent by the reduction in locomotor activity and nest-building behavior emitted by short

  10. Evaluation of the male reproductive toxicity of gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Cohen, Samuel M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Williams, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    Gallium arsenide is an important semiconductor material marketed in the shape of wafers and thus is not hazardous to the end user. Exposure to GaAs particles may, however, occur during manufacture and processing. Potential hazards require evaluation. In 14-week inhalation studies with small GaAs particles, testicular effects have been reported in rats and mice. These effects occurred only in animals whose lungs showed marked inflammation and also had hematologic changes indicating anemia and hemolysis. The time- and concentration-dependent progressive nature of the lung and blood effects together with bioavailability data on gallium and arsenic lead us to conclude that the testicular/sperm effects are secondary to hypoxemia resulting from lung damage rather than due to a direct chemical effect of gallium or arsenide. Conditions leading to such primary effects are not expected to occur in humans at production and processing sites. This has to be taken into consideration for any classification decision for reproductive toxicity; especially a category 1 according to the EU CLP system is not warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nectar secondary compounds affect self-pollen transfer: implications for female and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2008-08-01

    Pollen movement within and among plants affects inbreeding, plant fitness, and the spatial scale of genetic differentiation. Although a number of studies have assessed how plant and floral traits influence pollen movement via changes in pollinator behavior, few have explored how nectar chemical composition affects pollen transfer. As many as 55% of plants produce secondary compounds in their nectar, which is surprising given that nectar is typically thought to attract pollinators. We tested the hypothesis that nectar with secondary compounds may benefit plants by encouraging pollinators to leave plants after visiting only a few flowers, thus reducing self-pollen transfer. We used Gelsemium sempervirens, a plant whose nectar contains the alkaloid gelsemine, which has been shown to be a deterrent to foraging bee pollinators. We found that high nectar alkaloids reduced the total and proportion of self-pollen received by one-half and one-third, respectively. However, nectar alkaloids did not affect female reproduction when we removed the potential for self-pollination (by emasculating all flowers on plants). We then tested the assumption that self-pollen in combination with outcrossed pollen depresses seed set. We found that plants were weakly self-compatible, but self-pollen with outcrossed pollen did not reduce seed set relative to solely outcrossed flowers. Finally, an exponential model of pollen carryover suggests that high nectar alkaloids could benefit plants via increased pollen export (an estimate of male function), but only when pollinators were efficient and abundant and plants had large floral displays. Results suggest that high nectar alkaloids may benefit plants via increased pollen export under a restricted set of ecological conditions, but in general, the costs of high nectar alkaloids in reducing pollination balanced or outweighed the benefits of reducing self-pollen transfer for estimates of female and male reproduction.

  12. Relaxin family peptides in the male reproductive system--a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivell, Richard; Kotula-Balak, Malgorzata; Glynn, Danielle; Heng, Kee; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2011-02-01

    The human genome project has identified, besides ovarian relaxin (RLN), six other relaxin-like molecules (RLN3, H1-RLN, INSL3-6), most of which appear to be expressed in the testis and/or male reproductive system, together with four different G-protein-coupled receptors responsive to one or other of these peptides. Earlier work on relaxin in the male assumed the simplistic hypothesis of only a single relaxin-like entity. This review systematically examines the expression and physiology of relaxin-like molecules in the male reproductive system in order to reappraise the importance of this hormone system for male reproductive function. Although there are important species differences, only INSL3 and INSL6 appear to be generally expressed at a moderately high level within the testis, whereas ovarian RLN is consistently a major secretory product of the prostate epithelium. However, all members of this relaxin-like family appear to be expressed also at a low level in different organs of the male reproductive system, suggesting possible autocrine/paracrine effects. The four receptors (RXFP1-4) for these peptides are also expressed to differing levels in both somatic and seminiferous compartments of the testis and in the prostate, supporting relevant functions for most members of this interesting peptide family. Recent studies of relaxin family peptides in prostate pathology highlight their functional importance in the clinical context as potential causative, diagnostic and therapeutic agents and warrant more specific and detailed studies of their roles also in regard to male fertility and other aspects of male reproductive function.

  13. Adverse effects of low level heavy metal exposure on male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Julia J; Mijal, Renée S

    2010-04-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, often referred to as "heavy metals", are toxic for wildlife, experimental animals, and humans. While experimental animal and human occupational studies with high exposure levels generally support an adverse role for these metals in human reproductive outcomes, information on the effects of low, environmentally-realistic exposure levels of these metals on male reproductive outcomes is limited. We review the literature on effects of exposure to low levels of these metals on measures of male fertility (semen quality and reproductive hormone levels) and provide supporting evidence from experimental and occupational studies. Potentially modifying effects of genetic polymorphisms on these associations are discussed. A brief review of the literature on the effects of three trace metals, copper, manganese, and molybdenum, that are required for human health, yet may also cause adverse reproductive effects, follows. Overall, there were few studies examining the effects of exposure to low levels of these metals on male reproductive health. For all metals, there were several well-designed studies with sufficient populations appropriately adjusted for potential confounders and many of these reported harmful effects. However, many studies lacked sufficient numbers of participants to be able to detect differences in outcomes between exposed and non-exposed individuals, did not clearly identify the source and characteristics of the participants, and did not control for other exposures that could alter or contribute to the outcomes. The evidence for the effects of low exposure was strongest for cadmium, lead, and mercury and less certain for arsenic. The potential modifying effects of genetic polymorphisms has not been fully explored. Additional studies on the reproductive effects of these toxic ubiquitous metals on male reproduction are required to expand the knowledge base and to resolve inconsistencies.

  14. Clonal reproduction by males and females in the little fire ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Denis; Estoup, Arnaud; Orivel, Jérôme; Foucaud, Julien; Jourdan, Hervé; Le Breton, Julien; Keller, Laurent

    2005-06-30

    Sexual reproduction can lead to major conflicts between sexes and within genomes. Here we report an extreme case of such conflicts in the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata. We found that sterile workers are produced by normal sexual reproduction, whereas daughter queens are invariably clonally produced. Because males usually develop from unfertilized maternal eggs in ants and other haplodiploid species, they normally achieve direct fitness only through diploid female offspring. Hence, although the clonal production of queens increases the queen's relatedness to reproductive daughters, it potentially reduces male reproductive success to zero. In an apparent response to this conflict between sexes, genetic analyses reveal that males reproduce clonally, most likely by eliminating the maternal half of the genome in diploid eggs. As a result, all sons have nuclear genomes identical to those of their father. The obligate clonal production of males and queens from individuals of the same sex effectively results in a complete separation of the male and female gene pools. These findings show that the haplodiploid sex-determination system provides grounds for the evolution of extraordinary genetic systems and new types of sexual conflict.

  15. Role of low exposure to metals as male reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Pan, Chih-Hong; Diawara, Norou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the associations between environmentally relevant low metal concentrations and semen quality parameters in men. The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in the seminal plasma and urine were measured from 196 male human subjects in Taiwan. Urinary Cd concentrations were negatively associated with sperm viability (p = 0.006). Seminal plasma Cu concentrations of the normal group (≥ 15 × 10(6)/ml) were significantly lower than those of the abnormal group (p = 0.023). However, the linear regression analysis showed a weak association between Cu concentration and sperm concentration, along with other semen parameters. No significant relationship between other metals (As, Pb, Zn, and Se) and semen quality was observed.

  16. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-sexual selection (female mate choice. We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile Poecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from nonsulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur-endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S.

  17. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  18. Photoperiod, ambient temperature, and food availability interact to affect reproductive and immune function in adult male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, G E; Nelson, R J

    1998-06-01

    Winter is often stressful. Increased energetic demands in winter and concurrent reductions in energy availability can lead to an energetic imbalance and compromise survival. To increase the odds of surviving winter, individuals of some nontropical rodent species have evolved mechanisms to enhance immune function in advance of harsh winter conditions. Short day lengths provide a proximate cue for enhancement of immune function, an adaptive functional response to counter environmental stress-induced reduction in immune function. In the present study, photoperiod, ambient temperature, and food availability were manipulated and reproductive function and cell-mediated immunity were assessed in adult male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Mice maintained in short days regressed their reproductive systems and displayed enhanced immune function compared to long-day animals. Reduced food availability elevated corticosterone concentrations and suppressed reproductive and immune function, whereas ambient temperature alone had no effect on cell-mediated immunity. The suppressive effect of food restriction on reproductive and immune function was overcome by maintaining animals in short days. However, short-day, food-restricted mice maintained at low ambient temperatures displayed reduced reproductive and immune function compared to animals maintained at mild temperatures. Taken together, these results suggest that short-day enhancement of immune function can counteract some, but not all, of the immunosuppressive effects of winter stressors. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that immune function is enhanced in short days to counteract stress-mediated immune suppression occurring during winter.

  19. Effects of androgenic gland ablation on growth and reproductive parameters of Cherax quadricarinatus males (Parastacidae, Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Carolina; Hermida, Gladys N; López Greco, Laura S

    2011-11-01

    This work investigates the effects of androgenic gland (AG) ablation on the structure of the reproductive system, development of secondary sexual characters and somatic growth in Cherax quadricarinatus males. The AG ablation, which was performed at an early developmental stage (initial weight: 1.85±0.03 g), had no effect on the somatic growth parameters (specific growth rate and growth increment), but it prevented the re-formation of male gonopores and appendices masculinae. However, the red patch differentiation and chelae size were similar to those in control males. All the ablated animals developed a male reproductive system. Testis structure was macroscopically and histologically normal. The distal portion of the vas deferens (DVD) was enlarged in some animals, with histological alterations of the epithelium and the structure of the spermatophore. Results suggest that the higher growth in males than in females may be due to an indirect effect of the AG on energy investment in reproduction rather than to a direct effect of an androgen. This is the first report of a potential action of the AG on the secretory activity of the distal VD and the structural organization of the spermatophore. Although the AG may play a role in the development of male copulatory organs, its association with the red patch development deserves further research. The results obtained in the present study support and complement those from intersexes of the same species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Reproductive season onset and time invested in territory defense in Colinus leucopogon males (Galliformes: Odontophoridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis

    2011-03-01

    The factors that determine the onset of the reproductive season and the relationship between territory defense and mating success of Colinus leucopogon males are unknown. Here I report on climatic variables influencing the time of permanence on the territory, and how this affects the species mating success. I also analyze the relationship between the time devoted by males on territory defense and the relationship of song and territorial characteristics. The onset of the reproductive season was determined by an amount of rain greater than 14.3 mm during March, favouring the food availability and nesting places abundance, and also allowed an increase in the reproductive success of Colinus leucopogon. The time invested in territory defense by males was not related with their mating success. Moreover, the duration in territory defense was similar for males that paired, compared with those that did not. In addition, song and territory characteristics were not related with males invested time in their territory defense. Therefore, this could be another reason explaining the lack of a relationship between the duration in the territories by males and pair formation, and suggests that song characteristics strongly influence the formation of pairs in this species.

  1. Effect of competitive cues on reproductive morphology and behavioral plasticity in male fruitflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretman, Amanda; Fricke, Claudia; Westmancoat, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity will be favored whenever there are significant fitness benefits of responding to environmental variation. The extent and nature of the plasticity that evolves depends on the rate of environmental fluctuations and the capacity to track and respond to that variability. Reproductive environments represent one arena in which changes can be rapid. The finding that males of many species show morphological, physiological, and behavioral plasticity in response to premating and postmating reproductive competition (RC) suggests that plasticity is broadly beneficial. The developmental environment is expected to accurately predict the average population level of RC but to be a relatively poor indicator of immediate RC at any particular mating. Therefore, we predict that manipulation of average RC during development should cause a response in plasticity “set” during development (e.g., size of adult reproductive structures), but not in flexible plasticity determined by the immediate adult environment (e.g., behavioral plasticity in mating duration). We tested this prediction in Drosophila melanogaster males by manipulating 2 independent cues of average RC during development: 1) larval density and 2) the presence or absence of adult males within larval culture vials. Consistent with the prediction, both manipulations resulted in the development of males with significantly larger adult accessory glands (although testis size decreased when males were added to culture vials). There was no effect on adult plasticity (mating duration, extended mating in response to rivals). The results suggest that males have evolved independent responses to long- and short-term variation in RC. PMID:27004011

  2. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif; Bungum, Mona

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non-obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self-reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI 30 kg m−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). No statistically significant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters (sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA-results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos (GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not influenced by the increasing male BMI. PMID:24759576

  3. Evaluating the male and female reproductive toxicity of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, F Jay; Gray, Thomas M; Roberts, Linda G; Roth, Randy N; Nicolich, Mark J; Simpson, Barry J

    2013-11-01

    To meet the EPA HPV Chemical Challenge Program requirement for reproductive toxicity data on sponsored high-boiling petroleum substances (HBPS), an analysis was conducted using the results of 39 repeat-dose and 59 developmental rat dermal toxicity studies on HBPS samples spanning the boiling range of the sponsored substances, and the results of three one-generation reproductive toxicity studies on two samples spanning the concentration range of polycyclic aromatic compounds of sponsored substances. The analysis found little evidence of male or female reproductive tract toxicity based on histopathology, reproductive organ weight, and sperm parameters, and no evidence of effects on fertility, while significant developmental toxicity and/or systemic repeat-dose toxicity were frequently observed. Among 14 samples of HBPS tested in both repeat-dose toxicity and developmental toxicity studies, there were no studies in which an adverse reproductive tract finding occurred at a dose lower than that producing developmental toxicity or other adverse effects in repeat-dose toxicity studies. The current analysis supports the hypothesis that effects in developmental and/or repeat-dose toxicity studies of HBPS occur at doses lower than those that might affect fertility in rat one-generation reproductive studies. When adequate developmental and repeat-dose toxicity studies are available, a reproductive toxicity study of HBPS appears unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical reproductive traits of diploid Bombus terrestris males: Consequences on bumblebee conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lecocq, T.; Gérard, M.; Maebe, K.; Brasero, N.; Dehon, L.; Smagghe, G.; Valterová, Irena; De Meulemeester, T.; Rasmont, P.; Michez, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2017), s. 623-630 ISSN 1672-9609 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bee decline * bumblebees * conservation * diploid males * premating recognition * reproductive traits Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2016

  5. A Brief Review of the Link between Environment and Male Reproductive Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    on the hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer, which originates from germ cell neoplasia in situ, is of foetal origin and associated with other male reproductive problems through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome, also including foetal origin of impaired spermatogenesis, hypospadias and cryptorchidism...

  6. Simvastatin reduces fetal testosterone production and permanently alters reproductive tract development in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androgen signaling by fetal Leydig cells is critical in the proper development of the male reproductive tract. As cholesterol is a precursor for hormone biosynthesis,inhibition of the cholesterol pathway during sex differentiation may reduce testosterone {T). We hypothesized tha...

  7. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  8. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Main, K M

    2005-01-01

    . Although genetic abnormalities can cause these disorders, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. Adverse trends in the incidence of male reproductive disorders suggest that environmental and life style factors contribute to the problem. Endocrine disrupters are considered as prime candidates...

  9. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B

    2011-01-01

    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining...

  10. Evolutionary Dynamics of Male Reproductive Genes in the Drosophila virilis Subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir H. Ahmed-Braimah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS is a potent evolutionary force that can drive rapid changes of reproductive genes within species, and thus has the potential to generate reproductive incompatibilities between species. Male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs are major players in postmating interactions, and are important targets of PCSS in males. The virilis subgroup of Drosophila exhibits strong interspecific gametic incompatibilities, and can serve as a model to study the genetic basis of PCSS and gametic isolation. However, reproductive genes in this group have not been characterized. Here we utilize short-read RNA sequencing of male reproductive organs to examine the evolutionary dynamics of reproductive genes in members of the virilis subgroup: D. americana, D. lummei, D. novamexicana, and D. virilis. We find that the majority of male reproductive transcripts are testes-biased, accounting for ∼15% of all annotated genes. Ejaculatory bulb (EB-biased transcripts largely code for lipid metabolic enzymes, and contain orthologs of the D. melanogaster EB protein, Peb-me, which is involved in mating-plug formation. In addition, we identify 71 candidate SFPs, and show that this gene set has the highest rate of nonsynonymous codon substitution relative to testes- and EB-biased genes. Furthermore, we identify orthologs of 35 D. melanogaster SFPs that have conserved accessory gland expression in the virilis group. Finally, we show that several of the SFPs that have the highest rate of nonsynonymous codon substitution reside on chromosomal regions, which contributes to paternal gametic incompatibility between species. Our results show that SFPs rapidly diversify in the virilis group, and suggest that they likely play a role in PCSS and/or gametic isolation.

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of Male Reproductive Genes in the Drosophila virilis Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H; Unckless, Robert L; Clark, Andrew G

    2017-09-07

    Postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) is a potent evolutionary force that can drive rapid changes of reproductive genes within species, and thus has the potential to generate reproductive incompatibilities between species. Male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are major players in postmating interactions, and are important targets of PCSS in males. The virilis subgroup of Drosophila exhibits strong interspecific gametic incompatibilities, and can serve as a model to study the genetic basis of PCSS and gametic isolation. However, reproductive genes in this group have not been characterized. Here we utilize short-read RNA sequencing of male reproductive organs to examine the evolutionary dynamics of reproductive genes in members of the virilis subgroup: D. americana, D. lummei, D. novamexicana, and D. virilis We find that the majority of male reproductive transcripts are testes-biased, accounting for ∼15% of all annotated genes. Ejaculatory bulb (EB)-biased transcripts largely code for lipid metabolic enzymes, and contain orthologs of the D. melanogaster EB protein, Peb-me, which is involved in mating-plug formation. In addition, we identify 71 candidate SFPs, and show that this gene set has the highest rate of nonsynonymous codon substitution relative to testes- and EB-biased genes. Furthermore, we identify orthologs of 35 D. melanogaster SFPs that have conserved accessory gland expression in the virilis group. Finally, we show that several of the SFPs that have the highest rate of nonsynonymous codon substitution reside on chromosomal regions, which contributes to paternal gametic incompatibility between species. Our results show that SFPs rapidly diversify in the virilis group, and suggest that they likely play a role in PCSS and/or gametic isolation. Copyright © 2017 Ahmed-Braimah et al.

  12. Reproductive phase determination in male meagre (Argyrosomus regius, Sciaenidae: testis development and histologic corroboration of a gross anatomical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Prista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive stage determination of male gonads has received sparse attention in fish biology literature with few studies detailing the building of gross anatomical- and histologic scales. The meagre (Argyrosomus regius is one of the world’s largest sciaenids and supports a significant regional fishery in European and North African waters whose reproductive patterns are yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, we derive a macroscopic grading system for meagre testis using semi-quantitative graphs that feature the testis variability along the species size range and time of the year. We then describe the histological stages and reproductive phases of male testes and determine the extent to which they corroborate the anatomical scale. Our results indicate that gross anatomical analyses are accurate in assessments of the meagre spawning season but may not precisely distinguish the testes of well-mature fish and first spawning virgins. Furthermore, we show that milt expression varies widely with size and misclassifies as immature many smaller fish in spawning-capable condition. We discuss these findings in terms of their contribution to the understanding of testes development and the uncertainties involved in determining the size-at-maturity of male fish using gross anatomical scales.

  13. Development of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Brachyura: Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aparecida do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This study describes the histology and histochemistry of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus, comparing juvenile and adult developmental stages. We also analyzed changes in the gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, and the weights of the testis and vas deferens during the development. The results showed that all stages, beginning with the juvenile (JUV, through developing (DEV and mature (MAT adult males of C. ornatus produce sperm and spermatophores. During development, testicular lobes showed the same characteristics of production and release of sperm into the seminiferous duct. The vas deferens showed little histological and histochemical change in the epithelium in juvenile and adult males. The differences consisted of the larger amount of secretion in MAT males compared to JUV and DEV ones. The chemical composition of the seminal fluid was similar, but MAT males produced a more homogeneous secretion. Morphological and physiological maturation are not synchronized in C. ornatus, since JUV males produced spermatophores similar to those in DEV and MAT males. However, these JUV are not yet able to reproduce, since they still have the abdomen attached to the cephalothoracic sternum. The increase of the GSI during development was significant for MAT males, and is related to the production of sufficient volume of seminal fluid to form the sperm "plug" in the female seminal receptacle. The HSI decreased from DEV to MAT adult stages, indicating that reserves from the hepatopancreas are used to develop the reproductive system after the pubertal molt.

  14. Reproductive foragers: male spiders choose mates by selecting among competitive environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lyndon Alexander; Kokko, Hanna; Kasumovic, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Mate choice frequently operates differently for males and females as a consequence of male competition for mates. Competitive interactions can alter the fitness payoffs of choice and the realization of preferences under natural conditions, yet the majority of male choice studies still use binary trials that ignore social factors. Here we test the importance of contest dynamics in male choice using a framework in which females are considered analogous to foraging patches that are subject to competition. We track the mate choices and interactions of 640 spiders (Nephila plumipes) before and after manipulation of competition within enclosures, modeling the expected fitness payoffs of each male's actual choices and comparing these with all alternative choices. Many males choose new mates once social conditions change and achieve higher fitness than predicted under random movement. Males do not simply move to larger females but choose favorable competitive environments that balance competition and female fecundity, thereby increasing their fitness payoffs. Further, we show for the first time that prior-residence effects, which are known to influence male contests, also have a strong influence in male reproductive contests and can shape male mate choice. These results highlight the importance of situating male choice studies in the relevant social context, as intrasexual interactions can have profound effects on the realization and payoffs of male mate-choice strategies.

  15. Male involvement in reproductive health among scheduled tribe: experience from Khairwars of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kalyan B; Singh, Neeru; Chatterjee Saha, Uma; Roy, Jyotirmoy

    2007-01-01

    Indian tribal men's lack of participation in reproductive health not only damages their own health, but also contributes to the reproductive ill health of their female partners and children. In India the involvement of men in such matters is a new concept. There is a paucity of data particularly on Scheduled tribesmen's knowledge and the extent of their participation in reproductive health. This inhibits planning. The present study aims to understand the involvement of Scheduled tribesmen in reproductive health and the barriers to their involvement by generating a database from the Khairwar tribe of Central India. A door-to-door survey on knowledge, attitude and practice relating to aspects of reproductive health was conducted by canvassing a pre-designed interview schedule among 15-40 year old, currently married Khairwar males in the Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh, India. As far as reproductive morbidity is concerned, only 17% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and most had no proper knowledge of its transmission. Although 74% of the respondents had heard about reproductive tract infections, the majority of them were unaware of the mechanism of transmission and seriousness of the problem. The duel role of condoms, both as a method of family planning and a protective measure against sexually transmitted infections, was also unknown to them. Approximately 59% of the males were aware of family planning but only 13% were using any method (mostly female sterilization) at the time of survey. Their view on the ideal number of children (3.56) exceeded the actual number of children born and living. High infant and child mortality influenced their preference for higher fertility. Very few among them (29%) had knowledge of antenatal care. They expressed faulty knowledge, myths and unhelpful attitudes towards sexual health matters. The study revealed the male Scheduled tribe population's lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding male sexual health issues, the

  16. The male reproductive system of Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815 (Decapoda, Caridea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Vanesa; Díaz, Vanessa; Raso, Jose Enrique García; Manjón-Cabeza, M. E.

    2011-03-01

    The present work completes a series of studies on the biology of the shrimp Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815, where we suggested the species to be gonochoristic. The morphology of the male reproductive system (testes, vasa deferentia, gonopores) and the different stages of male germ cell development are described for the first time in the genus Hippolyte, using TEM, SEM, and histological methods. All males from 1.70 to 3.42 mm in carapace length had active testes and well-developed vasa deferentia. No case of sex reversal could be found.

  17. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectio...

  18. Amyloid precursor protein interaction network in human testis: sentinel proteins for male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; Domingues, Sara; Guimarães, Sofia; Goltsev, Alexander V; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar Figueiredo; Mendes, José Fernando F; da Cruz E Silva, Odete Abreu Beirão; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-01-16

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely recognized for playing a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although APP is expressed in several tissues outside the human central nervous system, the functions of APP and its family members in other tissues are still poorly understood. APP is involved in several biological functions which might be potentially important for male fertility, such as cell adhesion, cell motility, signaling, and apoptosis. Furthermore, APP superfamily members are known to be associated with fertility. Knowledge on the protein networks of APP in human testis and spermatozoa will shed light on the function of APP in the male reproductive system. We performed a Yeast Two-Hybrid screen and a database search to study the interaction network of APP in human testis and sperm. To gain insights into the role of APP superfamily members in fertility, the study was extended to APP-like protein 2 (APLP2). We analyzed several topological properties of the APP interaction network and the biological and physiological properties of the proteins in the APP interaction network were also specified by gene ontologyand pathways analyses. We classified significant features related to the human male reproduction for the APP interacting proteins and identified modules of proteins with similar functional roles which may show cooperative behavior for male fertility. The present work provides the first report on the APP interactome in human testis. Our approach allowed the identification of novel interactions and recognition of key APP interacting proteins for male reproduction, particularly in sperm-oocyte interaction.

