WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing local determinants

  1. Integrating Social Determinants of Health With Treatment and Prevention: A New Tool to Assess Local Area Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroko, Andrew R; Doan, Thao M; Arno, Peter S; Hubel, Megan; Yi, Shirley; Viola, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the appropriate geographic scale to apply an area deprivation index (ADI), which reflects a geographic area's level of socioeconomic deprivation and is associated with health outcomes, to identify and screen patients for social determinants of health. We estimated the relative strength of the association between the ADI at various geographic levels and a range of hospitalization rates by using age-adjusted odds ratios in an 8-county region of New York State. The 10-km local ADI estimates had the strongest associations with all hospitalization rates (higher odds ratios) followed by estimates at 20 km, 30 km, and the regional scale. A locally sensitive ADI is an ideal measure to identify and screen for the health care and social services needs and to advance the integration of social determinants of health with clinical treatment and disease prevention. PMID:27634778

  2. Assessing the Determinants of Renewable Electricity Acceptance Integrating Meta-Analysis Regression and a Local Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In dealing with renewable electricity (RE, individuals are involved both as end-consumers on the demand side and as stakeholders (citizens in the local production process on the supply side. Empirical evidence shows that in many countries, consumers are willing to pay a significant amount to facilitate adoption of RE. By contrast, environmental externalities are often the cause of strong opposition to RE adoption if local communities are involved as stakeholders in wind, solar or biomass investment projects. Looking at the literature on willingness to pay and on willingness to accept, we have investigated RE acceptance mechanisms. First, we have used the meta-analysis to assess the major determinants of RE acceptance on both demand and supply sides. Meta-analysis has provided some insights useful for managing field research on an onshore wind farm enlargement project located in the Umbria region. Meta-analysis and survey results confirm that the local community plays a central role in local RE acceptance. Furthermore, people who have previous experience with windmills require less compensation, or are willing to pay more, for RE development. Results suggest that these attributes should be included in future research to improve understanding of determinants of RE acceptance.

  3. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre J Obeid; Bilal E1-Khoury; Joanne Burger; Samer Aouad; Mira Younis; Amal Aoun; John Hanna El-Nakat

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet.However,very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption.This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption.Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh,frozen,processed,and canned fish.All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight.The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 μg/g in fresh samples,0.0059 to 0.0665 μg/g in frozen samples,and 0.0305 to 0.1190 μg/g in canned samples.The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure.Moreover,the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia),Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus),Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops),and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury.On the other hand,processed fish such as fish fillet,fish burger,small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury.Lebanese population should therefore,be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  4. 34 CFR 222.23 - How does a local educational agency determine the aggregate assessed value of its eligible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Allocatedproportion (percent) Eligible Federal acres allocated to expected use category (Col. 2 × acres in expected... Total 4,450,000 200.75 NA Average value/acre (TOTAL Col. 2/TOTAL Col. 3) 22,166.87 (iii) The local... acresallocated to property use categories (Col. 2 × eligible acres) Proportionallocated to non-assessed or...

  5. Local network assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  6. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    The development of new creep-resistant and cost effective die casting magnesium alloys, such as AE, MRI, MEZ, ACM, AXJ, AJ, WE, have emerged as an alternative, to fulfil the modern demands in structurally relevant applications, such as engine blocks, gears and converter boxes. However, in most cases, magnesium components are screwed with aluminium and steel bolts, which lead the screwed joints to lose the preload force, due to relaxation. This barrier thereby limits the broad use of magnesium within this segment and should somehow find an adequate solution to help overcome this limitation. Furthermore, together with alloy development and the addition of reinforcement (MMCs), local material engineering processes have been conceived and are considered a method to improve the properties and therefore expand the number of potential applications for magnesium alloys. In this context, Friction Welding (FW) and particularly Friction Hydro Pillar Processing (FHPP), which can be described as a drill and fill process, appear to be an alternative to make the use of magnesium more widespread. For this reason, FHPP is intended to be used, to locally reinforce the mechanically fastened magnesium components. With this approach, regions submitted to the stresses imposed by tightening forces can be compensated by the use of a material with superior properties. It is not required to fabricate the whole structure from an expensive material, thus saving costs and thereby satisfying the economic pressures of an increasingly competitive global market. In the present work, a preliminary experimental matrix was defined and used to determine the optimal welding conditions for each specific material combination selected. Further, elaborate experimental techniques are used to describe the process parameters-microstructure-properties relationships and the consequent mechanisms leading to bonding in FHPP welds in similar and dissimilar configurations. The welds were performed using a hydraulic

  7. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    The development of new creep-resistant and cost effective die casting magnesium alloys, such as AE, MRI, MEZ, ACM, AXJ, AJ, WE, have emerged as an alternative, to fulfil the modern demands in structurally relevant applications, such as engine blocks, gears and converter boxes. However, in most cases, magnesium components are screwed with aluminium and steel bolts, which lead the screwed joints to lose the preload force, due to relaxation. This barrier thereby limits the broad use of magnesium within this segment and should somehow find an adequate solution to help overcome this limitation. Furthermore, together with alloy development and the addition of reinforcement (MMCs), local material engineering processes have been conceived and are considered a method to improve the properties and therefore expand the number of potential applications for magnesium alloys. In this context, Friction Welding (FW) and particularly Friction Hydro Pillar Processing (FHPP), which can be described as a drill and fill process, appear to be an alternative to make the use of magnesium more widespread. For this reason, FHPP is intended to be used, to locally reinforce the mechanically fastened magnesium components. With this approach, regions submitted to the stresses imposed by tightening forces can be compensated by the use of a material with superior properties. It is not required to fabricate the whole structure from an expensive material, thus saving costs and thereby satisfying the economic pressures of an increasingly competitive global market. In the present work, a preliminary experimental matrix was defined and used to determine the optimal welding conditions for each specific material combination selected. Further, elaborate experimental techniques are used to describe the process parameters-microstructure-properties relationships and the consequent mechanisms leading to bonding in FHPP welds in similar and dissimilar configurations. The welds were performed using a hydraulic

  8. Assessment of local food distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmark, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in local food, as consumers feel confidence in such food. Local food has good opportunities to fulfil quality aspects/requirements of transparency and traceability in the supply chain due to the possibilities for direct interaction between producers and consumers. However, local food producers often face logistics challenges due to their small scale, decentralisation and integration difficulties with larger supply chains. This necessitates analysis of specific log...

  9. Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. (paper)

  10. Exploring Local to Global Leadership Education Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    From individual student learning outcomes to full-scale program enhancement, assessment is critical in developing and sustaining leadership education. This chapter will look at assessment techniques and trends spanning from local to global frameworks. International Leadership Association overarching Outcomes and Assessment Guiding Question: "What…

  11. Causality and local determinism versus quantum nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The entanglement and the violation of Bell and CHSH inequalities in spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCE) is considered to be one of the biggest mysteries of Nature and is called quantum nonlocality. In this paper we show once again that this conclusion is based on imprecise terminology and on the lack of understanding of probabilistic models used in various proofs of Bell and CHSH theorems. These models are inconsistent with experimental protocols used in SPCE. This is the only reason why Bell and CHSH inequalities are violated. A probabilistic non-signalling description of SPCE, consistent with quantum predictions, is possible and it depends explicitly on the context of each experiment. It is also deterministic in the sense that the outcome is determined by supplementary local parameters describing both a physical signals and measuring instruments. The existence of such description gives additional arguments that quantum theory is emergent from some more detailed theory respecting causality and l...

  12. Amalgams determined by locally projective actions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, A. A.; SHPECTOROV, S. V.

    2004-01-01

    A locally projective amalgam is formed by the stabilizer $G(x)$ of a vertex $x$ and the global stabilizer $G\\{x, y\\}$ of an edge (containing $x$) in a group $G$, acting faithfully and locally finitely on a connected graph $\\Gamma$ of valency $2^{n}-1$ so that (i) the action is $2$-arc-transitive; (ii) the subconstituent $G(x)^{\\Gamma(x)}$ is the linear group $SL_{n}(2) \\cong L_{n}(2)$ in its natural doubly transitive action and (iii) $[t, G\\{x, y\\}] \\le O_{2}(G(x) \\cap G\\{x,...

  13. LOCAL PRODUCTS IMAGE DETERMINANT COMMUNES OF NISKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  14. Assessment Of Professional Tour Guides’ Performances By Local Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atınç Olcay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the help of internet and other social networks, a more conscious tourist profile has gained momentum in this new tourism era. The professional tour guide (PTG services, one of the most important components of the tourism services, have been inspired due to these developments. The PTG contributes tremendously to the success of packaged tours. As such, this research aims to determine the importance levels of the expected PTG's qualifications and assessing the performance of PTG’s from the local tourists’ perspectives. In order to ascertain the aim, survey was conducted with 472 local tourists that visited Gaziantep in 2014 with guided package tours in the months of March and April. The findings indicated that the ratings give PTGs’ performances were lower than that of their qualifications’ importance level. From this point of view, it can be suggested that PTGs’ performance levels stay under local tourists’ expectations within the research framework. The results also indicate statistically significant differences with %5 significance level between local tourists’ assessments on knowledge, abilities/skills and characteristics of PTGs and local tourist’ education levels, genders and package tour participation frequencies

  15. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  16. Determining Absorption, Emissivity Reduction, and Local Suppression Coefficients inside Sunspots

    OpenAIRE

    Ilonidis, Stathis; Zhao, Junwei

    2010-01-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves is reduced inside sunspots mainly due to absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression. The coefficients of these power-reduction mechanisms can be determined by comparing time-distance cross-covariances obtained from sunspots and from the quiet Sun. By analyzing 47 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI without using signal filters, we have determined the coefficients of surface absorption, deep absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression....

  17. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  18. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  19. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  20. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  1. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of Quang Tri in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans...

  2. Survey Determines Consumer Demand for a Local Farmers Market

    OpenAIRE

    Atwell, James

    2010-01-01

    Regional and local farmer’s markets have sprung up across the Commonwealth of Virginia. To the dismay of many, farmer’s markets fail to remain open for much longer than one season. Several reasons can contribute to this including inadequate demand, too few vendors, and poor product selection; just to name a few. A survey was conducted for the town of Wytheville residents to determine their preferences and objectives for their local farmer’s market. In 2009, a 20 question survey was developed ...

  3. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy.

  4. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy. PMID:24681521

  5. Microcomputer-assisted determination of local blood flow by 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute local irradiations may induce extensive and delayed cutaneous and muscular ulcerations. We intended to study the prevalence of vascular factors in their pathogeny in an experimental model developed in pigs. Local clearance curves were assessed after intra-arterial administration of 133Xe and transferred to a micro-computer. A program for poly-exponential curve fitting, written in Asyst langage, has been developed. An iterative curve stripping is performed conventionally and then the coefficients are more precisely determined using a Gauss-Newton method. This program has been tested on experimental data obtained after a 40 Gy local over-exposure

  6. Local magnetic structure determination using polarized neutron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakál, Alex, E-mail: szakal.alex@wigner.mta.hu; Markó, Márton, E-mail: marko.marton@wigner.mta.hu; Cser, László, E-mail: cser.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Konkoly Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-05-07

    A unique and important property of the neutron is that it possesses magnetic moment. This property is widely used for determination of magnetic structure of crystalline samples observing the magnetic components of the diffraction peaks. Investigations of diffraction patterns give information only about the averaged structure of a crystal but for discovering of local spin arrangement around a specific (e.g., impurity) nucleus remains still a challenging problem. Neutron holography is a useful tool to investigate the local structure around a specific nucleus embedded in a crystal lattice. The method has been successfully applied experimentally in several cases using non-magnetic short range interaction of the neutron and the nucleus. A mathematical model of the hologram using interaction between magnetic moment of the atom and the neutron spin for polarized neutron holography is provided. Validity of a polarized neutron holographic experiment is demonstrated by applying the proposed method on model systems.

  7. Determination of Geopotential of Local Vertical Datum Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper first develops the approaches to determine the geopotential of the local mean sea level,and then investigates the offset of the 1985 vertical datum surface defined by the mean sea level of Yellow Sea at the Dagang Tide Gauge in Qingdao city using the developed approaches and GPS/leveling data.It shows that the geopotential of the local mean sea level at the tide gauge is equal to 62 636 853.5±0.2 m2*s-2 and that the 1985 vertical datum surface is 24.6±5.4 cm above the geoid realized by the geopotential W0=62 636 856.0±0.5 m2*s-2.

  8. Determining priorities of a remediation plan at urban scale by assessing the risk of metals and POPs for local population: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Qi, Shihua; Qu, Chengkai; Chen, Wei; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the URGE (Urban Geochemistry) project aiming at depicting the environmental conditions of several cities in Europe, the north-eastern sector of the Naples metropolitan area (Italy), namely the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano area (with ~160.000 inhabitants), has undergone a geochemical characterization based on topsoil sampling (145 samples over an area of 90 sqkm). The conurbation includes 6 municipalities (Acerra, Pomigliano D'Arco, Castello di Cisterna, Brusciano, Mariglianella and Marigliano) and considering the total extension of the urbanized areas (18-20 sqkm) the average population density could be corrected to 6-7000 inhabitants/sqkm. Soils of the area are mostly originated by the pedogenenesis of the original pyroclastics produced by the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano on the south-western side of the study area. The area has been selected because of both the presence of an historical industrial settlement on it (mainly devoted to plastic materials and synthetic fibers production) and of an incinerator which came into operation in March 2009. The main objective of the study was 1) to define the local geochemical baselines both for 53 elements (among which the toxic ones) and for some organic compounds, including PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and 2) to assess the environmental risk generated by polluted soils. Furthermore, the study aimed at supporting epidemiological researches and at establishing a record of the environmental status quo ante to evaluate in the future the impact of the incinerator on life quality and on health of local population. Obtained results showed that most of the urbanized areas of the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbations are characterized by concentrations of Pb, Zn and V exceeding the intervention limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006). Agricultural soils, in the surroundings of the urbanized areas, are enriched in Cu, Co, Cd, Be and Ni, and the probable presence of illegal waste disposals

  9. A local factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cè, Marco; Schaefer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD with Wilson-type fermions that leads to a bosonic action local in the block fields. The interaction among gauge fields on distant blocks is mediated by multiboson fields located on the boundaries of the blocks. The resultant multiboson domain-decomposed hybrid Monte Carlo passes extensive numerical tests carried out by measuring standard gluonic observables. The combination of the determinant factorization and of the one of the propagator, that we put forward recently, paves the way for multilevel Monte Carlo integration in presence of fermions. We test this possibility by computing the disconnected correlator of two flavor-diagonal pseudoscalar densities, and we observe a significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio due to a two-level integration.

  10. Determination of riverbank erosion probability using Locally Weighted Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Elena; Flori, Aikaterini; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Giannakis, Georgios; Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Riverbank erosion is a natural geomorphologic process that affects the fluvial environment. The most important issue concerning riverbank erosion is the identification of the vulnerable locations. An alternative to the usual hydrodynamic models to predict vulnerable locations is to quantify the probability of erosion occurrence. This can be achieved by identifying the underlying relations between riverbank erosion and the geomorphological or hydrological variables that prevent or stimulate erosion. Thus, riverbank erosion can be determined by a regression model using independent variables that are considered to affect the erosion process. The impact of such variables may vary spatially, therefore, a non-stationary regression model is preferred instead of a stationary equivalent. Locally Weighted Regression (LWR) is proposed as a suitable choice. This method can be extended to predict the binary presence or absence of erosion based on a series of independent local variables by using the logistic regression model. It is referred to as Locally Weighted Logistic Regression (LWLR). Logistic regression is a type of regression analysis used for predicting the outcome of a categorical dependent variable (e.g. binary response) based on one or more predictor variables. The method can be combined with LWR to assign weights to local independent variables of the dependent one. LWR allows model parameters to vary over space in order to reflect spatial heterogeneity. The probabilities of the possible outcomes are modelled as a function of the independent variables using a logistic function. Logistic regression measures the relationship between a categorical dependent variable and, usually, one or several continuous independent variables by converting the dependent variable to probability scores. Then, a logistic regression is formed, which predicts success or failure of a given binary variable (e.g. erosion presence or absence) for any value of the independent variables. The

  11. THE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY USING THE SYSTEM OF INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Danilina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the local government performance, as any other serious work, is improved and undergone major changes every year. The objective of this article-is the research of the methodological aspects of forming the system of indicators, which reflect the local government performance. The difficulties with which the constituent entities of the Russian Federation face while making assessment according to the procedure accepted on the federal level have been exposed. Some imperfections of the currently used procedure of the integrated assessment have been stated. The author concludes that the existing problems of acquiring the official and timely information from the statistical bodies, the absence of accounting the budgetary efficiency of costs and the financial status of certain municipal units, the difference in the approaches and methods of holding the opinion polls of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, call into a question the issue of fairness of the assessment results. The conducted study has allowed the author to identify the possible opportunities for the further studies. Although the methods do not require making the assessment of the performance targets approved in the strategies of the municipalities, it would be worthwhile to consider these indicators over time. While assessing the local government performance, it is recommended to use two approaches. One of them-which is obligatory for all (according to the procedure accepted on the federal level. Another approach-is holding own secondary monitoring, involving self-assessment of the activity on the effective territory management, while paying attention to the determination of the areas requiring the priority attention of the local governments. Municipalities are recommended to study the available foreign practices and the Russian achievements in the field of assessing the public body performance, which could include, for example, the European model of CAF.

  12. Perceptual Weights Based On Local Energy For Image Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Nagalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an image quality metric that can effectively measure the quality of an image that correlates well with human judgment on the appearance of the image. The present work adds a new dimension to the structural approach based full-reference image quality assessment for gray scale images. The proposed method assigns more weight to the distortions present in the visual regions of interest of the reference (original image than to the distortions present in the other regions of the image, referred to as perceptual weights. The perceptual features and their weights are computed based on the local energy modeling of the original image. The proposed model is validated using the image database provided by LIVE (Laboratory for Image & Video Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin based on the evaluation metrics as suggested in the video quality experts group (VQEG Phase I FR-TV test.

  13. Assessing the local identifiability of probabilistic knowledge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Luca; Heller, Jürgen; Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio

    2012-12-01

    Given a collection Q of problems, in knowledge space theory Doignon & Falmagne, (International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 23:175-196, 1985) the knowledge state of a student is the collection K ⊆ Q of all problems that this student is capable of solving. A knowledge structure is a pair (Q, ), where is a collection of knowledge states that contains at least the empty set and Q. A probabilistic knowledge structure (PKS) is a knowledge structure (Q, , π), where π is a probability distribution on the knowledge states. The PKS that has received the most attention is the basic local independence model BLIM; Falmagne & Doignon, (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 41:1-23, 1988a, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 32:232-258, 1988b). To the best of our knowledge, systematic investigations in the literature concerning the identifiability of the BLIM are totally missing. Based on the theoretical work of Bamber and van Santen (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 29:443-473, 1985), the present article is aimed to present a method and a corresponding computerized procedure for assessing the local identifiability of the BLIM, which is applicable to any finite knowledge structure of moderate size. PMID:22588988

  14. Application of the local approach to the fatigue assessment for welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东坡; 张玉凤; 霍立兴; 陈俊梅; 王文先

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of welded structures is currently determined by means of recommendations defined in terms of S-N curve corresponding to the detail classes of welded joints without taking account of the actual geometry of the weld. A new fatigue strength assessment method based on Dang Van multiaxial fatigue limit criterion was introduced, which is named the local approach and presented by Institut de Soudure recently. The local approach has advantages in taking welding residual stresses and the geometry of the weld toe and weld root into consideration. The application of the local approach to the fatigue strength assessment of low carbon steel Q235B welded joints was studied. The fatigue tests and finite element analysis results show that the local approach parameters recommended by Institut de Soudure were incorrectly for low carbon steel Q235B welded joints. With aluminum alloy welded joints being used widely, the parameters of the local approach used for aluminum alloy welded joints were obtained and verified on bases of the fatigue tests and finite element analysis.

  15. Local environments as determinants of walking in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Rebecca; Jolley, Damien; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2010-06-01

    Structural changes to neighbourhoods that promote walking are likely to benefit everyone in a community and result in long-term improvements in the population's physical activity and health. We consider time spent walking in relation to objectively measured features of people's local environments (functionality, safety, destinations and aesthetics) in Melbourne, Australia. We used multilevel ordered logistic regression analysis to examine variations in time spent walking amongst 2334 residents of 49 small areas (Census Collection Districts - CCDs). Features on each street segment within a 400 m radius of a randomly selected household within each CCD were measured, supplemented by geographic information system data. Models were adjusted for socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individual and socio-economic characteristics of areas. We found that increasing track length, having paths located closer to roads, fewer buildings with driveways, a greater presence and variety of destinations and views of shops, light industry, offices and/or schools (commercial views) were associated with more time spent walking in local environments in adjusted models. As such, each of the four features of local environments considered (design, safety, destinations and aesthetics) were associated on at least one measure with walking. Characteristics of areas reflecting urbanisation (destinations, commercial views, path location and driveways) were associated with increased time spent walking. This study provides important evidence on how urban design can be utilised to improve physical activity.

  16. SIMULATING LOCAL DENSE AREAS USING PMMA TO ASSESS AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, R W; Binst, J; Dance, D R; Young, K C; Broeders, M J M; den Heeten, G J; Veldkamp, W J H; Bosmans, H; van Engen, R E

    2016-06-01

    Current digital mammography (DM) X-ray systems are equipped with advanced automatic exposure control (AEC) systems, which determine the exposure factors depending on breast composition. In the supplement of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, a phantom-based test is included to evaluate the AEC response to local dense areas in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study evaluates the proposed test in terms of SNR and dose for four DM systems. The glandular fraction represented by the local dense area was assessed by analytic calculations. It was found that the proposed test simulates adipose to fully glandular breast compositions in attenuation. The doses associated with the phantoms were found to match well with the patient dose distribution. In conclusion, after some small adaptations, the test is valuable for the assessment of the AEC performance in terms of both SNR and dose. PMID:26977073

  17. Determining the local dark matter density with LAMOST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiran; Liu, Chao; Mao, Shude; Song, Yingyi; Zhang, Lan; Long, R. J.; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Wu, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of the local dark matter density plays an important role in both Galactic dynamics and dark matter direct detection experiments. However, the estimated values from previous works are far from agreeing with each other. In this work, we provide a well-defined observed sample with 1427 G- and K-type main-sequence stars from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope spectroscopic survey, taking into account selection effects, volume completeness, and the stellar populations. We apply a vertical Jeans equation method containing a single exponential stellar disc, a razor thin gas disc, and a constant dark matter density distribution to the sample, and obtain a total surface mass density of 78.7 ^{+3.9}_{-4.7} M_{{⊙}} pc^{-2} up to 1 kpc and a local dark matter density of 0.018± 0.0054 M_{{⊙}} pc^{-3}. We find that the sampling density (i.e. number of stars per unit volume) of the spectroscopic data contributes to about two-third of the uncertainty in the estimated values. We discuss the effect of the tilt term in the Jeans equation and find it has little impact on our measurement. Other issues, such as a non-equilibrium component due to perturbations and contamination by the thick-disc population, are also discussed.