  19. Reproductive performance of alternative male phenotypes of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Darek T R; Conway, Corinne; Fleming, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the first transgenic animals being considered for commercial farming, yet ecological and genetic concerns remain should they enter the wild and interact reproductively with wild fish. Here, we provide the first empirical data reporting on the breeding performance of GH transgenic Atlantic salmon males, including that of an alternative male reproductive phenotype (i.e. small, precocially mature parr), in pair-wise competitive trials within a naturalised stream mesocosm. Wild anadromous (i.e. large, migratory) males outperformed captively reared transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity, quivering frequency and spawn participation. Similarly, despite displaying less aggression, captively reared nontransgenic mature parr were superior competitors to their transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity and spawn participation. Moreover, nontransgenic parr had higher overall fertilisation success than transgenic parr, and their offspring were represented in more spawning trials. Although transgenic males displayed reduced breeding performance relative to nontransgenics, both male reproductive phenotypes demonstrated the ability to participate in natural spawning events and thus have the potential to contribute genes to subsequent generations. PMID:25568019

  20. Size does matter: An assessment of reproductive potential in seahorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Almeida, Armando J; Ré, Pedro; Narciso, Luís

    2016-07-01

    In most animals, the mother plays the key role in reproduction, but male pregnancy in seahorses raises the question of whether the female still is the only determinant of offspring size or if she shares some responsibility with the male. This study evaluates the effects of both male and female size on the reproductive output of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Results demonstrated that, with regard to reproductive potential, the bigger the better. Seahorses preferred similar-sized or larger mates. Larger females produced bigger eggs with larger yolk reserves. Larger males had larger brood pouches, but did not produced larger broods. Male size was negatively correlated with embryo density and positively correlated with juvenile size. Both parents proved to play a decisive role in the reproductive output of this species. Newborn juveniles from the same parents were 15% bigger and 30% heavier when incubated in smaller and lower-density broods. This trade-off between the number and size of embryos inside the brood pouch clearly indicates a limited carrying capacity of the male, and demonstrates that the size of newborn seahorses can be, in part, paternally determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproductive conflict in social insects: male production by workers in a slave-making ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Elisabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H; Heinze, Juergen; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2005-11-01

    In insect societies, workers cooperate but may also pursue their individual interests, such as laying viable male eggs. The case of obligatory slave-making ants is of particular interest because workers do not engage in maintenance activities and foraging. Therefore, worker egg laying is expected to be less detrimental for colony efficiency than in related, nonparasitic species. Furthermore, as slave-making workers usually do not perform brood care and thus might have little power in manipulating sex allocation, they might be more strongly selected to increase their direct fitness by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus presents the first direct evidence of an almost complete takeover of male reproduction by workers in ants.

  2. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent.

  3. Implication of caffeine consumption and recovery on the reproductive functions of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, Shakiru A; Ogunwole, Eunice; Raji, Yinusa

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of caffeine consumption and recovery on reproductive functions and fertility of Wistar rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water (vehicle), while groups B, C, and D were treated orally with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days. Groups E, F, and G were treated orally with 10 mg/kg BW, 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days and then allowed to recover for another 30 days. Caffeine caused a decrease in body weight, while recovery groups showed appreciable increase in body weight during recovery. Relative weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis decreased dose dependently during treatment but increased during recovery. The liver and kidney weight increased during treatment but reduced during recovery. Sperm count was significantly decreased in both treated and recovery groups. Initial decrease in sperm viability and volume was appreciably reversed during recovery period. Serum level of testosterone increased at high doses, while serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed significant decrease. Histological sections of testis in treated groups showed mild congestion of the interstitial blood vessel and subcapsular congestion. However, there was no subcapsular congestion in the recovery groups. All rats in both treated and recovery groups had 100% fertilization success from fertility study. Suggestively, caffeine treatment for 4 weeks could impair body, reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, LH/FSH level, and also testicular cyto-architecture. Effects appeared, however, reversible after caffeine withdrawal.

  4. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  5. The effects of repeated forced ethanol consumption during adolescence on reproductive behaviors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Shannon M; Mollé, Nicole; Reyes-Fondeur, Lisbeth; Karanian, Jessica M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of brain development when changes in hormone levels may have long-lasting effects on synaptic connections and behavior. In humans, alcohol consumption frequently begins during this critical period, although the impact of early exposure has not been fully examined. The current study was designed to investigate short- and long-term effects of repeated forced ethanol consumption during adolescence on emerging reproductive behaviors. Twenty-six young male Long-Evans rats were assigned to ethanol (Young EtOH, n = 12) or water (Young Control, n = 14) groups at postnatal day (P) 32, receiving a modified binge protocol of 3 g/kg of solution via gavage twice per week from P32 to P80. For comparison, another cohort of rats received a similar treatment paradigm in adulthood from P75-P133 (Adult EtOH, n = 8; Adult Control, n = 10). Reproductive behavior was assessed with tests for copulation, partner preference, and 50-kHz vocalizations during forced consumption (intoxication) and again after a 4-5 week period of abstinence. During forced consumption, the Young EtOH group showed significantly longer latencies on copulation tests than Young Controls, but these differences did not persist after abstinence. Different patterns were observed in Adult animals, who only showed significant, delayed impairments in the post-ejaculatory interval. Preference for sexually receptive females increased with sexual experience in both adolescent and adult rats, regardless of treatment during the forced consumption phase. However, after abstinence, the Young EtOH group showed a significantly reduced partner preference compared to the Young Control group, which may indicate long-term effects on sexual motivation. Additionally, during forced consumption the Young EtOH group tended to emit fewer ultrasonic vocalizations, perhaps reflecting impairments in sexual communication. Adult groups showed no differences in partner preference or vocalization tests at

  6. The male reproductive system in classic galactosemia: cryptorchidism and low semen volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Cynthia S; Welt, Corrine K; Dumoulin, John C M; Robben, Simon G F; Gordon, Catherine M; Dunselman, Gerard A J; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Berry, Gerard T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies examining reproductive parameters in men with galactosemia have inconsistently demonstrated abnormalities. We hypothesized that men with galactosemia may demonstrate evidence of reproductive dysfunction. Pubertal history, physical examination, hormone levels and semen analyses were examined in 26 males with galactosemia and compared to those in 46 controls. The prevalence of cryptorchidism was higher in men with galactosemia than in the general population [11.6% vs. 1.0% (95%CI: 0.75-1.26; p galactosemia compared to controls. Semen volume was below normal in seven out of 12 men with galactosemia. Men with galactosemia have a higher than expected prevalence of cryptorchidism and low semen volumes. The subtle decrease in testosterone and inhibin B levels and sperm count may indicate mild defects in Sertoli and Leydig cell function, but does not point towards severe infertility causing reproductive impairment. Follow-up studies are needed to further determine the clinical consequences of these abnormalities.

  7. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Selection on plant male function genes identifies candidates for reproductive isolation of yellow monkeyflowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation promises insight into speciation and the origins of biological diversity. While progress has been made in identifying genes underlying barriers to reproduction that function after fertilization (post-zygotic isolation, we know much less about earlier acting pre-zygotic barriers. Of particular interest are barriers involved in mating and fertilization that can evolve extremely rapidly under sexual selection, suggesting they may play a prominent role in the initial stages of reproductive isolation. A significant challenge to the field of speciation genetics is developing new approaches for identification of candidate genes underlying these barriers, particularly among non-traditional model systems. We employ powerful proteomic and genomic strategies to study the genetic basis of conspecific pollen precedence, an important component of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp. resulting from male pollen competition. We use isotopic labeling in combination with shotgun proteomics to identify more than 2,000 male function (pollen tube proteins within maternal reproductive structures (styles of M. guttatus flowers where pollen competition occurs. We then sequence array-captured pollen tube exomes from a large outcrossing population of M. guttatus, and identify those genes with evidence of selective sweeps or balancing selection consistent with their role in pollen competition. We also test for evidence of positive selection on these genes more broadly across yellow monkeyflowers, because a signal of adaptive divergence is a common feature of genes causing reproductive isolation. Together the molecular evolution studies identify 159 pollen tube proteins that are candidate genes for conspecific pollen precedence. Our work demonstrates how powerful proteomic and genomic tools can be readily adapted to non-traditional model systems, allowing for genome-wide screens

  9. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A I A; Silva, R B; Tavares, W S; Malaquias, J B; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-01-01

    Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae). Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%), whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  10. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  11. Establishing Reproductive Health Education and Counseling in Military Services: The Turkish Model for Male Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadettin Gungor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of Health, Mother and Child Health and Family Planning General Directorate; Turkey Field Office of UNFPA, and Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA of Turkish Armed Forces have been conducting a program to increase male concern and participation in sexual and reproductive health in a positive and supporting way. Specialist physicians and nurses from military hospitals were trained by Ministry of Health as trainers (October 2002- September 2003 by one-week courses on interactive training skills. Primary physicians, nurses and medical petty officers were trained as field trainers and counselors (March 2003-April 2004. Training rooms with standardized training material were established in all of the military garrisons. Soldiers were given the one-day participatory course. Trained medical staff also provided individual counseling and services. All training rooms were coded and connected to Reproductive Health Network established within the Intranet of Army. Reproductive Health activities were included in the regular supervision scheme of the army. Since April 2004 740.000 soldiers were given the one-day course. A total of 4000 military medical staff was educated as Trainers. A total of 580 training rooms were established. Twenty of Military Hospitals became a center of reproductive health training and service delivery. Since large-scale intervention is necessary to reach male population, the army seems to be the best possible venue in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 97-106

  12. Establishing Reproductive Health Education and Counseling in Military Services: The Turkish Model for Male Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brigitte Albrectsen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of Health, Mother and Child Health and Family Planning General Directorate; Turkey Field Office of UNFPA, and Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA of Turkish Armed Forces have been conducting a program to increase male concern and participation in sexual and reproductive health in a positive and supporting way. Specialist physicians and nurses from military hospitals were trained by Ministry of Health as trainers (October 2002- September 2003 by one-week courses on interactive training skills. Primary physicians, nurses and medical petty officers were trained as field trainers and counselors (March 2003-April 2004. Training rooms with standardized training material were established in all of the military garrisons. Soldiers were given the one-day participatory course. Trained medical staff also provided individual counseling and services. All training rooms were coded and connected to Reproductive Health Network established within the Intranet of Army. Reproductive Health activities were included in the regular supervision scheme of the army. Since April 2004 740.000 soldiers were given the one-day course. A total of 4000 military medical staff was educated as Trainers. A total of 580 training rooms were established. Twenty of Military Hospitals became a center of reproductive health training and service delivery. Since large-scale intervention is necessary to reach male population, the army seems to be the best possible venue in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 97-106

  13. RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necrosis promotes the aging of mouse male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dianrong; Meng, Lingjun; Xu, Tao; Su, Yaning; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    A pair of kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, as well as the RIPK3 substrate MLKL cause a form of programmed necrotic cell death in mammals termed necroptosis. We report here that male reproductive organs of both Ripk3- and Mlkl-knockout mice retain ‘youthful’ morphology and function into advanced age, while those of age-matched wild-type mice deteriorate. The RIPK3 phosphorylation of MLKL, the activation marker of necroptosis, is detected in spermatogonial stem cells in the testes of old but not in young wild-type mice. When the testes of young wild-type mice are given a local necroptotic stimulus, their reproductive organs showed accelerated aging. Feeding of wild-type mice with an RIPK1 inhibitor prior to the normal onset of age-related changes in their reproductive organs blocked the appearance of signs of aging. Thus, necroptosis in testes promotes the aging-associated deterioration of the male reproductive system in mice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27692.001 PMID:28807105

  14. Ameliorative effects of curcumin against acute cadmium toxicity on male reproductive system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzturk, H; Ciftci, O; Aydin, M; Timurkaan, N; Beytur, A; Yilmaz, F

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) against acute cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) toxicity on male reproductive system in rats. CdCl(2) is known to be a heavy metal and potential environmental pollutant. For this purpose, 28 rats were equally divided into four groups; the first group was kept as control and given distilled water and corn oil as carrier. In second and third groups, CdCl(2) and CMN were administered at the dose with 1 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and 100 mg kg(-1) for 3 days respectively. CdCl(2) and CMN were given together at the same doses in the fourth group. It was determined that acute CdCl(2) exposure caused a significant reproductive damage via increased oxidative stress (increased TBARS levels and decreased SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH levels), histological alterations (necrosis, oedema etc.) and spermatological damage (decreased sperm motility and sperm concentration and increased abnormal sperm rate) in male rats. However, CMN treatment partially reversed these toxic effects of CdCl(2) on the reproductive system. In conclusion, our results show that acute exposure of CdCl(2) may lead to infertility, and CMN could prevent and reverse hazardous effects of CdCl(2) to some degree. Thus, CMN may be useful for the prevention of CdCl(2)-induced reproductive damage. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae) on reproductive parameters of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaro, Renata; Di Stasi, Luiz; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2002-09-01

    Austroplenckia populnea (Reiss.) Lundell. was selected for this study because it has been shown that some plants from the Celastraceae family have antifertility effects. Twelve adult male rats were treated with hydromethanolic extract made from the leaves, 500 mg/kg/day, orally, for 70 days. Distilled water was administered to the control animals (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, and before killing the rats, their sexual behavior was evaluated. The number of intromissions, latencies to first mount and ejaculation, and first intromission after ejaculation were significantly reduced in the treated group, but the total number of ejaculations did not differ from the control group. The weight and histology of the reproductive organs, sperm production, spermatogenesis, prostate fructose content, cauda epidydimides duct diameter, and sperm morphology were not affected. Sperm concentration in cauda epidydimides was significantly decreased. The results showed that A. populnea has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.

  16. Ultrastructure of male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2015-08-01

    The male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 is studied morphologically and histologically by using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The reproductive system of the male E.ventrale consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands, a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, and differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens that is a specialized in sperm storage. Sperm have an elongated head and a tail (flagellum) with an axonema and two mitochondrial derivatives. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles are fine, long, and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius, which is balloon shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Environmental and Life Style Factors in Relation to Male Reproductive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad

    During the past four decades, the incidence rates of testicular cancer and other male reproductive disorders have been increasing at a rapid rate, predominantly in developed and industrialized countries. This increase is considered too great to be explained by genetic factors alone, and thus envi...... and unexpected associations between life style factors and disease. The thesis ends with concluding remarks.......During the past four decades, the incidence rates of testicular cancer and other male reproductive disorders have been increasing at a rapid rate, predominantly in developed and industrialized countries. This increase is considered too great to be explained by genetic factors alone, and thus...... Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS). TDS occurs when certain critical developmental events are disturbed, and has a profound effect that propagates into adulthood, which may lead to lower sperm concentration, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer. The work within this PhD thesis has primarily focused...

  18. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E.; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. PMID:26836771

  19. Effects of ammonium metavanadate on fertility and reproductive performance of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashraf M; El-Tawil, Osama S

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium is a ubiquitous trace metal present in most plant and animal tissues. Environmental exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic vanadium compounds has been related to impaired different phases of reproduction. Therefore, the effects of a pentavalent inorganic vanadium compound on general reproductive performance and fertility were investigated in male and female rats. Sexually mature male and female rats were exposed to 200 ppm ammonium metavanadate in drinking water. Male rats were exposed for 70 days, while the female rats exposed for 14 days premating, during mating, and throughout the whole length of gestation and lactation periods till weaning. The effects on male sex organ weights and fertility were evaluated at the end of exposure period. However, the effects on female fertility as well as developmental and postnatal effects were evaluated throughout the exposure period. The fertility was significantly reduced in both treated groups, with more pronounced suppressive effects in the male treated group. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were significantly reduced in pregnant females of both treated groups. However, the number of resorptions, dead fetuses, and pre- and postimplantation losses were significantly increased. The incidence of resorptions was significantly increased in treated female group compared with untreated female group. The behavioral responses as well as fetal survival and viability indices were decreased in both treated groups during the lactation period. The incidence of these effects was more pronounced in the treated female group. The morphological, visceral, and skeletal anomalies were recorded significantly increased in fetuses of both treated groups, with more pronounced effects on fetuses of treated females. In conclusion, the exposure of adult male and female rats to ammonium metavanadate would cause adverse effects on fertility and reproduction.

  20. Reproductive responses of male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) to 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Lian Yu; Han, Mei; Ye, Man Hong; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2016-04-01

    The plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) can stimulate and enhance animal reproduction. This compound has been successfully detected in Leymus chinensis, which is the main diet of Brandt's voles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different 6-MBOA doses on the reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. The results showed that 6-MBOA administration increased relative testis weight, regardless of the dose, but it had little effect on the body mass. Low and middle doses of 6-MBOA increased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the serum and the mRNA levels of StAR and CYP11a1 in the testes. However, 6-MBOA did not cause any significant increase in the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, GPR54, and GnRH compared to those in the control group. The mRNA level of KiSS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher than that in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Collectively, our results demonstrated that the number of KiSS-1-expressing neurons located in the ARC was the highest, and that 6-MBOA, which might modulate the reproductive activity along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the reproductive activity of Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. Our study provided insights into the mechanism of 6-MBOA action and the factors influencing the onset of reproduction in Brandt's voles.

  1. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Rossano, Mary G; Protas, Bridget; Padmanahban, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J

    2010-01-01

    To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. University Medical Center. Men recruited through two infertility clinics in Michigan. Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, T, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Cadmium, copper, and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with T when modeled individually, findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced T. A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and T remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, and a positive association between T and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, whereby high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in T (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Although reductions in T and reproductive toxicity after molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of Maytenus macrocarpa“Chuchuhuasi” in the male system reproductive of mouse (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láyonal G. Acosta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus macrocarpa(chuchuhuasi is native tree of the Peruvian Amazon used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, but its effect on the male reproductive system has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of M. macrocarpa in daily doses for 7 days on reproductive parameters of male mice. We used C57BL mature male mice divided into 2 groups (n= 10, Control Group (C: 0.9% NaCl and Treatment group (T: Aqueous extract of Chuchuhuasi, both supplied daily via oral gavages. At the eight day of treatment the mice were euthanized. The weight of the body and reproductive organs: testis, epididymis and vas deferens, were registered. Concentration, motility and sperm morphology were evaluated. The results showed significantly differences (t- Student test P<0.05 in the weight of the head and body epididymis (C: 19.25±1.1 vs T: 21.26±2.0, vas deferens (C: 10.61±0.7 vs T: 11.75±0.5, progressive sperm motility (C: 42.16±5.2 vs T: 25.82±8.4 and immobile sperm (C: 36.05±4.9 vs T: 48.51±7.2. No difference in sperm count was observed. The sperm normal morphology diminished with ingest of M. macrocarpa(tStudent test p <0.05 (C: 39.72±1.3 vs T: 30.78±4.9. We conclude that the aqueous extract of chuchuhuasi, has a negative effect on the male reproductive system of mice.

  5. Establishing Reproductive Health Education and Counseling in Military Services: The Turkish Model for Male Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Brigitte Albrectsen; Sadettin Gungor; Bilal Bakir; Aygul Akyuz; Ercan Gocgeldi; Tulay Kaya; Mahir Gulec; Metin Hasde; Adviye Temiztugay; Recai Pabuccu; Gokhan Yildirimkaya

    2008-01-01

    Ministry of Health, Mother and Child Health and Family Planning General Directorate; Turkey Field Office of UNFPA, and Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA) of Turkish Armed Forces have been conducting a program to increase male concern and participation in sexual and reproductive health in a positive and supporting way. Specialist physicians and nurses from military hospitals were trained by Ministry of Health as trainers (October 2002- September 2003) by one-week courses on interactive tr...

  6. Reproductive health of male Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

    OpenAIRE

    Glass Deborah C; McKenzie Dean P; Forbes Andrew B; Ikin Jillian F; Sim Malcolm R; Kelsall Helen L; Ittak Peter

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424) and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548). The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficultie...

  7. Infertility among male UK veterans of the 1990-1 Gulf war: reproductive cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maconochie, N; Doyle, P; Carson, C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that, theoretically at least, exposure to toxicants of the type present in the Gulf war could affect spermatogenesis, which might be observed as increased levels of infertility. DESIGN: Retrospective reproductive cohort analysis. SETTING: Male UK Gulf war veterans and matched comparison group of non-deployed servicemen, surveyed by postal questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: 42,818 completed questionnaires were returned, representing response rates of 53% for Gul...

  8. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  9. Do males choose their mates in the lekking moth Achroia grisella? Influence of female body mass and male reproductive status on male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubault, Marlène; Burlaud, Rebecca

    2017-04-22

    Lekking males aggregate to attract females and contribute solely to egg fertilization, without any further parental care. Evolutionary theory therefore predicts them to be nonchoosy toward their mates, because any lost mating opportunities would outweigh the benefits associated with such preferences. Nevertheless, due to time costs, the production of energetically costly sexual displays, and potential sperm limitation, the mating effort of lekking males is often considerable. These factors, combined with the fact that many females of varying quality are likely to visit leks, could favor the evolution of male mate preferences. Here, we show that males of the lekking lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella, were indeed more likely to mate with heavier females in choice experiments, even at their virgin mating (i.e., when their reproductive resources have not yet been depleted by previous matings). This differential female mating success could not be attributed to female behavior as heavy and light females showed similar motivation to mate (i.e., latency to approach the males) and time to copulate. Males seem to benefit from mating with heavier females, as fecundity positively correlated with female mass. This new empirical evidence shows that male mate choice may have been underestimated in lekking species. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Gene expression and reproductive abilities of male Drosophila melanogaster subjected to ELF-EMF exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Si; Zhang, Zi-Yan; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2013-12-12

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure is attracting increased attention as a possible disease-inducing factor. The in vivo effects of short-term and long-term ELF-EMF exposure on male Drosophila melanogaster were studied using transcriptomic analysis for preliminary screening and QRT-PCR for further verification. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that 439 genes were up-regulated and 874 genes were down-regulated following short-term exposures and that 514 genes were up-regulated and 1206 genes were down-regulated following long-term exposures (expression >2- or 2- or EMF effects on reproduction, some experiments on male reproduction ability were performed. Their results indicated that short-term ELF-EMF exposure may decrease the reproductive ability of males, but long-term exposures had no effect on reproductive ability. Down-regulation of ark gene in the exposed males suggests that the decrease in reproductive capacity may be induced by the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on spermatogenesis through the caspase pathway. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed that jra, ark and decay genes were down regulated in males exposed for 1 Generation (1G) and 72 h, which suggests that apoptosis may be inhibited in vivo. ELF-EMF exposure may have accelerated cell senescence, as suggested by the down-regulation of both cat and jra genes and the up-regulation of hsp22 gene. Up-regulation of totA and hsp22 genes during exposure suggests that exposed flies might induce an in vivo immune response to counter the adverse effects encountered during ELF-EMF exposure. Down-regulation of cat genes suggests that the partial oxidative protection system might be restrained, especially during short-term exposures. This study demonstrates the bioeffects of ELF-EMF exposure and provides evidence for understanding the in vivo mechanisms of ELF-EMF exposure on male D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Iranian Infertile Males who are Candidates for Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Salahshourifar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study offers our contribution on the topic by a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in a population of Iranian infertile men attending assisted reproduction programs.Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis was performed according to standard methods on cultured cells obtained from the patient peripheral blood. In all, 874 files belonging to male partner of each couple were classified as follows: azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality in respect of morphology and motility.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 136(15.5% individuals of the whole population studied including 12.0 %, 1.2 % and 2.0% of azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality, respectively. Of those, 116 (13.2% had sex chromosome abnormalities and 20(2.3% had autosomal chromosome abnormalities.Conclusion: We observed high frequency of aneuploidy and sex chromosomal mosaicism in azoospermic men and high structural aberrations in males with low sperm quality. We suggested that type of chromosomal abnormalities had an inverse relation to sperm count. So that, high chromosomal aneuploidy was detected in males with lower sperm count and high structural aberration was detected in males with low sperm quality. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of male infertility. Consequently, Genetic testing and counselling is indicated for infertile men with abnormal semen parameters with either abnormal karyotype or normal karyotype before applying assisted reproductive techniques.

  12. Egg white-derived peptides prevent male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; da Silva, Taiz Martins; Uranga-Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress in known to contribute to the male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury (Hg). Our study tested the hypothesis that the egg white hydrolysate (EWH), a potent antioxidant in vitro, is able to prevent the effects of prolonged Hg exposure on male reproductive system in rats. For this, rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Untreated - saline solution (i.m.); b) Hydrolysate - EWH (1 g/kg/day, gavage); c) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6 μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 μg/kg/day, i.m.); d) Hydrolysate-Mercury. At the end of the treatment, sperm motility, count and morphological studies were performed; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, histological and immunohistochemical assays on testis and epididymis were also carried out. As results, HgCl2-treatment decreased sperm number, increased sperm transit time in epididymis and impaired sperm morphology. However, these harmful effects were prevented by EWH. HgCl2-treatment also increased ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in testis and epididymis as well as promoted testicular inflammation and histological changes in epididymis. EWH improved histological and immunohistochemical alterations, probably due to its antioxidant property. In conclusion, the EWH could represent a powerful natural alternative to protect the male reproductive system against Hg-induced sperm toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural alterations in the male reproductive system of the freshwater crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnot, Ana B; López Greco, Laura S

    2009-10-01

    No diseases affecting reproductive performance have been previously reported in freshwater crayfishes. This study aims to characterise one reproductive system abnormality found in males of Cherax quadricarinatus reared in captivity. Fifteen adult males of C. quadricarinatus (70-110 g) were purchased from San Mateo S.A. farm (Entre Ríos, Argentina) each season during 2007. Macroscopic analysis showed that 26.6% of the animals sacrificed in winter presented brownish distal vasa deferentia. Histological analysis showed different levels of structural abnormality in the epithelium of the vasa deferentia and spermatophore. Granular and hyaline haemocytes were identified within the vasa deferentia but no significant differences were found in the sperm count between normal and brownish vas deferens. Histological analysis of the crayfishes sacrificed in autumn also showed these modifications in 22% of the animals, however, they did not show the brownish colour under macroscopic analysis. The similarities between the male reproductive system syndrome in shrimps and the abnormalities found in C. quadricarinatus are notable. An unspecific response to thermic stress is a possible explanation of these structural alterations.

  14. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Male Reproductive System in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Sik; Shin, Chol

    2016-10-01

    There has been no study reporting on the influence of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system including sperm quality. In this study, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation could lead to adverse effect on the male reproductive system. The rats were divided into three groups: 1) control (home-cage, n = 10); 2) SD4 (sleep deprivation for 4 days, n = 10); and 3) SD7 (sleep deprivation for 7 days, n = 10). Sleep deprivation was performed by a modified multiple platform method. Sperm quality (sperm motion parameters and counts), hormone levels (corticosterone and testosterone), and the histopathology of testis were evaluated and compared between the three groups. A statistically significant reduction (P = 0.018) was observed in sperm motility in the SD7 group compared to those of the control group. However, there were no significant differences in other sperm motion parameters, or in sperm counts of the testis and cauda epididymis between three groups. Compared with the control group, the SD4 (P = 0.033) and SD7 (P = 0.002) groups exhibited significant increases of corticosterone levels, but significant decreases of testosterone levels were found in the SD4 (P = 0.001) and SD7 (P Sleep deprivation may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system in rats.

  15. Vitamin E modulates reproductive toxicity of pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the reproductive toxicity caused by lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in male rabbits, and to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamin E (Vit. E) as antioxidant. Animals were orally administered their respective doses of LCT every other day and given drinking water supplemented with vitamin E for 16 weeks. Results showed that semen quality was deteriorated following treatment with LCT. Also, testosterone levels, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), and relative testes (RTW) and epididymis (REW) weights were significantly decreased. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly increased in seminal plasma of rabbits treated with LCT compared with control. While, activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), transaminases and acid phosphatase (AcP) were significantly decreased. Vitamin E alone significantly increased testosterone levels, BW, FI, RTW, REW, semen characteristics and seminal plasma enzymes, and decreased the levels of TBARS. Also, the present study showed that vitamin E might be effective against LCT-induced reproductive toxicity. It was suggested that LCT exerted a significant adverse effect on reproductive performance of male rabbits. Furthermore, vitamin E antagonized the toxic effects of LCT and improved semen quality of male rabbit. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of diet on male reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    W. P Lemos

    Full Text Available The morphology and histology of the reproductive tract of males of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas fed on different diets were studied. P. nigrispinus was fed on diets of: larvae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Tenebrio molitor L., Musca domestica L., and an artificial diet. The male reproductive tract, independent of diet, showed testes with intense red coloration in a compact, circular, or slightly oval structure. The vasa deferentia were similar in color to the testes and formed long filaments, which joined with the yellow-cream colored ejaculatory duct. The morphological characteristics of the male reproductive tract were similar under all diets, except for the artificial one. The histological studies demonstrated that independent of the diet the testes of P. nigrispinus were composed of four to six follicles. The testes with six follicles generally had four developed and two atrophied follicles. The morphological and histological differences of the testes of P. nigrispinus when fed with different prey are presented and discussed.

  17. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; McHale, Timothy S; Carré, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review field studies of human male hormones and reproductive behavior. We first discuss life history theory and related conceptual considerations. As illustrations, distinctive features of human male life histories such as coalitional aggression, long-term partnering and paternal care are noted, along with their relevance to overall reproductive effort and developmental plasticity. We address broad questions about what constitutes a human male field study of hormones and behavior, including the kinds of hormone and behavioral measures employed in existing studies. Turning to several sections of empirical review, we present and discuss evidence for links between prenatal and juvenile androgens and sexual attraction and aggression. This includes the proposal that adrenal androgens-DHEA and androstenedione-may play functional roles during juvenility as part of a life-stage specific system. We next review studies of adult male testosterone responses to competition, with these studies emphasizing men's involvement in individual and team sports. These studies show that men's testosterone responses differ with respect to variables such as playing home/away, winning/losing, and motivation. Field studies of human male hormones and sexual behavior also focus on testosterone, showing some evidence of patterned changes in men's testosterone to sexual activity. Moreover, life stage-specific changes in male androgens may structure age-related differences in sexual behavior, including decreases in sexual behavior with senescence. We overview the considerable body of research on male testosterone, partnerships and paternal care, noting the variation in social context and refinements in research design. A few field studies provide insight into relationships between partnering and paternal behavior and prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In the third section of the review, we discuss patterns, limitations and directions for future research. This

  18. Reproductive biology of the endangered percid Zingel asper in captivity: a histological description of the male reproductive cycle

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    Christine Chevalier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Rhodanian percid Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758, is usually found throughout the Rhônebasin, but this fish is now in sharp decline. Understanding its reproductive physiology is important so as to be ableto artificially control its reproduction with a view to re-introducing it. This study was carried out on a populationobtained by artificial fertilization and bred in external tanks. Fishes were observed from the juvenile stages throughto adulthood. Patterns of testicular development were defined from histological observations. Testes of Z. asperwere paired, elongated and fusiform dorsocaudal organs. The two lobes of each gonad joined together to forma duct that extended to the urogenital papillae. They showed a lobular structure. The testicular lobules were of theunrestricted spermatogonial type. Up to 10 months-old, most of the males were immature: their testes showed onlytype A spermatogonia. The appearance of type B spermatogonia in the lobules of a testis indicated the beginningof spermatogenesis in 10 months-old fish. Spermiogenesis occurred 24 months after the fertilization and, in 26months-old fish, the cyst opened and released spermatozoa into the lumen of lobules. The spermiation belonged toa cystic type. During the third year, histological observations pointed to the same evolution of adult gonads asduring the second year. Sexual maturity was reached in captive Z. asper after two years. The spawning occurred inMay in the breeding conditions. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 3, 486–496

  19. The environment and male reproduction: The effect of cadmium exposure on reproductive function and its implication in fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Cristina; Galdiero, Mariano; Pivonello, Claudia; Salzano, Ciro; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Piscitelli, Prisco; Lenzi, Andrea; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-10-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant known as endocrine disruptor. Testis is particularly susceptible to cadmium, and testis injury occurs at high but even low levels of exposure. Cadmium reproductive toxicity is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including structural damage to testis vasculature and blood-testis barrier, inflammation, cytotoxicity on Sertoli and Leydig cells, oxidative stress mainly by means of mimicry and interference with essential ions, apoptosis, interference with selected signaling pathways and epigenetic regulation of genes involved in the regulation of reproductive function, and disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The current review outlines epidemiological observational findings from environmental and occupational exposure in humans, and reports experimental studies in humans and animals. Lastly, a focus on the pathogenetic mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and on the specific mechanisms of cadmium sensitivity and resistance, particularly assessed in animal models, is included. Despite convincing experimental findings in animals and supporting evidences in humans identifying cadmium as reproductive toxicant, observational findings are controversial, suffering from heterogeneity of study design and pattern of exposure, and from co-exposure to multiple pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproductive performance of resident and migrant males, females and pairs in a partially migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Hannah; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Burthe, Sarah J; Newell, Mark A; Harris, Mike P; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying among-individual variation in life-history strategies, and associated variation in reproductive performance and resulting demographic structure, is key to understanding and predicting population dynamics and life-history evolution. Partial migration, where populations comprise a mixture of resident and seasonally migrant individuals, constitutes a dimension of life-history variation that could be associated with substantial variation in reproductive performance. However, such variation has rarely been quantified due to the challenge of measuring reproduction and migration across a sufficient number of seasonally mobile males and females. We used intensive winter (non-breeding season) resightings of colour-ringed adult European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) from a known breeding colony to identify resident and migrant individuals. We tested whether two aspects of annual reproductive performance, brood hatch date and breeding success, differed between resident and migrant males, females and breeding pairs observed across three consecutive winters and breeding seasons. The sex ratios of observed resident and migrant shags did not significantly differ from each other or from 1:1, suggesting that both sexes are partially migratory and that migration was not sex-biased across surveyed areas. Individual resident males and females hatched their broods 6 days earlier and fledged 0.2 more chicks per year than migrant males and females on average. Resident individuals of both sexes therefore had higher breeding success than migrants. Hatch date and breeding success also varied with a pair's joint migratory strategy such that resident-resident pairs hatched their broods 12 days earlier than migrant-migrant pairs, and fledged 0.7 more chicks per year on average. However, there was no evidence of assortative pairing with respect to migratory strategy: observed frequencies of migrant-migrant and resident-resident pairs did not differ from those expected given

  1. Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losdat, Sylvain; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2015-09-01

    1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild populations, impeding evolutionary inference. 2. We first show that EPRS can be decomposed into the product of three life-history subcomponents: the number of broods available to a focal male to sire EPO, the male's probability of siring an EPO in an available brood and the number of offspring in available broods. This decomposition of EPRS facilitates estimation from field data because all subcomponents can be quantified from paternity data without need to quantify extra-pair matings. Our decomposition also highlights that the number of available broods, and hence population structure and demography, might contribute substantially to variance in male EPRS and fitness. 3. We then used 20 years of complete genetic paternity and pedigree data from wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to partition variance in each of the three subcomponents of EPRS, and thereby estimate their additive genetic variance and heritability conditioned on effects of male coefficient of inbreeding, age and social status. 4. All three subcomponents of EPRS showed some degree of within-male repeatability, reflecting combined permanent environmental and genetic effects. Number of available broods and offspring per brood showed low additive genetic variances. The estimated additive genetic variance in extra-pair siring probability was larger, although the 95% credible interval still converged towards zero. Siring probability also showed inbreeding depression and increased with male age

  2. Effect of anosmia on reproduction in male and female wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, C.S.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Letellier, M.A.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Anosmia was produced in two female and three male wolves by transection of the olfactory peduncle and was confirmed by their inability to detect meat, urine, feces, anal-gland secretions, and fish emulsion. All operated animals continued to investigate the environment with their noses, to interact normally with other pack members, and to feed at levels which maintained presurgical body weights. No effect was found on reproductive physiology (females: estradiol or progesterone concentrations, ovulation, pregnancy or parturition; males: testosterone, testicular recrudescence or sperm numbers, motility or maturation). One anosmic female became dominant and although she urine-marked with a flexed leg, the rate was lower than typical for dominant females and perhaps contributed to her failure to pair-bond with the dominant male. One anosmic male raised-leg-urinated while competing for pack dominance and when kenneled away from other males. Precopulatory, copulatory, and maternal behavior were observed for one anosmic female and appeared normal. However, neither male that was sexually naive before surgery showed interest in proestrous or estrous females. The possibility that secondary degeneration of brain regions mediating sexual behavior was responsible for the failure of these males to respond was not supported. Not only was the lack of male sexual response the only serious deficit following transection, but the male which was sexually experienced prior to surgery did copulate successfully during his second postoperative breeding season despite continued anosmia. Chemosensory priming from female urine during the protracted proestrous phase, as well as urinary and vaginal odors during estrus, appear to be critical for induction of full sexual potency in sexually naive males. The importance of urine and vaginal secretions in the sexual response of experienced males is uncertain.

  3. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: reproductive toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  5. The effects of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the male rat reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Yuan, Chuntao; Gong, Yi; Huang, Yufeng; Han, Xiaodong

    2008-07-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is an oxygenated compound, which has been widely used in Asia, Europe and North America. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity and the toxicity of MTBE, there is still a lack of data on reproductive system exposure of MTBE in male rodent animals. We studied subacute exposure of MTBE on the reproductive systems of male Sprague-Dawley rats. MTBE was administered to rats at dose levels of 0, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day. After 2 or 4 weeks of treatments, the rats were euthanized, and their serum, epididymis and testes were collected. Significant adverse effects in their reproductive system were observed including: a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm; an irregular and disordered arrangement of the seminiferous epithelium indicated by a histopathological examination; changed serum levels of testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); and decreased levels of mRNA and of androgen binding protein (ABP). In the oxidative stress study, results indicated an increased maleic dialdehyde (MDA) content, implying a raised peroxide level, and that the total antioxidant ability in serum was significantly increased. This finding was especially strong at 1600 mg/kg/day MTBE. In the 2-week treatment, at 1600 mg/kg/day, the mRNA level of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosidase (OGG1) was significantly decreased, and the mRNA level of the extra-cellular form of superoxide dismutase (SOD(EX)) was significantly increased. Our experiments suggest that relatively high doses of MTBE can exert reproductive system toxicity of male rats and disturb the secretions of T, LH and FSH, possibly due to oxidative stress induced by MTBE.

  6. Effects of a physical and energetic challenge on male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): modulation by reproductive condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Garland, Theodore; Chappell, Mark A; Andrew, Jacob R; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2018-01-11

    Reproduction strongly influences metabolism, morphology and behavior in female mammals. In species in which males provide parental care, reproduction might have similar effects on fathers. We examined effects of an environmental challenge on metabolically important physiological, morphological and behavioral measures, and determined whether these effects differed between reproductive and non-reproductive males in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Males were paired with an ovary-intact female, an ovariectomized female treated with estrogen and progesterone to induce estrus, or an untreated ovariectomized female. Within each group, half of the animals were housed under standard laboratory conditions and half in cages requiring them to climb wire towers to obtain food and water; these latter animals were also fasted for 24 h every third day. We predicted that few differences would be observed between fathers and non-reproductive males under standard conditions, but that fathers would be in poorer condition than non-reproductive males under challenging conditions. Body and fat mass showed a housing condition×reproductive group interaction: the challenge condition increased body and fat mass in both groups of non-reproductive males, but breeding males were unaffected. Males housed under the physical and energetic challenge had higher blood lipid content, lower maximal aerobic capacity and related traits (hematocrit and relative triceps surae mass), increased pain sensitivity and increased number of fecal boli excreted during tail-suspension tests (a measure of anxiety), compared with controls. Thus, our physical and energetic challenge paradigm altered metabolism, morphology and behavior, but these effects were largely unaffected by reproductive condition. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa.

  8. Male students' behaviour, knowledge, attitudes, and needs in sexual and reproductive health matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenzius, Marlene; Gådin, Katja Gillander; Tydén, Tanja; Romild, Ulla; Larsson, Margareta

    2009-08-01

    To investigate young male students' behaviour, knowledge, attitudes, and needs related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Differences between students on vocational and academic study programmes were also investigated. A questionnaire consisting of 87 multiple choice questions was distributed to 253 male students attending three upper secondary schools in a single Swedish county. A response rate of 76% (n = 192) was achieved. Vocational students displayed more risk behaviour than those in academic study programmes regarding use of tobacco and sexual behaviour. Eighteen percent of those who were sexually experienced had suggested or provided the emergency contraception pill (ECP) to a girl. Insufficient knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was identified, especially among the vocational students. No one reported the upper secondary school as their main source of knowledge and both groups requested more information about both genders' reproductive systems, and STIs. Some discriminatory attitudes regarding gender equality in SRH matters were identified. Both groups stated that male-friendly Youth Health Clinics (YHCs), easier access to condoms and Internet-service for Chlamydia test are important. Improvements in the quality and quantity of sex education in upper secondary schools are needed; they should be tailored to the spectrum of students' situations and needs. A structure of the YHC adapted to male youths' needs and alternative, easily accessible STI tests are important factors for reaching young men and having them participate in a responsible way in protecting their own and their partners' SRH.

  9. Effects of treatment with Hypoxis hemerocallidea extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiya, S; Sewani-Rusike, C R; Shauli, M

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxis hemerocallidea is used in traditional medicine in South Africa, for the treatment of male reproductive ailments and various chronic illnesses. Despite chronic use, its effects on male reproductive system are unknown. Male Wistar rats were treated orally daily for 28 (n = 18) and 56 days (n = 18). Treatment groups (n = 6/group) per treatment period were as follows: untreated control, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg 70% ethanolic extract of H. hemerocallidea. Sexual behaviour observations were performed on days 17 and 42 of the study. Sperm, biochemical and testicular histopathological studies were carried out. Arousal and libido and serum testosterone increased after 56 days of treatment. There was an increase in epididymal sperm count at both treatment doses, with the 300 mg/kg dose showing a higher sperm count (p < .05) compared to the 150 mg/kg treatment group. The higher 300 mg/kg dose also showed an increase (p < .05) in sperm motility after 56 days of treatment. Histology showed an increase in germinal layer thickness, consistent with the observed increase in sperm count. Testicular oxidative status improved after 56 days of treatment. Results suggest that chronic treatment with H. hemerocallidea may improve male sexual function and fertility parameters and may protect testes from oxidative damage. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittert Gary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED, prostate disease (PD, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS. Methods A representative sample (n = 5990 of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]. Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were

  11. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  12. The manifold actions of endocannabinoids on female and male reproductive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Monica; Battista, Natalia; Pirazzi, Valentina; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have highlighted the ever growing use of illegal drugs among teenagers. The negative effects of marijuana (a Cannabis sativa extract) on reproductive health are poorly known among young people, although chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana, impairs human reproductive potential by disrupting menstrual cycle, suppressing oogenesis and impairing embryo implantation and development, in women, and by increasing ejaculation problems, reducing sperm count and motility, and generating loss of libido and impotence, in men. Endocannabinoids, their metabolic enzymes and target receptors form the so called "endocannabinoid system" and they have been demonstrated to respond to fertility signals. In addition, they interfere with hormones, cytokines and other signalling molecules in both female and male reproductive events. In this review, we shall summarize the current knowledge on the endocannabinoid system, and on the multifaceted roles played by endocannabinoids in reproduction along the evolutionary axis from invertebrates to mammals. Furthermore, we shall discuss the potential use of distinct elements of the endocannabinoid system for the diagnosis and/or treatment of human infertility.

  13. Differential investment into testes and sperm production in alternative male reproductive tactics of the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten; Eder, Susanne; Müller, Karin

    2012-05-01

    Males that follow alternative reproductive tactics might differ in their investment into testis development and sperm production. The resource-allocation hypothesis predicts that males following a sneaker tactic should invest more into sperm production than dominant territorial males which should invest more into mate guarding. This hypothesis is supported by studies in species where individual males cannot switch between tactics (fixed tactics). Here we present the first data for a species where males can switch between tactics (plastic tactics). We studied African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) in captivity, mimicking three tactics observed in the field: philopatric group-living males, singly-housed males representing roaming males, and group-living breeding males. We measured quantitative and qualitative reproductive traits, as well as serum and testis hormone concentrations. We found no support for the resource-allocation hypothesis, since breeding and singly-housed males invested similarly in testes and sperm. However, philopatric males had significantly smaller testes and epididymides, lower sperm counts, lower testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than males of the two other tactics. Philopatric males did not reach a larger body mass than singly-housed males with well developed reproductive traits, indicating that they did not trade investment in sperm production against growth. Interestingly, testis testosterone concentrations of philopatric males did not differ from those of other males. Our data suggest that philopatric males are reproductively suppressed by the breeding male, but might be ready to increase their serum testosterone levels when social and environmental conditions allow for this physiological switch accompanying the behavioral switch between tactics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term Effects of Dexamethasone on Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jalogoden Gouyandeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The adverse effect of chemical drugs such as dexamethasone as anti-inflammatory -steroidal drugs on different body systems and infertility and reproductive efficiency is of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of dexamethasone on the reproductive system in male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, fifty matured male mice were divided into five groups including control, placebo and three treatment groups. Control group had no injections, placebo group only received normal saline and treatments groups received dexamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg which was injected in peritoneum every other day for a period of twenty days. Their Testosterone was measured by ELISA and testes were dissected for histological examination. The data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: Significant increases were shown in FSH level in all three groups treated with dexamethasone. LH in treatment group of 0.1 mg/kg decreased, but at dose of 1 mg/kg increased significantly.Testosterone levels in a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly increased compared with the control group (p<0.05. However, testis weight, the rate of testicular germ cells, primary spermatocytes, epididymal sperm and fertility significantly increased in all three groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Dexamethasone had a negative effect on reproduction therefore, the use of this medication at different doses and time periods considers the possible complications beforehand. Keywords: .

  15. Androgen Receptors Expression in Pituitary of Male Viscacha in relation to Growth and Reproductive Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Palmira Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the androgen receptors (AR expression in pituitary pars distalis (PD of male viscachas in relation to growth and reproductive cycle. AR were detected by immunocytochemistry and quantified by image analysis. Pituitary glands from fetus, immature, prepubertal, and adult viscachas during their reproductive cycle were used. In the fetal PD, the immunoreactivity (ir was mainly cytoplasmic. In immature and prepubertal animals, AR-ir was cytoplasmic (ARc-ir and nuclear (ARn-ir in medial region. In adult animals, ARn-ir cells were numerous at caudal end. AR regionalization varied between the PD zones in relation to growth. In immature animals, the ARn-ir increased whereas the cytoplasmic expression decreased in relation to the fetal glands. The percentage of ARc-ir cells increased in prepubertal animals whereas the nuclear AR expression was predominant in adult viscachas. The AR expression changed in adults, showing minimum percentage in the gonadal regression period. The variation of nuclear AR expression was directly related with testosterone concentration. These results demonstrated variations in the immunostaining pattern, regionalization, and number of AR-ir cells throughout development, growth, and reproductive cycle, suggesting the involvement of AR in the regulation of the pituitary activity of male viscacha.

  16. Comparative analysis of antioxidants against cadmium induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Khan, Mehreen; Ahmed, Shakeel; Ullah, Hizb

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the potential benefits of three different antioxidants in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Rats (n = 5) weighing 180 +/- 20 gm were divided into five groups (control, Cd, Cd + sulforaphane, Cd + vitamin E, and Cd + plant extract). Treated groups received CdCl2 (0.2 mg/kg), sulforaphane (25 µg/rat), vitamin E (75 mg/kg), and plant extract (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples and testicular tissues were obtained for estimation of testosterone, Zn, and Cd concentration and daily sperm production/efficiency of sperm production. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease in final body weight (p Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease (p toxicity. Present findings suggest that Ficus religiosa and sulforaphane are more powerful antioxidants as compared to vitamin E in reversing the oxidative stress and can have a protective role against Cd induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Part of the mechanism involved in this protective role seems to be associated with the antioxidant properties of these agents in reducing reproductive damage.

  17. An overview of male reproductive studies of boron with an emphasis on studies of highly exposed Chinese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Bonde, Jens Peter; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Culver, B Dwight; Li, Yanhong; Sullivan, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Boron treatment of rats, mice, and dogs has been associated with testicular toxicity, characterized by inhibited spermiation at lower dose levels and a reduction in epididymal sperm count at higher dose levels. The no-adverse-effect level for reproductive effects in male rats is 17.5mg B/kg bw/day. Earlier studies in human workers and populations have not identified adverse effects of boron exposure on fertility, but outcome measures in these studies were relatively insensitive, based mainly on family size and did not include an evaluation of semen end points. A recent study of nearly 1000 men working in boron (B) mining or processing in Liaoning province in northeast China has been published in several Chinese and a few English language papers. This study included individual assessment of boron exposure, interview data on reproductive experience and semen analysis. Employed men living in the same community and in a remote community were used as controls. Boron workers (n=75) had a mean daily boron intake of 31.3mg B/day, and a subset of 16 of these men, employed at a plant where there was heavy boron contamination of the water supply, had an estimated mean daily boron intake of 125 mg B/day. Estimates of mean daily boron intake in local community and remote background controls were 4.25mg B/day and 1.40 mg/day, respectively. Reproductive outcomes in the wives of 945 boron workers were not significantly different from outcomes in the wives of 249 background control men after adjustment for potential confounders. There were no statistically significant differences in semen characteristics between exposure groups, including in the highly exposed subset, except that sperm Y:X ratio was reduced in boron workers. Within exposure groups the Y:X ratio did not correlate with the boron concentration in blood, semen and urine. In conclusion, while boron has been shown to adversely affect male reproduction in laboratory animals, there is no clear evidence of male reproductive

  18. Infection increases the value of nuptial gifts, and hence male reproductive success, in the Hymenolepis diminuta-Tenebrio molitor association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Hilary; Ardin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During copulation, male insects pass accessory gland components to the female with the spermatophore. These gifts can affect female reproductive behaviour, ovulation and oviposition. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, mated with males infected with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, produced significantly more offspring than those mated with uninfected males. There is a significant positive relationship between parasite intensity in the male and reproductive output in the female. Infection results in a significant increase in bean-shaped accessory gland (BAG) size. We suggest that infected males pass superior nuptial gifts to females and discuss the confounding effects of infection in male and female beetles upon overall fitness costs of infection for the host and the likelihood that the parasite is manipulating host investment in reproduction. PMID:14667373

  19. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic architecture of threshold reaction norms for male alternative reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier Lepais; Aurélie Manicki; Stéphane Glise; Mathieu Buoro; Agnès Bardonnet

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we study the genetic effect and architecture of the variability in reproductive tactics among Atlantic salmon males which can either mature sexually early in life in freshwater or more commonly...

  1. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Toppari, Jorma; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Ziebe, Søren; Priskorn, Lærke; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography. PMID:26582516

  2. Fat is sexy for females but not males: the influence of body reserves on reproduction in snakes (Vipera aspis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien; Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier

    2002-09-01

    Reproduction is energetically expensive for both sexes, but the magnitude of expenditure and its relationship to reproductive success differ fundamentally between males and females. Males allocate relatively little to gamete production and, thus, can reproduce successfully with only minor energy investment. In contrast, females of many species experience high fecundity-independent costs of reproduction (such as migration to nesting sites), so they need to amass substantial energy reserves before initiating reproductive activity. Thus, we expect that the relationship between energy reserves and the intensity of reproductive behavior involves a threshold effect in females, but a gradual (or no) effect in males. We tested this prediction using captive vipers (Vipera aspis), dividing both males and females into groups of high versus low body condition. Snakes from each group were placed together and observed for reproductive behavior; sex-steroid levels were also measured. As predicted, females in below-average body condition had very low estradiol levels and did not show sexual receptivity, whereas males of all body condition indices had significant testosterone levels and displayed active courtship. Testosterone levels and courtship intensity increased gradually (i.e., no step function) with body condition in males, but high estradiol levels and sexual receptivity were seen only in females with body reserves above a critical threshold. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  3. Investigations on reproductive physiology in the male Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göritz, Frank; Neubauer, Katrin; Naidenko, Sergey V; Fickel, Joerns; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2006-10-01

    This study characterized (in vivo) morphological and functional parameters of reproductive organs of adult male lynx (n = 3) prior to, during, and after the breeding season (n = 3). Size and morphology of the reproductive tract were monitored by transcutaneous (testes) and transrectal (accessory sex glands) ultrasonography. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Ejaculate volume, sperm number, motility, and morphology of spermatozoa as well as testosterone concentrations in blood serum and feces were evaluated. The testes and prostate had seasonal changes in size and echotexture. The mean (+/- S.D.) maximum and minimum testicular volume were 2.8 +/- 0.8 cm3 and 1.5 +/- 0.3 cm3, respectively. Fecal testosterone concentrations were highest in February (1240 +/- 393 ng/g feces), with a second increase in May (971 +/- 202 ng/g feces), but concentrations were lowest in January (481 +/- 52.9 ng/g feces). Ejaculate volume, total sperm number and percentage of motile, and intact spermatozoa were maximal in March (the middle of the breeding season). In one of the eight litters, multiple paternity was proven; however, in the remaining seven litters, all 16 cubs were sired by the same male. This particular male had the most developed and active testes and best semen quality, which may be important for sperm competition.