  18. Sequences determining the cytoplasmic localization of a chemoreceptor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, L; Bailey, J; Manoil, C

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor (Tsr) is a protein with a simple topology consisting of two membrane-spanning sequences (TM1 and TM2) separating a large periplasmic domain from N-terminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions. We analyzed the contributions of several sequence elements to the cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain by using chemoreceptor-alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. The principal findings were as follows. (i) The cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain depended on TM2 but was quite tolerant of mutations partially deleting or introducing charged residues into the sequence. (ii) The basal level of C-terminal domain export was significantly higher in proteins with the wild-type periplasmic domain than in derivatives with a shortened periplasmic domain, suggesting that the large size of the wild-type domain promotes partial membrane misinsertion. (iii) The membrane insertion of deletion derivatives with a single spanning segment (TM1 or TM2) could be controlled by either an adjacent positively charged sequence or an adjacent amphipathic sequence. The results provide evidence that the generation of the Tsr membrane topology is an overdetermined process directed by an interplay of sequences promoting and opposing establishment of the normal structure. PMID:7730259

  19. Seismic hazard assessment of Chennai city considering local site effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Boominathan; G R Dodagoudar; A Suganthi; R Uma Maheswari

    2008-11-01

    Chennai city suffered moderate tremors during the 2001 Bhuj and Pondicherry earthquakes and the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. After the Bhuj earthquake, Indian Standard IS: 1893 was revised and Chennai city was upgraded from zone II to zone III which leads to a substantial increase of the design ground motion parameters. Therefore, a comprehensive study is carried out to assess the seismic hazard of Chennai city based on a deterministic approach. The seismicity and seismotectonic details within a 100 km radius of the study area have been considered. The one-dimensional ground response analysis was carried out for 38 representative sites by the equivalent linear method using the SHAKE91 program to estimate the ground motion parameters considering the local site effects. The shear wave velocity profile was inferred from the corrected blow counts and it was verified with the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) test performed for a representative site. The seismic hazard is represented in terms of characteristic site period and Spectral Acceleration Ratio (SAR) contours for the entire city. It is found that structures with low natural period undergo significant amplification mostly in the central and southern parts of Chennai city due to the presence of deep soil sites with clayey or sandy deposits and the remaining parts undergo marginal amplification.

  20. A Research to Determine Local Governors Motivating Behaviour Their Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıçlar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ranging from public management of administrative authority with conception measure they motivated to the extent that their subordinates and by identifying the factors that influence the motivation in this context, is intended to make proposals for the improvement of the activity.The population of the study comprise the district governors who are serving actively in all the districts of Turkey. The survey was administered by governors sent through all the governorates. As a result of the research, it is necessary to motivate the employees of almost all of the local administrative authority, and which you be lieve would be helpful at this point to use all the motivational tools have been identified. However, previous studies did not adequately reflect the thinking of application the motivation of managers. Suggestions on how to motivate their employees to engage officials in the civil service are presented

  1. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  2. Efficacy assessment of local doxycycline treatment in periodontal patients using multivariate chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovska, Liljana; Poceva Panovska, Ana; Nakov, Natalija; Zafirova, Marija; Popovska, Mirjana; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Petkovska, Rumenka

    2016-08-25

    The aim of our study was application of chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis in efficacy assessment of the local periodontal treatment with doxycycline (DOX). Treatment efficacy was evaluated by monitoring inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples and clinical indices before and after the local treatment as well as by determination of DOX concentration in GCF after the local treatment. The experimental values from these determinations were submitted to several chemometric algorithms: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The data structure and the mutual relations of the selected variables were thoroughly investigated by PCA. The PLS-DA model identified variables responsible for discrimination of classes of data, before and after DOX treatment. The OPLS-DA model compared the efficacy of the two commonly used medications in periodontal treatment, chlorhexidine (CHX) and DOX, at the same time providing insight in their mechanism of action. The obtained results indicate that application of multivariate chemometric algorithms can be used as a valuable approach for assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:27283484

  3. The LC resonance probe for determining local plasma density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boris, D R; Fernsler, R F; Walton, S G, E-mail: david.boris.ctr@nrl.navy.mi [Naval Research Laboratory, Charge Particle Physics Branch-Code 6752, Plasma Physics Division, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a novel plasma diagnostic for measuring local plasma density in reactive-gas plasmas, and depositing plasmas. The diagnostic uses a network analyzer to measure the LC resonance (LCR) frequency of a parallel plate capacitor with inductive leads. The location of the LCR ({omega}{sub R}) in frequency space is then used as a measure of the plasma dielectric constant bold varepsilon{sub p} between the plates. By properly constructing the LCR probe, {omega}{sub R} can be tuned such that {omega}{sub R} >> {omega}{sub ce}, where {omega}{sub ce} is the electron-cyclotron frequency. Thus, the probe can be used in plasmas with varying degrees of magnetization while avoiding complications introduced to bold varepsilon{sub p} when {omega} is comparable to {omega}{sub ce}. Density measurements from the LCR probe are compared with Langmuir probe measurements in an electron-beam generated plasma in which density varied from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. An axial magnetic field, typically used to confine the electron beam, was varied between 0 to 300 G. The LCR probe showed good agreement with a Langmuir probe across the entire range of magnetic fields.

  4. The Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    As the solar wind plasma flows away from the Sun, it eventually collides with the local interstellar medium, creating the heliosphere. Neutral atoms from interstellar space travel inside the heliosphere and charge-exchange with the solar wind plasma, creating energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Some of these ENAs travel outside the heliosphere, undergo two charge-exchange events, and travel back inside the heliosphere towards Earth, with the strongest intensity in directions perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field (IMF). It is widely believed that this process generates the "ribbon" of enhanced ENA intensity observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), and has been shown to explain many key features of the observations. IBEX observations of the ribbon are composed of a complex, line-of-sight integration of ENAs that come from different distances beyond the heliopause, and thus the ENAs detected by IBEX over a wide range of energies are uniquely coupled to the IMF draped around the heliosphere. We present a detailed analysis of the IBEX ribbon measurements using 3D simulations of the heliosphere and computations of the ribbon flux at Earth based on IBEX capabilities, and derive the magnitude and direction of the IMF required to reproduce the position of the IBEX ribbon in the sky. These results have potentially large implications for our understanding of the solar-interstellar environment.

  5. Negative predictive value of preoperative computed tomography in determining pathologic local invasion, nodal disease, and abdominal metastases in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagedan, D.J.; Frankul, F.; El-Sedfy, A.; McGregor, C.; Elmi, M.; Zagorski, B.; Dixon, M.E.; Mahar, A.L.; Vasilevska-Ristovska, J.; Helyer, L.; Rowsell, C.; Swallow, C.J.; Law, C.H.; Coburn, N.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Before undergoing curative-intent resection of gastric adenocarcinoma (ga), most patients undergo abdominal computed tomography (ct) imaging to determine contraindications to resection (local invasion, distant metastases). However, the ability to detect contraindications is variable, and the literature is limited to single-institution studies. We sought to assess, on a population level, the clinical relevance of preoperative ct in evaluating the resectability of ga tumours in patients undergoing surgery. Methods In a provincial cancer registry, 2414 patients with ga diagnosed during 2005–2008 at 116 institutions were identified, and a primary chart review of radiology, operative, and pathology reports was performed for all patients. Preoperative abdominal ct reports were compared with intraoperative findings and final pathology reports (reference standard) to determine the negative predictive value (npv) of ct in assessing local invasion, nodal involvement, and intra-abdominal metastases. Results Among patients undergoing gastrectomy, the npv of ct imaging in detecting local invasion was 86.9% (n = 536). For nodal metastasis, the npv of ct was 43.3% (n = 450). Among patients undergoing surgical exploration, the npv of ct for intra-abdominal metastases was 52.3% (n = 407). Conclusions Preoperative abdominal ct imaging reported as negative is most accurate in determining local invasion and least accurate in nodal assessment. The poor npv of ct should be taken into account when selecting patients for staging laparoscopy. PMID:27536178

  6. Navigation using local position determination from a mobile satellite terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Steven M.; Marquart, Robert C.

    The authors describe the implementation and performance evaluation of a location-determination system which uses a mobile satellite transmitter for one-way communications of position data for vehicle tracking. Field results have demonstrated that a mobile satellite terminal can provide reliable messaging and position reporting for many over-the-road applications. With installation techniques suitable for nontechnical personnel using a minimum of test equipment, the mobile terminal can provide proximity reporting adequate for most fleet dispatch requirements. Position data with one-way or two-way communications can improve the logistics and management of service fleets by eliminating deadhead mileage, maximizing route efficiencies, and heading off problems with up-to-date status information of transported loads.

  7. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  8. Using Large-Scale Assessment Scores to Determine Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tess

    2013-01-01

    Many Canadian provinces provide guidelines for teachers to determine students' final grades by combining a percentage of students' scores from provincial large-scale assessments with their term scores. This practice is thought to hold students accountable by motivating them to put effort into completing the large-scale assessment, thereby…

  9. Material power or normative conflict : determinants of the interaction between global and local agrifood governance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Doris; Glaab, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    "We witness a constant interaction of global and local forces in the global agrifood system. This paper develops an analytical framework for the identification of the relative impact of these global versus local forces on the sustainability of the agrifood system. In pursuit of its objectives, the framework highlights material and ideational sources of power as important determinants of how the contest between global and local actors and norms in global agrifood governance plays out. With ...

  10. Local Determinants of Crime: Distinguishing Between Resident and Non-resident Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, Thiess

    2003-01-01

    The paper explores the differences in the empirical determinants of crime using a spatial model which distinguishes resident and non-resident offenders. Using data for German municipalities, the model is estimated by means of a spatial GMM approach, where the local property value is instrumented by a couple of amenity variables. The results show that aside of the local property value several local population characteristics, such as income, poverty, inequality, unemployment, family disruption...

  11. Assessing the Local Environmental Performance in Western Moldavia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Alexandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental performance is a result of measurable characteristics emerging from the functionality of integrated environmental management systems based on various sustainable development policies at different administrative levels. This paper aims to quantify some dimensions of environmental performance in terms of outcomes and administrative efficiency for Western Moldavia region, using the latest available data. The obtained results demonstrate the territorial heterogeneity of environmental state, pressure and spatial resilience by highlighting the importance of ecosystems viability (forest cover, land degradation, sustainable local governance (environmental expenditure, energy, water quality, sanitation and environmental health (sanitation services, access to water and sewage, use of renewable energy. If completed in future by integrating other local environmental performance indicators the outcome of this research could become a viable tool for local and regional system of government in establishing policies in order to effectively preserve the environment.

  12. Assessment of Deformation of Shear Localized Chip in High Speed Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T; C; LEE; W; S; LAU; S; K; CHAN

    2002-01-01

    As the cutting speed goes higher, the mechanism of chip deformation will be changed significantly, i.e., continuous chip in low cutting speed will shift to serrated chip with shear localization. For the shear localized chip, the parameters used to assess the chip deformation for continuous chip, such as shorten coefficient ξ, shear angle φ and shear strain ε, can not describe the chip deformation correctly or comprehensively. This paper deals with the assessment of chip deformation of shear localization. Th...

  13. Receptor number and caveolar co-localization determine receptor coupling efficiency to adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, R S; Gregorian, C; Drenan, R M; Xiang, Y; Regan, J W; Insel, P A

    2001-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that many signaling molecules localize in microdomains of the plasma membrane, particularly caveolae. In this study, overexpression of adenylyl cyclase was used as a functional probe of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) compartmentation. We found that three endogenous receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes couple with different levels of efficiency to the activation of adenylyl cyclase type 6 (AC6), which localizes to caveolin-rich membrane fractions. Overexpression of AC6 enhanced the maximal cAMP response to beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR)-selective activation 3.7-fold, to beta(2)AR-selective activation only 1.6-fold and to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) not at all. Therefore, the rank order of efficacy in coupling to AC6 is beta(1)AR > beta(2)AR > prostaglandin E(2) receptor (EP(2)R). beta(2)AR coupling efficiency was greater when we overexpressed the receptor or blocked its desensitization by expressing betaARKct, an inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor kinase activation, but was not significantly greater when cells were treated with pertussis toxin. Assessment of receptor and AC expression indicated co-localization of AC5/6, beta(1)AR, and beta(2)AR, but not EP(2)R, in caveolin-rich membranes and caveolin-3 immunoprecipitates, likely explaining the observed activation of AC6 by betaAR subtypes but lack thereof by PGE(2). When cardiomyocytes were stimulated with a betaAR agonist, beta(2)AR were no longer found in caveolin-3 immunoprecipitates; an effect that was blocked by expression of betaARKct. Thus, agonist-induced translocation of beta(2)AR out of caveolae causes a sequestration of receptor from effector and likely contributes to the lower efficacy of beta(2)AR coupling to AC6 as compared with beta(1)AR, which do not similarly translocate. Therefore, spatial co-localization is a key determinant of efficiency of coupling by particular extracellular signals to activation of GPCR-linked effectors. PMID:11533056

  14. Local self-government development factors. Assessment of importance isolation and isolationism

    OpenAIRE

    Juri Plusnin

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the development of local self-governance and their exclusion in modern Russia had found the research of municipal management organization. The hypothesis of local self-government development determination by factors of isolation and isolationism was proposed. The higher the isolation, the higher the level of local government and vice versa. Isolation promotes isolationism as a result of the factors limiting the development of local self-government. Types of isolation ...

  15. Defect localization, characterization and reliability assessment in emerging photovoltaic devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Haase, Gad S.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward Isaac,; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2014-04-01

    Microsystems-enabled photovoltaics (MEPV) can potentially meet increasing demands for light-weight, portable, photovoltaic solutions with high power density and efficiency. The study in this report examines failure analysis techniques to perform defect localization and evaluate MEPV modules. CMOS failure analysis techniques, including electroluminescence, light-induced voltage alteration, thermally-induced voltage alteration, optical beam induced current, and Seabeck effect imaging were successfully adapted to characterize MEPV modules. The relative advantages of each approach are reported. In addition, the effects of exposure to reverse bias and light stress are explored. MEPV was found to have good resistance to both kinds of stressors. The results form a basis for further development of failure analysis techniques for MEPVs of different materials systems or multijunction MEPVs. The incorporation of additional stress factors could be used to develop a reliability model to generate lifetime predictions for MEPVs as well as uncover opportunities for future design improvements.

  16. The local environment determines the assembly of root endophytic fungi at a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynou, Kyriaki; Ali, Tahir; Buch, Ann-Katrin; Haghi Kia, Sevda; Ploch, Sebastian; Xia, Xiaojuan; Çelik, Ali; Thines, Marco; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G

    2016-09-01

    Root endophytic fungi are found in a great variety of plants and ecosystems, but the ecological drivers of their biogeographic distribution are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the occurrence of root endophytes in the non-mycorrhizal plant genus Microthlaspi, and the effect of environmental factors and geographic distance in structuring their communities at a continental scale. We sampled 52 plant populations across the northern Mediterranean and central Europe and used a cultivation approach to study their endophytic communities. Cultivation of roots yielded 2601 isolates, which were grouped into 296 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing of 1998 representative colonies. Climatic and spatial factors were the best descriptors of the structure of endophytic communities, outweighing soil characteristics, host genotype and geographical distance. OTU richness was negatively affected by precipitation, and the composition of communities followed latitudinal gradients of precipitation and temperature. Only six widespread OTUs belonging to the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Helotiales represented about 50% of all isolates. Assessments of their individual distribution revealed particular ecological preferences or a cosmopolitan occurrence. Our findings support a strong influence of the local environment in determining root endophytic communities, and show a different niche occupancy by individual endophytes. PMID:26530450

  17. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  18. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. PMID:27065045

  19. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  20. Workshop on Measurement Needs for Local-Structure Determination in Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin, Igor

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional responses (e. g., dielectric, magnetic, catalytic, etc. of many industrially-relevant materials are controlled by their local structure-a term that refers to the atomic arrangements on a scale ranging from atomic (sub-nanometer to several nanometers. Thus, accurate knowledge of local structure is central to understanding the properties of nanostructured materials, thereby placing the problem of determining atomic positions on the nanoscale-the so-called "nanostructure problem"-at the center of modern materials development. Today, multiple experimental techniques exist for probing local atomic arrangements; nonetheless, finding accurate comprehensive, and robust structural solutions for the nanostructured materials still remains a formidable challenge because any one of these methods yields only a partial view of the local structure. The primary goal of this 2-day NIST-sponsored workshop was to bring together experts in the key experimental and theoretical areas relevant to local-structure determination to devise a strategy for the collaborative effort required to develop a comprehensive measurement solution on the local scale. The participants unanimously agreed that solving the nanostructure problem-an ultimate frontier in materials characterization-necessitates a coordinated interdisciplinary effort that transcends the existing capabilities of any single institution, including national laboratories, centers, and user facilities. The discussions converged on an institute dedicated to local structure determination as the most viable organizational platform for successfully addressing the nanostructure problem. The proposed "institute" would provide an intellectual infrastructure for local structure determination by (1 developing and maintaining relevant computer software integrated in an open-source global optimization framework (Fig. 2, (2 connecting industrial and academic users with experts in measurement techniques, (3

  1. LOCAL INFLUENCE ASSESSMENT IN A MULTIVARIATE t-MODEL WITH RAO'S SIMPLE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Qingming; Zhang Huaixiong

    2005-01-01

    The local influence analysis is an important problem in statistical inference and some models have been discussed in many literatures[1- 5]. This paper deals with the problem of assessing local influences in a multivariate t-model with Rao's simple structure(RSS). Based on Cook's likelihood displacement, the effects of some minor perturbation on the statistical inference is assessed. As an application, a common covariance-weighted perturbation is thoroughly discussed.

  2. Probabilistic mapping and image clustering for quantitative assessment of fluorescent protein localizations in Arabidopsis guard cells

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Takumi Higaki, Natsumaro Kutsuna & Seiichiro Hasezawa ### Abstract The protocol reported here describes a method to quantitatively evaluate fluorescently-tagged protein localizations from fluorescent microscopic images with a combination of probabilistic mapping and image clustering. We demonstrate the use of this protocol using kidney-shaped guard cells of plants. ### Introduction Microscopic assessment of protein localizations with fluorescent protein taggin...

  3. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    , all exhibiting some already mapped cycles, that are indispensable for the study of underlying mechanisms. A variety of cognitive, neurobehavioral and neuropsychological as well as cardiovascular functions will need to be investigated to more precisely map their chronomes in space and time, in order to understand chronoastrobiology, based on both the system times and time horizons yielded by chronomes assessed in communities worldwide. Thus, we critically introduce a preventive health care, while keeping the flow of data for the assessment of space weather and its consequences in the evolution thus far of terrestrial life.

  4. Assessment of meat quality of local lamb breeds in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, the marketing of lamb is in the majority of farmers after weaning at relatively low weight. Thus, it was deemed necessary to conduct a test of fattening lambs Tunisian landraces (Barbarine (BGQ, fine Tail from the west (QFO Black Thibar (NT and Sicilo-Sarde (SS after weaning to evaluate their growth performance and determine the quality of carcasses and meat. To do so, four uniform lots of lambs (age and weight were conducted simultaneously in two months and fed with oat hay ad libitum supplemented with 300g of concentrate/day/lamb. It was clear from this work that the lambs of the breed Black Thibar had better daily growth (87.5g vs. 64.2; 66.3, 72.6 respectively for the QFO, BGQ and SS, feed efficiency (5.94. The quality of meat (6.89% fat and pieces of the first category (leg, the net and found the square (53.43%. To enjoy optimum production of red meat, it is strongly recommended that fattened lambs after weaning with diets tailored to the farming area where profitability is better and food is available.

  5. Local Determinants of Crime : Distinguishing Between Resident and Non-resident Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Spengler, Hannes

    2003-01-01

    The paper revisits the local determinants of crime using a spatial model distinguishing between resident and non-resident offenders. Employing data for German municipalities, the model is estimated by means of a spatial GMM approach. Focusing on resident offenders legal earnings opportunities and the expected gain from offenses are found to be important determinants of crime. Also the socio-economic background in terms of unemployment, poverty, and inequality proves significant for both prope...

  6. Determination of the stressed state of shells of revolution subjected to the action of local loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical statement of the problem of determining the stable state of shells of revolution is based on the assumption that the precritical stressed state is momentless. In certain cases it is not all difficult to determine this state. But under the effect of local loads the problem is no longer trivial. Formulas which express the forces of the momentless stressed state are obtained in the present article. These formulas may be used for the solution of certain stability problems

  7. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of the Guandong Province in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes...

  8. High resolution local Moho determination using gravity inversion: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, H. M. I.; Chen, W.; İz, H. B.

    2013-09-01

    The seismic data incorporated in global Moho models are sparse and therefore the interpolation of global Moho depths on a local area may give unrealistic results, especially in regions without adequate seismic information. Gravity inversion is a useful tool that can be used to determine Moho depths in the mentioned regions. This paper describes an interactive way of local Moho depth determination using the gravity inversion method constrained with available seismic data. Before applying inversion algorithms, the Bouguer gravity data is filtered in various stages that reduce the potential bias usually expected in Moho depth determination using gravity methods with constant density contrast assumption. A test area with reliable seismic data is used to validate the results of Moho computation, and subsequently the same computation procedure is applied to the Sri Lankan region. The results of the test area are in better agreement with seismically determined Moho depths than those obtained by global Moho models. In the Sri Lankan region, Moho determination reveals a fairly uniform thin crust of average thickness around 20 km. The overall result suggests that our gravity inversion method is robust and may be suitable for local Moho determination in virgin regions, especially those without sufficient seismic data.

  9. Quantitative determination of local potential values in inhomogeneously doped semiconductors by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, P. H.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.

    2011-08-01

    Local potential changes arising from nanoscale three-dimensional spatial fluctuations in the dopant distribution in Zn-doped GaAs were investigated quantitatively by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at (110) cleavage surfaces. Tunneling spectra measured in areas with different local doping concentration show apparent shifts of the valence band edge and apparent changes of the band gap. A quantitative analysis, combined with band bending and tunnel current simulations, demonstrates that these effects arise from tip-induced band bending that modulates the real potential changes. It is illustrated how exact potential changes between locally high and low doped areas can be determined. It is found that the local potential fluctuations in three-dimensionally doped semiconductors are approximately one order of magnitude smaller that those observed in two-dimensionally doped semiconductors.

  10. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author)

  11. 75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative.... The Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3939... production at the General Motors sport utility vehicle (SUV), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma plant, as alleged...

  12. EXAFS, Determination of Short Range Order and Local Structures in Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Prins, R.

    1981-01-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) is a powerful method of determining short range order and local structures in materials using X-ray photons produced by a synchrotron light source, or in-house by a high intensity rotating anode X-ray generator. The technique has provided valuable str

  13. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

  14. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Medhat Moustafa E.; Singh Vishwanath P.; Shirmardi Seyed P.

    2015-01-01

    In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative ana...

  15. Seismic risk assessment of architectural heritages in Gyeongju considering local site effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cultural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea's ancient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Buddhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site response analyses were carried out at each historical site and the amplification characteristics, site period, and response spectrum of the site were determined for the earthquake levels of 2400 yr and 1000 yr return periods based on the Korean seismic hazard map. Response spectrum and corresponding site coefficients obtained from site response analyses considering geologic conditions differ significantly from the current Korean seismic code. This study confirms the importance of site-specific ground response analyses considering local geological conditions. Results are given in the form of the spatial distribution of bedrock depth, site period, and site amplification coefficients, which are particularly valuable in the context of a seismic vulnerability study. This study presents the potential amplification of hazard maps and provides primary data on the seismic risk assessment of each cultural heritage.

  16. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss and 2 species of epiphytic moss. The concentrations of 32 elements have been determined in moss samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA and atom emission spectrometry (AES. Interspecies and intraspecies comparison revealed significant differences in accumulation properties. The accumulation capacity of Dicranum polysetum was higher than other terrestrial mosses and Aulacomnium palustre had higher accumulation capacity than other paludal mosses. These moss species have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory, particularly for research of transboundary transfer of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation property of epiphytic moss was higher than others. The epiphytic moss could be found on the bark of old trees (aspens, poplars, birch that are of frequent occurrence in urban areas. Therefore, epiphytic moss can be used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory and for research of atmospheric pollution in industrial centers, inhabited locations as well as assessment of atmospheric contamination in local pollution source. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5566

  17. 31 CFR 13.7 - Reimbursement when the Assistant Secretary makes no determination to utilize State and local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary makes no determination to utilize State and local government services, personnel, equipment and....7 Reimbursement when the Assistant Secretary makes no determination to utilize State and local.... (b) In cases where State or local governments, or both, utilized their own services,...

  18. Determination of the Local Thermal Conductivity of Functionally Graded Materials by a Laser Flash Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Determination of thermal conductivity of construction materials is essential to estimate their insulation capabilities. In most cases, homogenous materials are used and well developed methods exist for measurements of their thermal conductivity. The task becomes more challenging when dealing...... by scanning them point by point and determining the thermal conductivity as a function of the spatial dimensions. The method proves to be repeatable and of reasonable accuracy and can be used to determine the local thermal properties on a scale of millimeters. In this study, the method was successfully...... applied to create a map of thermal conductivity of a functionally graded material sample....

  19. Identifying Local Determinants Of Research Commercialization Strategies In Iranian Biotechnology Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Yadollahi Fars

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology industry has a special place among novel industries. The majority of biotech companies are start-ups or small companies that have been working for several years yet are not profitable. Evidences showed that firms and researchers have problems in turning academic findings to commercial revenue and there is problem in commercialization process and choosing method of the exploitation academic opportunities or choosing proper commercialization strategy in this industry. In this study, firstly, the local determinants of commercialization strategy in 41 Iranian young biotechnology companies were identified through interview and then a questionnaire was prepared integrating these determinants and the rest of them exist in literature and was distributed among a larger sample in order to obtain the integrity. Finally, after analyzing the questionnaires, the local determinants of commercialization strategies for Iranian researcher in biotechnology sector were identified.

  20. Analysis of the Determinant Factors Development of Maintenance Culture in Malaysian Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani S.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.

  1. An approach to determining the local boundaries of voltage stability region with wind farms in power injection space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to determining the local boundaries of voltage stability region in power injection space (IVSR) for power system with wind farms is presented. It can be used for power system voltage stability analysis and on-line security assessment with considering the output uncertainty of the wind farms. Firstly, power flow tracing and double dispatching are used to determine the generators that are closely related to the wind farms, in order to balance the power fluctuations caused by the wind speed variation. Then, modal analysis is used to get the key generators to achieve an effective dimension reduction for IVSR. Finally, the forecasting output power (or wind speed) of wind farms is divided into several intervals. For each interval, the corresponding local IVSR boundaries can be calculated by the method based on small disturbance. Moreover, parallel process is used to accelerate the computing speed. The presented approach is validated by several power systems. It can be revealed that the approach can give the local IVSR boundaries at different wind speeds and has a good engineering application prospect.

  2. Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eGoffaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated.Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts (i.e., inducing robust IFP or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context, (i.e., engaging local processing. Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area (OFA, the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, and early visual cortex (EVC, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local

  3. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  4. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  5. Assessing Local Vulnerability to Climate Change in Agriculture for Tocantins, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Escobar, Santiago; Juarez-Torres, Miriam; Martinez Cruz, Adan

    2014-01-01

    We propose a reliable indicator of vulnerability to climate change in agriculture that allows assessing within the system the main components of vulnerability at a local level: stressors exposure (SE), stressors sensitivity (SS), and adaptive capacity (AC). Also, this indicator will allow identifying main vulnerability drivers and planning policies to increase system resiliency as well as designing climate change adaptation policies at the local level.

  6. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna; Koylo Viktoriya V.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed mode...

  7. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy. PMID:21426480

  8. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy.

  9. Mucosal/submucosal blood flow in the gut wall determined by local washout of 133Xenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Olsen, J; Bülow, J;

    1991-01-01

    and the small intestine the 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed a multiexponential configuration. Histological examination and localization studies showed shunting by diffusion of 133Xe in the intestinal mucosa explaining the multiexponential configuration of the washout curve. Therefore......A 133Xe washout technique for measuring the blood flow in the intestinal mucosa is introduced and evaluated. In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal blood flow rate in the intestine of the pig was determined by a local epimucosal application of 133Xe. In both the colon...... the initial slope of the washout was used for measuring blood flow rate. Blood flow rate was simultaneously measured by microsphere entrapment technique. There was an excellent correlation between the blood flow rate determined by the two techniques the correlation coefficient R being 0.89 in the small...

  10. Quality assessment of images displayed on LCD screen with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a subjective experiment collecting quality assessment of images displayed on a LCD with local backlight dimming using two methodologies: absolute category ratings and paired-comparison. Some well-known objective quality metrics are then applied to the stimuli and their respect......This paper presents a subjective experiment collecting quality assessment of images displayed on a LCD with local backlight dimming using two methodologies: absolute category ratings and paired-comparison. Some well-known objective quality metrics are then applied to the stimuli...

  11. Uniqueness and local stability for the inverse scattering problem of determining the cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Lixin; MA; Fuming

    2005-01-01

    Considering a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave incident on an arbitrarily shaped open cavity embedded in infinite ground plane, the physical process is modelled by Maxwell's equations. We investigate the inverse problem of determining the shape of the open cavity from the information of the measured scattered field. Results on the uniqueness and the local stability of the inverse problem in the 2-dimensional TM (transverse magnetic) polarization are proved in this paper.

  12. Modeling the leakage of LCD displays with local backlight for quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.;

    2014-01-01

    The recent technique of local backlight dimming has a significant impact on the quality of images displayed with a LCD screen with LED local dimming. Therefore it represents a necessary step in the quality assessment chain, independently from the other processes applied to images. This paper...... on videos displayed on LCD TV with local backlight dimming viewed from a 0° and 15° angles. The subjective results are then compared objective data using different leakage models: constant over the whole display or horizontally varying and three leakage factor (no leakage, measured at 0° and 15...

  13. How the dark energy can reconcile Planck with local determination of the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Ke

    2016-09-01

    We try to reconcile the tension between the local 2.4 % determination of Hubble constant and its global determination by Planck CMB data and BAO data through modeling the dark energy variously. We find that the chi-square is significantly reduced by Δ χ ^2_ {all}=-6.76 in the redshift-binned dark energy model where the 68 % limits of the equation of state of dark energy read w(0≤ z≤ 0.1)=-1.958_{-0.508}^{+0.509}, w(0.11.5) is fixed to -1.

  14. How the Dark Energy Can Reconcile \\textit{Planck} with Local Determination of the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Qing-Guo, Huang

    2016-01-01

    We try to reconcile the tension between the local 2.4\\% determination of Hubble constant and its global determination by $\\textit{Planck}$ CMB data and BAO data through modeling the dark energy variously. We find that the chi-square is significantly reduced by $\\Delta\\chi^2_\\text{all}=-6.76$ in the redshift-binned dark energy model where the $68\\%$ limits of the equation of state of dark energy read $w(0\\leq z\\leq 0.1)=-1.958_{-0.508}^{+0.509}$, $w(0.11.5)$ is fixed to $-1$.

  15. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs−/−) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  16. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of waste management siting and routing activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, H.W.; Lipman, D.S.; Owens, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    There is a rich mixture of formal and informal approaches being used in our sister nuclear democracies in their attempts to deal with the difficulties of obtaining local acceptance for siting of waste management facilities and activities. Some of these are meeting with a degree of success not yet achieved in the US. Although this survey documents and assesses many of these approaches, time did not permit addressing in any detail their relevance to common problems in the US. It would appear the US could benefit from a periodic review of the successes and failures of these efforts, including analysis of their applicability to the US system. Of those countries (Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, and the US) who are working to a time table for the preparation of a high-level waste (HLW) repository, Germany is the only country to have gained local siting acceptance for theirs. With this (the most difficult of siting problems) behind them they appear to be in the best overall condition relative to waste management progress and plans. This has been achieved without a particularly favorable political structure, made up for by determination on the part of the political leadership. Of the remaining three countries studied (France, UK and Canada) France, with its AVM production facility, is clearly the world leader in the HLW immobilization aspect of waste management. France, Belgium and the UK appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions. US, Switzerland and Canada appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions.

  17. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Method to Determine Tectonic Stress Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai; QI Lan; HAO Caizhe; GUO Lei

    2007-01-01

    The tectonic stress patterns were determined by a fuzzy comprehensive assessment method. Data of in-situ survey and fault information were utilized in the method. First, by making pressure and tension in the directions of along-river, cross-river, shear clockwise, and shear counter-clockwise, 26 types of tectonic stress patterns were presented. And the stress vector of each pat-tern was obtained with FE software by taking unit displacement as boundary load. Then, by takingthe 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and 3 main stresses as factor set and choosing various operators, comparison of directions of computational stress vector and survey stress vector was made and the most possible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Taking the 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and strike angle as factor set, comparison of relationships between formation of fault and tectonic stress was made, and the tectonic stress patterns were assessed with known fault information. By summarizing the above assessment results, the most impossible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Finally an engineering case was quoted to validate that the method is more feasible and reliable than traditional empirical method.

  18. Assessing resting heart rate in adolescents: determinants and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Grosso, T; Cat Genova, G; Conterno, A; De Vito, B; Mulatero, P; Chiandussi, L; Veglio, F

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of resting heart rate and its biological and environmental determinants in adolescents. The study was cross- sectional and the population consisted of 2230 children and adolescents, age range 12-18 years, enrolled randomly from state schools in Turin, Italy. In all participants the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate, blood pressure (BP), weight, height, degree of sexual development, physical activity, parental socio-cultural level. Heart rate and BP were measured after 5, 10 and 15 min in a sitting position. Furthermore, to obtain regression equations to define heart rate as a function of the other variables available, a multiple regression analysis was performed. In both sexes BP, but not heart rate, declined significantly from the first to the last determination. Heart rate was positively and significantly correlated to BP level in both sexes; heart rate was higher in girls (3 bpm) and followed a progressive decreasing trend with age in both sexes, that was opposite to BP values. Age, sexual maturation, height, physical activity and parental socio-cultural level were independent determinants of resting heart rate. In conclusion, resting heart rate in adolescents is related to several methodological, constitutional and environmental factors that have to be taken into account when assessing heart rate values and constructing tables of normal values. PMID:12082493

  19. Local versus Standardized Content Assessment: Some Management Implications, or Why Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lois J.; Clements, Christine; Olson, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In a quest to improve student learning and simultaneously to satisfy accrediting agencies, colleges make decisions about how to assess knowledge or content as students graduate. The authors address the strengths and weaknesses of locally developed exams as contrasted to national, standardized tools, and describe a process for developing local…

  20. The determination of pesticide residues in local vegetables by means of neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods based on neutron activation have been developed for studying pesticides residues of bromine, arsenic and mercury in local vegetables and fruits. The concentration of bromine, arsenic and mercury in samples are enriched prior to neutron irradiations by a technique of dry-ashing and freeze-drying for the determination of arsenic, bromine and mercury respectively. The element bromine is determined instrumentally while arsenic and mercury are determined destructively using a distillation technique. The limit of detection under the conditions used for bromine, arsenic and mercury as obtained are 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 microgram respectively. A total of 45 varieties of vegetables and 20 varieties of fruits are analyzed. The results of the investigation and the concentration range in part per million of bromine, arsenic and mercury are also presented

  1. Tip-enhanced THz Raman spectroscopy for local temperature determination at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balois, Maria Vanessa; Hayazawa, Norihiko; Catalan, Francesca Celine; Kawata, Satoshi; Yano, Taka-Aki; Hayashi, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Local temperature of a nanoscale volume is precisely determined by tip-enhanced terahertz Raman spectroscopy in the low temperature range of several tens of degrees. Heat generated by the tip-enhanced electric field is directly transferred to single-walled carbon nanotubes by heat conduction and radiation at the nanoscale. This heating modulates the intensity ratio of anti-Stokes/Stokes Raman scattering of the radial breathing mode of the carbon nanotube based on the Boltzmann distribution at elevated temperatures. Owing to the low-energy feature of the radial breathing mode, the local temperature of the probing volume has been successfully extracted with high sensitivity. The dependence of the temperature rise underneath the tip apex on the incident power coincides with the analytical results calculated by finite element method based on the tip enhancement effect and the consequent steady-state temperature via Joule heat generation. The results show that the local temperature at the nanoscale can be controlled in the low temperature range simply by the incident laser power while exhibiting a sufficiently high tip enhancement effect as an analytical tool for thermally sensitive materials (e.g., proteins, DNA). Graphical Abstract Tip-enhanced THz Raman spectroscopy detects the low frequency Raman mode both in Stokes and anti-Stokes shifts, which precisely reflects the local temperature of the sample volume. PMID:26164304

  2. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  3. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to

  4. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  5. A New Fast Method for Determining Local Properties of Striped Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Egolf, D A; Bodenschatz, E; Egolf, David A.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    1997-01-01

    From the striped coats of zebras to the ripples in windblown sand, the natural world abounds with locally banded patterns. Such patterns have been of great interest throughout history, and, in the last twenty years, scientists in a wide variety of fields have been studying the patterns formed in well-controlled experiments that yield enormous quantities of high-precision data. These experiments involving phenomena as diverse as chemical reactions in shallow layers, thermal convection in horizontal fluid layers, periodically shaken layers of sand, and the growth of slime mold colonies often display patterns that appear qualitatively similar. Methods are needed to characterize in a reasonable amount of time the differences and similarities in patterns that develop in different systems, as well as in patterns formed in one system for different experimental conditions. In this Letter, we introduce a novel, fast method for determining local pattern properties such as wavenumber, orientation, and curvature as a fun...

  6. Local electron-electron interaction strength in ferromagnetic nickel determined by spin-polarized positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV.

  7. Biosimilars for psoriasis: preclinical analytical assessment to determine similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, A; Cohen, A D; Puig, L; Vender, R; van der Walt, J; Wu, J J

    2016-02-01

    Biosimilars, sometimes called 'generic biologics', are no longer a vision for the future but a present-day reality. Drug manufacturers and regulatory authorities are charged with ensuring that these products are safe and effective. Because biologically produced medications are large, complex proteins, many factors affect the quality of the end product, including glycosylation and presence of impurities, and thus many factors need to be compared between an emerging biosimilar and its originator biologic. Indeed, preclinical analytical assessments to determine similarity to an originator biologic are critical and are considered to be the foundation for regulatory approval of biosimilars. Here, the science behind the preclinical development of biosimilars is discussed by members of the International Psoriasis Council, and suggestions are put forth to try to ensure that future biosimilars are produced in a high quality and standardized manner. PMID:26522054

  8. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of check valves in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL check valve aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of check valve monitoring methods and techniques. Several check valve monitoring methods are described and compared. These methods include: acoustic emission monitoring, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA), external magnetics. These diagnostic technologies were shown to be useful in determining check valve condition (e.g., disc position, disc motion, and seat leakage), although none of the methods was by itself, successful in monitoring all three condition indicators. The combination of acoustic emission with either ultrasonics or one of the magnetic technologies, however, yields a monitoring system that succeeds in providing the sensitivity to detect all major check valve operating conditions. Other areas covered in the paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues, utility group activities, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  9. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  10. Determination of the Local Standard of Rest using the LSS-GAC DR1

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yang; Yuan, Haibo; Xiang, Maosheng; Huo, Zhiying; Chen, Bingqiu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    We re-estimate the peculiar velocity of the Sun with respect to the local standard of rest using a sample of local stars within 600 pc of the Sun, selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC). The sample consists of 94332 FGK main-sequence stars with well-determined radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. To derive the LSR, two independent analyses are applied to the data. Firstly, we determine the solar motion by comparing the observed velocity distribution to that generated with the analytic formulism of Schonrich & Binney that has been demonstrated to show excellent agreement with rigorous torus-based dynamics modelling by Binney & McMillan. Secondly, we propose that cold populations of thin disc stars, selected by applying an orbital eccentricity cut, can be directly used to determine the LSR without the need of asymmetric drift corrections. Both approaches yield consistent results of solar motion in the direction of Galactic rotation, V_sun, that are m...

  11. New method for the exact determination of the effective conductivity and the local field in RLC networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new numerical method for determining exactly the effective conductivity and the local field for random RLC networks. This method is compared to a real space renormalization group method and the Frank and Lobb method. Although our method is slower than the Frank and Lobb method, it also computes exactly the local field for large size systems. We also show that the renormalization group method fails in determining the local field. (author)

  12. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  13. BAYESIAN LOCAL INFLUENCE ASSESSMENTS IN A GROWTH CURVE MODEL WITH GENERAL COVARIANCE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a Bayesian approach based on Kullback Leibler divergence for assessing local influence in a growth curve model with general covariance structure.Under certain prior distribution assumption,the Kullback-Leibler divergence is used to measure the influence of some minor perturbation on the posterior distribution of unknown parameter.This leads to the diagnostic statistic for detecting which response is locally influential.As an application,the common covariance-weighted perturbation scheme is thoroughly considered.

  14. Local 3D matrix confinement determines division axis through cell shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Chen, Weitong; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Jimenez, Angela; Wong, Bin Sheng; San, Angela; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wirtz, Denis

    2016-02-01

    How the division axis is determined in mammalian cells embedded in three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains elusive, despite that many types of cells divide in 3D environments. Cells on two-dimensional (2D) substrates typically round up completely to divide. Here, we show that in 3D collagen matrices, mammalian cells such as HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibit division modes distinct from their Counterparts on 2D substrates, with a markedly higher fraction of cells remaining highly elongated through mitosis in 3D matrices. The long axis of elongated mitotic cells accurately predicts the division axis, independently of matrix density and cell-matrix interactions. This 3D-specific elongated division mode is determined by the local confinement produced by the matrix and the ability of cells to protrude and locally remodel the matrix via β1 integrin. Elongated division is readily recapitulated using collagen-coated microfabricated channels. Cells depleted of β1 integrin still divide in the elongated mode in microchannels, suggesting that 3D confinement is sufficient to induce the elongated cell-division phenotype.

  15. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  16. Assessment of Social Vulnerability Identification at Local Level around Merapi Volcano - A Self Organizing Map Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Maharani, Y. N.; Ki, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The application of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to analyze social vulnerability to recognize the resilience within sites is a challenging tasks. The aim of this study is to propose a computational method to identify the sites according to their similarity and to determine the most relevant variables to characterize the social vulnerability in each cluster. For this purposes, SOM is considered as an effective platform for analysis of high dimensional data. By considering the cluster structure, the characteristic of social vulnerability of the sites identification can be fully understand. In this study, the social vulnerability variable is constructed from 17 variables, i.e. 12 independent variables which represent the socio-economic concepts and 5 dependent variables which represent the damage and losses due to Merapi eruption in 2010. These variables collectively represent the local situation of the study area, based on conducted fieldwork on September 2013. By using both independent and dependent variables, we can identify if the social vulnerability is reflected onto the actual situation, in this case, Merapi eruption 2010. However, social vulnerability analysis in the local communities consists of a number of variables that represent their socio-economic condition. Some of variables employed in this study might be more or less redundant. Therefore, SOM is used to reduce the redundant variable(s) by selecting the representative variables using the component planes and correlation coefficient between variables in order to find the effective sample size. Then, the selected dataset was effectively clustered according to their similarities. Finally, this approach can produce reliable estimates of clustering, recognize the most significant variables and could be useful for social vulnerability assessment, especially for the stakeholder as decision maker. This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering

  17. Local homogeneity combined with DCT statistics to blind noisy image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingxian; Chen, Li; Chen, Heping

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a novel method for blind noisy image quality assessment is proposed. First, it is believed that human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to the local smoothness area in a noise image, an adaptively local homogeneous block selection algorithm is proposed to construct a new homogeneous image named as homogeneity blocks (HB) based on computing each pixel characteristic. Second, applying the discrete cosine transform (DCT) for each HB and using high frequency component to evaluate image noise level. Finally, a modified peak signal to noise ratio (MPSNR) image quality assessment approach is proposed based on analysis DCT kurtosis distributions change and noise level above-mentioned. Simulations show that the quality scores that produced from the proposed algorithm are well correlated with the human perception of quality and also have a stability performance.

  18. The Latino Mental Health Project: A Local Mental Health Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Adams, Sara T.; Calista, Joanne L.; Connell, Joy; Encarnación, José; Esparza, Nancy K.; Frohock, Jeanne; Hicks, Ellen; Kim, Saeromi; Kokernak, Gerald; McGrenra, Michael; Mestre, Ray; Pérez, Maria; Pinedo, Tatiana M.; Quagan, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a local needs assessment of the mental health experiences, service needs, and barriers to treatment-seeking of the Latino population in Worcester, Massachusetts. Overall, participants reported relatively high rates of experiences with symptoms of mental health problems, they indicated using a range of both formal and alternative mental health services, and they noted a variety of instrumental, attitudinal, and culturally-specific barriers to seeking ...