  4. Male reproductive ageing: using the brown Norway rat as a model for man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Hikim, Amiva Sinha; Ferrini, Monica; Bonavera, Juan J; Vernet, Dolores; Leung, Andrew; Lue, Yan-He; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-01-01

    The Brown Norway (BN) rat is an excellent model for male reproductive ageing. We and others have shown that with ageing, the BN rat exhibits low serum testosterone, low Leydig cell steroidogenic capacity, decreased Sertoli cell function and number, marked reduction in seminiferous tubule volume and sperm content, and accelerated germ cell apoptosis. These testicular changes are the result of a combination of a primary testicular defect and a secondary hypothalamic dysfunction. Leydig cell dysfunction results from decreased activities of the steroidogenic enzymes and Leydig cell secretory capacity and is not corrected by daily administration of replacement luteinizing hormone (LH), suggesting a primary testicular defect. However ageing in male BN rats is associated with decreased LH pulse amplitude, reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin responsiveness to excitatory amino acids, and decreased GnRH mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus. We have further shown in the hypothalamus of ageing BN rats that while the excitatory amino acid receptor content is reduced, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is increased which is due to increased inducible (iNOS) but not neuronal NOS (nNOS). The increased iNOS protein in the hypothalamus is associated with increased peroxynitrite formation and neuronal cell apoptosis. We conclude that increased hypothalamic levels of iNOS may result in neurotoxicity in the hypothalamus leading to loss of hypothalamic GnRH secretory cells and impaired GnRH pulsatile secretion that contributes to the abnormal Leydig cell function characteristic of male reproductive ageing.

  5. Lines of male care geared to sexual health, reproduction and paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Romeu; Albernaz, Lidianne; Ribeiro, Cláudia Regina Santos; Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes; Nascimento, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The article seeks to propose principles for male care geared to sexual health, reproduction and paternity, as well as present a blueprint for the involvement of men in prenatal care. The proposal of the authors was submitted to a consensus building process with invited experts. The main results presented include: (a) the principles of lines of male care geared to sexual health, reproduction and paternity; and (b) a blueprint for the involvement of men in prenatal care. The conclusion drawn is that the cultural preconceptions of how males should lead their lives, including their social relations and roles as fathers interfere in health care actions and touch on three main points: (a) the idea of man as a collaborator in the promotion of the health of his partner while pregnant and/or his offspring; (b) the idea of paternity being strongly linked to being the financial provider; (c) the hiatus generated between the traditional concept of paternity and the new family and gender patterns.

  6. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  7. Brca1 Mutations Enhance Mouse Reproductive Functions by Increasing Responsiveness to Male-Derived Scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Pike, Malcolm C; Wu, Nancy; Lin, Yvonne G; Mucowski, Sara; Punj, Vasu; Tang, Yuan; Yen, Hai-Yun; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Enbom, Elena; Austria, Theresa; Widschwendter, Martin; Maxson, Robert; Dubeau, Louis

    2015-01-01

    We compared the gene expression profiles of ovarian granulosa cells harboring either mutant or wild type Brca1 to follow up on our earlier observation that absence of a functional Brca1 in these important regulators of menstrual/estrous cycle progression leads to prolongation of the pre-ovulatory phase of the estrous cycle and to increased basal levels of circulating estradiol. Here we show that ovarian granulosa cells from mice carrying a conditional Brca1 gene knockout express substantially higher levels of olfactory receptor mRNA than granulosa cells from wild type littermates. This led us to hypothesize that reproductive functions in mutant female mice might be more sensitive to male-derived scent than in wild type female mice. Indeed, it is well established that isolation from males leads to complete cessation of mouse estrous cycle activity while exposure to olfactory receptor ligands present in male urine leads to resumption of such activity. We found that Brca1-/- female mice rendered anovulatory by unisexual isolation resumed ovulatory activity more rapidly than their wild type littermates when exposed to bedding from cages where males had been housed. The prime mediator of this increased responsiveness appears to be the ovary and not olfactory neurons. This conclusion is supported by the fact that wild type mice in which endogenous ovaries had been replaced by Brca1-deficient ovarian transplants responded to male-derived scent more robustly than mutant mice in which ovaries had been replaced by wild type ovarian transplants. Our findings not only have important implications for our understanding of the influence of olfactory signals on reproductive functions, but also provide insights into mechanisms whereby genetic risk factors for breast and extra uterine Müllerian carcinomas may influence menstrual activity in human, which is itself an independent risk factor for these cancers.

  8. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole (MTZ is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoaldrug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activityand sperm indices.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ onthe structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organshave been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally withMTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive daysto study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility.Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessationof the treatment.Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day neither altered the weights ofthe testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices.The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day caused significant reductions in theweights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at thehigh dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remainedunaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count ofepididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminalvesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes werenoticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treatedmice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leadingto an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease wasnoticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinducedchanges in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 daysafter cessation of the treatment.Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproductionand fertility.

  9. Reproductive maturation in the male Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx): a study on 55 reproductive organs collected from carcasses during 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Uhlhorn, H; Agren, E; Mörner, T

    2009-06-01

    Data on reproductive physiology from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are still scarce. The lynx is protected under Swedish hunting legislation. All lynx that are found dead or that are culled at hunting are to be sent to the Swedish National Veterinary Institute. In this study, we examined reproductive organs from 55 male lynx collected during the years 2002-2005. Age, body weight, testicular weight and volume, production of spermatozoa, and sperm viability were evaluated. The majority of the animals (39) had been killed in February and March, which is during the hunting season. The ages varied between 6 months and 17 years, body weight between 3.6 and 25.5 kg, and mean testes weight between 0.16 and 3.16 g. The gonadosomatic index was low compared with other species (approximately 0.02% in mature males). Mean testes weight differed significantly between males <12 months of age and all other age groups but did not differ between males of 18-23 months and older males. Spermatozoa could be collected but had lost most of their viability. Seven of 10 males of 18-23 months were fertile, as defined by the production of spermatozoa while no males < or =15 months of age were fertile. Adherence of the prepuce to the penis and absence of penile spines were associated with immaturity. The results indicate that most males are fertile during the reproductive season of their second year.

  10. Reproductive effects of the psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure

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    Alana de Fátima Andrade Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage used ancestrally by indigenous Amazonian tribes and, more recently, by Christian religions in Brazil and other countries. This study aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of this beverage in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure. The rats were treated by gavage every other day for 70 days at 0 (control, 1×, 2×, 4× and 8× the dose used in a religious ritual (12 animals per group, and animals euthanized on the 71st day. Compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain in rats from the 4× and 8× groups, and a significant increase in the brain and stomach relative weight at the 8× group. There was a significant increase in total serum testosterone, and a decrease in spermatic transit time and spermatic reserves in the epididymis caudae in the 4× group, but not in the highest dose group. No significant changes were found in the other reproductive endpoints (spermatozoid motility and morphology, total spermatozoid count and daily sperm production, and histology of testis and epididymis. This study identified a no-observed-adverse-effect-level for chronic and reproductive effects of ayahuasca in male Wistar rats at 2× the ritualistic dose, which corresponds in this study to 0.62 mg/kg bw N, N-dimethyltryptamine, 6.6 mg/kg bw harmine and 0.52 mg/kg bw harmaline. A potential toxic effect of ayahuasca in male rats was observed at the 4× dose, with a non-monotonic dose–response. Studies investigating the role of ayahuasca components in regulating testosterone levels are needed to better understand this action.

  11. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

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    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-12-20

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at Pcaffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during different gestational periods adversely

  12. Melatonin Regulates the Synthesis of Steroid Hormones on Male Reproduction: A Review

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    Kun Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exhibits different effects in long-day and short-day breeding animals. Testosterone, the main resource of androgens in the testis, is produced by Leydig cells but regulated mainly by cytokine secreted by Sertoli cells. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular proliferation and energy metabolism and, consequently, can regulate steroidogenesis. These suggest melatonin as a key player in the regulation of steroidogenesis. However, the melatonin-induced regulation of steroid hormones may differ among species, and the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on steroidogenesis and male reproduction.

  13. Precopulatory but not postcopulatory male reproductive traits diverge in response to mating system manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Wensing, Kristina U; Koppik, Mareike; Fricke, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Competition between males creates potential for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict. Theory predicts that males facing risk of sperm competition should evolve traits to secure their reproductive success. If those traits are costly to females, the evolution of such traits may also increase conflict between the sexes. Conversely, under the absence of sperm competition, one expectation is for selection on male competitive traits to relax thereby also relaxing sexual conflict. Experimental evolution studies are a powerful tool to test this expectation. Studies in multiple insect species have yielded mixed and partially conflicting results. In this study, we evaluated male competitive traits and male effects on female costs of mating in Drosophila melanogaster after replicate lines evolved for more than 50 generations either under enforced monogamy or sustained polygamy, thus manipulating the extent of intrasexual competition between males. We found that in a setting where males competed directly with a rival male for access to a female and fertilization of her ova polygamous males had superior reproductive success compared to monogamous males. When comparing reproductive success solely in double mating standard sperm competition assays, however, we found no difference in male sperm defense competitiveness between the different selection regimes. Instead, we found monogamous males to be inferior in precopulatory competition, which indicates that in our system, enforced monogamy relaxed selection on traits important in precopulatory rather than postcopulatory competition. We discuss our findings in the context of findings from previous experimental evolution studies in Drosophila ssp. and other invertebrate species.

  14. The RGS gene loco is essential for male reproductive system differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Yu Fengwei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loco gene encodes several different isoforms of a regulator of G-protein signalling. These different isoforms of LOCO are part of a pathway enabling cells to respond to external signals. LOCO is known to be required at various developmental stages including neuroblast division, glial cell formation and oogenesis. Less is known about LOCO and its involvement in male development therefore to gain further insight into the role of LOCO in development we carried out a genetic screen and analysed males with reduced fertility. Results We identified a number of lethal loco mutants and four semi-lethal lines, which generate males with reduced fertility. We have identified a fifth loco transcript and show that it is differentially expressed in developing pupae. We have characterised the expression pattern of all loco transcripts during pupal development in the adult testes, both in wild type and loco mutant strains. In addition we also show that there are various G-protein α subunits expressed in the testis all of which may be potential binding partners of LOCO. Conclusion We propose that the male sterility in the new loco mutants result from a failure of accurate morphogenesis of the adult reproductive system during metamorphosis, we propose that this is due to a loss of expression of loco c3. Thus, we conclude that specific isoforms of loco are required for the differentiation of the male gonad and genital disc.

  15. The RGS gene loco is essential for male reproductive system differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    McGurk, Leeanne; Pathirana, Stephen; Rothwell, Kathleen; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Colombini, Paolo; Yu, Fengwei; Chia, William; Bownes, Mary

    2008-04-03

    The loco gene encodes several different isoforms of a regulator of G-protein signalling. These different isoforms of LOCO are part of a pathway enabling cells to respond to external signals. LOCO is known to be required at various developmental stages including neuroblast division, glial cell formation and oogenesis. Less is known about LOCO and its involvement in male development therefore to gain further insight into the role of LOCO in development we carried out a genetic screen and analysed males with reduced fertility. We identified a number of lethal loco mutants and four semi-lethal lines, which generate males with reduced fertility. We have identified a fifth loco transcript and show that it is differentially expressed in developing pupae. We have characterised the expression pattern of all loco transcripts during pupal development in the adult testes, both in wild type and loco mutant strains. In addition we also show that there are various G-protein alpha subunits expressed in the testis all of which may be potential binding partners of LOCO. We propose that the male sterility in the new loco mutants result from a failure of accurate morphogenesis of the adult reproductive system during metamorphosis, we propose that this is due to a loss of expression of loco c3. Thus, we conclude that specific isoforms of loco are required for the differentiation of the male gonad and genital disc.

  16. Reproductive traits and number of matings in males and females of Cerambyx welensii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) an emergent pest of oaks.

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    Torres-Vila, L M; Mendiola-Diaz, F J; Conejo-Rodríguez, Y; Sánchez-González, Á

    2016-06-01

    The longhorn beetle Cerambyx welensii is an emerging pest involved in oak decline episodes, whose damage is increasingly reported in dehesa open woodlands. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of C. welensii is a crucial goal due to its new pest status. In this study, we assess the reproductive traits of both sexes in the laboratory (25°C and 60% relative humidity ). In females, body length was 44.9 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SE), fecundity 132 ± 12 eggs, fertility 70 ± 1 %, longevity 70 ± 3 days, preoviposition period 2 ± 0.2 days, oviposition period 44 ± 3 days and postoviposition period 19 ± 3 days. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.0 ± 0.2 eggs/day and showed a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 4.24 ± 0.01 mm and egg volume 8.14 ± 0.04 mm3. Egg size was correlated with female size but the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.9 ± 0.1 days and hatching did not depend on egg size. Neonate size was positively correlated with egg length. Females were polyandrous (more than 20 lifetime matings) but multiple mating did not increase fecundity, fertility or longevity. In males, body length was 43.7 ± 0.6 mm and longevity 52 ± 3 days. Unlike with females, longevity was positively correlated with male size. Males were polygynous (up to 30 lifetime matings) but mating history did not affect male longevity. Rather to the contrary, long-lived males mated more times because they had more mating chances. Lastly, C. welensii reproductive traits were compared with those other Cerambycidae species and discussed from an adaptive perspective. Our data will be useful to improve management of C. welensii in order to prevent or mitigate its impact in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests.

  17. Long-Term Impact of Immunosuppressants at Therapeutic Doses on Male Reproductive System in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats: A Comparative Study

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    Yehui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are commonly used in renal transplant recipients to prevent rejection. However, information for comparative effects of these agents on the male productive system is extremely limited and controversial. In a physiologically and clinically relevant rat model of unilateral nephrectomy, we demonstrated that long-term oral administration of both cyclosporine and sirolimus at doses equivalent to the therapeutic levels used for postrenal transplant patients significantly affects testicular development and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis accompanied by profound histological changes of testicular structures on both light and electron microscopic examinations. Spermatogenesis was also severely impaired as indicated by low total sperm counts along with reduction of sperm motility and increase in sperm abnormality after treatment with these agents, which may lead to male infertility. On the other hand, treatment with therapeutic dose of tacrolimus only induced mild reduction of sperm count without histological evidence of testicular injury. The current study clearly demonstrates that commonly used immunosuppressants have various impacts on male reproductive system even at therapeutic levels. Our data provide useful information for the assessment of male infertility in renal transplant recipients who wish to father children. Clinical trials to address these issues should be urged.

  18. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

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    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  19. Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in three different body fluids and male reproductive parameters: a pilot study

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    Ten Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. Methods The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury in three different body fluids. Sixty one men attending infertility clinics that participated in a case-control study to explore the role of environmental toxins and lifestyles on male infertility were analyzed. Concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in blood and seminal plasma and whole blood using anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlations were used for unadjusted analyses. Multiple linear regression models were performed controlling for age, body mass index and number of cigarettes per day. Results There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the concentrations of heavy metals in any of the three body fluids. In multivariate analyses using all subjects no significant associations were found between serum hormone levels and metal concentrations. However there was a significant positive association between the percentage of immotile sperms and seminal plasma levels of lead and cadmium. Conclusions Our results suggest that the presence of lead and cadmium in the reproductive tract of men may be related to a moderate alteration of their seminal parameters.

  20. Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in three different body fluids and male reproductive parameters: a pilot study.

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    Mendiola, Jaime; Moreno, José M; Roca, Manuela; Vergara-Juárez, Nuria; Martínez-García, María J; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Moreno-Grau, Stella; López-Espín, José J; Ten, Jorge; Bernabeu, Rafael; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2011-01-19

    Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury) in three different body fluids. Sixty one men attending infertility clinics that participated in a case-control study to explore the role of environmental toxins and lifestyles on male infertility were analyzed. Concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in blood and seminal plasma and whole blood using anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlations were used for unadjusted analyses. Multiple linear regression models were performed controlling for age, body mass index and number of cigarettes per day. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the concentrations of heavy metals in any of the three body fluids. In multivariate analyses using all subjects no significant associations were found between serum hormone levels and metal concentrations. However there was a significant positive association between the percentage of immotile sperms and seminal plasma levels of lead and cadmium. Our results suggest that the presence of lead and cadmium in the reproductive tract of men may be related to a moderate alteration of their seminal parameters.

  1. 'Man Up': the importance and strategy for placing male reproductive health centre stage in the political and research agenda.

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    Barratt, Christopher L R; De Jonge, Christopher J; Sharpe, Richard M

    2018-02-07

    Approximately 1 in 20 young men today have sperm counts low enough to impair fertility, whereas this may not have been the case historically. The cause(s) of such a decline in male reproductive health is unknown, despite it being a global health issue. Concomitantly, little progress has been made in answering fundamental questions in andrology or in developing new diagnostic tools or alternative management strategies to ICSI in infertile men. We advocate formulation of a detailed roadmap for male reproductive health to facilitate development of a research agenda that highlights the present unmet needs and key unanswered questions, and seeks to deliver effective funding and investment to address them. This vision we term 'a Male Reproductive Health Ecosystem'. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  2. Semen and reproductive parameters during some abstinence periods after cigarette smoke exposure in male rats

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    Michele Kimie Sankako

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is very widespread globally and can also be implicated in male and female infertility. This study aimed to evaluate the testicular function throughout a complete spermatic cycle during abstinence from cigarette smoke exposure in order to identify a possible residual damage and whether the parameters could recover spontaneously. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and cigarette smoke-exposed (20 cigarettes/day/2 months groups. After finishing the treatment, according to the number of days after the last cigarette exposure (0, 15, 30, or 60 days, the rats were euthanized and analyzed for compromised sperm count and quality. Results showed residual damage on sperm concentration, motility and morphology; the recovery of these parameters occurred only at 60th days of abstinence. The study showed that cigarette smoke exposure damaged the semen and reproductive parameters and that the spontaneous recovery of some parameters occurred only after a complete spermatic cycle subsequent to stopping smoke exposure.

  3. Significance of positive semen culture in relation to male infertility and the assisted reproductive technology process.

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    Jue, Joshua S; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2017-10-01

    There are currently no WHO guidelines on the indications for semen culture; however, semen cultures are performed in the evaluation of male infertility and the assisted reproductive technology (ART) process. The relevance and significance of positive semen cultures is widely debated in the literature, with no current consensus on the usefulness of this test in relation to male infertility. We review the pathogenic mechanisms of potentially pathogenic bacteria, general bacteria, urethral flora, and skin flora on sperm parameters. We also present, possible routes of semen contamination, measures to reduce contamination, and the clinical significance of culture contamination. First, it is critical to distinguish round cells in semen as leukocytes from immature germ cells. Second, it is critical to distinguish leukocytospermia from infected semen in order to guide management.

  4. Reproductive health of male Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

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    Glass Deborah C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424 and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548. The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficulties achieving pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes including live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations; and for all live births gestation, birth weight, sex, and any cancers, birth defects, chromosomal abnormalities or serious health problems. Results Male Gulf War veterans reported slightly increased risk of fertility difficulties following the Gulf War (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.8, but were more successful at subsequently fathering a child (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.6. The study groups reported similar rates of pregnancies and live births. There was no increased risk in veterans of miscarriage, stillbirth, or terminations. Children of male Gulf War veterans born after the period of the Gulf War were not at greater risk of being born prematurely, having a low birth weight, or having a birth defect or chromosomal abnormality (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.6–1.6. The numbers of cancers and deaths in children were too small to draw any firm conclusions. Conclusion The results of this study do not show an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcome in Australian male Gulf War veterans.

  5. Overexpression of PRL7D1 in Leydig Cells Causes Male Reproductive Dysfunction in Mice.

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    Liu, Yaping; Su, Xingyu; Hao, Jie; Chen, Maoxin; Liu, Weijia; Liao, Xiaogang; Li, Gang

    2016-01-13

    Prolactin family 7, subfamily d, member 1 (PRL7D1) is found in mouse placenta. Our recent work showed that PRL7D1 is also present in mouse testis Leydig cells, and the expression of PRL7D1 in the testis exhibits an age-related increase. In the present study, we generated transgenic mice with Leydig cell-specific PRL7D1 overexpression to explore its function during male reproduction. Prl7d1 male mice exhibited subfertility as reflected by reduced sperm counts and litter sizes. The testes from Prl7d1 transgenic mice appeared histologically normal, but the frequency of apoptotic germ cells was increased. Prl7d1 transgenic mice also had lower testosterone concentrations than wild-type mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Prl7d1 transgenic mice have defects in the testicular expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase cluster (HSD3B). Further studies revealed that PRL7D1 overexpression affected the expression of transferrin (TF) in Sertoli cells. These results suggest that PRL7D1 overexpression could lead to increased germ cell apoptosis and exert an inhibitory effect on testosterone production in Leydig cells by reducing the expression of certain steroidogenic-related genes. In addition, PRL7D1 appears to have important roles in the function of Sertoli cells, which, in turn, affects male fertility. We conclude that the expression level of PRL7D1 is associated with the reproductive function of male mice.

  6. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters

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    Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter’s home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  7. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

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    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  8. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.

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    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ΣPCBs (pmol/ml), Σdioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. © 2014 The authors.

  9. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

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    Archana Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry.

  10. Bill redness is positively associated with reproduction and survival in male and female zebra finches.

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    Mirre J P Simons

    Full Text Available Sexual traits can serve as honest indicators of phenotypic quality when they are costly. Brightly coloured yellow to red traits, which are pigmented by carotenoids, are relatively common in birds, and feature in sexual selection. Carotenoids have been linked to immune and antioxidant function, and the trade-off between ornamentation and these physiological functions provides a potential mechanism rendering carotenoid based signals costly. Mutual ornamentation is also common in birds and can be maintained by mutual mate choice for this ornament or by a correlated response in one sex to selection on the other sex. When selection pressures differ between the sexes this can cause intralocus sexual conflict. Sexually antagonistic selection pressures have been demonstrated for few sexual traits, and for carotenoid-dependent traits there is a single example: bill redness was found to be positively associated with survival and reproductive output in male zebra finches, but negatively so in females. We retested these associations in our captive zebra finch population without two possible limitations of this earlier study. Contrary to the earlier findings, we found no evidence for sexually antagonistic selection. In both sexes, individuals with redder bills showed higher survival. This association disappeared among the females with the reddest bills. Furthermore, females with redder bills achieved higher reproductive output. We conclude that bill redness of male and female zebra finches honestly signals phenotypic quality, and discuss the possible causes of the differences between our results and earlier findings.

  11. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  12. Should HCV discordant couples with a seropositive male partner be treated with assisted reproduction techniques (ART)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasi, Valeria; Oneta, Monica; Parrilla, Bina; Cetin, Irene

    2013-04-01

    The debate on HCV discordant couples requiring assisted reproduction is still open today, and specific guidelines have not yet been established on whether or not physicians should treat HCV discordant couples who require ART. We studied the results of our reproductive assistance with sperm washing in HCV discordant couples, all treated in a single center, including the serological status of mothers and babies, and the outcome of the pregnancies. Prospective study conducted between January 2008 and December 2010 in our Reproductive Center in Sacco Hospital, University of Milan. Thirty-five HCV serodiscordant infertile couples with an HCV viremic positive male partner were enrolled. All of them completed the immuno-virological and fertility triage, and were treated according to our clinical protocols. Forty-seven superovulation and IUI and 38 second-level ART procedures are reported. The pregnancy rates for IUI and ICSI are similar to those reported by the Italian ART register. All the 85 sperm samples were treated with sperm washing technique to reduce HCV in semen and the possible risk of transmission. We did not observe any preterm delivery or negative perinatal outcome. No mothers or babies are infected by HCV. This is the biggest prospective study conducted in a single center involving HCV discordant infertile couples in an ART program. Although sexual transmission of HCV is very low, in subfertile or infertile couples sperm washing should be used to treat HCV positive semen before ART. We suggest that it is not necessary to perform nested PCR to detect HCV RNA in the final swim-up. Since the presence of HCV in semen implies a possible risk of nosocomial contamination, safety regulations must be strictly applied in assisted reproduction laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using the alkaline comet assay in prognostic tests for male infertility and assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheena E M; Agbaje, Ishola M

    2008-05-01

    Infertility affects one in six couples in Europe during their reproductive years with dysfunctional sperm being one of the most common causes. Conventional semen analysis has proven variable and lacking in prognostic value so, over the past decade, more useful molecular fertility biomarkers have been explored. Among the tests showing most promise are those measuring sperm DNA quality. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health, including, fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion and childhood diseases. It therefore has great potential as a prognostic test for assisted reproductive treatment (ART), when couples are presenting with male infertility. Unlike somatic cells, sperm have a unique tightly compacted chromatin structure. Our group has modified the alkaline comet assay for use with sperm. Sperm DNA also differs from somatic cells in its high susceptibility to oxidative damage; this is largely due to the presence of abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids acting as substrates for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its lack of repair mechanisms. Consequently, the effects of ROS and antioxidant protection on sperm DNA fragmentation have been widely investigated. In this review, the relationship between actual sperm DNA damage as determined by the alkaline comet assay and potential DNA damage as measured by DNA adduct testing will also be examined and the potential of routine clinical practices such as cryopreservation and prolonged incubation to induce further DNA damage was investigated. Finally, the usefulness of sperm DNA tests as prognostic markers and in particular, the opportunities and challenges provided by DNA testing in male fertility determination will be discussed.