  19. Remaining strength assessment methodology of cylindrical tubing containing local wall thinning defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The wear type defect is very common volumetric flaw in steam generator tube, which is most important aspect to affect strength of steam generator tube. Thus, a specific assessment method shall be formulated aiming to this thin-wall tube. Purpose: The aim is to establish a formula of remaining strength factor based on burst pressure experiment results of steam generator tube specimens, which is applicable to safety assessment of cylindrical tubing containing local wall thinning defect. Methods: Therefore, the burst pressure test was performed in order to calculate the remaining strength of steam generator tube containing local thinning wall. Concerning assessment methodology of local wall thinning of cylindrical tubing, several assessment methodologies of the structural integrity were recommended within the codes, such as China code of NB20013, BS7910, API579 and Janelle's dissertation. In the recent year, the burst pressure experiment was carried out on cylindrical tubing with local wall thinning defect, and the methods mentioned above were used to calculate the burst pressure and compared with the experiment result. Results: However, the calculated burst pressure result does not always match well the experiments. In the case that defect depth by wall thickness is over than or equal 70%, the calculated burst pressure is far more than the experiment's, thus this case is not conservative as far as safety concerned. Conclusions: Finally the modified RSF formula is developed on the basis of the experiment's burst pressure, and which is most accurately applicable to the result of burst pressure experiment. (authors)

  20. Role of Scintimammography in Assessing the Response of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trehan, Romeeta; Seam, Rajeev K; Manoj K. Gupta; Sood, Ashwani; Dimri, Kislay; Mahajan, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is a common cancer in the developing countries. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is a very important step in the treatment of such tumors and hence that the disease can be down staged and made amenable for surgery. All the tumors do not respond to the therapy equally. Hence, it becomes very important to predict the response of chemotherapy in such cases. This study evaluated the role of scintimammography in assessing the response to NACT in 23 patients wit...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels: improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local production factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bessou, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) make it possible to check for all polluting emissions and potential environmental impacts of biofuels throughout the product chain. However, LCA emission factors only give an estimate of average potential emissions, notably not considering the local kinetics of N2O emissions, the most important agricultural greenhouse gas. Our objective was first to analyse how soil compaction affects N2O emissions by combining field experiments and modelling. With automatic chamb...

  2. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    HELBET, R.; BOULEANU, I.; BECHET, P.; MICLAUS, S.

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area...

  3. Local and landscape factors determining occurrence of phyllostomid bats in tropical secondary forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late. We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches. Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in

  4. Determination of the Local Standard of Rest using the LSS-GAC DR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang

    2015-08-01

    We re-estimate the peculiar velocity of the Sun with respect to the local standard of rest using a sample of local stars within 600 pc of the Sun, selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC). The sample consists of 94332 FGK main-sequence stars with well-determined radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. To derive the LSR, two independent analyses are applied to the data. Firstly, we determine the solar motion by comparing the observed velocity distribution to that generated with the analytic formulism of Schonrich & Binney that has been demonstrated to show excellent agreement with rigorous torus-based dynamics modelling by Binney & McMillan. Secondly, we propose that cold populations of thin disc stars, selected by applying an orbital eccentricity cut, can be directly used to determine the LSR without the need of asymmetric drift corrections. Both approaches yield consistent results of solar motion in the direction of Galactic rotation, V_sun, that are much higher than the standard value adopted hitherto, derived from Stromgren's equation. The newly deduced values of V_sun are 1-2 km/s smaller than the more recent estimates derived from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey sample of stars in the solar neighbourhood (within 100 pc). We attribute the small difference to the presence of several well-known moving groups in the GCS sample that, fortunately, hardly affect the LSS-GAC sample. The newly derived radial and vertical components of the solar motion agree well with the previous studies. In addition, for all components of the solar motion, the values yielded by stars of different spectral types in the LSS-GAC sample are consistent with each other, suggesting that the local disk is well relaxed and that the LSR reported in the current work is robust. Our final recommended LSR is, (U,V,W)_sun = (7.01+/-0.20, 10.13+/-0.12, 4.95+/-0.09) km/s.

  5. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  6. The factors related to local recurrence after radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic malignancies: assessment of spiral CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Kyeong; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Yong Soo; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Seok; Joo, Kyung Bin [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the factors that are related to local recurrence after Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation (RFTA) fo hepatic tumors. We selected 30 patients with 51 hepatic nodules less than 5 cm in diameter (HCC, n=33; metastasis, n=18) who underwent RF thermal ablation between May 1999 and April 2000. Ablation was defined as 'complete' if immediately post-procedual CT showed that a nodule's margin was completely covered by ablation. Every three months, follow-up CT scans were examined for signs of local recurrence, and a nodule was assessed in terms of its size, the histologic diagnosis, adjacent vessels, perfect ablation (a safety margin of more than 5mm beyond the tumor margin), and whether hyperemia was observed after ablation. Finally, a group in which there was local recurrence (group A, n=15) and another showing no recurrence (group B, n=36) were compared. Mean nodule size in group A and group B was 3.26 and 2.24 cm, respectively. Local recurrence was noted in 7 of 33 HCC nodules (21.2%), and in 8 of 18 (44.4%) which were metastatic. There was recurrence in 9 of 31 nodules with adjacent vessels (29.0%), and in 6 of 20 (30%) without adjacent vessels. In two of 17 perfectly ablated nodules (11.8%) there was local recurrence, but this was observed in 13 of 34 imperfectly ablated nodules (38.2%). Finally, local recurrence was seen in 14 of 36 nodules showing hyperemia (38.9%) but in one of 15 (6.7%) without hyperemia. Using chi-square analysis, it was thus shown that with regard to local recurrence, tumor size, perfect ablation and peritumoral hyperemia were statistically significant factors (p<0.05). Local recurrence after RF thermal ablation of hepatic tumors clearly increases in nodules which are larger. The degree to which ablation is perfect, and the presence of peritumoral hyperemia, may be factors related to the local recurrence observed after RFTA.

  7. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using local binary pattern in infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xulong; Hong, Wenxue; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhenying

    2013-02-01

    Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0.86 and 0.89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0.657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis.

  8. Coupled Ground- and Space-Based Assessment of Regional Inundation Dynamics to Assess Impact of Local and Upstream Changes on Evaporation in Tropical Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schwerdtfeger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of human land use and climate change are known to be a threat for the health and proper functioning of tropical wetlands. They interfere with the seasonal flood pulse, which is seen as the most important driver for biodiversity and directly controls evaporation. In order to investigate the impact of local and upstream changes on wetlands, a regional assessment of evaporation is crucial but challenging in such often remote and poorly gauged ecosystems. Evaporation is the major water balance component of these wetlands and links the flood pulse with the ecosystem. It can therefore be seen as a proxy for their functioning. In the last decades, information from space became an important data source to assess remote wetland areas. Here, we developed a new approach to quantify regional evaporation driven by inundation dynamics as its dominant control. We used three water and vegetation indices (mNDWI (modified Normalized Difference Water Index, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance products to assess regional inundation dynamics between the dry and wet seasons. Two years of continual in situ water level measurements at different locations in our study area, the Pantanal wetland of South America, provided the reference to evaluate our method. With process-based modeling that used the inundation dynamics to determine the water available for evaporation, we were able to estimate actual evaporation (AET on a regional scale. Relating AET to changes in discharge due to upstream flow modifications and on local precipitation over the last 13 years, we found that the Pantanal is more vulnerable to alternated inundation dynamics than to changes in local precipitation. We concluded that coupling ground- and space-based information in this remote wetland area is a valuable first step to investigate the status of the Pantanal

  9. Using GPS and leveling data in local precise geoid determination and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B.; Çelik, R. N.; Erol, S.

    2003-04-01

    the fundamental mathematical equation; N=h-H. In the equation, "h" is the ellipsoidal height of a point P, "H" is the orthometric height of the same point and "N" is "geoid undulation" value. Normally, "H" orthometric height derived from leveling measurements but these measurements are tiring applications. So, while having a geoid model in the region as the essential part of geodetic infrastructure, number leveling measurements can be reduced from the procedure and by this way time and labor is saved. Geoid determination is modeling of the data in such a way that geoid height can be obtained digital or analog at a point whose horizontal position is known. Geoid models can be developed for local, regional or global regions. Using satellite techniques, especially GPS, in geodetic measurements are increased importance of geoid. Because geoid is a natural tie between high precision geodetic coordinates and coordinates which obtained from satellites. There are several geoid determination methods according to used data and models. GPS/Leveling method, which is also known as geometric method, is one of these methods. This method is appropriate for local precise geoid determination in respectively small areas. In this paper, it is going to be given information about GPS/Leveling geoid determination method and mathematical models, which are used in geoid determination with this method. And Izmir local geoid model will be presented as a case study. Izmir is one of the west metropolitan cities of Turkey and located near Aegean Sea. The topography is extremely rough in the region. There are two different geoid determination studies which were carried out in 1996 and 2001 in Izmir. Both models were accomplished according to GPS/Leveling method. Those two geoid models of Izmir Metropolitan region are investigated in here, the conflict of them were discussed. The relation between distribution of common reference points and differences of geoid undulation values, which are calculated

  10. Strategic environmental assessment for local transport plans; Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Vera

    2008-08-15

    The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) makes new demands for plans and programs also in the transport sector. Particularly on local level transport is one of the biggest causers of negative environmental effects. But there exists no SEA obligation for local transport plans, however many factors suggest to make such an examination in this sector. At the latest in the urban land use planning transport effects are a component for the SEA. Synergies can be exhausted and the individual planning steps are appropriately co-ordinated by the meaningful integration of transport and urban development planning. Additional synergies can gained in connection with further local and/or regional planning like e.g. the clean air planning or noise reduction planning. The aim of the doctoral thesis is to draft recommendations how to integrate the SEA into local transport planning process. For that purpose it is necessary to deduce the requirements demanded by the SEA and to demonstrate the current state of the local transport planning. The doctoral thesis is based on partial results of the research project FE 73.0237 ''Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklungsplanung'' in behalf of the German Ministry of Transport (Bundesministerium fuer Verkehr, Bauen und Stadtentwicklung) and mentored by the Federal Office of civil engineering (Bundesamt fuer Bauwesen und Raumordnung). The author of this thesis was instrumental in acquiring those results. The thesis contains a detailed literature research. The SEA's requirements are also described as well as the current state of the local transport planning. The state of the SEA on the different planning levels in the German transport sector is presented. Another part is a survey of 13 municipalities concerning their previous practice of the local transport and environmental planning as well as their experience with the SEA on local level and the analyse of local data. Furthermore three

  11. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  12. Determination of phenol in locally grown fruits and vegetable by spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenol in the sample of locally grown fruits apple, pear, sweet orange and vegetable radish of Quetta, Hyderabad and Nawabshah are described juices from these fruits and vegetable were squeezed, filtered and decolorized with charcoal. The antipyrine dye formed by reaction between phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine was analyzed. The calibration graphs were prepared in the range of 0.5 to 4 ppm of phenol. Phenol in apple, pear and sweet orange was found to be in the range of 1-1.2 ppm and in radish was found to be 0.5 ppm. Possible source of organic pollutant were pointed out and were discussed. Limits of detection of the method was investigated and was found to be 0.2 mu g/ml

  13. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  14. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally-determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally-determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With only three parameters per solvent, this `CANDLE' model simultaneously reproduce...

  15. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  16. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  18. Localization of immunodominant epitopes within the "a" determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsaz-Shirazi, Forough; Mohammadi, Hamed; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Shokri, Fazel

    2016-10-01

    The common "a" determinant is the major immunodominant region of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) shared by all serotypes and genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Antibodies against this region are thought to confer protection against HBV and are essential for viral clearance. Mutations within the "a" determinant may lead to conformational changes in this region, which can affect the binding of neutralizing antibodies. There is an increasing concern about identification and control of mutant viruses which is possible by comprehensive structural investigation of the epitopes located within this region. Anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different epitopes of HBsAg are a promising tool to meet this goal. In the present study, 19 anti-HBs mAbs were employed to map epitopes localized within the "a" determinant, using a panel of recombinant mutant HBsAgs. The topology of the epitopes was analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results indicate that all of the mAbs seem to recognize epitopes within or in the vicinity of the "a" determinant of HBsAg. Different patterns of binding with mutant forms were observed with different mAbs. Amino acid substitutions at positions 123, 126, 129, 144, and 145 dramatically reduced the reactivity of antibodies with HBsAg. The T123N mutation had the largest impact on antibody binding to HBsAg. The reactivity pattern of our panel of mAbs with mutant forms of HBsAg could have important clinical implications for immunoscreening, diagnosis of HBV infection, design of a new generation of recombinant HB vaccines, and immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection as an alternative to therapy with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG). PMID:27439498

  19. Quantum efficiency of self-assembled quantum dots determined by a modified optical local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, I.S.;

    2007-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics....

  20. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-01-01

    Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process a...

  1. Determining the torus covering factors for a sample of type 1 AGN in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ezhikode, Savithri H; Done, Chris; Ward, Martin; Dewangan, Gulab C; Misra, Ranjeev; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    The unification scheme of active galactic nuclei (AGN) proposes the presence of a dusty torus around the central source, governing the differences between AGN spectral properties. A fraction of the AGN luminosity is absorbed by the dusty torus and is re-radiated in the infrared (IR) band. Thus the fraction of the sky covered by the torus as seen from the central source, known as the covering factor f_c, can be obtained from the ratio of the IR to the bolometric luminosities of the source. However, because of the uncertainty in determining bolometric luminosities, the estimation of covering factors has proven difficult, especially in the local Universe where the peak of the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) lie in the ultraviolet. In this work, we determine the covering factors of an X-ray/optically selected sample of 51 type 1 AGN analysed by Jin et al. The bolometric luminosities of these sources can be derived using a self-consistent, energy-conserving model that estimates the contribution in th...

  2. Modeling the leakage of LCD displays with local backlight for quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.; Bech, Søren; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-02-01

    The recent technique of local backlight dimming has a significant impact on the quality of images displayed with a LCD screen with LED local dimming. Therefore it represents a necessary step in the quality assessment chain, independently from the other processes applied to images. This paper investigates the modeling of one of the major spatial artifacts produced by local dimming: leakage. Leakage appears in dark areas when the backlight level is too high for LC cells to block sufficiently and the final displayed brightness is higher than it should. A subjective quality experiment was run on videos displayed on LCD TV with local backlight dimming viewed from a 0° and 15° angles. The subjective results are then compared objective data using different leakage models: constant over the whole display or horizontally varying and three leakage factor (no leakage, measured at 0° and 15° respectively). Results show that for dark sequences accounting for the leakage artifact in the display model is definitely an improvement. Approximating that leakage is constant over the screen seems valid when viewing from a 15° angle while using a horizontally varying model might prove useful for 0° viewing.

  3. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  4. Robot-assisted assessment of vibration perception and localization on the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2013-03-01

    Sensory perception is crucial for motor learning and the control of fine manipulations. However, therapy after stroke still strongly focuses on the training of motor skills. Sensory assessments are often left out or provide only very subjective data from poorly controlled stimuli. This paper presents a vibration detection/localization test with the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a device that focuses entirely on the assessment and training of sensory function of the hand, with the aim of gaining insights into the prevalence and severity of sensory deficits after stroke, and to provide semiobjective data on absolute and difference perception thresholds in patients. An initial feasibility study investigated localization performance and reaction time during the discrimination of vibration stimuli presented in four locations on the dominant and nondominant hands of 13 healthy volunteers. High correct detection rates were observed (mean ± SD of 99.6% ± 0.6%), touch screen PC Robotic Sensory Trainer which were found to be significantly different between stimulus locations on the dominant hand. Average correct detection rates were not statistically different between dominant and nondominant hand. These data will serve as baseline for future measurements on elderly and stroke subjects, and suggest that data from the nonimpaired hand could be used to identify and assess sensory deficits in the affected hand of stroke patients.

  5. Complex ultrasound diagnostic assessment of the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (Stages IIB–IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current complex ultrasound diagnosis using novel imaging techniques can assess, to a high accuracy, different tumor parameters during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT for locally advanced cervical cancer (CC (Stages IIB–IIB. This assessment is very important and necessary to define further treatment policy.Materials and methods. A total of 199 patients diagnosed with Stages IIB–IIIB CC, including 60 patients with Stage IIB (T2bN0M0, 4 with Stage IIIА (T3aN0M0, and 135 with Stage IIIВ (T2bN1M0, T3aN1M0, T3bN0–1M0 (according to the International Federationof Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO classification, who received NCT at Stage 1 of treatment, were examined. Complex ultrasound study was conducted before treatment initiation and after each NCT cycle. The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor was evaluated in surgically treated patients.Results. The criteria have been determined for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for locally advanced CC, which are based on current ultrasonographic techniques including B-mode, Doppler ultrasound (power, spectral, three-dimensional ones, as well as on the results of therapeutic pathomorphism.Conclusion. The criteria for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for CC should be based on current complex ultrasonographic techniques.

  6. Assessing implicit odor localization in humans using a cross-modal spatial cueing paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Moessnang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Navigation based on chemosensory information is one of the most important skills in the animal kingdom. Studies on odor localization suggest that humans have lost this ability. However, the experimental approaches used so far were limited to explicit judgements, which might ignore a residual ability for directional smelling on an implicit level without conscious appraisal. METHODS: A novel cueing paradigm was developed in order to determine whether an implicit ability for directional smelling exists. Participants performed a visual two-alternative forced choice task in which the target was preceded either by a side-congruent or a side-incongruent olfactory spatial cue. An explicit odor localization task was implemented in a second experiment. RESULTS: No effect of cue congruency on mean reaction times could be found. However, a time by condition interaction emerged, with significantly slower responses to congruently compared to incongruently cued targets at the beginning of the experiment. This cueing effect gradually disappeared throughout the course of the experiment. In addition, participants performed at chance level in the explicit odor localization task, thus confirming the results of previous research. CONCLUSION: The implicit cueing task suggests the existence of spatial information processing in the olfactory system. Response slowing after a side-congruent olfactory cue is interpreted as a cross-modal attentional interference effect. In addition, habituation might have led to a gradual disappearance of the cueing effect. It is concluded that under immobile conditions with passive monorhinal stimulation, humans are unable to explicitly determine the location of a pure odorant. Implicitly, however, odor localization seems to exert an influence on human behaviour. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show implicit effects of odor localization on overt human behaviour and thus support the hypothesis of residual

  7. Determination of residual stresses by local annealing to laser speckle pattern interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechersky, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Vikram, C.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    One of the most common methods of experimentally determining residual stresses is Blind Hole Drilling (BHD). A new method which is a thermo-optical analog to BHD is being developed. This method uses local heating to anneal a tiny spot and uses laser speckle interferometry to measure the strain that results. This strain is used to determine the state of stress prior to heating. The peak temperatures are on the order of 200 Celsius so that for most metals, there will be no changes in phase or other material properties except for a slight reduction in yield stress. Preliminary experiments with type 304 stainless steel were performed using resistance heating. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with finite element model predictions of the process. Subsequently, the resistance heating was replaced with laser heating. The heat input (22.5 Watt peak) from a small sealed radio frequency excited Carbon Dioxide laser was used. In order to both control the heating temperature and efficiently couple the infrared photons from the laser into the test specimen, a substance known as Liquid Temperature Indicating Paint was used. Without this substance the laser power would be so large as to make this approach impractical. Furthermore the measurement and control for the heat input would be very complicated. Using this laser heating approach was successful in obtaining similar results to those obtained in other work. Since this laser based technique is a thermo-optical analog to blind hole drilling a simple stress model is required to interpret the measured results. This simple stress model is presented. As in BHD, the simple model must be modified by empirical coefficients to be useful. These empirical coefficients are determined by experimentation and/or numerical analysis

  8. STUDY TO ASSESS THE DISINFECTION OF DENTAL PROSTHESES TO CLEAR LOCALLY PREVALENT MICROBIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of four disinfectant solutions (Sodium hypochlorite 1%, chlorhexidine gluconate 2%, 100% vinegar and sodium perborate 3.8% in making acrylic resin specimens free of locally prevalent strains of three different micro-organisms. The organisms tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The study was conducted following a request by the Prosthodontics Department in the college, as part of the annual quality appraisal. One hundred and fifty samples of the standardized acrylic resin specimens were participated in the study, of which, 30 specimens were run as controls. It was concluded that 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 100% vinegar and 3.8% sodium perborate are all useful as disinfectants of acrylic resin, to make it free from local strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

  9. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis;

    2011-01-01

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, aswell as their possible drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diversity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii......-scale topography. Apart fromgamma diversity, the factormost strongly related to regional alpha diversity was precipitation seasonality, while gamma diversity itself was strongly linked to long-termhabitat stability. These results imply that plant species richness is contingent on both contemporary and historical......) regional control, in which the immigration of species from the regional species pool (gamma diversity) determines how many species coexist locally. The species pool hypothesis suggests a combined influence of local and regional drivers on alpha diversity. Differences in gamma diversity may arise from...

  10. Assessing Injury and Violence Prevention in North Carolina’s Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Mary S.; Counts, Jennifer; Fordham, Corinne; Francis, Molly Merrill; Bach, Laura E.; Maman, Suzanne; Proescholdbell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Injury and violence-related morbidity and mortality present a major public health problem in North Carolina. However, the extent to which local health departments (LHDs) engage in injury and violence prevention (IVP) is not well described. Objectives 1) Provide a baseline assessment of IVP in the state’s LHDs, describing capacity, priorities, challenges, and the degree to which programs are data-driven and evidence-based. 2) Describe a replicable, cost-effective method for systematic assessment of regional IVP. Design An observational, cross-sectional study, through a survey of NC’s 85 LHDs. Results Representatives from 77 LHDs (91%) responded. Nearly a third (n=23, 30%) reported no staff were familiar with evidence-based interventions in IVP; over a third (n=29, 38%) reported their LHD did not train staff in IVP. Almost half (n=37, 46%) had no dedicated funding. On average, respondents said about half of their programs were evidence-based; however, there was marked variation (mean 52%, SD = 41). Many collaborated with diverse partners including law enforcement, hospitals, and community-based organizations. There was discordance between injury and violence burden and programming. Overall, 53% of issues listed as top local problems were not targeted in their LHDs’ programs. Conclusions Despite funding constraints, NC’s LHDs are engaged in a broad range of IVP activities. Programming did not uniformly address state injury and violence priorities, however, nor local injury and violence burden. Staff need training in evidence-based strategies targeting priority areas. Multi-sector partnerships were common and increased LHDs’ capacity. These findings are actionable at the state and local-level. PMID:27621337

  11. Assessment of Global Emissions, Local Emissions and Immissions of Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Erdmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses and compares existing and new technologies for space heating in Germany (e.g., heat pumps, and solar thermal and wood pellet systems in terms of their environmental impacts. The various technologies were analyzed within the context of the new German legislation. The assessment was carried out on three levels: 1. Global emissions: a life cycle assessment was carried out in order to find the global environmental footprint of the various technologies; 2. Local emissions: the effects of local emissions on human health were analyzed; and 3. Immissions: the immissions were evaluated for the various technologies using a dispersion calculation. A special feature of this study is the substitution of frequently used database emission values by values obtained from field studies and our own measurements. The results show large differences between the different technologies: while electric heat pumps performed quite well in most categories, wood pellet systems performed the best with respect to climate change. The latter, however, are associated with high impacts in other environmental impact categories and on a local scale. The promotion of some technologies (especially systems based on fuel oil, a mixture of fuel oil and rapeseed oil, or a mixture of natural gas and biomethane by the newly introduced German legislation is doubtful. In terms of the immissions of wood pellet systems, it can be concluded that, even for extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, the regulatory limits are not exceeded and the heating systems have a negligible influence on the total PM load in the ambient air.

  12. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Funsten, H. O., E-mail: ezirnstein@swri.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  13. The arresting phase determines the total healing time of a locally irradiated skin wound in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; ZHOU Yuan-guo; ZHANG En; LIU Xia; LIU Jian-zhong; LIU Ping; PENG Yan; XIONG Ren-ping; CHEN Xing-yu; ZHAO Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Radiation is an important cause of delayed wound healing,and there still exist many questions regarding the patterns and mechanisms of wound healing.This study investigated the characteristics of wound healing after varying doses of local radiation and explored possible causes of the delay in healing caused by radiation.Methods:A full-thickness dorsal longitudinal skin tissue,2 cm in diameter,was excised after local irradiation on one side of the back of swine,and the other side was wounded as a control.The size of the wound area was recorded every two days after injury.Pathological changes,proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA,immunohistochemistry)and apoptosis levels(TUNEL assay)were measured at different time points after wounding.Results:The course of wound healing can be divided into four phases,namely:the arresting phase,the healing priming phase,the fast healing phase,and the healed phase.Although the total wound healing time was closely correlated to the dose of irradiation(R2=0.9758),it was more dependent on the length of the arresting phase(R2=0.9903)because once the arresting phase ended,the wound healed at a similar speed regardless of radiation doses.Pathological analysis showed that compared with the control side there were more necrotic tissues,slower epithelial crawling,as well as fewer blood vessels and cellular components in the irradiated side at the arresting phase,while other phases revealed no significant difference concerning these measurements.Immunohistochemistry showed that the irradiated wounds had significantly less PCNA-positive and more TUNEL-positive labeling of cells in the arresting phase than in other phases.Moreover,the changes were positively related to the radiation doses,but there was no obvious difference in cell proliferation or apoptosis among the healing priming phase,fast healing phase or healed phase,whether on the control side or on the irradiated side.Conclusions:After local irradiation,the length of the

  14. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mullane, Monica, E-mail: Monica.omullane@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work/Fakulta Zdravotnictva a Socialnej Prace, Trnavska univerzita, Univerzitne namestie 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Quinlivan, Aodh, E-mail: A.quinlivan@ucc.ie [Department of Government, College of Business and Law, 2nd Floor O' Rahilly Building, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  15. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: ► We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ► The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. ► Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist approaches towards HIA.

  16. Assessing climate change and health vulnerability at the local level: Travis County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Natasha; Houghton, Adele; Luber, George

    2016-10-01

    We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health measures using 1999-2005 age-adjusted cardiovascular and combined diabetes and hypertension mortality rates to correspond with social-built environment indices. We mapped US Census block groups by linked age-adjusted mortality and a PCA-created social-built environment index. The goal was to measure flooding and excessive heat event vulnerability as proxies for population vulnerability to climate change for Travis County, Texas. This assessment identified communities where baseline poor health, social marginalisation and built environmental impediments intersected. Such assessments may assist targeted interventions and improve emergency preparedness in identified vulnerable communities, while fostering resilience through the focus of climate change adaptation policies at the local level.

  17. Implications of rupture complexity for hazard assessment and forecasting of local and regional tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming; Ristau, John

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally hazard assessment for tsunami does not take rupture complexity, i.e. the heterogeneity of the slip distribution across the earthquake rupture interface, into account. The authors have demonstrated that the potential extent of inundation will be significantly underestimated if rupture complexity is ignored. For local tsunami it has also been shown that for a target site a strict proportionality between earthquake moment magnitude and inundation extent does not exist. The main difficulty in including the effects of rupture complexity in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for local and regional tsunami lies in the fact that calculations to full inundation need to solve non-linear wave equations. These calculations are so computationally expensive that simulating a statistically significant number of scenarios becomes impractical. The hazard assessment process thus requires a de-aggregation procedure that can rely on simulations based on the linear wave equations alone, to identify scenarios significant enough to be considered for full inundation modelling. We correlate properties of the offshore wave field derived from linear simulations with the extent of inundation derived from non-linear tsunami simulations, allowing us to reduce non-linear calculations in our hazard assessment to a practical number. The effect of rupture complexity on the tsunami wave field is routinely considered in tsunami forecasting for distant and regional sources. Source models are inverted from DART buoy readings as soon as this information becomes available. However, depending on the location of the earthquake causing the tsunami, DART buoy information will not be provided immediately after the event, which poses a challenge to tsunami forecasting for local and regional sources. We propose a concept of tsunami forecasting for regional tsunami, which also provides probabilistic hazard assessment for the event in question. This approach considers rupture complexity

  18. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  19. Determination of global and local residual stresses in SOFC by X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Julie; Sicardy, Olivier; Fortunier, Roland; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Bleuet, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a high-performance electrochemical device for energy conversion. A single cell is composed of five layers made of different ceramic materials: anode support, anode functional layer, electrolyte, cathode functional layer and cathode. The mechanical integrity of the cell is a major issue during its lifetime, especially for the electrolyte layer. Damage of the cells is mainly due to the high operating temperature, the "redox" behaviour of the anode and the brittleness of the involved materials. Since residual stresses are known to play a significant role in the damage evolution, it is important to determine them. For this purpose, residual stresses in an anode-supported planar SOFC were measured by X-ray diffraction. Firstly, macroscopic stresses in each phase of each layer were studied using the sin 2ψ method on a laboratory X-ray goniometer at room temperature. This technique enables the calculation of residual stress of the material from the measurement of the crystal lattice deformation. The electrolyte has been found under bi-axial compressive stress of -920 MPa. Secondly, X-ray measurements controlling depth penetration were made in the electrolyte using grazing incidence method. The results show that the stress is not homogenous in the layer. The first five micrometers of the electrolyte have been found less constrained (-750 MPa) than the complete layer, suggesting a gradient of deformation in the electrolyte from the interface with the Anode Functional Layer to the free surface. Finally, local stress measurements were made on the electrolyte layer by X-ray synchrotron radiation that allows high accuracy measurement on the (sub-) micrometer scale. Polychromatic and monochromatic beams are used to determine the complete strain tensor from grain to grain in the electrolyte. First results confirm the macroscopic stress trend of the electrolyte. These X-ray techniques at different scales will contribute to a better understanding of

  20. Development of a novel method for surgical implant design optimization through noninvasive assessment of local bone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiuma, D; Brianza, S; Tami, A E

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed to improve the design of locking implants by finding the optimal paths for the anchoring elements, based on a high resolution pQCT assessment of local bone mineral density (BMD) distribution and bone micro-architecture (BMA). The method consists of three steps: (1) partial fixation of the implant to the bone and creation of a reference system, (2) implant removal and pQCT scan of the bone, and (3) determination of BMD and BMA of all implant-anchoring locations along the actual and alternative directions. Using a PHILOS plate, the method uncertainty was tested on an artificial humerus bone model. A cadaveric humerus was used to quantify how the uncertainty of the method affects the assessment of bone parameters. BMD and BMA were determined along four possible alternative screw paths as possible criteria for implant optimization. The method is biased by a 0.87 ± 0.12 mm systematic uncertainty and by a 0.44 ± 0.09 mm random uncertainty in locating the virtual screw position. This study shows that this method can be used to find alternative directions for the anchoring elements, which may possess better bone properties. This modification will thus produce an optimized implant design.

  1. A Tool for Local Thickness Determination and Grain Boundary Characterization by CTEM and HRTEM Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Pécz, Béla; Szívós, János; Lábár, János L

    2015-04-01

    A new approach for measurement of local thickness and characterization of grain boundaries is presented. The method is embodied in a software tool that helps to find and set sample orientations useful for high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) examination of grain boundaries in polycrystalline thin films. The novelty is the simultaneous treatment of the two neighboring grains and orienting both grains and the boundary plane simultaneously. The same metric matrix-based formalism is used for all crystal systems. Input into the software tool includes orientation data for the grains in question, which is determined automatically for a large number of grains by the commercial ASTAR program. Grain boundaries suitable for HRTEM examination are automatically identified by our software tool. Individual boundaries are selected manually for detailed HRTEM examination from the automatically identified set. Goniometer settings needed to observe the selected boundary in HRTEM are advised by the software. Operation is demonstrated on examples from cubic and hexagonal crystal systems. PMID:25801740

  2. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With four parameters per solvent, this “CANDLE” model simultaneously reproduces solvation energies of large datasets of neutral molecules, cations, and anions with a mean absolute error of 1.8 kcal/mol in water and 3.0 kcal/mol in acetonitrile.

  3. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A

    2015-02-14

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With four parameters per solvent, this "CANDLE" model simultaneously reproduces solvation energies of large datasets of neutral molecules, cations, and anions with a mean absolute error of 1.8 kcal/mol in water and 3.0 kcal/mol in acetonitrile. PMID:25681887

  4. Determination of suitable pollinizers for some selected local persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Seren SAĞIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of suitable pollinizers is very important for persimmon that have a widespread problem in fruit setting. This study aims to contribute for solving this problem. Study was carried out in 2010 vegetation period with 17 years old persimmon trees in Adana conditions. For this purpose, the suitability of Bruniquel and Ghora Gali pollinizer cultivars were searched for 9 local persimmon types (07TH05, 07TH06, 07TH13, 07TH14, 07TH17, 31TH01, 31TH02, 31TH03 and 33TH01. In laboratory tests of pollen viability, germination and quantity, it was determined that the potential of Ghora Gali and Bruniquel is satisfactory for a pollinizer. With controlled-pollination treatments, fruit drop was reduced compared with open pollination and non-pollination treatments. In terms of this, the best pollinator for 07TH14 and 33TH01 was Bruniquel and for 07TH06 and 07TH17 it was Ghora Gali. Both Bruniquel and Ghora Gali became suitable pollinators for 07TH05. In 07TH13, 31TH02 and 31TH03 genotypes, the best results were obtained from open pollination treatments. At the same time, 07TH14 and 33TH01 genotypes have high affinity to parthenocarpy because of their fruit set ability while there is not any pollinizer.

  5. An Integrated Framework of Drivetrain Degradation Assessment and Fault Localization for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As wind energy proliferates in onshore and offshore applications, it has become significantly important to predict wind turbine downtime and maintain operation uptime to ensure maximal yield. Two types of data systems have been widely adopted for monitoring turbine health condition: supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA and condition monitoring system (CMS. Provided that research and development have focused on advancing analytical techniques based on these systems independently, an intelligent model that associates information from both systems is necessary and beneficial. In this paper, a systematic framework is designed to integrate CMS and SCADA data and assess drivetrain degradation over its lifecycle. Information reference and advanced feature extraction techniques are employed to procure heterogeneous health indicators. A pattern recognition algorithm is used to model baseline behavior and measure deviation of current behavior, where a Self-organizing Map (SOM and minimum quantization error (MQE method is selected to achieve degradation assessment. Eventually, the computation and ranking of component contribution to the detected degradation offers component-level fault localization. When validated and automated by various applications, the approach is able to incorporate diverse data resources and output actionable information to advise predictive maintenance with precise fault information. The approach is validated on a 3 MW offshore turbine, where an incipient fault is detected well before existing system shuts down the unit. A radar chart is used to illustrate the fault localization result.

  6. Assessment of damage localization based on spatial filters using numerical crack propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deraemaeker, Arnaud, E-mail: aderaema@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Civil Engineering Department (BATir), 50 av. Franklin Roosevelt, CP 194/02, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-19

    This paper is concerned with vibration based structural health monitoring with a focus on non-model based damage localization. The type of damage investigated is cracking of concrete structures due to the loss of prestress. In previous works, an automated method based on spatial filtering techniques applied to large dynamic strain sensor networks has been proposed and tested using data from numerical simulations. In the simulations, simplified representations of cracks (such as a reduced Young's modulus) have been used. While this gives the general trend for global properties such as eigen frequencies, the change of more local features, such as strains, is not adequately represented. Instead, crack propagation models should be used. In this study, a first attempt is made in this direction for concrete structures (quasi brittle material with softening laws) using crack-band models implemented in the commercial software DIANA. The strategy consists in performing a non-linear computation which leads to cracking of the concrete, followed by a dynamic analysis. The dynamic response is then used as the input to the previously designed damage localization system in order to assess its performances. The approach is illustrated on a simply supported beam modeled with 2D plane stress elements.

  7. Local Adaptation in European Firs Assessed through Extensive Sampling across Altitudinal Gradients in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Dragos; Lascoux, Martin; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Källman, Thomas; Leonarduzzi, Cristina; Liepelt, Sascha; Piotti, Andrea; Popescu, Flaviu; Roschanski, Anna M.; Zhelev, Peter; Fady, Bruno; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. Methods A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced. Its power was assessed through simulations and compared to classical ‘within-site’ approaches (FDIST, BAYESCAN) and a simplified, within-site, version of the model introduced here (SBM). Results HBM demonstrates that hierarchical approaches are very powerful to detect replicated patterns of adaptive divergence with low false-discovery (FDR) and false-non-discovery (FNR) rates compared to the analysis of different sites separately through within-site approaches. The hypothesis of local adaptation to altitude was further addressed by analyzing replicated Abies alba population pairs (low and high elevations) across the species’ southern distribution range, where the effects of climatic selection are expected to be the strongest. For comparison, a single population pair from the closely related species A. cephalonica was also analyzed. The hierarchical model did not detect any pattern of adaptive divergence to altitude replicated in the different study sites. Instead, idiosyncratic patterns of local adaptation among sites were detected by within-site approaches. Conclusion Hierarchical approaches may miss idiosyncratic patterns of adaptation among sites, and we strongly recommend the use of both hierarchical (multi-site) and classical (within-site) approaches when addressing the question of adaptation across broad spatial scales. PMID:27392065

  8. Buckling assessment procedure for large diameter vessel with multiple local thin areas subjected to external moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We proposed the combination rule of multiple cracks as that of multiple flaws. → We proposed additional safety factor for conventional buckling equations. → The margin for the buckling load of a cylinder with multiple flaws is saved 2.0. - Abstract: The procedures described in based on the p-M (internal pressure ratio and external bending moment ratio) method () were used to predict the plastic initiation condition and the collapse condition for cylinders with a local thin area (LTA) subjected to combined internal pressure and bending moment. The effective wall thickness, t*, for the buckling assessment on a vessel with an LTA was proposed for use instead of wall thickness based on approximation which simply took into account only the effect of section modulus reduction (). The buckling evaluation on a vessel with an LTA was presented by and that was shown to be easily and adequately conducted by applying t* to the well-known Donnell's or Miller's equation. In this paper, the attention was focused on the procedure for assessing the buckling of large D/t vessels with multiple aligned or non-aligned local thin areas. From the comparison with the results of non-linear FEA, a combination rule and a buckling assessment procedure for multiple LTAs (flaws) subjected to external moment are proposed. The interaction-affected area for multiple cracks can be applied as the combination rule to evaluate the buckling of a large diameter vessel with multiple flaws subjected to external moment. From the comparison between the buckling loads of FEA results and the conventional buckling equations using the measured yield stress, an additional safety factor 'ks' is proposed so as to maintain the margin of 1.5. When the specified minimum yield stress is applied to Donnell's or Miller's equations, the margin for the buckling load of a cylinder with multiple flaws is more than 2.08 and 2.29, respectively.

  9. Assessment and visualization of uncertainty for countrywide soil organic matter map of Hungary using local entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is a general term expressing our imperfect knowledge in describing an environmental process and we are aware of it (Bárdossy and Fodor, 2004). Sampling, laboratory measurements, models and so on are subject to uncertainty. Effective quantification and visualization of uncertainty would be indispensable to stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, society). Soil related features and their spatial models should be stressfully targeted to uncertainty assessment because their inferences are further used in modelling and decision making process. The aim of our present study was to assess and effectively visualize the local uncertainty of the countrywide soil organic matter (SOM) spatial distribution model of Hungary using geostatistical tools and concepts. The Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's SOM data (approximately 1,200 observations) and environmental related, spatially exhaustive secondary information (i.e. digital elevation model, climatic maps, MODIS satellite images and geological map) were used to model the countrywide SOM spatial distribution by regression kriging. It would be common to use the calculated estimation (or kriging) variance as a measure of uncertainty, however the normality and homoscedasticity hypotheses have to be refused according to our preliminary analysis on the data. Therefore, a normal score transformation and a sequential stochastic simulation approach was introduced to be able to model and assess the local uncertainty. Five hundred equally probable realizations (i.e. stochastic images) were generated. The number of the stochastic images is fairly enough to provide a model of uncertainty at each location, which is a complete description of uncertainty in geostatistics (Deutsch and Journel, 1998). Furthermore, these models can be applied e.g. to contour the probability of any events, which can be regarded as goal oriented digital soil maps and are of interest for agricultural management and decision making as well. A

  10. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  11. A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Adam G.; Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Scolnic, Dan; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E.; Reid, Mark J.; Jones, David O.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Chornock, Ryan; Challis, Peter; Yuan, Wenlong; Brown, Peter J.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2016-07-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant from 3.3% to 2.4%. The bulk of this improvement comes from new near-infrared (NIR) observations of Cepheid variables in 11 host galaxies of recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), more than doubling the sample of reliable SNe Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance to a total of 19; these in turn leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on ∼300 SNe Ia at z instrument zeropoint errors in the relative distance estimates from Cepheids. Other noteworthy improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC 4258, a larger sample of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a more robust distance to the LMC based on late-type detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST-based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC 4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes measured with HST/FGS, HST/WFC3 spatial scanning and/or Hipparcos, and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The Hubble constant from each is 72.25 ± 2.51, 72.04 ± 2.67, 76.18 ± 2.37, and 74.50 ± 3.27 km s‑1 Mpc‑1, respectively. Our best estimate of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s‑1 Mpc‑1 combines the anchors NGC 4258, MW, and LMC, yielding a 2.4% determination (all quoted uncertainties include fully propagated statistical and systematic components). This value is 3.4σ higher than 66.93 ± 0.62 km s‑1 Mpc‑1 predicted by ΛCDM with 3 neutrino flavors having a mass of 0.06 eV and the new Planck data, but the discrepancy reduces to 2.1σ relative to the prediction of 69.3 ± 0.7 km s‑1 Mpc‑1 based on the comparably precise combination of WMAP+ACT+SPT+BAO observations, suggesting that systematic uncertainties in CMB radiation measurements may play a role in the tension. If we

  12. DETERMINANTS OF ADAPTATION TO DEFORESTATION AMONG FARMERS IN MADAGALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Mustapha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (chi-square test statistics. The result indicated that majority (84% of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age representing 58.50%. The study also showed that most (45% of the respondents had attained post primary education with majority (80% having 6 and above years of farming experience. The respondents perceived fuel wood extraction as the major (42% cause of deforestation in the study area. The result showed that the most (30.50% frequently employed adaptation strategy against deforestation was reducing quantity of fire wood consumption. The study further showed that the factors which significantly influenced adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were age, farming experience and educational status with X2=9.216, 8.697 and 11.238 at P<0.05 respectively. While those factors which did not influence adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were gender, access to agricultural credit and access to extension services with X2=1.286, 7.923 and 5.862 at P<0.05 respectively. The major constraints faced by respondents in adaptation to deforestation were lack of capital and lack of accessible alternative energy. The study recommends that awareness campaign should be mounted to increase the level of knowledge of respondents on the significance of adaptation to deforestation. Respondents should also be encouraged towards establishment of adaptation cooperative societies in order to take advantage of some government policies and programmes.

  13. Local subbasin characteristics are determinants of streamflow intermittency in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Olden, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent and ephemeral streams account for over half of the total discharge of the global river network and their extent is expected to increase as a result of forecasted changes in climate and water resource development. Recognizing the importance of stream flow as the master variable driving physical, chemical, and biological processes in fluvial systems there is inherent utility in predicting which regions of the landscape support varying degrees of flow permanence (e.g., perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral flow). Easily derivable landscape characteristics and readily available climate data may be useful for identifying streamflow permanence. We use local precipitation records and GIS-derived geologic and topographic descriptors to identify potential determinants of flow permanence in streams draining the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, USA. Flow permanence is based on 2- to 4-year time series for 43 electrical resistance sensors installed across 10 canyons in stream reaches that support a range of hydrologic flow conditions. Multivariate NMDS analysis identifie separation between stream reaches of different flow permanence classes based on subbasin-scale, GIS-derived landscape metrics. In particular, separation between perennial and ephemeral reaches is driven by steep surface slopes and small drainage areas that support perennial flow and which correspond to the location of specific geologic units. Ephemeral and intermittent reaches are also highly responsive to precipitation events, specifically, late summer convective thunderstorms with spatial extents limited to individual canyons or portions of a canyon. Further separation of landscape and precipitation characteristics is expected between flow classes that account for refined flow permanence metrics including seasonal timing and duration of flow. Our results demonstrate that for this system, easily derivable metrics and available climate data serve as useful metrics for prediction of flow permanence.