  14. Endosulfan is toxic to the reproductive health of male freshwater fish, Cyprinion watsoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Fakhar ul; Jalali, Samina; Shafqat, Mustafa Nawaz; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide that is toxic to aquatic life. Endosulfan might hamper the reproductive health of indigenous fish in agricultural areas of Pakistan where this pesticide is sprayed widely. The aim of the current study is to investigate the toxic effects of endosulfan on selected reproductive parameters of male freshwater fish, Cyprinion watsoni. Two concentrations of endosulfan (0.5 and 1 ppb for 30 days exposure) were tested for their effects on body weight, body length, and testicular weight, length, and width. Testicular testosterone was assayed from tissue extracts using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A significant increase in the mortality rate was observed in both treated groups during both spawning and quiescent seasons. The overall behavior of fish in the aquarium was normal in all control and treated groups. However, the treated fish exhibited anxiety after treatment with endosulfan. The body weight and length, and testicular weight, length and width were not significantly different to the control group. The testicular testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in both endosulfan-treated groups compared to the control. The decrease was dose-dependent, with a significant difference between the two treated groups. The histomorphological results demonstrated various testicular alterations in the treated groups. These alterations included an increase in interlobular areas and clumping patterns in spermatocytes/spermatids. Because spermatids eventually differentiate into sperms, their low count will directly result in lower sperm count. Taken together, these results suggest that endosulfan is a toxicant that at least disturbs testosterone levels (possibly others) and negatively impacts the reproductive health of male freshwater fish.

  15. Male effect associated with suckling interruption on the reproductive performance of Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Cavalcante Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temporary suckling interruption associated with the male effect on reproductive performance of pluriparous Santa Inês ewes. The females were kept apart from the males for 60 days and then randomly distributed into three treatments associated with the male effect (DT0, DT24 and DT48; in DT0, there was no suckling interruption; in DT24, suckling was interrupted for 24 hours, and in DT48, sucking was interrupted for 48 hours. Estrous distribution was observed within 31 (DT0, 27 (DT24 and 38 (DT48 days of the breeding season. Estrous synchronization up to the 5th day of the mating season was observed in 15% (DT0, 30% (DT24 and 25% (DT48 of the females, with no difference among treatments. Estrous percentages were 90% (DT0, 100% (DT24 and 100% (DT48, with no difference among treatments. Pregnancy rates were 38.4% (DT0, 60.0% (DT24 and 45.0% (DT48 with no difference among treatments. Prolificacy was 1.43 (DT0, 1.17 (DT24 and 1.22 (DT48 and did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, temporary suckling interruption associated with the male effect is efficient to induce estrous but not to synchronize estrous or increase the pregnancy rates and prolificacy of Santa Inês ewes during a 45-day breeding season.

  16. An assessment of the reproductive performance of estrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... from when the doe was exposed to the buck to the time of expressing standing estrus (heat). This stage marked the final stage of the experiments whereby the reproductive performance of the does after synchronized estrus was assessed. Data collection from the day of mating, through gestation period.

  17. Assessing communication on sexual and reproductive health issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    1School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Original article. Assessing communication on sexual and reproductive health issues among high school students with their parents, Bullen. Woreda, Benishangul Gumuz Region, North West Ethiopia. Desalegn Gebre Yesus1, Mesganaw Fantahun1.

  18. Assessment of different selection criteriafor reproduction rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of different selection criteriafor reproduction rate in Dormer and S.A. Mutton Merino sheep. 2. Luteinizing hormone concentrations in the serum of prepubertal lambs. N.M. Kritzinger, H.W. Stindt and J.M. van der Westhuysen. Winter Rainfall Region, Eisenburg. Data of all the lambs born to the Elsenburg Dormer ...

  19. Sperm banking for male reproductive preservation: a 6-year retrospective multi-centre study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Yao, Kang-Shou; Xu, Peng; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Sperm banking can preserve male fertility effectively, but the current conditions of sperm cryopreservation in China have not been investigated. This retrospective investigation was based on data collected at multiple centres in China from January 2003 to December 2008. The collected data included urogenital history, indication for cryopreservation, semen parameters, use rate, type of assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatment and pregnancy outcome. The study population included 1 548 males who had banked their semen during the study period at one of the clinics indicated above. Approximately 1.9% (30/1 548) of the cryopreserved semen samples were collected from cancer patients; about 88.8% (1 374/1 548) of the patients had banked their semen for ART and 8.6% (134/1 548) had a male infertility disease (such as anejaculation, severe oligozoospermia and obstructive azoospermia). The total use rate of cryopreserved semen was 22.7% (352/1 548), with 119 live births. The cancer group use rate was 6.7% (2/30), with one live birth by intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI). The ART group use rate was 23.2% (319/1 374), with 106 live births. The reproductive disease group use rate was 23.1% (31/134), with 12 live births. The semen parameters in each category varied; the cancer patient and infertility disease groups had poor semen quality. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI were the most common ART treatments for cryopreserved sperm. Semen cryopreservation as a salvage method is effective, but in many conditions it is underutilized, especially in cancer patients. Lack of awareness, urgency of cancer treatment and financial constraints are the main causes of the low access rate. The concept of fertility preservation should be popularized to make better use of this medical service in China. PMID:20348941

  20. Reproductive Health Needs Assessment of Girl and Boy Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shakour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Reproductive health of puberty is very important in the cycle of Life. Adolescence is a very important period of time in cycle of life and it is followed by physical, psychological and social changes. Therefore the aim of this study was needs assessment of reproductive health for adolescence as a first and principal step in curriculum planning for health services. Methods: This study was qualitative like the most needs assessments and the method was content analysis. Data gathering was done by semi structured interview. We used two focus groups (7and 10persons for needs assessment of reproductive health between girls, and personal interview with 10 boys. We did content analysis and then extracted the main themes and sub themes. Results: Adolescent girls had diverse needs in four groups: experiences related to menstruation and hygiene, social needs, sexual needs and psychological needs. Also adolescent boys had three groups of needs like physical changes, psychological and sexual needs. In physical needs group they had some needs like no knowledge of symptoms of adolescence, no knowledge of hygiene related to puberty. In psychological needs group they had some needs like feeling depression and in sexual needs group they had some needs like tendency to make contacts with girls, no knowledge of communication with people with different sex. Conclusion: Education and the systematic planning in reproductive health matters are necessary for parents, teachers and adolescents, and they are known as the prior needs.

  1. Male reproductive system and spermatophores production and storage in Histioteuthis bonnellii (Cephalopoda: Histioteuthidae): A look into deep-sea squids' reproductive strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccu, Danila; Mereu, Marco; Agus, Blondine; Cau, Angelo; Culurgioni, Jacopo; Sabatini, Andrea; Jereb, Patrizia

    2014-09-01

    Coleoid cephalopods go through a single breeding period in their life cycle, i.e., they are semelparous, although a great flexibility has been observed in their reproductive strategies, which range from simultaneous terminal spawning over a short period at the end of the animal's life to continuous spawning over a long period of the animal's life. So far, the information available on deep-sea species reproductive strategies is still poor and most of our knowledge about squid reproduction relates to females. In particular, not much is known on what strategy male squids have evolved to store sperm into spermatophores and adapt to semelparity. In this study an investigation of male reproductive strategy of the deep-sea umbrella squid Histioteuthis bonnellii (Férussac, 1835) is presented. The reproductive system was examined in 119 males caught in the Sardinian waters (Central Western Mediterranean) and is described for the first time. Results indicate that this species produces and stores spermatophores over a considerable period of time. The total number of spermatophores found in the reproductive system ranged between 12 and 3097 and the size of spermatophores stored by a single individual varied greatly, up to over 300%. Spermatophore length (SpL) gradually decreased towards the distal end of the reproductive system, so that spermatophores found in the proximal part of Needham's Sac were larger than those found in the terminal organ. Body size and SpL of spermatophores from the proximal part of Needham's Sac were positively correlated. Both indices of the sperm mass and of the ejaculatory apparatus decreased with the increase of SpL, while the cement body index increased, indicating that larger spermatophores contain less sperm and are equipped with larger cement bodies. Up to 64 spermatangia were found, exclusively in the terminal organ. The large size range of mature males (ML: 60.0-198.0 mm; TW: 113.50-2409.00 g) and the variation in spermatophore number and

  2. Effects of chronic bhang (cannabis) administration on the reproductive system of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Singh, Ajit; Srivastava, Puneet; Turner, Helen; Krishna, Amitabh

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic uptake of bhang, prepared from the Cannabis sativa, on male reproductive physiology in adult male Parkes strain (P) mice. An attempt was also made to investigate the presence of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors, and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the testis and to evaluate any changes in it resulting from chronic intake of bhang in mice. Adult male mice were given bhang (3 or 6 mg/kg body weight/day) orally for 36 consecutive days. Chronic intake of bhang caused regressive changes in the testes and suppressed sperm count, viability and motility. Bhang intake also caused significant decline in circulating testosterone level due to decline in testicular 3β HSD enzyme activity. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated the presence of CB1, CB2 and FAAH in the testis of mice. The present study also showed significant variation in the CB1 and CB2 receptors and FAAH protein levels in testes of mice exposed to bhang. These suppressive effects may be due to inhibitory effect of bhang on pituitary expression of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) I receptor protein. Treatment of testes with bhang in vitro significantly decreased testicular luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and FAAH expression suggesting direct action of bhang on testicular activity. The findings of this study thus suggest that bhang may impair fertility in male mice through alteration in the testicular endocannabinoid system and that chronic bhang exposure in humans would be predicted to alter male fertility. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Bet-hedging against male-caused reproductive failures may explain ubiquitous cuckoldry in female birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yukio; Yoshimura, Jin

    2018-01-21

    The origin and maintenance of polyandry is one of the key unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. In particular, extra-pair paternity (EPP) due to polyandry is observed in most (socially-) monogamous female birds and the frequency of EPP is surprisingly high (up to 72% in a clutch on average in some species). Many case-by-case hypotheses have been presented to explain this phenomenon but a ubiquitous explanation is still lacking. One possible general explanation is bet-hedging, which is a strategy to avoid the risk associated to mating with a single unsuitable male and thus to minimize the chances of complete reproductive failure by the female. Here, we present a mathematical solution to demonstrate that bet-hedging polyandry becomes highly effective if the risk of extinction of a female lineage attributable to male deficiencies is high in small subpopulation or under limited mate availability. Therefore, cuckoldry or polyandry may be a female strategy to spread the risk of extinction of her genotype over multiple males. The results agree well with the observed EPP frequencies in natural populations and the results of a meta-population simulation model. Our theory contributes new insights applicable not only to birds but also to a broad taxonomic range of animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  5. Protection of male reproductive toxicity in rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate during embryonic development by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Reddy, Pamanji Sreenivasula

    2017-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely spread industrial chemical that made drastic alteration in male reproductive system. The present study elucidates the protective role of testosterone on reproductive toxicity in prenatal DBP exposed adult male rats. Pregnant rats were injected with corn oil or 100 and 500mg/kg body weight of DBP on gestation day (GD) 1, 7 and 14. F1 male rats were weaned, injected with either testosterone or vehicle. On postnatal day (PND) 100 F1 adult male rats were cohabited with untreated female rats. Then rats were sacrificed and analyzed for other reproductive end points. Prenatal DBP exposed male rat testes, seminal vesicle weight, sperm count, motility, viability and HOS tail coiled sperm were significantly decreased with increased sperm morphological abnormalities. The levels of testicular 3β, 17βHSD, serum testosterone were significantly decreased with increased FSH, LH levels in experimental rats. The fertility studies revealed that increased pre, post-implantation losses and resorptions in normal females cohabited with experimental rats. Higher testicular LPO with lower SOD, CAT and GPx activity levels in experimental rats. Administration of testosterone to prenatal DBP treated male rats showed significant protection in above all parameters. In conclusions, testosterone deteriorates prenatal DBP induced reproductive and fertility toxicity by decreased oxidative stress and increased testicular antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Male reproductive toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, S.M. [DynCorp/TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Christ, S.A.; Reddy, T.V.; Toth, G.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    1,3-Dinitrobenzene has been characterized as a testicular toxicant in both laboratory rats and mice. Recently, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) has been shown to elicit testicular toxicity in rats. Given the need for data with which to do ecological risk assessments of munitions waste and by-products (including nitrobenzenes), male white-footed mice were fed a diet containing 0, 1 50, 375, or 750 mg TNB/kg diet (20 animals per treatment) for 90 days. Testis weight and epididymis weight variables exhibited considerable variation at time of animal sacrifice and were found not to differ significantly by ANOVA or by Tukey`s Studentized Range Test (SAS, Cary, NC). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility. Optimization of the CeliTrak/S{trademark} (Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, CA) CASA system for tracking sperm heads was performed on sperm from untreated Peromyscus. Cauda epididymal sperm from treated animals were videotaped at 200 frames per second. In addition to the percentage of motile sperm, sperm head curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), and amplitude of head displacement (ALH) were measured. These measurements were also characterized by considerable within-treatment variation, and again no statistical significance was found. Discussion is made regarding the relevance of this feral rodent model for male reproductive toxicity assessment.

  7. Green tea infusion improves cyclophosphamide-induced damage on male mice reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Magalhães Zanchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea presents catechins as its major components and it has a potential antioxidant activity. Cyclophosmamide (CP is an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent, known to reduce fertility. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of green tea infusion on cyclophosphamide-induced damage in male mice reproductive system. Mice received green tea infusion (250 mg/kg or vehicle by gavage for 14 days. Saline or CP were injected intraperitoneally at a single dose (100 mg/kg at the 14th day. Animals were euthanized 24 h after CP administration and testes and epididymis were removed for biochemical analysis and sperm evaluation. Catechins concentration in green tea infusion was evaluated by HPLC. CP increased lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and superoxide dismutase activity whereas sperm concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST and 17β-hydroxysteroid (17β-HSD dehydrogenase activities were reduced in both tissues tested. Catalase activity and protein carbonyl levels were changed only in testes, after CP administration. Green tea pre-treatment reduced significantly lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage and restored GPx and GST activity in testes. In epididymis, therapy significantly increased sperm concentration and restored GPx and 17β-HSD activity. Green tea improves CP-induced damage on reproductive system, probably due to their high catechins content.

  8. Protective Effect of Vitamins E and C on Endosulfan-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Kargar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.Methods: Fifty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each. The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day, or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the testis were determined. Results: Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan.Conclusion: The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  9. Effects of furan on male rat reproduction parameters in a 90-day gavage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gerard M; Taylor, Marnie; Bourque, Christine; Curran, Ivan; Gurofsky, Susan; Gill, Santokh

    2014-07-01

    Furan is produced in foods during processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Previously, we reported that furan-exposed rats exhibited dose-dependent gross and histological changes in liver which correlated with changes in liver serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. Here we report the effects of furan on the male reproductive system. There were no histological or weight changes in the reproductive organs. Serum testosterone levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner whereas serum LH was decreased. There were no changes in 17-OHase, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities or serum FSH. Furan did not alter mRNA expression levels for the LH receptor or Tspo but in contrast, mRNA levels of StAR were increased in all doses of furan. The mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1) was increased by furan at the high dose, as was the level of intratesticular testosterone. We conclude that subchronic furan exposure affects testicular steroidogenesis. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive and immune effects of chronic corticosterone treatment in male White's treefrogs, Litoria caerulea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristine; Devito, Julia; Jones, Caitlin G; Marentes, Adam; Perez, Rachel; Umeh, Lisa; Weickum, Regina M; McGovern, Kathryn E; Wilson, Emma H; Saltzman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian populations are declining globally. The potential contribution of glucocorticoid hormones to these declines has received little attention, but chronic elevation of glucocorticoids has been linked to a suite of negative outcomes across vertebrate taxa. Recently, chronic environmental stress has been associated with precipitous declines in sperm count and sperm viability in White's treefrogs (Litoria caerulea), but the mechanism remains unknown. In order to determine whether corticosterone is responsible for suppressing reproductive and immune function in this species, we elevated circulating concentrations of corticosterone in 10 male captive-bred frogs via transdermal application for 7 days. We compared sperm count, sperm viability, splenic cell count and circulating leucocyte counts in corticosterone-treated frogs with those in untreated control frogs. Chronic application of exogenous corticosterone led to supraphysiological circulating concentrations of corticosterone, but had no effect on sperm count or viability. However, corticosterone-treated frogs demonstrated a significant decrease in circulating eosinophils, which are immune cells implicated in fighting a variety of pathogens, including extracellular parasites. These findings suggest that although chronic elevation of circulating corticosterone is not necessarily associated with reproductive suppression in this species, it may cause immunosuppression. Thus, chronic glucocorticoid elevations in amphibians might enhance susceptibility to infection with pathogens and parasites, and their potential contributions to global population declines warrant further study.

  11. Effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide, clothianidin, on the reproductive organ system in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ramazan; Türk, Gaffari; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Ökkes; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Baydaş, Gıyasettin; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Yener, Zabit; Etem, Ebru; Tuzcu, Zeynep

    2013-10-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a novel, broad-spectrum insecticide. In the current study, it was aimed to study the effect of subchronic exposure to low doses of CTD (2, 8 and 24 mg/kg body weight/day) on the reproductive system in adult rats. CTD treatment did not significantly change serum testosterone level or sperm parameters (e.g. concentration, motility and morphology), but caused significant decreases in weights of epididymis, right cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles. CTD treatment did not cause sperm DNA fragmentation and did not change the apoptotic index in the seminiferous tubules and levels of α-tocopherol and glutathione, but increased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and cholesterol levels significantly at all doses. CTD exposure caused significant elevations in palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids in testis in all CTD-exposed groups. There was a drop in 20:4/18:2 (arachidonic acid/linoleic acid) ratio and an increase in 18:1n-9/18:0 (oleic acid/stearic acid) ratios in all CTD groups, in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, CTD had little detectable detrimental effects on the reproductive system of male rats over the measured parameters.

  12. Identification of pheromone-like compounds in male reproductive organs of the oriental locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Liping; Napolitano, Elio; Serra, Andrea; Zhou, Xianhong; Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-08-09

    Despite the great economical interest of locusts in agriculture, knowledge on their chemoreception systems is still poor. Phenylacetonitrile is recognised as a pheromone of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, triggering gregarization, promoting aggregation and inhibiting courtship. However, in the other major locust species, Locusta migratoria, pheromones have not been reported. We have identified the two isomers of naphthylpropionitrile from the male reproductive organs of L. migratoria. Chemical synthesis has confirmed the identity of the two compounds. Both isomers show significant affinity to CSP91, a protein reported in the testis, but not to three other proteins of the same family (CSP180, CSP540 and CSP884) expressed in female accessory glands. The striking similarity of these compounds with phenylacetonitrile and the unusual nature of such chemicals strongly suggest that naphthylpropionitrile could be pheromones for L. migratoria, while their site of expression and binding activity indicate a role in communication between sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex......, since it is not solely dependent on VDR expression, but also on cellular uptake of circulating VD and presence and activity of VD metabolizing enzymes. Expression of VD metabolizing enzymes has not previously been investigated in human testis and male reproductive tract. Therefore, we performed...... a comprehensive analysis of the expression of VDR, VD activating (CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1) and inactivating (CYP24A1) enzymes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle (SV), prostate and spermatozoa....

  14. A supergene determines highly divergent male reproductive morphs in the ruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Clemens; Stocks, Michael; Risse, Judith E; Dos Remedios, Natalie; Farrell, Lindsay L; McRae, Susan B; Morgan, Tawna C; Karlionova, Natalia; Pinchuk, Pavel; Verkuil, Yvonne I; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Wingfield, John C; Piersma, Theunis; Zeng, Kai; Slate, Jon; Blaxter, Mark; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Three strikingly different alternative male mating morphs (aggressive 'independents', semicooperative 'satellites' and female-mimic 'faeders') coexist as a balanced polymorphism in the ruff, Philomachus pugnax, a lek-breeding wading bird. Major differences in body size, ornamentation, and aggressive and mating behaviors are inherited as an autosomal polymorphism. We show that development into satellites and faeders is determined by a supergene consisting of divergent alternative, dominant and non-recombining haplotypes of an inversion on chromosome 11, which contains 125 predicted genes. Independents are homozygous for the ancestral sequence. One breakpoint of the inversion disrupts the essential CENP-N gene (encoding centromere protein N), and pedigree analysis confirms the lethality of homozygosity for the inversion. We describe new differences in behavior, testis size and steroid metabolism among morphs and identify polymorphic genes within the inversion that are likely to contribute to the differences among morphs in reproductive traits.

  15. Training in male sexual and reproductive health for a primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, Bi

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, I was awarded a scholarship from Universiti Sains Malaysia for Fellowship training at Monash University (MU) for one year. The objective of the training programme was to develop knowledge and skills in several areas, including androgen deficiency, male infertility, prostate disease, testicular tumours, sexual dysfunction and sexually transmitted diseases. The training programme consisted of attachments with clinical specialists, completion of a course work module and a research project. After completion of the training programme, I believe that Primary Care Physicians (PCPs) will benefit from undertaking the training programme that I had completed. It will enable PCPs to assume leadership roles in this multidisciplinary area. The ability of PCPs in handling sexual and reproductive health issues in men will definitely be a more cost effective form of care for patients, particularly as the number of specialists is limited, and even more importantly, it will be satisfying for the patient and the physician.

  16. TRAINING IN MALE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH FOR A PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN

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    SHAIFUL BI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, I was awarded a scholarship from Universiti Sains Malaysia for Fellowship training at Monash University (MU for one year. The objective of the training programme was to develop knowledge and skills in several areas, including androgen deficiency, male infertility, prostate disease, testicular tumours, sexual dysfunction and sexually transmitted diseases. The training programme consisted of attachments with clinical specialists, completion of a course work module and a research project. After completion of the training programme, I believe that Primary Care Physicians (PCPs will benefit from undertaking the training programme that I had completed. It will enable PCPs to assume leadership roles in this multidisciplinary area. The ability of PCPs in handling sexual and reproductive health issues in men will definitely be a more cost effective form of care for patients, particularly as the number of specialists is limited, and even more importantly, it will be satisfying for the patient and the physician.

  17. The Effect of Cinnamon (Bark Extract on Male Reproductive Physiology in Mice

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    M Modaresi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction and Objective: Cinnamon is a plant with the scientific name Cinnamomum zeylanicum that belongs to the Lauraceae family. This plant has many therapeutic effects one of them is the increasing of sexual desire. This study was conducted to find out the effects of Cinnamon extracts on reproductive physiology of male laboratory mice. Materials and Methods: Animals were assigned in six groups, each consisted of eight mice. The mice groups were experimental groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and two control and placebo groups. All animals were kept in same condition. Different doses of Cinnamon hydro-ethanolic extract (50,100,200 and 400mg/kg/2day were injected, intraperitonealy, to animals for 20 days while the control group received normal saline plus ethanol. The most important parameters in this study were included: variation in testicles weight, probabe histological changes in testes, changes in number of sexual cells and density of LH, FSH and testosterone in blood of the subjects. Results: The results indicated that cinnamon can significantly increase the level of LH and FSH in doses of 200, 400 mg/kg. The density of testosterone increased in dose of 50, 100 mg/kg also the number of sperms and primary spermatocytes raise in 100, 200 and 400 cinnamon extract while no significant changes were observed in weight of testicles and also in histological findings. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated the positive effects of cinnamon extract on male reproductive system and hormonal changes in pituitary-gonad axis because sperm count and secretion of FSH hormone had a meaningful significance in dose of 200 and400 mg/kg of the cinnamon extract.

  18. Morphological analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bat Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata T S; Pires, Laís R M; Albernaz, Edna S S; Andrade, Cleber S; Santiago, Cornélio S; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R; Beguelini, Mateus R

    2017-10-21

    Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type of secretion. In contrast, the dorsal region has a typical cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Both regions contain two cell types, basal and secretory cells. Similar to the epithelial morphology, the secretion also varies, with the ventral region containing numerous PAS-positive globular vesicles, whereas the dorsal region has a more fluid, hyaline and PAS-negative secretion. Littre glands are dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, while the bulbourethral glands are located in the penile root, both glands with cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium and globular PAS-positive secretion. The results demonstrate that the RAGs of A. lituratus are composed of two prostatic regions, ventral and dorsal, and urethral and bulbourethral glands, with no seminal vesicles. Each prostatic region has unique and distinctive characteristics, with the ventral region presenting an exclusive holocrine nature and the dorsal region having similarities to the ventral prostate of rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    studies revealed a significant decrease in the mating index in experimental rats with an increase in the pre- and post-implantation losses in rats mated with prenatal AfB1-exposed males, indicating poor male reproductive performance. These results indicate that in utero exposure to AfB1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats, and caused a delay in testes descent and reduction in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis that were accomplished by suppressed reproduction at adulthood.

  20. The Protective Effect of Selenium on Chronic Zearalenone-Induced Reproductive System Damage in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Miao; Yang, Shuhua; Wang, Yuan; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Xinliang; Guo, Jiayi; He, Jianbin; Gao, Zenggui; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-07

    This study aims to explore the protective effect of selenium (Se) on chronic zearalenone (ZEN)-induced reproductive system damage in male mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism against this. The chronic ZEN-induced injury mouse model was established with the continuous intragastric administration of 40 mg/kg body mass (B.M.) ZEN for 28 days. Then, interventions with different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg B.M.) of Se were conducted on mice to analyse the changes in organ indexes of epididymis and testis, antioxidant capability of testis, serum level of testosterone, sperm concentration and motility parameters, and the expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes and blood testis barrier- (BTB) related genes. Our results showed that Se could greatly improve the ZEN-induced decrease of epididymis indexes and testis indexes. Results also showed that the decrease in sperm concentration, sperm normality rate, and sperm motility parameters, including percentage of motile sperm (motile), tropism percentage (progressive) and sperm average path velocity (VAP), caused by ZEN were elevated upon administration of the higher dose (0.4 mg/kg) and intermediate dose (0.2 mg/kg) of Se. Selenium also significantly reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the testis tissue. Further research demonstrated that ZEN increased the level of mRNA expression of BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase 3 (Casp3), decreased the level of mRNA expression of B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), vimentin (Vim) and cadherin 2 (Cdh2), whereas the co-administration of Se reversed these gene expression levels. Our results indicated that high levels of Se could protect against reproductive system damage in male mice caused by ZEN and the mechanism might such be that Se improved mice antioxidant ability, inhibited reproductive cell apoptosis, and increased the decrease

  1. The Protective Effect of Selenium on Chronic Zearalenone-Induced Reproductive System Damage in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Long

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the protective effect of selenium (Se on chronic zearalenone (ZEN-induced reproductive system damage in male mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism against this. The chronic ZEN-induced injury mouse model was established with the continuous intragastric administration of 40 mg/kg body mass (B.M. ZEN for 28 days. Then, interventions with different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg B.M. of Se were conducted on mice to analyse the changes in organ indexes of epididymis and testis, antioxidant capability of testis, serum level of testosterone, sperm concentration and motility parameters, and the expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes and blood testis barrier- (BTB related genes. Our results showed that Se could greatly improve the ZEN-induced decrease of epididymis indexes and testis indexes. Results also showed that the decrease in sperm concentration, sperm normality rate, and sperm motility parameters, including percentage of motile sperm (motile, tropism percentage (progressive and sperm average path velocity (VAP, caused by ZEN were elevated upon administration of the higher dose (0.4 mg/kg and intermediate dose (0.2 mg/kg of Se. Selenium also significantly reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the testis tissue. Further research demonstrated that ZEN increased the level of mRNA expression of BCL2-associated X protein (Bax and caspase 3 (Casp3, decreased the level of mRNA expression of B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2, vimentin (Vim and cadherin 2 (Cdh2, whereas the co-administration of Se reversed these gene expression levels. Our results indicated that high levels of Se could protect against reproductive system damage in male mice caused by ZEN and the mechanism might such be that Se improved mice antioxidant ability, inhibited reproductive cell apoptosis, and increased the

  2. Expression of the reproductive female-specific vitellogenin gene in endocrinologically induced male and intersex Cherax quadricarinatus crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Asaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Davis, Claytus; Sagi, Amir

    2005-07-01

    In oviparous females, the synthesis of the yolk precursor vitellogenin is an important step in ovarian maturation and oocyte development. In decapod Crustacea, including the red-claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), this reproductive process is regulated by inhibitory neurohormones secreted by the endocrine X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) complex. In males, the C. quadricarinatus vitellogenin gene (CqVg), although present, is not expressed under normal conditions. We show here that endocrine manipulation by removal of the XO-SG complex from male animals induced CqVg transcription. The CqVg gene was expressed differentially during the molt cycle in these induced males: no expression was seen in the intermolt stages, but expression was occasionally detected in the premolt stages and always detected in the early postmolt stages. Relative quantitation with a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of CqVg in induced early postmolt males was an order of magnitude lower than that in reproductive females, a finding that was consistent with RNA in situ hybridization results. The SDS-PAGE of high-density lipoproteins from the hemolymph of endocrinologically induced early postmolt males did not show the typical vitellogenin-related polypeptide profile found in reproductive females. On the other hand, removal of the XO-SG complex from intersex individuals, which are chromosomally female but functionally male and possess an arrested female reproductive system, induced the expression, translation, and release of CqVg products into the hemolymph, as was the case for vitellogenic females. The expression of CqVg in endocrinologically manipulated molting males and intersex animals provides an inducible model for the investigation and understanding of the endocrine regulation of CqVg expression and translation in Crustacea as well as the relationship between the endocrine axes regulating molt and reproduction.

  3. Effect of photoperiod and 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) on the reproduction of male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xin; Shi, Jia; Han, Mei; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2017-05-15

    Plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) has been suggested to stimulate animal reproduction. 6-MBOA is detected in Leymus chinensis, a main diet of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). We have previously reported a stimulatory effect of 6-MBOA on reproduction of male Brandt's voles under a short-day photoperiod. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of 6-MBOA on reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a long-day photoperiod and examine if 6-MBOA under this photoperiodic regime altered the reproductive status of male Brandt's voles differently than the short-day photoperiod. Under the long-day photoperiod, a high dose of 6-MBOA decreased KiSS-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and we also saw a decrease in circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone (T). Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 11a1 (CYP11a1) in the testes, and relative testis weight also decreased with 6-MBOA administration. Compared to the short-day photoperiod, animals under the long-day photoperiod exhibited increased body weight as well as all other reproductive parameters. Our results showed that 6-MBOA inhibited the reproduction of male Brandt's vole under a long-day photoperiod, a stark contrast from its stimulatory effects under a short-day photoperiod. The paradoxical effects of 6-MBOA suggest it may act as a partial agonist of melatonin. These results provide insight into the complex interactions between environmental factors such as photoperiod and diet in the control of Brandt's vole reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment.

  5. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  6. Prozac Alters Reproductive Performance and Filial Cannibalism in Male Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoxetine (ProzacTM is one of the most popular antidepressant that can be released to aquatic systems via sewage-treatment effluents. It is suspected to provoke substantial effects in the aquatic environment. Methods: In spawning tanks, specimens were exposed to concentrations of 0 and 0.54 µgl-1 fluoxetine from male introduction until the larvae had hatched. Prior to spawning, nest area and time spent for nest building were measured. Also, spawning duration, number of copulations per spawning and eggs per copulation, total produced eggs and hatching rate were recorded. Results: The number of copulations, eggs per copulation and total produced eggs did not differ between the two treatments. Fluoxetine treatment significantly decreased the nest size, time spent for nest building and spawning duration. Also hatching rate was significantly lower during fluoxetine treatment than in the control condition. Notably, five fluoxetine treated males cannibalized their eggs and larvae. Conclusion: We showed that environmental exposure of fighting fish to fluoxetine potentially alters specific aspects of nest building and sexual behavior and, as a consequence, reproductive output.

  7. Ginger attenuated di (n-butyl phthalate-induced reproductive toxicity in pubertal male rabbits

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    S. S. Oda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of di (n-butyl phthalate (DBP on reproductive functions in male rabbits and the probable protective role of ginger. Twenty rabbits were divided equally into 4 groups: control group; DBP group (520 mg/kg body weight [BW] DBP orally, DBP+ginger group (520 mg/kg BW DBP and 400 mg/kg BW ginger and ginger group (400 mg/kg BW ginger orally. Treatments were given three-times/week. After 7 wk of the experiment, DBP induced significant reduction in testis and prostate weights, serum and intratesticular testosterone concentrations, sperm counts both mass and progressive sperm motility and live sperms percentage as well as significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde compared to control group. No significant changes were detected in epididymal weights, serum FSH and serum LH concentrations and testicular total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in all treated groups. DBP induced considerable histopathological alterations in testis and to minimal extent in epididymis and prostates. Ginger treatment attenuated the significant changes to a certain extent induced by DBP intoxication in male rabbits probably due to its potential to scavenge free radicals.

  8. The Effect of Pollen on Some Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

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    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee pollen is consumed as natural food in healthy human diet in many European and Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pollen use on some reproductive parameters. In this study, mature male rats were fed on pollen of three different plant sources (Trifolium spp., Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. at 60 mg/per animal/ per day over a 30-day period. At the end of the treatment, testosterone levels of rats were analysed and weights of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle were recorded. In addition, epididymal sperms were counted. There were increases in testosterone levels, sperm counts and daily sperm production of rats fed with pollen of Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. There were no significant changes in absolute weights, except in prostate weights. Also there were no changes in relative testis,prostate and seminal vesicle weights of rats fed on pollen, but relative epididymis weights of rats in pollen groups decreased. The results of this study show that bee pollen caused an increase in testosterone level and sperm counts of male rats. We suggest that bee pollen has an androgenic effect.

  9. Invited Commentary: The Association Between Marijuana Use and Male Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    Approximately 15% of all couples are unable to conceive after a year and are labeled infertile. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to lifestyle factors that may impact fertility. In the United States, it is estimated that there are more than 17 million current users of marijuana with 4.6 million using marijuana almost daily. Although common, to date, little data exist on the impact of marijuana use on male fertility. In the current issue of the Journal, Gundersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(6):473-481) provide data examining the relationship between marijuana use and semen quality from young men recruited out of the general Danish population. Men who reported daily marijuana use displayed significant lower sperm concentration and sperm counts compared with nonusers, while testosterone levels were higher. The current report provides important information for patients and providers regarding the negative association of marijuana use on semen quality. Although the benefit of marijuana cessation on recovery is uncertain, further study on the impact of marijuana use on male reproductive health is warranted as more states explore marijuana legalization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Biochemical property and immunogenicity of mouse male reproductive tract CD52 (mrt-CD52).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Hasegawa, A; Komori, S; Koyama, K

    2007-08-01

    Male reproductive tract CD52 (mrt-CD52) is known to be a pathogenic antigen for immunological infertility. Although human CD52 has been extensively investigated, the properties of mouse CD52 are not well elucidated. This study was conducted, therefore, to examine the tissue distribution, molecular composition and immunogenicity of mouse mrt-CD52. Immunohistological studies with an antibody to a synthetic peptide showed that mouse CD52 was localized mainly in the cauda epididymis and vas deferens, but not in the testis, liver, kidney or spleen. The molecule was composed of Asn (N)-linked and The/Ser (O)-linked carbohydrates as well as a glycosylphosphatidyl (GPI) anchor portion. Purified mrt-CD52 preparations produced antibodies by subcutaneous and intranasal immunization in both male and female mice. These antisera showed sperm-immobilizing activities with complement to mouse sperm. The research indicated mouse CD52 had similar biochemical and immunological properties to human CD52. This animal experiment is a good model for investigating human mrt-CD52 antibody detected in infertile patients.

  11. Lack of anti-androgenic effects of equol on reproductive neuroendocrine function in the adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutchanwoot, Panida; Srivilai, Prayook; Jarry, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Equol (EQ), a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, has well known estrogenic properties. Data from animal studies suggested that EQ may act also as an anti-androgen. However, data regarding how EQ may affect brain functions like the regulation of neuroendocrine activity and reproductive outcomes in adult male rats are still lacking. We therefore investigated the effects of EQ on sex-steroid regulated gene expression in the brain [medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA/AH) and medial basal hypothalamus/median eminence (MBH/ME)], pituitary, and prostate as a reference androgen-dependent organ. Furthermore reproductive outcomes were evaluated. The anti-androgen flutamide (FLUT) served as reference compound. Male rats (n=12 per group) were treated by gavage for 5 days with either EQ (100 or 250 mg/kgBW/day), or FLUT 100 mg/kgBW/day. All vehicle- and EQ-treated males showed successful reproductive outcomes, whereas FLUT-exposed males had severe reproductive impairments resulted in infertility. FLUT decreased relative weights of prostate, seminal vesicles and epididymides, and increased serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone without altering prolactin levels, whereas EQ exerted opposite effects. Both EQ and FLUT decreased gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) expression in the MPOA/AH. Only FLUT upregulated levels of GnRH receptor expression both in the MBH/ME and pituitary. While EQ downregulated the hypothalamic ERα and ERβ expressions, but FLUT did not. In the prostate, only FLUT upregulated both ERα and AR mRNA expression levels. Taken together, our findings are the first data that EQ did not induce anti-androgenic effects on brain, prostate and male reproductive parameters, however, estrogenic neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of EQ were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

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    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  13. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  14. A Preliminary Study about the Potential Effects of Heavy Metals on the Human Male Reproductive Parameters in HIV-Infected Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyan; Zhao, Letian; Li, Lianbing; Hou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Danyan; Wan, Ling; Wei, Li; Yang, Yuyou; Lv, Jing; Ma, Mingfu; Zhu, Yijian

    2017-03-20

    Due to the inconsistent effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the human male reproduction in previous studies and the impacts of environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, on male reproduction receiving little attention in HIV-infected population, the aim of present study was to investigate whether heavy metals have potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men. The current study assessed the associations between semen quality or serum hormone and concentration of the three heavy metal toxicants (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)) in seminal, urine, and serum, and 50 HIV-infected men were recruited in the present study. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were measured in three fluids by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. HIV RNA viral load was determined by HIV virus loads kit. Spearman's rank correlations were used for correlation analyses. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly correlated with semen quality and serum hormone. HIV-1 virus loads were significantly associated with increased seminal Pb. However, HIV-1 virus loads were not statistically associated with semen quality and serum hormone. Our findings suggested that environmental heavy metals had potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men in China.

  15. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M.Campagne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerablebody of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factorscan negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have beenshown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinicalattention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primaryrelevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnosticsand recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost,success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART, such as in vitrofertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, early efforts to improve malefertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal.A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, spermdefects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed forupcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies werereviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type;and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinicalrelevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of spacelimitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes ofmale infertility, their early detection, and treatment.

  16. Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation in Male Rats with Crude Oil-Induced Reproductive Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuchukwu S. OCHIOGU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil intoxication is a major threat among people and animals living around the crude oil producing regions of the world, hence the search for ameliorating agents. Forty-four male Wistar rats assigned into three groups were used to investigate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on crude oil-induced reprotoxicity (reproductive toxicity in male rats. Group A represented the unexposed control, whereas groups B and C were exposed orally to 0.15 and 0.3 ml of crude oil respectively every other day for 56 days. Both the low dose and high dose oral administration of crude oil caused a significant reduction in the serum testosterone level (STL and cauda epididymal sperm reserve (CESR of the exposed rats when compared to the control. Crude oil withdrawal and vitamin E supplementation significantly improved the cauda epididymal sperm reserve (CESR in all the subgroups. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities of the control and low dose group were significantly lower than those of the high dose group. The high dose crude oil administration significantly decreased the mean serum total protein (STP and sodium ions (Na+ concentration. The mean serum total cholesterol (STC value of the low dose group was significantly higher than those of the control and high dose group. However, crude oil withdrawal and vitamin E supplementation did not significantly alter the mean serum total protein (STP and mean serum total cholesterol (STC values in all the subgroups. Vitamin E supplementation following low dose crude oil withdrawal enhanced the mean serum Chloride ions (Cl-concentration. The present findings revealed that Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil induced serious reprotoxic effects in male rats which vitamin E administration within 28 days did not completely reverse.

  17. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  18. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana; Peterson, Brennan; Almeida, Vasco; Schmidt, Lone; Costa, Maria Emília

    2016-06-01

    Similarly to women, men suffer from engaging in fertility treatments, both physically and psychologically. Although there is a vast body of evidence on the emotional adjustment of women to infertility, there are no systematic reviews focusing on men's psychological adaptation to infertility and related treatments. The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors for psychological maladaptation?' A literature search was conducted from inception to September 2015 on five databases using combinations of MeSH terms and keywords. Eligible studies had to present quantitative prospective designs and samples including men who did not achieve pregnancy or parenthood at follow-up. A narrative synthesis approach was used to conduct the review. Twelve studies from three continents were eligible from 2534 records identified in the search. The results revealed that psychological symptoms of maladjustment significantly increased in men 1 year after the first fertility evaluation. No significant differences were found two or more years after the initial consultation. Evidence was found for anxiety, depression, active-avoidance coping, catastrophizing, difficulties in partner communication and the use of avoidance or religious coping from the wife as risk factors for psychological maladjustment. Protective factors were related to the use of coping strategies that involve seeking information and attribution of a positive meaning to infertility, having the support of others and of one's spouse, and engaging in open communication about the infertility problem. Our findings recommend an active involvement of men during the treatment process by health care professionals, and the inclusion of coping skills training and couple communication enhancement interventions in counselling. Further

  19. Is immunosuppression, induced by neonatal thymectomy, compatible with poor reproductive performance in adult male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommati, M M; Tanideh, N; Rezakhaniha, B; Wang, J; Sabouri, S; Vahedi, M; Dormanesh, B; Koohi Hosseinabadi, O; Rahmanifar, F; Moosapour, S; Akhlaghi, A; Heidari, R; Zamiri, M J

    2018-01-01

    With increasing knowledge that the immune system has a major impact on reproductive ‎health, the potential for cells arising in organs such as the thymus to alleviate oxidative stress ‎has been revealed. This study addresses the impact of neonatal thymectomy on malereproductive function in pubertal and adult animals. Neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were allotted to four treatments consisting of fully thymectomized, partially thymectomized, intact, and sham-operated rats. Half of the rats in each treatment were sacrificed at 40 and the other half at 80 days of age. Testicular volume, ventral prostate and spleen weight, several sperm attributes (concentration, motility, livability, membrane integrity, sperm penetration into mucus, total antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity), plasma superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and testosterone level as well as fertility decreased in thymectomized rats. Adrenal gland weight, sperm malondialdehyde level, indices of oxidative stress, sperm abnormality, testicular and sperm lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and sperm reactive oxygen species generation increased in thymectomized rats. In thymectomized rats, the testes contained high levels of malondialdehyde but low levels of glutathione and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. Epididymal sperm reactive oxygen species, blood lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress indices ‎‎in blood and spermatozoa were highest in fully thymectomized, intermediate ‎in partially thymectomized, and lowest in both pubertal and mature control rats. Blood levels of superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation indices, and ‎testosterone, and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate and ‎dehydrogenase activities in epididymal spermatozoa were lowest in fully thymectomized, ‎intermediate in partially thymectomized, and highest in both pubertal and mature control rats.‎ The data indicated that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction might play a role

  20. Effects of Anticancer Drugs in Reproductive Parameters of Juvenile Male Animals and Role of Protective Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perobelli, Juliana Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the advances in knowledge about oncologic treatment have led to an increase in survival rate for cancer patients and, consequently, a growing concern about the adverse effects of treatment in medium and long term, in order to ensure the future quality of life. For male patients in reproductive age or younger, one of the key concerns after cancer therapy is their ability to father children, since anticancer drugs exert cytotoxic effects on germ cells. Considering the incidence of cancer in children and adolescents and the vulnerability of these developmental phases to chemical injuries, this review is an attempt to highlight the importance of juvenile experimental models to test new anticancer drugs and agents with protective action. There is a relative scarcity of studies investigating the effects of chemotherapy in juvenile animals and an urgent need for further information. As far as this review was able to recover, available data about reproductive toxicology related to peripubertal treatment with anticancer drugs includes only the following pharmaceuticals: toposide, doxorrubicin, cisplatin, ciclophosphamide, cytarabine, flutamide and procarbazine. Together with the evaluation of adverse effects of anticancer drugs, is necessary to investigate possible protective agents to be pre-, co-, or post administrated with chemotherapy. Modern technologies and increasing knowledge about the cancer biology have allowed studies of new chemotherapy strategies, more effective and selective. Many of these compounds are derived from toxins and metabolites of microorganisms, plants, and animals, being a number of them isolated from marine sources, a relatively unexplored environment. Investment in research programs in bioprospecting, especially in marine environments, and pharmaceutical field, including toxicology risk evaluation, are crucial to discovery and improve new anticancer treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  1. Variation in male body size and reproductive allocation in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, M.; den Boer, S. P. A.; Nash, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about the traits that determine reproductive success of males in eusocial insects. Their window for mate choice decisions is very short, the actual mating process is very difficult to observe, and their small body sizes have likely prevented systematic studies in many s...

  2. Sexual conflict over care : antagonistic effects of clutch desertion on reproductive success of male and female penduline tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szentirmai, I.; Szekely, T.; Komdeur, J.

    A fundamental tenet of sexual conflict theory is that one sex may increase its reproductive success (RS) even if this harms the other sex. Several studies supported this principle by showing that males benefit from reduced paternal care whereas females suffer from it. By investigating penduline tits

  3. Effect of freezing extender composition and male line on semen traits and reproductive performance in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Lavara, R; Safaa, H M; Marco-Jiménez, F; Mehaisen, G M K; Vicente, J S

    2014-05-01

    other hand, the male genotypes used in the present study had no effect on frozen-thawed sperm parameters but negatively affected some of the reproductive parameters.

  4. Male involvement in sexual and reproductive health in the Mendi district, Southern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Sally; Vince, John; Crouch-Chivers, Paul

    2013-09-10

    Lack of male involvement and support for sexual and reproductive health services is seen by many Papua New Guinean women as a barrier to accessing services. Poor utilization of services by both men and women is reflected in high maternal mortality and high rates of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections in the Southern Highlands Province. It is therefore important to understand the type of services provided, men's perceptions of these services and the Health Sector's capacity to involve men in its programs. Information from interviews of married men, officers in charge of health facilities, and information from a focus group discussion with village leaders was collected to assess possible constraints to reproductive and sexual health care delivery. Although many men had heard about antenatal care, supervised births, family planning and sexually transmitted infections including, HIV/AIDS, many were unaware of their importance and of the types of services provided to address these issues. There was a very strong association between men's literacy and their knowledge of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) issues, their discussion of these issues with their wives and their wives' utilisation of sexual and reproductive health services. Some men considered SRH services to be important but gave priority to social obligations. Although men made most decisions for sexual and reproductive issues, pregnancy, child birth and rearing of children were regarded as women's responsibilities. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS appeared to have changed sexual behaviour in some men. Services for men in this rural setting were inadequate and service providers lacked the capacity to involve men in reproductive health issues. Poor knowledge, socio-cultural factors and inadequate and inappropriate services for men hampered utilization of services and impaired support for their wives' service utilization. Programmatic and policy initiatives should focus on improving service delivery to

  5. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function with regard to blood cadmium in Croatian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasović, Jasna; Cvitković, Petar; Pizent, Alica; Colak, Bozo; Telisman, Spomenka

    2004-12-01

    In 123 Croatian men with no occupational exposure to metals, the influence of cadmium on reproductive parameters was examined after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, and biomarkers of lead, copper, zinc, and selenium. The following variables were measured: blood cadmium (BCd), blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood, testis size, semen quality (including sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology), indicators in seminal fluid (the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C4, fructose, zinc, acid phosphatase, and citric acid), and hormones in serum (follicle-stimulating hormone--FSH, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol). The median and range BCd values were 2.94 (0.49-11.93) microg/L in 61 smokers and 0.59 (0.20-3.71) microg/L in 62 nonsmokers (p metals, and other potential confounders when assessing the influence of a particular metal on reproductive function in men, is emphasized.

  6. Alternative male reproductive tactics and the immunocompetence handicap in the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius parvicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Albert F.H; Bouton, Niels; Santos, Ricardo S; Oliveira, Rui F

    2006-01-01

    In the Azorean rock-pool blenny (Parablennius parvicornis) reproductively active males display alternative morphotypes, which differ in the expression of secondary sexual characters (SSC). Males expressing SSC, the M+ morphotype, have high androgen levels and compete for crevices that will be visited by females to spawn. M+ males holding nests court females and care for the eggs. Males with low expression of SSC, the M− morphotype, have low levels of androgens and reproduce by stealing fertilizations from the M+ males. Based on the hypothesis that androgens are immunosuppressive, we expected these morphotypes to differ in immunocompetence. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a field study in which we collected repeated blood samples to monitor leukocyte populations (blood smears), and to measure the primary antibody response of males that were experimentally challenged with a foreign non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells). Circulating levels of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were higher in M+ males than in M− males. Neither granulocyte nor thrombocyte counts did covariate with androgens or male tactic. In contrast, lymphocyte counts and humoral antibody response were negatively correlated with body size, and as expected, both were lower in M+ than in M− males. Interestingly, in M+ males androgen levels decreased after immunization, and this was less in nest-holder males than in M+ males that were floating around in the pools. Within each morphotype we found no relationship between androgens and immunocompetence. The latter result is not supportive for androgen regulated immunosuppression in M+ males. A possible alternative is enhancement of immunity in M− males. These males had relatively high levels of injuries in comparison with M+ males. High immunity might be a consequence of high infection rate because of such injuries. PMID:16627274

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of male breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xueyu; Zhu, Qiang; Jia, Wenxiu; Ma, Teng; Wang, Xixi; Guo, Ning; Ji, Hongtao

    2018-01-08

    Although rare and accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers, the incidence of breast cancer in men has increased by 26% over the past few decades. Very little has been reported on the sonographic appearance of benign and malignant male breast conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic features of male breast disease and the value of ultrasound in the evaluation of male breast disease. Between December 2006 and October 2014, ultrasound examinations were performed in 560 male patients presenting with enlargement of, pain in, and/or a lump in the breast. One hundred and thirty-six patients (24.3%) underwent surgical excision, and 424 patients (75.7%) were diagnosed by ultrasound. Their ultrasonographic features were retrospectively evaluated. The final diagnoses were gynecomastia (n = 537), primary breast cancer (n = 9), lipoma (n = 7), chronic mastitis (n = 6), and fibroadenoma (n = 1). Of the 560 lesions, 356 (63.6%) were classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 2, 191 (34.1%) were classified as BI-RADS category 3, and 13 (2.3%) were classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the detection of malignant breast masses according to ultrasound were 100%, 99.3%, 69.2%, 100%, and 97.7% respectively. The sonographic patterns of gynecomastia were nodular (n = 131, 24.4%), dendritic (n = 50, 9.3%), and diffuse glandular (n = 356, 66.3%). Color Doppler flow imaging revealed hypervascularity in five of these malignant masses, moderate vascularity in two of the masses, and mild vascularity in the remaining two masses. Other diseases included in the study are also described. Ultrasonography (US) is useful in the diagnosis of male breast diseases, especially in differentiating cancer from benign lesions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. M. Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms.