  14. Determination of global and local residual stresses in SOFC by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanova, Julie, E-mail: julie.villanova@cea.f [CEA Grenoble, LITEN/DTH/LCPEM, 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, UMR CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Sicardy, Olivier [CEA Grenoble, LITEN/DTH/LCPEM, 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fortunier, Roland [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, UMR CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Micha, Jean-Sebastien [CEA Grenoble/INAC/UMR5819/SprAM, 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bleuet, Pierre [CEA Grenoble/INAC/SP2M, 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-02-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a high-performance electrochemical device for energy conversion. A single cell is composed of five layers made of different ceramic materials: anode support, anode functional layer, electrolyte, cathode functional layer and cathode. The mechanical integrity of the cell is a major issue during its lifetime, especially for the electrolyte layer. Damage of the cells is mainly due to the high operating temperature, the 'redox' behaviour of the anode and the brittleness of the involved materials. Since residual stresses are known to play a significant role in the damage evolution, it is important to determine them. For this purpose, residual stresses in an anode-supported planar SOFC were measured by X-ray diffraction. Firstly, macroscopic stresses in each phase of each layer were studied using the sin{sup 2}psi method on a laboratory X-ray goniometer at room temperature. This technique enables the calculation of residual stress of the material from the measurement of the crystal lattice deformation. The electrolyte has been found under bi-axial compressive stress of -920 MPa. Secondly, X-ray measurements controlling depth penetration were made in the electrolyte using grazing incidence method. The results show that the stress is not homogenous in the layer. The first five micrometers of the electrolyte have been found less constrained (-750 MPa) than the complete layer, suggesting a gradient of deformation in the electrolyte from the interface with the Anode Functional Layer to the free surface. Finally, local stress measurements were made on the electrolyte layer by X-ray synchrotron radiation that allows high accuracy measurement on the (sub-) micrometer scale. Polychromatic and monochromatic beams are used to determine the complete strain tensor from grain to grain in the electrolyte. First results confirm the macroscopic stress trend of the electrolyte. These X-ray techniques at different scales will contribute to a better

  15. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  16. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of nuclear waste management siting activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) of Washington, D.C. has conducted surveys and analyses of fourteen countries' plans and approaches for dealing with the problems of obtaining local siting acceptance for nuclear waste management facilities. It was determined that the following elements of the formal systems generally facilitate and/or expedite waste management siting decisions: (1) a clear-cut pro-nuclear power position on the part of the government; (2) a willingness on the part of the central government to exert (with prudence and restraint) its pre-emptive rights in nuclear matters; (3) political structures in which the heads of regional or provincial governments are appointed by the central government; (4) national laws that link reactor licensing with a detailed plan for waste management; (5) an established and stable policy with regard to reprocessing. In contrast, it was determined that the following elements of the formal system generally hinder waste management siting activities: (1) historically strong local land used veto laws; (2) the use of national referenda for making nuclear decisions; (3) requirements for public hearings. The informal approaches fall into the following five categories: (1) political: e.g. assertion of will by political leaders, activities to enlist support of local politicians, activities to broaden involvement in decision-making; (2) economic: e.g. emphasis on normal benefits, provision for additional economic benefits; (3) siting: e.g. at or near existing nuclear facilities, on government or utility property, at multiple locations to spread the political burden; (4) timing: e.g. decoupling drilling activities from ultimate repository site decision, deliberate deferral to (long-range) future; (5) education: e.g. creation of special government programmes, enlisting of media support

  17. DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESS OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL BRANDS IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of global and local brands in Latin America by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how product category characteristics affect the success of global and local brands in the region. Hypotheses are tested using data obtained from top brands rankings reported in five Latin American markets (Argentina, Brazil, the Caribbean and Central America, Chile and Mexico. The study design considers estimating a logistic regression on a binomial dependent variable measuring whether 475 top brands are global or local brands, with product category characteristics as independent variables. Results reveal that product categories related to subscriptions, local tastes, high-tech, and global citizenship do have an impact on the success of global and local brands in Latin America.

  18. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.

  19. Do great local minds think alike? Comparing perceptions of the social determinants of health between non-profit and governmental actors in two Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patricia A

    2012-06-01

    Cities are important sites for intervention on social determinants of health (SDOH); yet, little is known about how influential local actors, namely workers in municipal governments (GOVs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), perceive the SDOH. Capturing and comparing perceptions between these groups are important for assessing how SDOH discourse has permeated local actors' thinking--a meaningful endeavour as local-level health equity action often invokes inter-institutional partnerships. This paper compares SDOH perceptions between CBO workers in Hamilton, Ontario, with politicians and senior-level staff in GOVs in Vancouver, British Columbia, based on two studies with surveys containing identical questions on SDOH perceptions. Overall, there was high comparability between the groups in their relative ratings of the SDOH. Both groups assigned high levels of 'influence' and 'priority' to 'healthy lifestyles' and 'clean air and water' and lower levels to 'strong community' and 'income'. Given the importance of a shared vision in collaborative enterprises, the comparability of perceptions between the groups found here holds promise for the prospect of inter-institutional partnerships. However, the low rating assigned to more structural health determinants suggests that more work is needed from researchers and advocates to effectively advance a health equity agenda at the local level in Canada.

  20. Research on suitable heating conditions during local PWHT. Pt. 3. Determination of critical heated band during local PWHT by creep FEM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local post weld heat treatment (local PWHT) is usually performed for tempering and relaxation of residual stresses. The heated band width is the most important parameter which is controlling the effectiveness of local PWHT. However the rules determining this parameter are very different from one code to another. In this study, a direct criterion for heated width based on the creep FEM analysis of stress relief during PWHT is proposed. FEM analysis clearly shows the whole history of stress relief during PWHT and a critical heated width can be obtained. The pipe with original welding residual stresses is analyzed under different conditions of PWHT. Numerical analysis shows that the maximum residual stress after PWHT decreases when the heated width increases. When the heated width becomes large enough, the residual stresses after the local PWHT change very slowly approaching that for uniform PWHT. Thus, a critical heated width can be defined as the heated width which gives a residual stress close to the value obtained from the uniform PWHT. A series of different PWHT conditions are studied to find the critical heated widths by using this method. Compared with the heated widths based upon existing codes, it is found that a heated width of 2.5 √(Rt) on either side of welds seems reasonable. The through thickness temperature gradient Hi criterion is also discussed in this study. (orig.)

  1. ASSESSING FDI DETERMINANTS IN CEE COUNTRIES DURING AND AFTER TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI OANA CRISTINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify if the drivers of inward foreign direct investments’ stocks in Central and Eastern European countries changed in the last 20 years, given two substantial economic evolutions encountered in this period: the transition process and the adhesion at the European Union. We are interested if foreign investors are attracted by the quality of institutions, the labour market or by the telecommunications infrastructure, expressed by 10 variables, in the 11 newest EU member states. Therefore, we use a fixed effects panel data approach during 1994-2013 which we apply in two stages. In the first stage, we find the variables that strongly influence FDI in each of the three groups of determinants. In the second stage, the panel data analysis is applied only for the variables previously find as significant for FDI, to which we add traditional FDI determinants, such as trade openness and GDP per capita. Also, the mentioned years are divided into two sub periods, the first representing the transition period (from 1994 until 2003 and the second one the years comprising the EU adhesion process (from 2004 until 2013. The results confirm that there are changes in FDI determinants in these countries. During 1994 to 2003, investors were mostly interested in the quality of institutions, the openness of the economies and the environments capable of growth, where the products can be sold. For the period starting with 2004, the analyzed countries are attractive mainly through their capacity of providing labour force with low costs and created resources, such as the development of the mobile networks. The results obtained are of particular importance for the public policy decision makers, as the changes in FDI determinants require the adaptation of public policies in the CEE countries in order to remain attractive for foreign investors.

  2. Reconstruction of railroads at Klaipéda da National Seaport: Local Health Impact Assessment Case in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Zurlytè

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Introduction of health impact assessment (HIA as a national legal requirement for planned economic activity projects in 2002 and the further development of related procedures and methodological requirements has boosted the number of HIAs carried out both as an integrated part of environmental impact assessment (EIA procedures as well as an independent activity. Most of HIAs have been conduct for local projects. The HIA for the reconstruction of the southern section of the railroads in Klaip da National Seaport is one of the local HIAs in Lithuania carried out as an independent procedure. Methods: The HIA for the reconstruction of the southern section of the railroads in Klaipda National Seaport was carried out following the national legal procedure for the cases not foreseen in the Law on Environmental Impact Assessment of Planned Economic Activity and the national HIA methodological regulations. The HIA included a literature review, analysis of related technical documentation, data on existing and estimated air pollution and environmental noise levels and possible health consequences, analysis of local demographic and health statistics; interviews with the residents living in proximity of the planned activity, analysis of public complaints on existing activities at Klaip da National Seaport, site visit and round table discussions with the proponent of the planned activity, planning company and representatives of the public health authority. The standard or intermediate type of perspective HIA was applied. Results: The HIA report has pointed out noise, vibration, ambient air pollution, psychological factors as related to possible negative impact on health of residents living in the mostly exposed locations. Interviews with inhabitants living in proximity of the planned activity have shown that majority of them knew nothing about the reconstruction plans. Recommendations were provided in the report how to minimise

  3. Local Productive Arrangements for Biodiesel Production in Brazil – Environmental Assessment of Small-holder’s Integrated Oleaginous Crops Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments were carried out in small-holders’ farms in four territories where productive arrangements have been organized for production of minor oleaginous crops under the Brazilian biodiesel program. The study aimed at checking local impacts of the biodiesel productive chains at the rural establishment scale, and promoting the environmental performance of the selected farms, henceforth proposed as sustainable management demonstration units. Assessments were carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, which integrates 62 objective and quantitative indicators related to five sustainability dimensions: i Landscape Ecology, ii Environmental Quality (Atmosphere, Water and Soil, iii Socio-cultural Values, iv Economic Values and v Management and Administration. The main results point out that, in general, the ecological dimensions of sustainability, that is, the Landscape Ecology and Atmosphere, Water, and Soil quality indicators, show adequate field conditions, seemingly not yet negatively affected by increases in chemical inputs and natural resources use predicted as important potential impacts of the agro-energy sector. The Economic Values indicators have been favorably influenced in the studied farms, due to a steadier demand and improved prices for the oleaginous crops. On the other hand, valuable positive consequences expected for favoring farmers’ market insertion, such as improved Socio-cultural Values and Management & Administration indicators, are still opportunities to be materialized. The Environmental Management Reports issued to the farmers, based on the presented sustainability assessment procedures, offer valuable documentation and communication means for consolidating the organizational influence of the local productive arrangements studied. These productive arrangements were shown to be determinant for the selection of crop associations and diversification, as well as for the provision of technical assistance

  4. Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeth, C; Monetti, R; Bauer, J; Sidorenko, I [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mueller, D [Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Matsuura, M [Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Pettenkoferstrasse 11, 80336 Muenchen (Germany); Lochmueller, E-M [Department of Gynaecology I, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Maistrasse 11, 80337 Muenchen (Germany); Zysset, P [Institute for Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology (TU-Wien), Gusshausstrasse 27-29, 1040 Wien (Austria); Eckstein, F [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: cwr@mpe.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    The visualization and subsequent assessment of the inner human bone structures play an important role for better understanding the disease- or drug-induced changes of bone in the context of osteoporosis giving prospect for better predictions of bone strength and thus of the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients. In this work, we show how the complex trabecular bone structure can be visualized using {mu}CT imaging techniques at an isotropic resolution of 26 {mu}m. We quantify these structures by calculating global and local topological and morphological measures, namely Minkowski functionals (MFs) and utilizing the (an-)isotropic scaling index method (SIM) and by deriving suitable texture measures based on MF and SIM. Using a sample of 151 specimens taken from human vertebrae in vitro, we correlate the texture measures with the mechanically measured maximum compressive strength (MCS), which quantifies the strength of the bone probe, by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The structure parameters derived from the local measures yield good correlations with the bone strength as measured in mechanical tests. We investigate whether the performance of the texture measures depends on the MCS value by selecting different subsamples according to MCS. Considering the whole sample the results for the newly defined parameters are better than those obtained for the standard global histomorphometric parameters except for bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). If a subsample consisting only of weak bones is analysed, the local structural analysis leads to similar and even better correlations with MCS as compared to BV/TV. Thus, the MF and SIM yield additional information about the stability of the bone especially in the case of weak bones, which corroborates the hypothesis that the bone structure (and not only its mineral mass) constitutes an important component of bone stability.

  5. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Jonathan [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Institute for Transport Studies; Hubacek, Klaus [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment, Sustainability Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information. (author)

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions of imported and locally produced fruit and vegetable commodities: A quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Green house gas (GHG) emission of selected fruit and vegetables (SFVs) estimated. • Production and transport – most energy-intensive life cycle stages considered. • Sourcing SFVs from non-European countries causes much GHG emissions. • Increased UK production of SFVs offers considerable emission savings. • Sourcing SFVs from Europe can help make considerable GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Today considerable efforts are being made in identifying means of further energy efficiencies within the UK food system. Current air importation of fruit and vegetables (FVs) generates large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions part of which could be avoided. Local food production has been recognized as an environmentally feasible alternative production option and could help reduce GHG emissions, as required under the legally binding emissions targets stipulated by the UK Climate Change Act 2008. Climate change impacts of FVs importation were determined for a selection of five indigenous FV commodities, namely: apples, cherries, strawberries, garlic and peas. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) emissions associated with the production and transport stages were calculated using the sample of selected fruit and vegetables (SFVs). The latter stage includes three diverse geographic locations/regions for emissions comparison, namely the UK, Europe and non-European (NE) countries. On average (across the five SFVs), NE commodities, all in fresh/chilled state, were found to contain embedded (arising from production, air freighting and distribution within the UK) GHG emissions of 10.16 kg CO2e/kg. This is 9.66 kg more CO2e emissions compared to a kilogram of these commodities produced and supplied locally. A scenario-based approach determined the level of emissions savings that could be achieved by local FVs production in the UK. The least dramatic change of SCENARIO-1 (25% reduction in NE SFVs imports by increasing their local production by the same amount

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  8. A localized corrosion assessment of 6% molybdenum stainless steel condenser tubing at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition assessment was performed on the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Main Steam Condenser 6% molybdenum stainless steel tubing. This work consisted of eddy current (EC) examination, in-situ visual examination of tubes, and destructive analysis of pulled tubes. The assessment objectives were as follows: to determine the tubing degradation mechanism, to render the condenser leak-tight, to identify methods of improving condenser life management, and to develop a basis for projecting the remaining condenser life. Once the corrosion mechanism was identified, seawater corrosion tests were performed on UNS N08366 and N08367 tubing using vinyl sleeves, Type 316 stainless compression fittings, and epoxy paint as crevice formers. Based on eddy current examination results, greater than 95% of the 49,500 tubes in the condenser had no detectable degradation. Over 1,200 tubes were plugged with either eddy current indications measuring greater than 60% wall loss or with obstructions. One waterbox (11A) contained 52% of all eddy current indications with over half of these in one section (B). Destructive analysis of pulled tubes revealed crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion that initiated under deposits. This type of corrosion occurred most often and had the deepest penetration in the weld seam. This was attributed to molybdenum and chromium segregation in the as-welded tubes and to deleterious secondary phases formed during weld solidification

  9. Determination of source parameters for local and regional earthquakes in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataeva, G.; Shapira, A.; Hofstetter, A.

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated earthquake source parameters and seismic moment-magnitude relations from 103 regional and local earthquakes with moment magnitude 2.6 to 7.2, which occurred in a distance range from 4.5 to 550 km during 1995-2012 by applying Brune's seismic source model (J Geophys Res 75:4997-5009, 1970, J Geophys Res 76:5002, 1971) for P- and S/Lg-wave displacement spectra. Considering P- and S-wave data separately, we first studied the empirical dependence of the Fourier spectral amplitudes Ω due to the geometrical spreading and the inelastic attenuation and of the corner frequency, f 0, with the epicentral distances, R. We found the distance correction parameters, Re 0.0042 R and R 0.8333 e 0.00365 R for the low-frequency spectral amplitudes and f 0 = f {0/'} e 0.00043 R and f 0 = f {0/'} e 0.00044 R for the corner frequency at the source, f 0, and observed at the station, f {0/'}, from P-wave and S-wave spectra, respectively. Applying the distance correction procedure, we determined the source displacement spectrum of P and S waves for each earthquake to estimate the seismic moment, M 0; the moment magnitude, M W; the source radius, r; and the stress drop, Δσ. The seismic moments range from 1.06 × 1013 to 7.67 × 1019 N m, and their corresponding moment magnitudes are in the range of 2.6-7.2. Values of stress drop Δσ vary from 0.1 to 44 MPa. It was found that the stress drop increases with the increasing seismic moment in the range of 1013-1016 N m and possibly becomes constant at higher magnitudes, reaching a maximum value of about 40-45 MPa. We demonstrate that the values of the M 0 and M W estimated from P-wave and S-wave analysis are consistent and confirmed by the results of waveform inversions, i.e., centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution.

  10. Fluorescence imaging to localize head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for enhanced pathological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warram, Jason M; de Boer, Esther; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Moore, Lindsay S; Bevans, Stephanie L; Walsh, Erika M; Young, Erik S; Carroll, William R; Stevens, Todd M; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2016-04-01

    Accurately identifying close or positive margins in real-time permits re-excision during surgical procedures. Intraoperative assessment of margins via gross examination and frozen section is a widely used tool to assist the surgeon in achieving complete resection. While this methodology permits diagnosis of freshly resected tissue, the process is fraught with misinterpretation and sampling errors. During fluorescence-guided surgery, an exogenous fluorescent agent specific for the target disease is imaged in order to navigate the surgical excision. As this technique quickly advances into the clinic, we hypothesize that the disease-specific fluorescence inherently contained within the resected tissues can be used to guide histopathological assessment. To evaluate the feasibility of fluorescence-guided pathology, we evaluated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumour specimens and margins resected from animals and patients after systemic injection of cetuximab-IRDye800CW. In a preclinical model of luciferase-positive tumour resection using bioluminescence as the gold standard, fluorescence assessment determined by closed-field fluorescence imaging of fresh resected margins accurately predicted the presence of disease in 33/39 positive margins yielding an overall sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 94%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 87%, which was superior to both surgical assessment (54%, 61%, 57%, and 58%) and pathological assessment (49%, 95%, 91%, and 66%), respectively. When the power of the technique was evaluated using human-derived tumour tissues, as little as 0.5mg (1mm(3)) of tumour tissue was identified (tumour-to-background-ratio:5.2). When the sensitivity/specificity of fluorescence-guided pathology was determined using traditional histological assessment as the gold standard in human tissues obtained during fluorescence-guided surgery, the technique was highly accurate with a sensitivity of 91

  11. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sánchez, Itzell E; Maruri-López, Israel; Ferrando, Alejandro; Carbonell, Juan; Graether, Steffen P; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine-rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization. PMID:26442018

  12. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzell Euridice Hernández-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization.

  13. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELBET, R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.

  14. Assessing climate change and health vulnerability at the local level: Travis County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Natasha; Houghton, Adele; Luber, George

    2016-10-01

    We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health measures using 1999-2005 age-adjusted cardiovascular and combined diabetes and hypertension mortality rates to correspond with social-built environment indices. We mapped US Census block groups by linked age-adjusted mortality and a PCA-created social-built environment index. The goal was to measure flooding and excessive heat event vulnerability as proxies for population vulnerability to climate change for Travis County, Texas. This assessment identified communities where baseline poor health, social marginalisation and built environmental impediments intersected. Such assessments may assist targeted interventions and improve emergency preparedness in identified vulnerable communities, while fostering resilience through the focus of climate change adaptation policies at the local level. PMID:26748543

  15. 42 CFR 405.1062 - Applicability of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC. 405.1062 Section 405.1062 Public Health CENTERS FOR... of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC. (a) ALJs and the MAC are not bound by LCDs, LMRPs, or CMS program guidance, such as program memoranda and...

  16. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the

  17. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  18. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  19. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  20. Assessment of Trace Elements Levels in Sediment and Water in Some Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining(ASM Localities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of eight trace elements, Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg and arsenic(As in sediment and water were assessed in four artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM localities in the Amansie West District (6°28′N 1°53′W of Ghana along two river courses from May 2011to July 2011. Triplicate water and sediment samples were randomly taken at five different points at each of the localities and the elements determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS . Using the Geo-accumulation Index( Igeo assessment, the sediments were found to be polluted to different degrees with Cu(Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated, Hg (Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated and As(Moderately contaminated/Moderately to strongly contaminated. The Enrichment Factor (EF indicated human influence - artisanal mining activities on the sediment concentration of Cd and Pb for all the localities and only some of the localities for the rest of the trace elements. The elements are major sediment pollutants ( EF > 2 in one or more of the localities. The Igeo and EF gave diverse status of the sediment qualities of the localities. Cd, Pb, Hg and As water concentrations in the four artisanal mining localities were all found to be above the WHO maximum acceptable of levels for drinking water. Inhabitants in the mining localities face the risk of getting various diseases by drinking the waters contaminated with the trace elements.

  1. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax, probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  2. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  3. A hybrid framework for assessing socioeconomic drought: Linking climate variability, local resilience, and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Mazdiyasni, Omid; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Socioeconomic drought broadly refers to conditions whereby the water supply cannot satisfy the demand. Most previous studies describe droughts based on large-scale meteorological/hydrologic conditions, ignoring the demand and local resilience to cope with climate variability. Reservoirs provide resilience against climatic extremes and play a key role in water supply and demand management. Here we outline a unique multivariate approach as a measure of socioeconomic drought, termed Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). The model combines information on the inflow and reservoir storage relative to the demand. MSRRI combines (I) a "top-down" approach that focuses on processes/phenomena that cannot be simply controlled or altered by decision makers, such as climate change and variability, and (II) a "bottom-up" methodology that represents the local resilience and societal capacity to respond or adapt to droughts. MSRRI is based on a nonparametric multivariate distribution function that links inflow-demand reliability indicator to water storage resilience indicator. These indicators are used to assess socioeconomic drought during the Australian Millennium drought (1998-2010) and the 2011-2014 California drought. The results show that MSRRI is superior to univariate indices because it captures both early onset and persistence of water stress over time. The suggested framework can be applied to both individual reservoirs and a group of reservoirs in a region, and it is consistent with the currently available standardized drought indicators. MSRRI provides complementary information on socioeconomic drought development and recovery based on reservoir storage and demand that cannot be achieved from the commonly used drought indicators.

  4. Sensitivity Assessment. Localization of Road Transport Infrastructures in the Province of Lucca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Santini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The work, result of a research carried out in collaboration with the Chamber of Commerce of Lucca, aims to implement a tool for the evaluation of positive and negative effects arising by the “widening” or “new construction” of road transport infrastructures in the territory. In particular, with respect to the impacts generated by the project actions relating to the construction or widening of roads, the research has produced several sensitivity maps of the studied area and a graphical interface, accessible on the Internet and user friendly, allowing the synthetic evaluation of the impacts and the comparison of different scenarios The implemented methodology, through the use of advanced tools for data management and processing and for impacts quantification and assessment, has allowed us to define a very detailed database related to all components of study area, both natural and anthropic, and to build a "synthetic sensitivity index", obtained from the combination of thematic information about each component and from the relationships that involve each others. It’s therefore to consider an indispensable support tool for planners and evaluators (eg. SEA procedures, but also for others users (eg organizations representing businesses, consumer associations, etc.. In fact it allows to acquire a deep knowledge of the area (environmental and economic resources, to verify the sensitivity of each part of the area with respect to a series of project actions concerning both the construction of new roads that the widening of the existing ones and finally to evaluate different localization scenarios for the same type of project or different impact scenarios for the same localization.