  9. Protective role of Centella asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive health in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, S B; Meena, R; Supriya, Ch; Reddy, K Pratap; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2011-09-01

    Centella asiatica has been mentioned in ancient ayurvedic text of the Indian system of medicine for its properties to promote intelligence. The objective of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of C. asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive performance in male rats. Significant decrease in the weights of testes and epididymis were observed in lead treated animals. Exposure to lead acetate significantly increased malondialdehyde levels with a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver, brain, kidneys and testes of rats. Epididymal sperm count, viable sperms, motile sperms and HOS-tail coiled sperms decreased significantly in lead-exposed rats. Testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities also decreased significantly in lead-exposed rats. No significant changes in the selected reproductive variables were observed in the plant extract alone treated rats. Whereas, co-administration of aqueous extracts of C. asiatica to lead exposed rats showed a significant increase in the weights of reproductive organs, reduction in lead-induced oxidative stress in the tissues and improvement in selected reproductive parameters over lead-exposed rats indicating the beneficial role of C. asiatica to counteract lead-induced oxidative stress and to restore the suppressed reproduction in male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ascorbic acid supplementation partially prevents the delayed reproductive development in juvenile male rats exposed to rosuvastatin since prepuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Figueiredo, Thamiris Moreira; Sanabria, Marciana; Dias, Ana Flávia Mota Gonçalves; Silva, Patrícia Villela E; Martins Junior, Airton da Cunha; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2017-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the increase of obesity and bad eating habits. Rosuvastatin inhibits the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, decreasing total cholesterol. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant compound for male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether ascorbic acid supplementation may prevent the reproductive damage provoked by rosuvastatin administration at prepuberty. Male pups were distributed into six experimental groups that received saline solution 0.9%, 3 or 10mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin, 150mg/day of ascorbic acid, or 150mg/day of ascorbic acid associated with 3 or 10mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin from post-natal day (PND) 23 until PND53. Rosuvastatin-treated groups showed delayed puberty installation, androgen depletion and impairment on testicular and epididymal morphology. Ascorbic acid partially prevented these reproductive damages. In conclusion, rosuvastatin exposure is a probable risk to reproductive development and ascorbic acid supplementation may be useful to prevent the reproductive impairment of rosuvastatin exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of floral display size on male and female reproductive success in Mimulus ringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karron, Jeffrey D; Mitchell, Randall J

    2012-02-01

    The number of flowers blooming simultaneously on a plant may have profound consequences for reproductive success. Large floral displays often attract more pollinator visits, increasing outcross pollen receipt. However, pollinators frequently probe more flowers in sequence on large displays, potentially increasing self-pollination and reducing pollen export per flower. To better understand how floral display size influences male and female fitness, we manipulated display phenotypes and then used paternity analysis to quantify siring success and selfing rates. To facilitate unambiguous assignment of paternity, we established four replicate (cloned) arrays of Mimulus ringens, each consisting of genets with unique combinations of homozygous marker genotypes. In each array, we trimmed displays to two, four, eight or 16 flowers. When fruits ripened, we counted the number of seeds per fruit and assigned paternity to 1935 progeny. Siring success per flower declined sharply with increasing display size, while female success per flower did not vary with display. The rate of self-fertilization increased for large floral displays, but siring losses due to geitonogamous pollen discounting were much greater than siring gains through increased self-fertilization. As display size increased, each additional seed sired through geitonogamous self-pollination was associated with a loss of 9·7 seeds sired through outcrossing. Although total fitness increased with floral display size, the marginal return on each additional flower declined steadily as display size increased. Therefore, a plant could maximize fitness by producing small displays over a long flowering period, rather than large displays over a brief flowering period.

  12. Characteristics of the male reproductive system and spermatozoa of Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, P.; Dolder, H., E-mail: heidi@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IB/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia, Biologia Celular e Fisiologia; Salles, F.F. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Ciencias da Saude, Biologicas e Agrarias

    2011-01-15

    This study describes morphological changes in the male reproductive system of Miroculis amazonicus (Savage and Peters) from mature nymphs to subimago stages. The sperm ultrastructure of Massartela brieni (Lestage), Farrodes carioca (Dominguez et al) and Miroculis mourei (Savage and Peters), as well as aspects of cell fragments observed in these species' subimagos deferent ducts were described. Sperm from the three species studied are aflagellated and immotile, while those from F. carioca and Ma. brieni are approximately spherical with a homogenous nucleus and acrosome. Sperm of F. carioca present two or three mitochondria located between the nucleus and the acrosome. In Ma. brieni, only one lateral mitochondria was found. Sperm from Mi. mourei are shaped as a number 'eight', with electron lucent spots inside the nucleus and two mitochondria above the acrosome. Large cell fragments containing degenerative vesicles and some sperm were observed in the deferent duct lumen of the three species. Tests of Mi. amazonicus are extremely reduced in the subimago stage, which suggests that these cell fragments originated from testes degeneration. (author)

  13. Perinatal exposure to insecticide fipronil: effects on the reproductive system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Aline L; Bae, Julie H; Borges, Cibele S; Rosa, Josiane L; Cavariani, Marilia M; Silva, Patrícia V; Pinheiro, Patricia F F; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Arena, Arielle C

    2017-06-01

    Fipronil is an insecticide widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine and public health that has recently been listed as a potential endocrine disrupter. In the present study we evaluated the effects of perinatal exposure to fipronil during the period of sexual brain differentiation and its later repercussions on reproductive parameters in male rats. Pregnant rats were exposed (via gavage) to fipronil (0.03, 0.3 or 3mgkg-1) from Gestational Day 15 until Postnatal Day 7. Fipronil exposure did not compromise the onset of puberty. In adulthood, there was no effect on organ weight or sperm production. Furthermore, there were no adverse effects on the number of Sertoli cells per seminiferous tubule, testicular and epididymal histomorphometry or histopathology or expression patterns of androgen receptor in the testis. Similarly, no changes were observed in the sexual behaviour or hormone levels. However, in rats exposed to fipronil, changes in sperm motility were observed, with a decrease in motile spermatozoa and an increase in non-mobile spermatozoa, which can compromise sperm quality in these rats. Perinatal exposure to fipronil has long-term effects on sperm parameters, and the epididymis can be a target organ. Additional studies should be undertaken to identify the mechanisms by which fipronil affects sperm motility.

  14. Plasticity of male germline stem cells and their applications in reproductive and regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, also known as male germline stem cells, are a small subpopulation of type A spermatogonia with the potential of self-renewal to maintain stem cell pool and differentiation into spermatids in mammalian testis. SSCs are previously regarded as the unipotent stem cells since they can only give rise to sperm within the seminiferous tubules. However, this concept has recently been challenged because numerous studies have demonstrated that SSCs cultured with growth factors can acquire pluripotency to become embryonic stem-like cells. The in vivo and in vitro studies from peers and us have clearly revealed that SSCs can directly transdifferentiate into morphologic, phenotypic, and functional cells of other lineages. Direct conversion to the cells of other tissues has important significance for regenerative medicine. SSCs from azoospermia patients could be induced to differentiate into spermatids with fertilization and developmental potentials. As such, SSCs could have significant applications in both reproductive and regenerative medicine due to their unique and great potentials. In this review, we address the important plasticity of SSCs, with focuses on their self-renewal, differentiation, dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation, and translational medicine studies.

  15. Review on arsenic-induced toxicity in male reproductive system and its amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, M; Ahmad, M; Qureshi, Z I

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic is an environmental toxicant which causes mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic defects. It is used as herbicide, fungicide and rodenticide and results in contamination of air, soil and water. Arsenic is also produced through burning of coal industries. The sludge of factories contaminates the fodder and drinking source of water of human and livestock. Arsenic binds thiol groups in tissue proteins and impairs the function of the proteins. This metal affects the mitochondrial enzymes and interrupts the production of energy. Oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species could also be a consequence of arsenic exposure. High arsenic level may suppress the sensitivity of gonadotroph cells to GnRH as well as gonadotropin secretion by elevating plasma levels of glucocorticoids. These ultimately lead to the development of gonad toxicity in animals and cause the reduction in sperm number, sperm viability and motility. Massive degeneration of germ cells and alterations in the level of LH, FSH and testosterone are also reported. The objective of this review was to find out the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity on male reproductive system in animals and its amelioration. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. A novel role of the soybean clock gene LUX ARRHYTHMO in male reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2017-09-06

    The evening complex of ELF4-ELF3-LUX proteins is an integral component of a plant circadian clock. LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) is one of the key components of the evening complex, and that play a key role in circadian rhythms and flowering. Here, we report that diverged soybean LUX has the additional role in male reproductive development. We studied diurnal and circadian rhythms of soybean LUX (GmLUXa, GmLUXb, and GmLUXc) using qRT-PCR, and show its nuclear localisation by particle bombardment. Yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) studies indicate that both GmLUXb and GmLUXc form an evening complex with GmELF4b and GmELF3a, respectively. Ectopic expression of GmLUXb in Arabidopsis lux mutants can complement functions of AtLUX, whereas GmLUXc generates novel phenotypes of serrated leaves, stunted plants, shortened anther filament, and low seed set. Overall, our results suggest that the LUX gene has diverged in soybean where GmLUXb and GmLUXc share the role to control flowering time, but GmLUXc has evolved to regulate anther filament growth and seed set by regulating the Gibberellin hormone biosynthesis pathway.

  17. Male reproductive system of the fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirban; Manna, Subha; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The male reproductive system of the fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis was reconstructed with serial histological sections through longitudinal and transverse planes and the description was re-evaluated after the discovery of spermatophore. The study revealed that the testis of A. bengalensis consists of two lobes, each comprised the two enclaves. The outer enclaves from both lobes are connected proximally with an isthmus. The inner enclave is covered with two layers of chromatophores which are presumably involved in androgenic hormone production. At the proximal end of the inner enclaves a pair of vasa efferentia originates and ascends into thorax where it leads into vesicula seminalis. Like Dolops ranarum, a pair of spermatophoric glands is found in the thorax just behind the second maxilla. Glandular cells of the spermatophoric glands are columnar with a large nucleus at their basal side. A pair of spermatophoric canals carries the secretion of the glands into the vesicula seminalis through vasa efferentia. Spermatophores are delivered to the female through a median vas deference originating from the vesicula seminalis. In addition to the spermatophoric glands, a pair of accessory glands is located in the coxa of the fourth thoracic legs. At the region dorsal to the isthmus both the spermatophoric canal and accessory gland ducts unite with the vas efferens of the respective side. The secretion of the accessory gland presumably contributes to semen composition of the parasite. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  19. Molecular characterization and evolution of a gene family encoding both female- and male-specific reproductive proteins in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Laura K; Findlay, Geoffrey D; Sitnik, Jessica L; Frasheri, Dorina; Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-06-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the evolution of new reproductive proteins. However, in most cases, each resulting paralog continues to function within the same sex. To investigate the possibility that seminal fluid proteins arise through duplicates of female reproductive genes that become "co-opted" by males, we screened female reproductive genes in Drosophila melanogaster for cases of duplication in which one of the resulting paralogs produces a protein in males that is transferred to females during mating. We identified a set of three tandemly duplicated genes that encode secreted serine-type endopeptidase homologs, two of which are expressed primarily in the female reproductive tract (RT), whereas the third is expressed specifically in the male RT and encodes a seminal fluid protein. Evolutionary and gene expression analyses across Drosophila species suggest that this family arose from a single-copy gene that was female-specific; after duplication, one paralog evolved male-specific expression. Functional tests of knockdowns of each gene in D. melanogaster show that one female-expressed gene is essential for full fecundity, and both female-expressed genes contribute singly or in combination to a female's propensity to remate. In contrast, knockdown of the male-expressed paralog had no significant effect on female fecundity or remating. These data are consistent with a model in which members of this gene family exert effects on females by acting on a common, female-expressed target. After duplication and male co-option of one paralog, the evolution of the interacting proteins could have resulted in differential strengths or effects of each paralog. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Otolith morphology varies between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive tactics in a vocal toadfish Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A P H; Adragna, J B; Balshine, S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphology of sagittal otoliths of the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus was compared between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive phenotypes (known as 'type I males or guarders' and 'type II males or sneakers'). Sagitta size increased with P. notatus size and changes in shape were also detected with increasing body size. Porichthys notatus sagittae begin as simple rounded structures, but then elongate as they grow and take on a more triangular and complex shape with several prominent notches and indentations along the dorsal and caudal edges. Moreover, the sagittae of the two geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. notatus (northern and southern) differed in shape. Porichthys notatus from the north possessed taller sagittae with deeper caudal indentations compared to P. notatus from the south. Sagitta shape also differed between females and males of the conventional guarder tactic. Furthermore, guarder males had smaller sagittae for their body size than did sneaker males or females. These differences in sagittal otolith morphology are discussed in relation to ecological and life history differences between the sexes and male tactics of this species. This is the first study to investigate teleost otolith morphology from the perspective of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Reproductive effort of both male and female bar-throated Apalis apalis thoracica is predicted by ornamentation of self and mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Rene E.; Robles, Raquel; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Vries, Bonnie; Eising, Corine M.

    2015-01-01

    Melanin-based plumage ornaments have been shown to play an important role in male-male competition, but also influence inter-sexual communication. Consequently, ornaments may be associated with reproductive effort of both males and females. Females mated to males with larger melanin ornaments may

  2. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progress in terms of increasing healthy live births but decreasing multiple pregnancy rates.10. Development of assisted reproduction techniques. Alternatives to IVF and transcervical embryo transfer. Over the years IVF treatment has seen many modifications, and other options have been introduced. Prepared sperm may be ...

  3. Artificial selection on male longevity influences age-dependent reproductive effort in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Spyrou, Nicolle; Brooks, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Although the trade-off between reproductive effort and longevity is central to both sexual selection and evolutionary theories of aging, there has been little synthesis between these fields. Here, we selected directly on adult longevity of male field crickets Teleogryllus commodus and measured the correlated responses of age-dependent male reproductive effort, female lifetime fecundity, and several other life-history traits. Male longevity responded significantly to five generations of divergent selection. Males from downward-selected lines commenced calling sooner and reached their peak calling effort at a younger age. They called more per night and, despite living less than half as long, called more overall than males selected for increased longevity. Females from the downward-selected lines lived significantly shorter lives than females from the upward-selected lines but still produced the same number of offspring. Nymph survival, development time, and body size and weight at eclosion did not show significant correlated response to selection on male longevity, despite evidence for substantial genetic variation in each of these traits. Collectively, our findings directly support the antagonistic pleiotropy model of aging and suggest an important role for sexual selection in the aging process.

  4. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  5. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  6. Characterizing the reproductive transcriptomic correlates of acute dehydration in males in the desert-adapted rodent, Peromyscus eremicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordonowy, Lauren; MacManes, Matthew

    2017-06-23

    The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected. This study aims to explore the reproductive consequences of acute dehydration by utilizing RNAseq data in the desert-specialized cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus). We exposed 22 male cactus mice to either acute dehydration or control (fully hydrated) treatment conditions, quasimapped testes-derived reads to a cactus mouse testes transcriptome, and then evaluated patterns of differential transcript and gene expression. Following statistical evaluation with multiple analytical pipelines, nine genes were consistently differentially expressed between the hydrated and dehydrated mice. We hypothesized that male cactus mice would exhibit minimal reproductive responses to dehydration; therefore, this low number of differentially expressed genes between treatments aligns with current perceptions of this species' extreme desert specialization. However, these differentially expressed genes include Insulin-like 3 (Insl3), a regulator of male fertility and testes descent, as well as the solute carriers Slc45a3 and Slc38a5, which are membrane transport proteins that may facilitate osmoregulation. These results suggest that in male cactus mice, acute dehydration may be linked to reproductive modulation via Insl3, but not through gene expression differences in the subset of other a priori tested reproductive hormones. Although water availability is a reproductive cue in desert-rodents exposed to chronic drought

  7. Sertraline-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Ozlem; Baysal, Merve; Aydogan-Kilic, Gozde; Kilic, Volkan; Ucarcan, Seyda; Karaduman, Burak; Ilgin, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the toxic effects of sertraline (SRT) on the reproductive system of male rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with SRT at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg kg−1 for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were investigated by computer-assisted sperm analysis system whereas sperm DNA damage was detected by comet assay. The oxidative status of the testes was investigated, and a histopathological examination was conducted. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured to determine the effects of SRT on the spermatogenesis process. One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Dunnett's T3 test for the sperm comet assay, and post-hoc Tukey's test for the others were performed for statistical analysis. The results showed that SRT caused an increase in sperm DNA damage and induced histopathological lesions in all groups treated with SRT. There was abnormal sperm morphology and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) in the 10 mg kg−1 treatment group. More dramatic changes were observed in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased sperm count was accompanied by a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology, DNA damage, and degeneration in cellular-tubular structures. Serum LH and testosterone levels were elevated in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased MDA were signs of enhanced oxidative stress (OS). In conclusion, SRT induced testicular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner and OS is suggested as a crucial mechanism. PMID:27976631

  8. Sertraline-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Atli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to clarify the toxic effects of sertraline (SRT on the reproductive system of male rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with SRT at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg kg−1 for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were investigated by computer-assisted sperm analysis system whereas sperm DNA damage was detected by comet assay. The oxidative status of the testes was investigated, and a histopathological examination was conducted. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured to determine the effects of SRT on the spermatogenesis process. One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Dunnett′s T3 test for the sperm comet assay, and post-hoc Tukey′s test for the others were performed for statistical analysis. The results showed that SRT caused an increase in sperm DNA damage and induced histopathological lesions in all groups treated with SRT. There was abnormal sperm morphology and increased malondialdehyde (MDA in the 10 mg kg−1 treatment group. More dramatic changes were observed in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased sperm count was accompanied by a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology, DNA damage, and degeneration in cellular-tubular structures. Serum LH and testosterone levels were elevated in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased glutathione (GSH and increased MDA were signs of enhanced oxidative stress (OS. In conclusion, SRT induced testicular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner and OS is suggested as a crucial mechanism.

  9. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression and regulation in male reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Anna; Łapczuk, Joanna; Grabowska, Marta; Słojewski, Marcin; Laszczyńska, Maria; Urasińska, Elżbieta; Droździk, Marek

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, Nfe2l2) plays an important, protective role in many tissues. However, information on molecular mechanisms of detoxification and drug metabolism regulated by Nrf2/NRF2 in testis and epididymis is scarce, but it may help to better characterize the function of blood-testis and epididymis barriers. Constitutive gene expression was analyzed by real time PCR with TaqMan Assay using ΔCT-method. Additionally, gene expression after treatment with oltipraz- specific Nrf2 inducer was evaluated using ΔΔCT-method. Cellular localization of the Nrf2 was visualized by immunohistochemical reaction. The study showed that Nrf2 mRNA level in rat epididymis was higher than in testis. In human tissues, both testis and epididymis demonstrated similar expression levels of NRF2. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed NRF2/Nrf2 protein expression in testis and epididymis, which in the case of testis was dependant on spermatogenesis stage. Both in human and rat tissues constitutive expression of NQO1/Nqo1 was slightly higher in epididymis than in testis. Other Nrf2 regulated genes: GCLC/Gclc and UGT1A6/Ugt1a6 showed different ratios of testis/epididymis/liver expression levels. Treatment with oltipraz (Nrf2 inducer) resulted in significant induction of Nrf2 expression solely in corpus of epididymis. Components of the Nrf2/NRF2 system along with coordinated genes are expressed in testis and epididymis. Moreover, some interspecies differences between rat and human were observed, which may impact extrapolation of experimental data into clinical findings. Studies on animal model showed that corpus of epididymis is the most responsive part of the male reproductive tract to oltipraz exposure at the gene expression level. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of floral display size on male and female reproductive success in Mimulus ringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karron, Jeffrey D.; Mitchell, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The number of flowers blooming simultaneously on a plant may have profound consequences for reproductive success. Large floral displays often attract more pollinator visits, increasing outcross pollen receipt. However, pollinators frequently probe more flowers in sequence on large displays, potentially increasing self-pollination and reducing pollen export per flower. To better understand how floral display size influences male and female fitness, we manipulated display phenotypes and then used paternity analysis to quantify siring success and selfing rates. Methods To facilitate unambiguous assignment of paternity, we established four replicate (cloned) arrays of Mimulus ringens, each consisting of genets with unique combinations of homozygous marker genotypes. In each array, we trimmed displays to two, four, eight or 16 flowers. When fruits ripened, we counted the number of seeds per fruit and assigned paternity to 1935 progeny. Key Results Siring success per flower declined sharply with increasing display size, while female success per flower did not vary with display. The rate of self-fertilization increased for large floral displays, but siring losses due to geitonogamous pollen discounting were much greater than siring gains through increased self-fertilization. As display size increased, each additional seed sired through geitonogamous self-pollination was associated with a loss of 9·7 seeds sired through outcrossing. Conclusions Although total fitness increased with floral display size, the marginal return on each additional flower declined steadily as display size increased. Therefore, a plant could maximize fitness by producing small displays over a long flowering period, rather than large displays over a brief flowering period. PMID:21880660

  11. Impact of royal jelly to improve reproductive performance of male rabbits under hot summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-Hanoun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate the deleterious effect of heat stress during summer conditions on male rabbits’ reproduction, 40 V Line adult rabbit bucks (on av. 8 mo old were divided into 4 experimental groups and exposed to temperatures ranging from 23 to 36°C. Bucks in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th group were supplemented with 0, 50, 100 or 150 mg of Chinese royal jelly (RJ/kg twice per week, respectively, over a 20-wk period. Semen quality and blood biochemical constituents were evaluated. RJ at any dose exhibited a significant increase (P<0.05 in rabbits’ sperm concentration, total sperm output, sperm motility, live sperm and normal sperm compared to the untreated controls. Plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and high density lipids (HDL concentrations were significantly (P<0.05 boosted in the RJ groups compared to the controls. In contrast, RJ treatment resulted in a significant (P<0.05 reduction in plasma total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and low density lipids (LDL concentrations. Treatment with RJ significantly boosted (P<0.05 testosterone concentration in the RJ groups to reach 110, 120 and 128%, respectively, of the control group. Improved kidney and liver functions were observed in the RJ bucks groups where plasma creatinine, urea concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activities were significantly (P<0.05 decreased by RJ treatments. Treating bucks subjected to heat stress by different RJ doses increased (P<0.05 total antioxidant capacity to 106, 111 and 115% of basal, but significantly reduced (P<0.05 malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to the untreated. It was concluded that Chinese royal jelly supplementation for heat-stressed male rabbits can counteract summer infertility and improve their physiological status.

  12. Does static electric field from ultra-high voltage direct-current transmission lines affect male reproductive capacity? Evidence from a laboratory study on male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sixia; Di, Guoqing; Li, Zhengguang

    2017-08-01

    With the development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) transmission technology and increase in transmission voltage, the issue of environmental static electric field (SEF) pollution is standing out and its possible health effects have caused much public attention. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to SEF on reproductive capacity of male mice were investigated. Twenty Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed to SEF (56.3 ± 1.4 kV/m, 49 days) generated by a high-voltage device. Several biological end points related to spermatogenesis and testicular function were evaluated, including reproductive organ coefficients, sperm motility and morphology, serum testosterone level, and testicular histology. No significant differences were found between the SEF-exposed and sham-exposed groups at the end of the exposure period. However, further observation through transmission electron microscopy revealed cristae losses in mitochondria of spermatogenic cells after SEF exposure. Nevertheless, the mitochondria injury did not affect sperm motility, which might be explained from the perspective of energy supply. That is, most of the energy required for sperm movement is generated by glycolysis which occurs in the cytoplasm rather than oxidative phosphorylation which occurs in mitochondria. In conclusion, this study indicates that exposure to SEF (56.3 ± 1.4 kV/m, 49 days) has limited effects on male reproductive capacity.

  13. In the male brown-Norway (BN) male rat, reproductive aging is associated with decreased LH-pulse amplitude and area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavera, J J; Swerdloff, R S; Leung, A; Lue, Y H; Baravarian, S; Superlano, L; Sinha-Hikim, A P; Wang, C

    1997-01-01

    The Brown-Norway (BN) rat has been proposed as a rodent model for the study of human male reproductive aging. As in man, reduction in serum or plasma testosterone (T) and both testicular (primary) and hypothalamic-pituitary (secondary) reproductive dysfunction have been associated with aging in male BN rats. However, the presence of secondary testicular failure in this rodent, as indicated by low serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, needs further corroboration. The present study was designed to determine whether age-related differences in the pulsatile patterns of pituitary LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion occur in gonad-intact male BN rats. Three age groups were examined: young (3-4 months), middle aged (12-13 months), and old (21-22 months). Using intra-atrial cannulae, serial 5-minute blood samples were withdrawn from conscious, unrestrained animals. Plasma LH concentrations were determined by a supersensitive immunofluorometric assay (FIA) and FSH and T by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mean T levels were different among groups (young > middle age > old). In young rats, T levels were higher in the late morning/early afternoon than in the late afternoon: this variation was not found in older rats. Mean FSH concentrations were higher in the old than in the middle-aged and young rats. Significant differences in mean LH levels were not found among groups. Compared to young rats, shortened pulse interval and reduced area of pulses characterized the secretory pattern of both gonadotropins in old rats. In addition, LH-pulse amplitude and total area of LH pulses were also significantly lower in old than in young rats. Besides the well-recognized primary testicular failure that occurs in the old BN rat, this study confirms a hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency that makes this rodent model ideal for studying human male reproductive aging.

  14. Plant Reproduction and the Pollen Tube Journey--How the Females Lure the Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbiecke, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The growth of pollen tubes is one of the most characteristic events in angiosperm reproduction. This article describes an activity for visualizing the journey and guidance of pollen tubes in the reproductive structures of a flowering plant. The activity uses a semi-in vivo system with rapid-cycling "Brassica rapa," also known as Fast Plants.…

  15. The effects of three different exercise modalities on markers of male reproduction in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity continuous training (HICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of male reproduction including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in healthy human subjects. A total of 397 healthy male volunteers were screened and 280 were randomly assigned to one of the MICT (n = 70), HICT (n = 70), HIIT (n = 70) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups. Subjects had inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), oxidants (ROS, MDA and 8-isoprostane), antioxidants (SOD, catalase and TAC), semen parameters and sperm DNA damage measured at baseline (T1), the end of week 12 (T2), the end of week 24 (T3), and 7 (T4) and 30 days (T5) after training. Chronic MICT, HICT and HIIT attenuated seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with different kinetics for the three types of exercise (P reproductive function (P reproduction with different kinetics, suggesting intensity-, duration- and type-dependent adaptations to exercise training in healthy human subjects. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Precision reproductive medicine: multigene panel testing for infertility risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephen C

    2017-08-01

    The concept of precision medicine relies on a thorough understanding of the consequences of unique features of individual patients, such as environmental exposures and genetic profiles. A key component of implementing individualized care in this paradigm will be improved assessment of genetic risk. Compared with single gene tests, multigene panel testing-which has recently become commercially available for female infertility-offers the possibility of a more comprehensive and efficient risk evaluation. However, as the use of multigene panel testing for breast cancer risk has shown, this approach must be used judiciously to ensure its usefulness in a clinical setting. Key challenges which have been encountered in oncology include the interpretation of gene variants of questionable clinical effect and a lack of evidence to guide management after variants are identified. In this review, the core concepts of multigene panel testing for risk assessment are discussed, with careful attention to both its shortcomings as well as its potential for benefit in reproductive medicine.