  5. Lorentz factor determination for local electric fields in semiconductor devices utilizing hyper-thin dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, J. W., E-mail: mcpherson.reliability@yahoo.com [McPherson Reliability Consulting LLC, 2805 Shelton Way, Plano, Texas 75093 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    The local electric field (the field that distorts, polarizes, and weakens polar molecular bonds in dielectrics) has been investigated for hyper-thin dielectrics. Hyper-thin dielectrics are currently required for advanced semiconductor devices. In the work presented, it is shown that the common practice of using a Lorentz factor of L = 1/3, to describe the local electric field in a dielectric layer, remains valid for hyper-thin dielectrics. However, at the very edge of device structures, a rise in the macroscopic/Maxwell electric field E{sub diel} occurs and this causes a sharp rise in the effective Lorentz factor L{sub eff}. At capacitor and transistor edges, L{sub eff} is found to increase to a value 2/3 < L{sub eff} < 1. The increase in L{sub eff} results in a local electric field, at device edge, that is 50%–100% greater than in the bulk of the dielectric. This increase in local electric field serves to weaken polar bonds thus making them more susceptible to breakage by standard Boltzmann and/or current-driven processes. This has important time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) implications for all electronic devices utilizing polar materials, including GaN devices that suffer from device-edge TDDB.

  6. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  7. Determinants of Off-Farm Income and Its Local Patterns: A Spatial Microsimulation of Dutch Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Eveline; Dekkers, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Apart from their contribution to the local economy in terms of input, output and employment, farmers also play a major role in shaping and maintaining our (natural) environment and landscapes. However, with the (planned) decrease in agricultural subsidies, these activities are at risk. For that reason, it would be useful when farmers could benefit…

  8. Classification of windfields: a diagnostic tool for real-time determination of local air pollution dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, W.K.; Buerki, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In the framework of the project `WINDBANK unteres Aaretal` local winds over complex terrain were measured over a 4 month period and a cluster analysis is used to identify 13 different typical wind fields. A subset of representative stations is established to identify the classes for future applications in emergency planning. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Global and local emission impact assessment of distributed cogeneration systems with partial-load models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale distributed cogeneration technologies represent a key resource to increase generation efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with respect to conventional separate production means. However, the diffusion of distributed cogeneration within urban areas, where air quality standards are quite stringent, brings about environmental concerns on a local level. In addition, partial-load emission worsening is often overlooked, which could lead to biased evaluations of the energy system environmental performance. In this paper, a comprehensive emission assessment framework suitable for addressing distributed cogeneration systems is formulated. Local and global emission impact models are presented to identify upper and lower boundary values of the environmental pressure from pollutants that would be emitted from reference technologies, to be compared to the actual emissions from distributed cogeneration. This provides synthetic information on the relative environmental impact from small-scale CHP sources, useful for general indicative and non-site-specific studies. The emission models are formulated according to an electrical output-based emission factor approach, through which off-design operation and relevant performance are easily accounted for. In particular, in order to address the issues that could arise under off-design operation, an equivalent load model is incorporated within the proposed framework, by exploiting the duration curve of the cogenerator loading and the emissions associated to each loading level. In this way, it is possible to quantify the contribution to the emissions from cogeneration systems that might operate at partial loads for a significant portion of their operation time, as for instance in load-tracking applications. Suitability of the proposed methodology is discussed with respect to hazardous air pollutants such as NOx and CO, as well as to greenhouse gases such as CO2. Two case study applications based on the emission data

  10. Bramwell-Hill modeling for local aortic pulse wave velocity estimation: a validation study with velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance and invasive pressure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westenberg Jos JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bramwell-Hill model describes the relation between vascular wall stiffness expressed in aortic distensibility and the pulse wave velocity (PWV, which is the propagation speed of the systolic pressure wave through the aorta. The main objective of this study was to test the validity of this model locally in the aorta by using PWV-assessments based on in-plane velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, with invasive pressure measurements serving as the gold standard. Methods Seventeen patients (14 male, 3 female, mean age ± standard deviation = 57 ± 9 years awaiting cardiac catheterization were prospectively included. During catheterization, intra-arterial pressure measurements were obtained in the aorta at multiple locations 5.8 cm apart. PWV was determined regionally over the aortic arch and locally in the proximal descending aorta. Subsequently, patients underwent a CMR examination to measure aortic PWV and aortic distention. Distensibility was determined locally from the aortic distension at the proximal descending aorta and the pulse pressure measured invasively during catheterization and non-invasively from brachial cuff-assessment. PWV was determined regionally in the aortic arch using through-plane and in-plane velocity-encoded CMR, and locally at the proximal descending aorta using in-plane velocity-encoded CMR. Validity of the Bramwell-Hill model was tested by evaluating associations between distensibility and PWV. Also, theoretical PWV was calculated from distensibility measurements and compared with pressure-assessed PWV. Results In-plane velocity-encoded CMR provides stronger correlation (p = 0.02 between CMR and pressure-assessed PWV than through-plane velocity-encoded CMR (r = 0.69 versus r = 0.26, with a non-significant mean error of 0.2 ± 1.6 m/s for in-plane versus a significant (p = 0.006 error of 1.3 ± 1.7 m/s for through-plane velocity-encoded CMR. The Bramwell-Hill model shows a

  11. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  12. Assessing the ability of current climate information to facilitate local climate services for the water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of ECLISE EU FP6 project researchers, in close cooperation with local users of the water sector from the area of Crete, Greece, explored the ability of current climate information to develop and support local climate services water resources management and climate adaption policies. A wealth of climate modeling output ranging from event scale to decadal and centennial experiments, at temporal scales ranging from hourly to monthly, and at spatial scales from very high resolution regional climate models (2 km) to typical GCMs, were used in order to practically assess climate change impacts on water resources. Water resources availability issues analysed and facilitated within the project, focusing on estimates of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with seven "state of the art" CMIP5 simulations within COMBINE framework (under RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to estimate water resources availability, during 21st century. The ability of decadal GCM prediction experiments to reproduce basic hydrometeorological variables like precipitation and temperature for local impact studies, was also examined. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model for a range of different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. A robust signal of temperature increase and precipitation decrease is projected for all the pathways. Several messages could be extracted from this provider - user interaction such as the communication of basic concepts and uncertainties, user skepticism and feedback. The main user concern was the coarse spatial scale of climate information and in order to cope with this feedback a special case was framed in collaboration with the project modeling groups for demonstrating a high resolution climate modeling application of an extreme precipitation-flood event over the study area. This effort provided a realistic reproduction of the

  13. Towards a New Assessment of Urban Areas from Local to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; McKee, J.; Weaver, J.; Bright, E.; Weber, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000s, starting with NASA MODIS, satellite based remote sensing has facilitated collection of imagery with medium spatial resolution but high temporal resolution (daily). This trend continues with an increasing number of sensors and data products. Increasing spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data archives, from both public and commercial sources, have significantly enhanced the quality of mapping and change data products. However, even with automation of such analysis on evolving computing platforms, rates of data processing have been suboptimal largely because of the ever-increasing pixel to processor ratio coupled with limitations of the computing architectures. Novel approaches utilizing spatiotemporal data mining techniques and computational architectures have emerged that demonstrates the potential for sustained and geographically scalable landscape monitoring to be operational. We exemplify this challenge with two broad research initiatives on High Performance Geocomputation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: (a) mapping global settlement distribution; (b) developing national critical infrastructure databases. Our present effort, on large GPU based architectures, to exploit high resolution (1m or less) satellite and airborne imagery for extracting settlements at global scale is yielding understanding of human settlement patterns and urban areas at unprecedented resolution. Comparison of such urban land cover database, with existing national and global land cover products, at various geographic scales in selected parts of the world is revealing intriguing patterns and insights for urban assessment. Early results, from the USA, Taiwan, and Egypt, indicate closer agreements (5-10%) in urban area assessments among databases at larger, aggregated geographic extents. However, spatial variability at local scales could be significantly different (over 50% disagreement).

  14. The application of local approach to assess the influence of in-plane constraint on cleavage fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of real or postulated flaws within critical components is conventionally carried out using methods based on single parameter fracture mechanics. For low constraint configurations (e.g. shallow cracks) such methods can provide highly conservative assessments. Two-parameter (J-T, J-Q) fracture mechanics has been developed to quantify the influence of crack-tip constraint on fracture and this development has been incorporated into a modified R6 framework to reduce the conservatisms associated with the assessment of low constraint configurations. This framework requires that the constraint of the structure is quantified (with respect to T or Q) and that the materials fracture response to constraint is measured by testing a number of cracked specimens which sample a range of constraint levels. An alternative method of assessment, which may be used in situations where fracture data are unavailable over the full range of constraint, is the so-called local approach to fracture. In this Paper, the local approach has been used alongside the modified R6 framework to assess the cleavage fracture behavior of a well characterized mild steel plate at -50 C. The local approach method predicts: (i) an upswing in cleavage fracture toughness as a function of decreasing crack-tip constraint which is conservative with respect to the actual materials response, (ii) an increase in the scatter of cleavage fracture toughness as a function of decreasing crack-tip constraint. This is a direct consequence of framing the local approach model within two-parameter Weibull statistics. Finally it is shown that the local approach may be used successfully alongside the modified R6 framework to assess low constraint geometries: resultant failure assessment curves reduce the conservatism of the conventional Option 1 curve

  15. Assessing the Stability of a Geologically Complex Slope Where Strong Dykes Locally Act as Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Hencher, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a case study of aspects of the design of large slope cuttings in complex geological conditions in South Korea. During the original cutting of the slopes to geometries prescribed by Korean standards for rock slopes, several translational slides occurred on daylighting bedding planes. From observation it was evident that away from the areas of distress, some parts of the slopes appeared to be relatively stable, apparently because of the strengthening influence of relatively strong and massive igneous dykes and sills through the sedimentary rock. This paper describes how the geological conditions were assessed and stability analysed, section-by-section, along the road. This was achieved using a form of the method of slices to account for those sections of potential failure surfaces where sliding could occur along bedding and others where failure would necessitate shear through the intrusive igneous rock. Results were checked using UDEC models of critical sections. Following these analyses, recommendations were made for localized additional preventive measures including anchors and drainage.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  17. A Simple Approach for Local Contact Angle Determination on a Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2011-05-17

    We report a simple approach for measuring the local contact angle of liquids on a heterogeneous surface consisting of intersected hydrophobic and hydrophilic patch arrays, specifically by employing confocal microscopy and the addition of a very low concentration of Rhodamine-B (RB) (2 × 10 -7 mol/L). Interestingly, RB at that concentration was found to be aggregated at the air-liquid and solid (hydrophobic patch only)-liquid interfaces, which helps us to distinguish the liquid and solid interfaces as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic patches by their corresponding fluorescent intensities. From the measured local contact angles, the line tension can be easily derived and the value is found to be (-2.06-1.53) × 10-6 J/m. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Unemployment Duration in Germany: Individual and Regional Determinants of Local Job Finding, Migration and Subsidized Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz, Melanie; Wilke, Ralf Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent labour market reforms in Germany aim, among other things, at reducing unemployment by restricting passive unemployment measures, emphasizing local labour market policies and re-structuring public employment services. This paper uses extensive individual administrative and regional aggregate data to explore the extent to which these factors are likely to contribute to the shortening of unemployment duration. For this purpose, we estimate a semi-parametric duration mo...

  19. Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Woolhouse Mark EJ; Savill Nicholas J; Shaw Darren J; Bessell Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Models of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) transmission have assumed a homogeneous landscape across which Euclidean distance is a suitable measure of the spatial dependency of transmission. This paper investigated features of the landscape and their impact on transmission during the period of predominantly local spread which followed the implementation of the national movement ban during the 2001 UK FMD epidemic. In this study 113 farms diagnosed with FMD which had a known sou...

  20. Localization of GroEL determined by in vivo incorporation of a fluorescent amino acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Wang, Jiangyun; Brustad, Eric;

    2011-01-01

    The molecular chaperone GroEL is required for bacterial growth under all conditions, mediating folding assistance, via its central cavity, to a diverse set of cytosolic proteins; yet the subcellular localization of GroEL remains unresolved. An earlier study, using antibody probing of fixed...... the steric demands of a fluorescent protein fusion, which compromises proper GroEL assembly. Further, this unnatural amino acid incorporation avoids artifacts that can occur with fixation and antibody staining....

  1. Elucidation of the function of lipoprotein-sorting signals that determine membrane localization

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Kazuhiro; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    Escherichia coli lipoproteins are anchored to the inner or outer membrane depending on the residue at position 2. Aspartate at this position makes lipoproteins specific to the inner membrane, whereas other residues cause the release of lipoproteins from the inner membrane in a manner dependent on both ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter LolCDE and molecular chaperone LolA, followed by LolB-dependent localization in the outer membrane. The function of lipoprotein-sorting signals was examine...

  2. Efficient determination of soft spots in amorphous solids using local structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ekin; Schoenholz, Samuel; Malone, Brad; Liu, Andrea; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2014-03-01

    Structural defects such as dislocations are also flow defects that control plastic flow in crystalline solids. In disordered solids, it is more challenging to identify such local regions that are susceptible to rearrangement. We propose an extremely fast method for identifying soft spots with high accuracy, which scales linearly with number of particles. We achieve this by training a supervised learning model with instances of local neighborhoods and their subsequent plastic flow behavior. By characterizing local neighborhoods with not just one structural quantity, such as bond orientational order, but a combination of multiple structural quantities, we are able to identify a population of regions that correlates just as strongly with rearrangements as do soft spots calculated from vibrational modes. This method does not require knowledge of the interparticle interactions and can readily be applied to experiments that measure the positions of constituent particles in a disordered packing. Furthermore, this also allows for the prediction of plastic behavior in systems like lithiated amorphous silicon, which is important for addressing the durability issues encountered in recent work on improving lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Applications of X-ray fluorescence holography to determine local lattice distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: khayashi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Hosokawa, Shinya [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We summarized topics of X-ray fluorescence holography focused on the local lattice distortions. • We found details of behaviors of nearest neighbor atoms around dopants. • We found the average distributions of the atoms at the individual sites in mixed crystals. • Distorted and undistorted sires sometimes coexist in a same mixed crystal. - Abstract: X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method for investigating atomic order up to the medium ranges, and can provide 3D atomic images around specific elements within a radius of nm order. In addition to these characteristics, XFH is sensitive to positional fluctuations of atoms, and therefore it is useful for characterizing the local lattice distortions around specific elements. We have applied XFH to dopants and mixed crystals. We found interesting features in local lattice distortions, such as the displacements of first-neighbor atoms around dopants, far-sighted views of the atomistic fluctuations in mixed crystals, and the coexistence of distorted/undistorted sites in the same material.

  4. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Azucena; Maza, María Teresa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack of availability in the market is an aspect limiting its consumption. The most important factors explaining the intention to purchase for consumers who would purchase this meat if it were not available in their usual store are the importance attached to the animal breed and their social embeddedness with the local area. An appropriate food policy would be to inform consumers about the importance of the animal breed in the quality of the meat and the local origin. PMID:26253837

  5. Health impact assessment: A comparison of 45 local, national, and international guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides a comparison of health impact assessment (HIA) guidelines from around the world and for multiple geographic scales. We identify commonalities and differences within HIA guides to discuss the plausibility of consensus guidelines and to inform guideline development. The practice of HIA has grown over the last two decades with a concurrent growth of HIA guides. This study expands on earlier review work and includes guides published since 2007 (Mindell, Boltong and Forde, 2008). From April 2010 to October 2011, 45 HIA guides were identified through an internet search and review of previous research. Common characteristics, key features, and the HIA process were analyzed. The 45 documents recommended similar but not identical processes for conducting HIAs. These analyses suggest that guidelines for HIAs are similar in many areas of the world and that new HIA practitioners can use these findings to inform their approach. Further discussion is needed to determine if the approaches established in these guidelines are followed and if one set of common guidelines could be written for use in numerous countries and regions. - Highlights: ► We analyze 45 health impact assessment (HIA) guidelines worldwide. ► We examine similarities and unique attributes of each guideline. ► We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of developing consensus guidelines. ► Identifying additional guidelines aides in future HIA work and evaluation.

  6. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  7. Thermohydraulic assessment of the RP-10 reactor core to determine the maximum power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermohydraulic parameters assessment of the RP-10 reactor core from the most thermally demanded (hot channel). Determination of the operation thermal maximum power considering security margins and statistical treatment of uncertainty factors

  8. Determination Method of Focal Depth of Local Earthquake Using the Travel-time Difference between Pn and sPn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dengwei; Xu Qinping; Ma Fuhong; Cheng Xuefen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derived the relationships between the travel time difference of sPn and Pn and the local earthquake focal depth. In these equations, the travel time difference of sPn and Pn is not related to the epicentral distance, but depends only on the regional crustal mode and the focal depth. According to the equations, we provided a simple and accurate method to determine local earthquake focal depth by using the travel time difference between phase sPn and Pn. This method has been used to determine the focal depths of two earthquake of Ms6. 1 and Ms5.6 which occurred at the junction of Panzhihua and Huili, Sichuan on August 30 and 31, 2008. The results were compared to those from other sources such as the China Earthquake Networks Center, and the comparison shows that the results are accurate and reliable.

  9. Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass and Hypertrophy in Hemodialysis Patients Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajan K.; Oliver, Scott; Patrick B. Mark; Powell, Joanna R.; McQuarrie, Emily P.; Traynor, James P.; Dargie, Henry J; Jardine, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for premature cardiovascular death in hemodialysis (HD) patients and one of the three forms of uremic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a volume-independent technique to assess cardiac structure. We used CMR to assess the determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVH in HD patients.

  10. Local and economic government as the determinant of innovation and economic condition: case study of Swedish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Prystrom

    2013-01-01

    Innovativeness of the economy can be described as a determinant of economic development in the region. Businesses innovative activity results in the possibility of their development. Achieved results are tempting for other companies and lead to the undertaking of innovative activity. This in turn contributes to the economic development in the region. Unfortunately, innovative activity comes up against a variety of difficulties. Institutional support including local and economic government, ap...

  11. Multiparametric MRI and targeted prostate biopsy: Improvements in cancer detection, localization, and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Wysock, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of MRI targeted biopsy, thereby enhancing clinical risk assessment, and improving the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. Material and methods We used MEDLINE/PubMed to conduct a comprehensive search of the English medical literature. Articles were reviewed, data was extracted, analyzed, and summarized. In this review, we discuss the mp-MRI prostate exam, its role in targeted prostate biopsy, along with clinical applications and outcomes of MRI targeted biopsies. Results Mp-MRI, consisting of T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and possibly MR spectroscopy, has demonstrated improved specificity in prostate cancer detection as compared to conventional T2-weighted images alone. An MRI suspicion score has been developed and is depicted using an institutional Likert or, more recently, a standardized reporting scale (PI-RADS). Techniques of MRI-targeted biopsy include in-gantry MRI guided biopsy, TRUS-guided visual estimation biopsy, and software co-registered MRI-US guided biopsy (MRI-US fusion). Among men with no previous biopsy, MRI-US fusion biopsy demonstrates up to a 20% increase in detection of clinically significant cancers compared to systematic biopsy while avoiding a significant portion of low risk disease. These data suggest a potential role in reducing over-detection and, ultimately, over-treatment. Among men with previous negative biopsy, 72–87% of cancers detected by MRI targeted biopsy are clinically significant. Among men with known low risk cancer, repeat biopsy by MR-targeting improves risk stratification in selecting men appropriate for active surveillance secondarily reducing the need for repetitive biopsy during surveillance. Conclusions Use of mp-MRI for targeting prostate biopsies has the potential to reduce the

  12. Fc receptor endocytosis is controlled by a cytoplasmic domain determinant that actively prevents coated pit localization

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Macrophages and B-lymphocytes express two major isoforms of Fc receptor (FcRII-B2 and FcRII-B1) that exhibit distinct capacities for endocytosis. This difference in function reflects the presence of an in- frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the lymphocyte isoform (FcRII-B1) due to alternative mRNA splicing. By expressing wild type and mutant FcRII cDNAs in fibroblasts, we have now examined the mechanism by which the insertion acts to prevent coated pit localization...

  13. Magnetic vortex chirality determination via local hysteresis loops measurements with magnetic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Manzin, Alessandra; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic vortex chirality in patterned square dots has been investigated by means of a field-dependent magnetic force microscopy technique that allows to measure local hysteresis loops. The chirality affects the two loop branches independently, giving rise to curves that have different shapes and symmetries as a function of the details of the magnetisation reversal process in the square dot, that is studied both experimentally and through micromagnetic simulations. The tip-sample interaction is taken into account numerically, and exploited experimentally, to influence the side of the square where nucleation of the vortex preferably occurs, therefore providing a way to both measure and drive chirality with the present technique. PMID:27426442

  14. Electronic Health Records and Meaningful Use in Local Health Departments: Updates From the 2015 NACCHO Informatics Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) are evolving the scope of operations, practices, and outcomes of population health in the United States. Local health departments (LHDs) need adequate health informatics capacities to handle the quantity and quality of population health data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain an updated view using the most recent data to identify the primary storage of clinical data, status of data for meaningful use, and characteristics associated with the implementation of EHRs in LHDs. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, which used a stratified random sampling design of LHD populations. Oversampling of larger LHDs was conducted and sampling weights were applied. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Forty-two percent of LHDs indicated the use of an EHR system compared with 58% that use a non-EHR system for the storage of primary health data. Seventy-one percent of LHDs had reviewed some or all of the current systems to determine whether they needed to be improved or replaced, whereas only 6% formally conducted a readiness assessment for health information exchange. Twenty-seven percent of the LHDs had conducted informatics training within the past 12 months. LHD characteristics statistically associated with having an EHR system were having state or centralized governance, not having created a strategic plan related to informatics within the past 2 years throughout LHDs, provided informatics training in the past 12 months, and various levels of control over decisions regarding hardware allocation or acquisition, software selection, software support, and information technology budget allocation. Conclusion: A focus on EHR implementation in public health is pertinent to examining the impact of public health programming and interventions for the positive change in population health. PMID:27684614

  15. Local decision makers’ awareness of the social determinants of health in Turkey: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Evci (Kiraz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social determinants have been described as having a greater influence than other determinants of health status. The major social determinants of health and the necessary policy objectives have been defined; it is now necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these policies. Previous studies have shown that descriptions of the awareness level of citizens and local decision makers, practice-based research and evidence, and intersectoral studies are the best options for investigating the social determinants of health at the community level. The objective of the present study was to define local decision makers’ awareness of the social determinants of health in the Aydin province of Turkey. Methods A total of 53 mayors serve the Aydin city center, districts and towns. Aydin city center has 22 neighborhoods and 22 headmen responsible for them. The present study targeted all mayors and headmen in Aydin - a total of 75 possible participants. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was faxed to the mayors and administered face-to-face with the headmen. Results Headmen identified the three most important determinants of public health as environmental issues, addictions (smoking, alcohol and malnutrition. According to the mayors, the major determinant of public health is stress, followed by malnutrition, environmental issues, an inactive lifestyle, and the social and economic conditions of the country. Both groups expressed that the Turkish Ministry of Health, municipalities and universities are the institutions responsible for developing health policy. Headmen were found to be unaware and mayors were aware of the social determinants of health as classified by the World Health Organisation. Both groups were classified as unaware with regard to their awareness of the Marmot Review policy objectives. Conclusions Studies such as the present study provide important additional information on the social

  16. Assessment and assortment: how fishes use local and global cues to choose which school to go to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashley J W; Hart, Paul J B; Krause, Jens

    2004-08-01

    Animals that live in groups are known preferentially to associate with phenotypically similar individuals. Despite this, groups of mixed phenotypic composition are the norm rather than the exception in several systems in the wild and this, combined with the large sizes of some animal groups, makes accurate global assessment by a choosing individual more difficult. In this study, we investigated the role of local and global information in mediating shoal-choice decisions in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by manipulating the positions and phenotypes of stimulus fish in relation to a focal fish. Focal fish were able to assess globally mixed shoals composed of individuals of different body-length classes, preferring to associate with shoals where the majority phenotype matched their own. When local cues were manipulated this preference disappeared, although overall shoal composition remaining constant. Finally, if both stimulus shoals had the same overall composition but differed in their local cues, then the focus fish chose according to which local fish was of matching body length. These findings indicate that both local and global information play an important role in mediating assessment and shoal choice in fishes.