  17. Reproductive toxicity after levetiracetam administration in male rats: Evidence for role of hormonal status and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gozde; Kilic, Volkan; Ucarcan, Seyda; Atli, Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days. At the end of this period, alterations to body and organ weights were calculated, and sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm DNA damage was determined by comet assay and histopathological examination of the testes was carried out. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured by ELISAs to determine the effects of hormonal status, while glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels in the testes were measured by colorimetric assay kits to determine the role of oxidative status in potential toxicity. According to the results, sperm quality was decreased by LEV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. LEV induced significant DNA damage in the 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. Histopathology of the testes showed that LEV resulted in testicular injury in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels were significantly decreased in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in all experimental groups while malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. According to these results, it was determined that LEV administration decreased sperm quality and it was alleged that hormonal alteration and oxidative stress are

  18. Reproductive toxicity after levetiracetam administration in male rats: Evidence for role of hormonal status and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Baysal

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam (LEV is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days. At the end of this period, alterations to body and organ weights were calculated, and sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm DNA damage was determined by comet assay and histopathological examination of the testes was carried out. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured by ELISAs to determine the effects of hormonal status, while glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels in the testes were measured by colorimetric assay kits to determine the role of oxidative status in potential toxicity. According to the results, sperm quality was decreased by LEV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. LEV induced significant DNA damage in the 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. Histopathology of the testes showed that LEV resulted in testicular injury in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels were significantly decreased in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in all experimental groups while malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. According to these results, it was determined that LEV administration decreased sperm quality and it was alleged that hormonal alteration and

  19. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of different types of lamps on the reproductive development of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes, Pâmela L; Espósito, Marcelo; das Neves, Danusa G; Viana, Arabela G A; Coelho, Louise M; Bobadilla-Mendez, Manuel F; Alvarenga, Renata R; Fassani, Edison J; Peixoto, Juliano V; Zangeronimo, Márcio G

    2017-05-01

    Reproductive tract development during puberty is critical to reproductive performance, and the light is crucial in this process in birds. However, in male quail, there is little information on the effects of types of lamps, more specifically the wavelength emitted. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of types of lamps on the reproductive performance of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Two hundred and forty male quail were exposed to six different types of lamp (incandescent, white fluorescent, or blue, white, red or green LED). The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and five replicates of one quail. Quail were slaughtered on days 35, 47, 57, 71 and 123 to evaluate the development of testes. On day 117, semen samples were analyzed and fertilized eggs were incubated. Body weight of the quails was influenced (P lamps only until the 47 days of age. Higher body weight until this age were observed with incandescent, blue and green LED bulbs. Fluorescent and red LED bulbs propitiated (P LED bulbs. Lower testicular development was observed (P LED. No influence of different types of lamps was observed (P > 0.05) on the quality of semen nor on the fertility rates of quail. It is concluded that lamps can influence the histological reproductive characteristics of male quails, but without influencing the semen quality. Fluorescent bulbs and red LED seem to anticipate the sexual maturity, but the white LED results in higher testicular development at 57 days of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment during aggressive contests between male jumping spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Damian O.; Kasumovic, Michael M.; Punzalan, David; Andrade, Maydianne C. B.; Mason, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment strategies are an important component in game theoretical models of contests. Strategies can be either based on one’s own abilities (self assessment) or on the relative abilities of two opponents (mutual assessment). Using statistical methodology that allows discrimination between assessment types, we examined contests in the jumping spider Phiddipus clarus. In this species, aggressive interactions can be divided into ‘pre-contact’ and ‘contact’ phases. Pre-contact phases consist of bouts of visual and vibratory signaling. Contact phases follow where males physically contact each other (leg fencing). Both weight and vibratory signaling differences predicted winners with heavier and more actively signaling males winning more contests. Vibratory behaviour predicted pre-contact phase duration, with higher signaling rates and larger differences between contestants leading to longer pre-contact interaction times. Contact phase duration was predicted most strongly by the weight of losing males relative to that of winning males, suggesting that P. clarus males use self-assessment in determining contest duration. While a self-assessment strategy was supported, our data suggest a secondary role for mutual assessment (“partial mutual assessment”). After initial contest bouts, male competitors changed their behaviour. Pre-contact and contact phase durations were reduced while vibratory signaling behaviour in winners was unchanged. In addition, only vibratory signaling differences predicted winners in subsequent bouts suggesting a role of experience in determining contest outcomes. We suggest that the rules and assessment strategies males use can change depending on experience and that assessment strategies are likely a continuum between self- and mutual assessment. PMID:19727331

  2. Effect of oral methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) on the male mouse reproductive tract and oxidative stress in liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Peyster, Ann; Rodriguez, Yvonne; Shuto, Rika; Goldberg, Beck; Gonzales, Frank; Pu, Xinzhu; Klaunig, James E.

    2015-01-01

    MTBE is found in water supplies used for drinking and other purposes. These experiments follow up on earlier reports of reproductive tract alterations in male mice exposed orally to MTBE and explored oxidative stress as a mode of action. CD-1 mice were gavaged with 400–2000 mg/kg MTBE on days 1, 3, and 5, injected ip with hCG (2.5 IU/g) on day 6, and necropsied on day 7. No effect was seen in testis histology or testosterone levels. Using a similar dosing protocol, others had initially reported disruption of seminiferous tubules in MTBE–gavaged mice, although later conclusions published were consistent with our findings. Another group had also reported testicular and other reproductive system abnormalities in male BALB/c mice exposed for 28 days to 80–8000 ug/ml MTBE in drinking water. We gave these MTBE concentrations to adult mice for 28 days and juvenile mice for 51 days through PND 77. Evidence of oxidative stress was examined in liver homogenates from the juvenile study using MDA, TEAC and 8OH2hG as endpoints. MTBE exposures at the levels examined indicated no significant changes in the male mouse reproductive tract and no signs of hepatic oxidative stress. This appears to be the first oral MTBE exposure of juvenile animals, and also the first to examine potential for MTBE to cause oxidative stress in vivo using a typical route of human exposure. PMID:18824092

  3. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  4. Recent advances in bird sperm morphometric analysis and its role in male gamete characterization and reproduction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, Julian; Esteso, Milagros Cristina; Villaverde-Morcillo, Silvia; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Velázquez, Rosario; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Goya, Agustín López; Martínez, Javier Gimeno

    2016-01-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection through sperm competition may be an important evolutionary force affecting many reproductive traits, including sperm morphometrics. Environmental factors such as pollutants, pesticides, and climate change may affect different sperm traits, and thus reproduction, in sensitive bird species. Many sperm-handling processes used in assisted reproductive techniques may also affect the size of sperm cells. The accurately measured dimensions of sperm cell structures (especially the head) can thus be used as indicators of environmental influences, in improving our understanding of reproductive and evolutionary strategies, and for optimizing assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., sperm cryopreservation) for use with birds. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) provides an accurate and reliable method for assessing sperm morphometry, reducing the problem of subjectivity associated with human visual assessment. Computerized systems have been standardized for use with semen from different mammalian species. Avian spermatozoa, however, are filiform, limiting their analysis with such systems, which were developed to examine the approximately spherical heads of mammalian sperm cells. To help overcome this, the standardization of staining techniques to be used in computer-assessed light microscopical methods is a priority. The present review discusses these points and describes the sperm morphometric characteristics of several wild and domestic bird species. PMID:27678467

  5. Recent advances in bird sperm morphometric analysis and its role in male gamete characterization and reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Santiago-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcopulatory sexual selection through sperm competition may be an important evolutionary force affecting many reproductive traits, including sperm morphometrics. Environmental factors such as pollutants, pesticides, and climate change may affect different sperm traits, and thus reproduction, in sensitive bird species. Many sperm-handling processes used in assisted reproductive techniques may also affect the size of sperm cells. The accurately measured dimensions of sperm cell structures (especially the head can thus be used as indicators of environmental influences, in improving our understanding of reproductive and evolutionary strategies, and for optimizing assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., sperm cryopreservation for use with birds. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph provides an accurate and reliable method for assessing sperm morphometry, reducing the problem of subjectivity associated with human visual assessment. Computerized systems have been standardized for use with semen from different mammalian species. Avian spermatozoa, however, are filiform, limiting their analysis with such systems, which were developed to examine the approximately spherical heads of mammalian sperm cells. To help overcome this, the standardization of staining techniques to be used in computer-assessed light microscopical methods is a priority. The present review discusses these points and describes the sperm morphometric characteristics of several wild and domestic bird species.

  6. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  8. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  9. Fighting for a harem of queens: physiology of reproduction in Cardiocondyla male ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, J; Hölldobler, B

    1993-09-15

    Several species of the ant genus Cardiocondyla produce dimorphic males, which exhibit sharply different mating strategies. Winged males typically disperse to mate outside the nest, whereas wingless, ergatoid males stay in the nest and aggressively employ their mandibles against competing ergatoid males to monopolize the virgin queens eclosing in the nest. Such aggressive mating strategy would only be adaptive if the males had unlimited sperm supply. Histological studies showed that, contrary to the rule in the Hymenoptera order, the ergatoid Cardiocondyla males are indeed able to produce sperm during their entire adult life. Winged males, on the other hand, have only a limited sperm supply since spermatogenesis ceases in the late pupal stage.

  10. Fighting for a harem of queens: physiology of reproduction in Cardiocondyla male ants.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, J.; Hölldobler, B

    1993-01-01

    Several species of the ant genus Cardiocondyla produce dimorphic males, which exhibit sharply different mating strategies. Winged males typically disperse to mate outside the nest, whereas wingless, ergatoid males stay in the nest and aggressively employ their mandibles against competing ergatoid males to monopolize the virgin queens eclosing in the nest. Such aggressive mating strategy would only be adaptive if the males had unlimited sperm supply. Histological studies showed that, contrary ...

  11. Sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Imke; Niemuller, Cheryl; Pootoolal, Jason; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The application of real-time-B-mode ultrasonography to wild and zoo animal medicine has been shown to improve the understanding of reproductive physiology in many species. Ultrasound technology is especially helpful for monitoring urogenital health, which in turn has advantages for giraffe breeding and welfare in captivity. This study aimed to ultrasonographically describe the genital organs of reproductively healthy male and female giraffes. Through the use of a restrainer, repeated rectal ultrasound examinations were performed over a 2 year period in 2.6 Rothschild's giraffes. Changes in ovarian activity were monitored throughout four different reproductive stages in the females and included immature, mature-cycling, pregnancy, post-partum-period. In the immature giraffes the ovaries showed multiple follicles of which larger ones luteinized to form pseudo-corpora lutea. By comparison, in the mature giraffes the dominant follicle reached an ovulatory diameter of 18.5+/-0.89 mm. After ovulation, a single corpus luteum rapidly formed and reached a maximum diameter of 33.0+/-2.4mm on average. Pregnancy was detected for the first time by the embryonic vesicle, visualized around 28 days post copulation. Follicular development remained ongoing during early pregnancy. In the males, as in other ruminants, the bulbourethral glands and the seminal vesicles were prominent, whereas the prostate gland was indistinct. Knowledge about the reproductive tract morphology and physiology is necessary for diagnosing medical disorders and abnormalities in giraffes. The aim of this study was to help consolidate the current knowledge on basic reproductive parameters for this species.

  12. Male personality, life-history strategies and reproductive success in a promiscuous mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réale, D; Martin, J; Coltman, D W; Poissant, J; Festa-Bianchet, M

    2009-08-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that personality is a component of life history, but links between personality and either age-dependent reproductive success or life-history strategy are yet to be established. Using quantitative genetic analyses on a long-term pedigree we estimated indices of boldness and docility for 105 bighorn sheep rams (Ovis canadensis), born between 1983 and 1999, and compared these indices to their reproductive history from 2 years of age until death. Docility and boldness were highly heritable and negatively genetically correlated. Docile and bold rams survived longer than indocile and shy rams. Docility and boldness had a weak negative effect on reproductive success early in life, but a strong positive effect on older rams. Our findings highlight an important role of personality on reproductive success and suggest that personality could be an important component of life-history strategy.

  13. Relaxin family peptide receptors Rxfp1 and Rxfp2: mapping of the mRNA and protein distribution in the reproductive tract of the male rat

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    Porto Catarina S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relaxin is the endogenous ligand of the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP1, previously known as LGR7. In humans relaxin can also activate, but with lower affinity, the closely related receptor for the insulin-like peptide from Leydig cells, RXFP2, previously known as LGR8. The lack of relaxin impairs male fertility but the precise distribution and the function of relaxin receptors in the male reproductive tract is not known. We investigated the distribution of Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 in the reproductive tract of the male rat and the function of relaxin in the vas deferens, a tissue with high expression of both receptors. Methods The presence of mRNA for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 was investigated in testes, cultured Sertoli cells, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, and spermatozoa by RT-PCR and Southern blot. Protein expression in the testis, vas deferens, primary culture of Sertoli cells, and spermatozoa was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The role of relaxin in the vas deferens was evaluated by contractility studies and radioimmunoassay of cAMP production. The effect of relaxin on mRNA levels for metalloproteinase-7 was measured by Northern blot. Results Transcripts for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 were present in almost all parts of the male reproductive tract, with high levels in testis and vas deferens. Both receptors were immunolocalized in late stage germ cells but not in mature spermatozoa, although mRNAs for both receptors were also present in mature spermatozoa. Rxfp1 but not Rxfp2 was detected in cultured Sertoli cells. Strong immunostaining for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 was seen in muscular and epithelial layers of the vas deferens and in arteriolar walls. Relaxin did not affect contractility and cyclic AMP production of the vas deferens, but increased the levels of mRNA for metalloproteinase-7. Conclusion Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 are widely and similarly distributed throughout the male reproductive tract. Our results

  14. Disruption of Reproductive Aging in Female and Male Rats by Gestational Exposure to Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Deena M.; Kermath, Bailey A.; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Previous work has shown that gestational exposure to PCBs cause changes in reproductive neuroendocrine processes. Here we extended work farther down the life spectrum and tested the hypothesis that early life exposure to Aroclor 1221 (A1221), a mixture of primarily estrogenic PCBs, results in sexually dimorphic aging-associated alterations to reproductive parameters in rats, and gene express...

  15. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

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    Ghaffari Mohammad Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, and lead chloride (PbCl4. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, and lead chloride (PbCl4 diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production.

  16. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production.

  17. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production. PMID:27441055

  18. Thermal parameters changes in males of Rhinella arenarum (Anura:Bufonidae related to reproductive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of body temperature in ectotherms has a major impact in their physiological and behavioral processes. Observing changes in thermal parameters related with reproduction allows us to better understand how Rhinella arenarum optimizes a thermal resource. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal parameters of this species between breeding and non-breeding periods. In the field, we recorded the body temperature from captured animals, the air temperature, and the temperature of the substrate. In the laboratory, we measured the temperature R. arenarum selected on a thermal gradient and the critical extreme temperatures. The results of our study show variations in thermal parameters between the two situations studied. This species makes efficient use of thermal resources during the breeding period by basking to significantly increase body temperature. Because calling is energetically costly for males, this behavior results in increased efficiency to callers during the breeding period. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 347-353. Epub 2011 March 01.La regulación de la temperatura en ectotérmos tiene gran importancia en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales. Los cambios en los parámetros térmicos relacionados con la reproducción nos permiten entender de qué manera Rhinella arenarum optimiza el recurso térmico. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar los parámetros térmicos de la especie entre el periodo reproductivo y no reproductivo. En el campo se registraron la temperatura corporal de los animales capturados, la temperatura del aire y del sustrato. Además, en laboratorio se registro la temperatura selecta en un gradiente térmico. Como así también las temperaturas criticas máxima y mínima. Los resultados de nuestro estudio muestran variaciones de los parámetros térmicos entre ambas situaciones estudiadas. Aparentemente esta especie hace un uso eficiente del recurso térmico durante el periodo reproductivo ya que

  19. Social status-dependent nest choice of territorial males under reproductive parasitism in a Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis vittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, K; Kohda, M

    2011-03-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine how territorial males of a Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis vittatus balance the conflicting demands on nest choice between occupying large nests with more females and avoiding reproductive parasitism (nest piracy, which is adopted by the largest males in the population). Pirates less frequently intruded the nests farther from neighbours, perhaps due to the costs associated with travelling between nests. The field experiment showed that territorial male T. vittatus sacrificed the fitness benefits that large nests offer and instead prioritized occupying the nests farther from neighbours on which fewer pirates intruded. The field observations suggested that they adopt different strategies for nest choice according to their relative competitive ability to pirates; the large territorial males, who are size-matched to pirates and can defend their nests against them, compete for larger nests among the more-isolated nests, whereas subordinate territorial males, which are smaller than pirates and thus inferior to them, compete for the more-isolated nests among the less-isolated nests. These findings suggest that the territorial male T. vittatus chooses the more-isolated nests to avoid pirate males at the expense of occupying large nests. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Season- and Age-related Reproductive Changes Based on Fecal Androgen Concentrations in Male Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUSUDA, Satoshi; HASHIKAWA, Hisashi; TAKEDA, Masato; ITO, Hideki; GOTO, Atsushi; OGUCHI, Jun; DOI, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas. PMID:23502854

  1. Pubescent male students' attitudes towards menstruation in Taiwan: implications for reproductive health education and school nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2012-02-01

    To explore male students' attitudes towards menstruation. Menstruation is a biological event that is often surrounded by secrecy and social stigma that causes anxiety amongst many young girls. A key element of this is the attitudes of young males towards this reproductive health issue. However, the literature around what young males think and feel about menstruation is limited. Qualitative. A sample of 27 male students aged between 10-12 years participated in five focus groups. Data were then subject to a thematic analysis. Five themes emerged from the data analysis that reflected the boys' feelings, experiences and attitudes towards menstruation: 'A silent topic', 'An unimportant issue', 'Errant information about menstruation'. In addition, according to their experience, participants gradually came to see menstruation from the 'menstrual stereotype' viewpoint. In their social life, they made choices that resulted in gradually regulating their behaviour that affected their 'relationships with girls'. Young boys have misguided knowledge about menstruation and this helps to perpetuate the stigma surrounding this element of reproductive health. Boys also express a desire to learn more but are often restricted in this by home and school. School nurses are the best placed professionals to address this issue. Menstrual education with boys should take a greater prominence than it often does in sexual health education in schools. Such inclusion will provide boys with a balanced and accurate knowledge base and therefore help towards reducing the social stigma around menstruation that is often experienced by young girls. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Competition and opportunity shape the reproductive tactics of males in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2011-03-29

    Context-dependent adjustment of mating tactics can drastically increase the mating success of behaviourally flexible animals. We used the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior as a model system to study adaptive adjustment of male mating tactics. This species shows a male diphenism of wingless fighter males and peaceful winged males. Whereas the wingless males stay and exclusively mate in the maternal colony, the mating behaviour of winged males is plastic. They copulate with female sexuals in their natal nests early in life but later disperse in search for sexuals outside. In this study, we observed the nest-leaving behaviour of winged males under different conditions and found that they adaptively adjust the timing of their dispersal to the availability of mating partners, as well as the presence, and even the type of competitors in their natal nests. In colonies with virgin female queens winged males stayed longest when they were the only male in the nest. They left earlier when mating partners were not available or when other males were present. In the presence of wingless, locally mating fighter males, winged males dispersed earlier than in the presence of docile, winged competitors. This suggests that C. obscurior males are capable of estimating their local breeding chances and adaptively adjust their dispersal behaviour in both an opportunistic and a risk-sensitive way, thus showing hitherto unknown behavioural plasticity in social insect males.

  3. Testosterone and tusks: maturation and seasonal reproductive patterns of live, free-ranging male dugongs (Dugong dugon) in a subtropical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M; Keeley, Tamara

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge of male reproductive status and activity in free-ranging animals is vital to understanding reproductive patterns and population dynamics. Until now, almost all information regarding reproductive behavior of the dugong, a cryptic marine mammal, has relied on post-mortem examination. We examined the relationships between body length, tusk eruption (secondary sexual characteristic), seasonality, and group association on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in 322 free-ranging dugongs (159 males, 163 females) in subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia. Fecal testosterone concentrations demonstrated biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity between sexes and across reproductive/age classes, and were correlated with circulating concentrations in serum. Male dugongs have a pre-reproductive period that persists until a body length of 240 cm is achieved. Puberty apparently occurs between 240 and 260 cm body length when fecal testosterone levels increase fourfold (>500 ng/g) over juvenile levels, and is associated with tusk eruption. However, social maturity may be delayed until male dugongs are larger than 260 cm with well-developed tusks. In mature males, the lowest (testosterone concentrations occur in the austral autumn months with maximal concentrations in September-October, coincident with the onset of a spring mating season. During spring, solitary mature males had fecal testosterone concentrations double those of mature males sampled within groups, potentially suggesting a mating strategy involving roving of reproductively active males. This study demonstrates that single-point physiological data from individuals across a population have value as indicators of reproductive processes. Our approach provides an efficacious non-lethal method for the census of reproductive status and seasonality in live male dugongs.

  4. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun, E-mail: zhanghangjun@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  6. Identification of Reproductive Education Needs of Infertile Clients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment Using Assessments of Their Knowledge and Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezabadi Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In order to empower infertile individuals and provide high quality patient-centered infertility care, it is necessary to recognize and meet infertile individuals’ educational needs. This study aims to examine infertility patients’ knowledge and subsequently their education needs given their attitudinal approach to infertility education in terms of patients who undergo assisted reproduction treatment. Materials and Methods This descriptive study enrolled 150 subjects by conveni- ence sampling of all patients who received their first assisted reproductive treatment between July and September 2015 at a referral fertility clinic, Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. We used a questionnaire that measured fertility and infertility information (8 questions as well as attitude toward education on the causes and treatment of infertility (5 questions. Chi-square, independent sample t test, and one way ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine differences by sex. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Total mean knowledge was 3.08 ± 0.99. Clients’ responses indicated that the highest mean knowledge scores related to knowledge of factors that affected pregnancy (3.97 ± 1.11 and infertility treatment (3.97 ± 1.16. The lowest mean knowledge scores related to knowledge of the natural reproductive cycle (2.96 ± 1.12 and anatomy of the genital organs (2.94 ± 1.16. Most females (92.1% and males (83.3% were of the opinion that infertility education programs should include causes of infertility and types of treatment associated with diagnostic and laboratory procedures. No statistically significant difference existed between male and female participants (P=0.245. Conclusion Most participants in this study expressed awareness of factors that affect pregnancy and infertility treatment. It is imperative to educate and empower infertile individuals who seek reproduction treatment in terms of infertility causes and types of treatment, as

  7. Identification of Reproductive Education Needs of Infertile Clients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment Using Assessments of Their Knowledge and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezabadi, Zahra; Mollaahmadi, Fahimeh; Mohammadi, Maryam; Omani Samani, Reza; Vesali, Samira

    2017-01-01

    Background In order to empower infertile individuals and provide high quality patient-centered infertility care, it is necessary to recognize and meet infertile individuals’ educational needs. This study aims to examine infertility patients’ knowledge and subsequently their education needs given their attitudinal approach to infertility education in terms of patients who undergo assisted reproduction treatment. Materials and Methods This descriptive study enrolled 150 subjects by conveni- ence sampling of all patients who received their first assisted reproductive treatment between July and September 2015 at a referral fertility clinic, Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. We used a questionnaire that measured fertility and infertility information (8 questions) as well as attitude toward education on the causes and treatment of infertility (5 questions). Chi-square, independent sample t test, and one way ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine differences by sex. Pinfertility treatment (3.97 ± 1.16). The lowest mean knowledge scores related to knowledge of the natural reproductive cycle (2.96 ± 1.12) and anatomy of the genital organs (2.94 ± 1.16). Most females (92.1%) and males (83.3%) were of the opinion that infertility education programs should include causes of infertility and types of treatment associated with diagnostic and laboratory procedures. No statistically significant difference existed between male and female participants (P=0.245). Conclusion Most participants in this study expressed awareness of factors that affect pregnancy and infertility treatment. It is imperative to educate and empower infertile individuals who seek reproduction treatment in terms of infertility causes and types of treatment, as well as diagnostic and laboratory procedures to enable them to make informed decisions about their assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:28367301

  8. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function: a multipollutant assessment in Greenlandic, Polish and Ukrainian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M; Jönsson, Bo A G; Giwercman, Aleksander; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Spanò, Marcello; Pedersen, Henning S; Ludwicki, Jan K; Chumak, Lyubov; Piersma, Aldert H; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-06-01

    Numerous environmental contaminants have been linked to adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, the complex correlation structure of exposures and multiple testing issues limit the interpretation of existing evidence. Our objective was to identify, from a large set of contaminant exposures, exposure profiles associated with biomarkers of male reproductive function. In this cross-sectional study (n=602), male partners of pregnant women were enrolled between 2002 and 2004 during antenatal care visits in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Fifteen contaminants were detected in more than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin integrity, epididymal and accessory sex gland function, and Y:X chromosome ratio. We evaluated multipollutant models with sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression, a simultaneous dimension reduction and variable selection approach which accommodates joint modelling of correlated exposures. Of the over 300 exposure-outcome associations tested in sPLS models, we detected 10 associations encompassing 8 outcomes. Several associations were notably consistent in direction across the three study populations: positive associations between mercury and inhibin B, and between cadmium and testosterone; and inverse associations between DiNP metabolites and testosterone, between polychlorinated biphenyl-153 and progressive sperm motility, and between a DEHP metabolite and neutral α-glucosidase, a marker of epididymal function. Th