  17. Radiomics versus physician assessment for the early prediction of local cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Johnson, Carol; Palma, David A.; Rodrigues, George; Louie, Alexander V.; Senan, Suresh; Yeung, Timothy P. C.; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has recently become a standard treatment option for patients with early-stage lung cancer, which achieves local control rates similar to surgery. Local recurrence following SABR typically presents after one year post-treatment. However, benign radiological changes mimicking local recurrence can appear on CT imaging following SABR, complicating the assessment of response. We hypothesize that subtle changes on early post- SABR CT images are important in predicting the eventual incidence of local recurrence and would be extremely valuable to support timely salvage interventions. The objective of this study was to extract radiomic image features on post-SABR follow-up images for 45 patients (15 with local recurrence and 30 without) to aid in the early prediction of local recurrence. Three blinded thoracic radiation oncologists were also asked to score follow-up images as benign injury or local recurrence. A radiomic signature consisting of five image features demonstrated a classification error of 24%, false positive rate (FPR) of 24%, false negative rate (FNR) of 23%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.85 at 2-5 months post-SABR. At the same time point, three physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury for overall errors of 34-37%, FPRs of 0-4%, and FNRs of 100%. These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence which are not typically considered by physicians. We aim to develop a decision support system which could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of patients with local recurrence following SABR.

  18. Determination of ductile damage parameters by local deformation fields: Measurement and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmann, M. [Chair of Structural Mechanics and Vehicle Vibrational Technology, BTU Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany); Kuna, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This work comprises the development, implementation and application of methods for the parameter identification of damage mechanical constitutive laws. Ductile damage is described on a continuum mechanical basis by extension of the von Mises yield condition with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman as well as with the Rousselier model. The classical Rousselier model is complemented by accelerated void growth and void nucleation. The non-linear boundary and initial value problem is solved by the finite element system SPC-PMHP, which was developed in the frame of the special research program SFB393 for parallel computers. The material parameters are identified by locally measured displacement fields and measured force-displacement curves. For the material parameter identification a non-linear optimization algorithm is used, which renders the objective function to a minimum by means of a gradient based method. A useful strategy to identify the material parameters was found by careful numerical studies. Finally, using the object grating method the local displacement fields as well as the force-displacement curves are measured at notched flat bar tension specimens made of StE 690 and the parameters of the material are identified. (orig.)

  19. Local sharing as a predominant determinant of synaptic matrix molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Tsuriel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that central nervous system synapses can persist for weeks, months, perhaps lifetimes, yet little is known as to how synapses maintain their structural and functional characteristics for so long. As a step toward a better understanding of synaptic maintenance we examined the loss, redistribution, reincorporation, and replenishment dynamics of Synapsin I and ProSAP2/Shank3, prominent presynaptic and postsynaptic matrix molecules, respectively. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and photoactivation experiments revealed that both molecules are continuously lost from, redistributed among, and reincorporated into synaptic structures at time-scales of minutes to hours. Exchange rates were not affected by inhibiting protein synthesis or proteasome-mediated protein degradation, were accelerated by stimulation, and greatly exceeded rates of replenishment from somatic sources. These findings indicate that the dynamics of key synaptic matrix molecules may be dominated by local protein exchange and redistribution, whereas protein synthesis and degradation serve to maintain and regulate the sizes of local, shared pools of these proteins.

  20. Local structure of Ge quantum dots determined by combined numerical analysis of EXAFS and XANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanpeng; Ersoy, Osman; Karatutlu, Ali; Little, William; Sapelkin, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) to the local symmetry has been investigated in small (∼4 nm) matrix-free Ge quantum dots. The FDMNES package was used to calculate the theoretical XANES spectra that were compared with the experimental data of as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles. It was found that XANES data for an as-prepared sample can only be adequately described if the second coordination shell of the diamond-type structural model is included in the FDMNES calculations. This is in contrast to the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure data that show only the first-shell signal. These results suggest that, despite the high degree of disorder and a large surface-to-volume ratio, as-prepared small Ge quantum dots retain the diamond-type symmetry beyond the first shell. Furthermore, we utilized this sensitivity of XANES to the local symmetry to study annealed Ge quantum dots and found evidence for significant structural distortion which we attribute to the existence of surface disorder in the annealed oxygen-free Ge quantum dots. PMID:26698071

  1. Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolhouse Mark EJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD transmission have assumed a homogeneous landscape across which Euclidean distance is a suitable measure of the spatial dependency of transmission. This paper investigated features of the landscape and their impact on transmission during the period of predominantly local spread which followed the implementation of the national movement ban during the 2001 UK FMD epidemic. In this study 113 farms diagnosed with FMD which had a known source of infection within 3 km (cases were matched to 188 control farms which were either uninfected or infected at a later timepoint. Cases were matched to controls by Euclidean distance to the source of infection and farm size. Intervening geographical features and connectivity between the source of infection and case and controls were compared. Results Road distance between holdings, access to holdings, presence of forest, elevation change between holdings and the presence of intervening roads had no impact on the risk of local FMD transmission (p > 0.2. However the presence of linear features in the form of rivers and railways acted as barriers to FMD transmission (odds ratio = 0.507, 95% CIs = 0.297,0.887, p = 0.018. Conclusion This paper demonstrated that although FMD spread can generally be modelled using Euclidean distance and numbers of animals on susceptible holdings, the presence of rivers and railways has an additional protective effect reducing the probability of transmission between holdings.

  2. Ontological Determinism non-locality and the system problem in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Maurice; Post, Jonathan Vos

    2011-01-01

    Wave functions live on configuration space. Schrodinger called this entanglement. The linearity of the Schrodinger equation prevents the wave function from representing reality. If the equation were non-linear (e.g., reduction models) the wave function living on configuration space still by itself could not represent reality in physical space. In this paper, we continue the line of reasoning discussed in our previous paper, "The Fundamental Importance of Discourse in Theoretical Physics", [arXiv:1001.4111], to explore the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics. In particular we present a new interpretation of quantum decoherence, and a novel critique of the double slit experiment. In addition, we review the use of "determinism" in the discourse of quantum mechanics, resolving the confusion created by theories which attempt to restore determinism to quantum mechanics while confusing determinism with ontological necessity. Finally, we review Bell's Theorem in order to demonstrate that nonlocality is an inhe...

  3. The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayang Norwana, A.A.B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research process assessing the local economic, social and environmental impacts from feedstock expansion for the growing biofuel sector (see German et al. 2011). Nonetheless, in the Malaysian context, biofuel production volumes are negligible despite government intere

  4. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  5. Self-Determination and Student Involvement in Functional Assessment: Innovative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Baker, Daniel J.; Blumberg, Richard; Harrison, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental feature that distinguishes positive behavior support (PBS) from previous generations of applied behavior analysis is its focus on the remediation of deficient contexts that are determined to be the source of the problem. Determining this source involves conducting a functional assessment. This innovative practices article presents…

  6. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS MANAGED BY LOCAL INFILTRATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajay Bharti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylitis is a well known elbow disorder known to affect a variety of population. Though the disorder is expected to affect a lot of sports personnel, the incidence is not uncommon in persons of household activities. The management comprises of conservative to operative with a dilemma of what to be done in most of the affected population. A large number of interventions have been tried to delineate the best modality but none of them proved to be conclusive. The aim of the present study was to prove the efficacy of cheapest possible interventional modality autologous blood for treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis. Twenty five patients of Tennis elbow were included in this study who have attended the OPD of GSVM Medical College and associated LLR Hospital, Kanpur from November 2007 to April 2008 and fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. 78% were females, mostly housewives involved in regular household activities. All the patients were infiltrated autologous blood with local anaesthetic infiltration. Patients were deprived of regular activities for 3 weeks after infiltration. Follow up was done at weekly interval for 2 weeks and then at 6th week and 12th week. Assessment was done using Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS and Verhaar et al scoring system. Total follow up period was 3 months. We observed that the mean VAS score improved from preinfiltrative 6.40±1.22 to 0.48±1.53 with p value being < .001. 64% patients showed excellent results and 32% showed good results as per Verhaar et al scoring system on 12 weeks follow up. One patient did not respond to this procedure and showed poor result as per Verhaar et al score. Therefore, autologous blood infiltration is a safe and effective modality in treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

  7. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  8. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  9. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  10. Local activity determines functional connectivity in the resting human brain: a simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Bienkowska, Katarzyna; Strobel, Carola; Tahmasian, Masoud; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Friston, Karl J; Sorg, Christian; Drzezga, Alexander

    2014-04-30

    Over the last decade, synchronized resting-state fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals between remote brain areas [so-called BOLD resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC)] have gained enormous relevance in systems and clinical neuroscience. However, the neural underpinnings of rs-FC are still incompletely understood. Using simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging we here directly investigated the relationship between rs-FC and local neuronal activity in humans. Computational models suggest a mechanistic link between the dynamics of local neuronal activity and the functional coupling among distributed brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the local activity (LA) of a region at rest determines its rs-FC. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously measured both LA (glucose metabolism) and rs-FC (via synchronized BOLD fluctuations) during conditions of eyes closed or eyes open. During eyes open, LA increased in the visual system, and the salience network (i.e., cingulate and insular cortices) and the pattern of elevated LA coincided almost exactly with the spatial pattern of increased rs-FC. Specifically, the voxelwise regional profile of LA in these areas strongly correlated with the regional pattern of rs-FC among the same regions (e.g., LA in primary visual cortex accounts for ∼ 50%, and LA in anterior cingulate accounts for ∼ 20% of rs-FC with the visual system). These data provide the first direct evidence in humans that local neuronal activity determines BOLD FC at rest. Beyond its relevance for the neuronal basis of coherent BOLD signal fluctuations, our procedure may translate into clinical research particularly to investigate potentially aberrant links between local dynamics and remote functional coupling in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24790196

  11. Molecular Determinants Responsible for the Subcellular Localization of HSV-1 UL4 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei Pan; Jing Long; Jun-ji Xing; Chun-fu Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The function of the herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1)UL4 protein is still elusive. Our objective is to investigate the subcellular transport mechanism of the UL4 protein. In this study,fluorescence microscopy was employed to investigate the subcellular localization of UL4 and characterize the transport mechanism in living cells. By constructing a series of deletion mutants fused with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein(EYFP),the nuclear export signals(NES)of UL4 were for the first time mapped to amino acid residues 178 to 186. In addition,the N-terminal 19 amino acids are identified to be required for the granule-like cytoplasmic pattern of UL4.Furthermore,the UL4 protein was demonstrated to be exported to the cytoplasm through the NES in a chromosomal region maintenance 1(CRM l)-dependent manner involving RanGTP hydrolysis.

  12. Age determination of the nuclear stellar population of Active Galactic Nuclei using Locally Weighted Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada-Piedra, T; Terlevich, R J; Fuentes, O; Terlevich, E; Estrada-Piedra, Trilce; Torres-Papaqui, Juan Pablo; Terlevich, Roberto; Fuentes, Olac; Terlevich, Elena

    2003-01-01

    We present a new technique to segregate old and young stellar populations in galactic spectra using machine learning methods. We used an ensemble of classifiers, each classifier in the ensemble specializes in young or old populations and was trained with locally weighted regression and tested using ten-fold cross-validation. Since the relevant information concentrates in certain regions of the spectra we used the method of sequential floating backward selection offline for feature selection. The application to Seyfert galaxies proved that this technique is very insensitive to the dilution by the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) continuum. Comparing with exhaustive search we concluded that both methods are similar in terms of accuracy but the machine learning method is faster by about two orders of magnitude.

  13. Novel determinants of H-Ras plasma membrane localization and transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Cox, A D; Solski, P A;

    1996-01-01

    cysteine did not abolish palmitoylation. However, despite continued lipid modification the mutant proteins failed to bind to plasma membranes and instead accumulated on internal membranes and, importantly, were not transforming. Addition of an N-terminal myristoylation signal to these defective mutants....... However, in this native state, the C-terminus appears to provide a combination of lipids and a previously unrecognized signal for specific plasma membrane targeting that are essential for the correct localization and biological function of H-Ras......., or to proteins entirely lacking the C-terminal 25 residues restored both plasma membrane association and transforming activity. Thus, H-Ras does not absolutely require prenylation or palmitoylation nor indeed its hypervariable domain in order to interact with effectors that ultimately cause transformation...

  14. Heuristic algorithm for determination of local properties of scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrovic, M

    2006-01-01

    Complex networks are everywhere. Many phenomena in nature can be modeled as networks: - brain structures - protein-protein interaction networks - social interactions - the Internet and WWW. They can be represented in terms of nodes and edges connecting them. Important characteristics: - these networks are not random; they have a structured architecture. Structure of different networks are similar: - all have power law degree distribution (scale-free property) - despite large size there is usually relatively short path between any two nodes (small world property). Global characteristics: - degree distribution, clustering coefficient and the diameter. Local structure: - frequency of subgraphs of given type (subgraph of order k is a part of the network consisting of k nodes and edges between them). There are different types of subgraphs of the same order.

  15. The Anachronism of the Local Public Accountancy Determinate by the Accrual European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing the European accrual model upon cash accountancy model,presently used in Romania, at the level of the local communities, makespossible that the anachronism of the model to manifest itself on the discussion’sconcentration at the nominalization about the model’s inclusion in everydaypublic practice. The basis of the accrual model were first defined in the lawregarding the commercial societies adopted in Great Britain in 1985, when theydetermined that all income and taxes referring to the financial year “will betaken into consideration without any boundary to the reception or paymentdate.”1 The accrual model in accountancy needs the recording of the non-casheffects in transactions or financial events for their appearance periods and not inany generated cash, received or paid. The business development was the basisfor “sophistication” of the recordings of the transactions and financial events,being prerequisite for recording the debtors’ or creditors’ sums.

  16. Grants Commission Assessment of Local Government Debt Servicing and Capital Expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Burgan, B.; McDonald, S.; Thomson, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Commonwealth Government provides funds to local government via the States. Each State is required (via the State Grants Commission) to distribute those funds in compliance with the provisions of the Local Government (Financial Assistance) Act. In essence, the Act requires the State Commissions to estimate the relative needs of each local government authority (LGA) based upon revenue-raising capacity and differences in the cost of providing public services. It is this latter aspect that is...

  17. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras claves: Almacenes, soterrado, humedad, conservación, coeficientes._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the mechanisms of humidity transport are explained. These mechanisms have place in underground warehousesaccording to the climatic and geohydrological characteristics of Cuba. An analogy with the Fick´s law is stated and it intends atheoretical model that describes this mechanism of transport toward the cavities. It was determined the local coefficients oftransport of humidity experimentally for different recover types in walls and different geometric forms of the warehouses.Key words: Store, buried, humidity, conservation, and coefficients.

  18. Determination of the local chemistry of iron in inorganic and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Clair C. [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.c.calvert@sheffield.ac.uk; Brown, Andy [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The systematic EELS analysis of a series of naturally occurring, synthetic and biological samples has provided a framework from which Fe valence of unknown materials can be determined and the relative ratios of the valences present can be calculated. The quantification of the relative ratios of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} is possible via the fitting of Gaussian or Voigt (with 89.3% Gaussian contribution) line profiles to the Fe L{sub 3}-edge. The ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe is determined from the areas under the fitted peaks. The method is robust and has an error in the range of <10% on Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe for samples with >2 atom% Fe. We present applications of this method including the investigation of polaron hopping in calcic amphibole, the quantification of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe in clay minerals from deep water sediments, quantification of Fe valence in human liver tissue and the determination of Fe valence in airborne particulate matter.

  19. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  20. Modeling LCD Displays with Local Backlight Dimming for Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    (LCD) using light emitting diode (LED) backlight with local dimming, we present the essential considerations and guidelines for modeling the characteristics of displays with high dynamic range (HDR) and locally adjustable backlight segments. The representation of the image generated by the model can...

  1. The variable hinge region of novel PKCs determines localization to distinct regions of the immunological synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Basu

    Full Text Available The immunological synapse (IS formed between a T cell and its cognate antigen-presenting cell (APC enables the directional secretion of cytolytic and inflammatory molecules. Synaptic architecture is established in part by a two-step cascade of novel protein kinase C (nPKC isozymes. PKCε and PKCη arrive at the IS first, and occupy the entire synaptic membrane. Then, PKCθ accumulates in a smaller zone at the center of the contact. We investigated the molecular basis for this differential recruitment behavior using chimeric nPKC constructs and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Our studies revealed that the V3 linker just N-terminal to the kinase domain plays a crucial role in specifying nPKC localization. Substitution of this linker switched the scope and the kinetics of PKCθ accumulation to that of PKCε and PKCη, and vice versa. Although the V3 was necessary for synaptic compartmentalization, it was not sufficient, as the tandem C1 domains were also required to mediate membrane association. Together, these results suggest a model whereby the V3 linker controls nPKC sub-compartmentalization after initial C1 domain-mediated accumulation at the IS.

  2. A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Riess, Adam G; Hoffmann, Samantha L; Scolnic, Dan; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V; Tucker, Brad E; Reid, Mark J; Jones, David O; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Chornock, Ryan; Challis, Peter; Yuan, Wenlong; Foley, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant (H_0) from 3.3% to 2.4%. Improvements come from observations of Cepheid variables in 10 new hosts of recent SNe~Ia, more than doubling the sample of SNe~Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance for a total of 18; these leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on 300 SNe~Ia at z<0.15. All 18 hosts and the megamaser system NGC4258 were observed with WFC3, thus nullifying cross-instrument zeropoint errors. Other improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC4258, more Cepheids and a more robust distance to the LMC from late-type DEBs, HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST-based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes, and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The...

  3. Short-interval SMS wind vector determinations for a severe local storms area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslen, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Short-interval SMS-2 visible digital image data are used to derive wind vectors from cloud tracking on time-lapsed sequences of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on May 6, 1975 hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. Cloud tracking is performed on the Goddard Space Flight Center Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System. Lower tropospheric cumulus tracers are selected with the assistance of a cloud-top height algorithm. Divergence is derived from the cloud motions using a modified Cressman (1959) objective analysis technique which is designed to organize irregularly spaced wind vectors into uniformly gridded wind fields. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development. For this case, an area of convergence appeared ahead of the dry line and coincided with the developing area of severe weather. The magnitude of the maximum convergence varied between -10 to the -5th and -10 to the -14th per sec. The number of satellite-derived wind vectors which were required to describe conditions of the low-level atmosphere was adequate before numerous cumulonimbus cells formed. This technique is limited in areas of advanced convection.

  4. Determination of the local gold contact morphology on a photoactive polymer film using nanobeam GISAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering is performed with a nanometer sized X-ray beam (nGISAXS) to probe the local gold contact morphology on a photoactive polymer film. By evaporation a 50 nm thick gold contact is installed on a diblock copolymer film, which consists of a non-conducting poly(styrene) (PS) and a semi-conducting poly(paraphenylene) (PPP) block. The region around the edge of the gold contact of 200 μm is probed with nGISAXS by scanning the sample position in steps of 1 μm with respect to the X-ray beam. The diblock copolymer film has a densely packed micellar structure with a characteristic distance between adjacent micelles of 19 nm which is unaffected by the gold deposition. The gold contact exhibits a tail region which extends its lateral dimension. For the full extended surface area of the gold contact with its tails an interdiffusion of gold into the diblock copolymer film is observed. For comparison imaging ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy measurements are performed.

  5. An evaluation of several methods of determining the local angle of attack on wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of determining the angles of attack (AOAs) on wind turbine blades are discussed in this paper. A brief survey of the methods that have been used in the past are presented, and the advantages of each method are discussed relative to their application in the BEM theory. Data from...... existing as well as new full rotor CFD computations of the MEXICO rotor are used in this analysis. A more accurate estimation of the AOA is possible from 3D full rotor CFD computations, but when working with experimental data, pressure measurements and sectional forces are often the only data available...

  6. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs from local market in Jakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main foodstuffs of Indonesian people are, rice, bean, corn, wheat, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, milk, tea, and coffee. The problem of the control of toxic elements in foodstuffs have not been carried out such as many countries, so there is no established maximum permissible concentration in the Indonesian national legislation, and that is why Indonesia participates in the Co-ordinated Research Program organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program will allow exchange of experience among the participants, especially in the determination of low level toxic elements in foodstuffs using nuclear techniques. 6 refs, 9 tabs

  7. A mini slug test method for determination of a local hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Andersen, Lars J.;

    1992-01-01

    A new and efficient mini slug test method for the determination of local hydraulic conductivities in unconfined sandy aquifers is developed. The slug test is performed in a small-diameter (1 inch) driven well with a 0.25 m screen just above the drive point. The screened drive point can be driven...... from level to level and thereby establish vertical profiles of the hydraulic conductivity. The head data from the test well are recorded with a 10 mm pressure transducer, and the initial head difference required is established by a small vacuum pump. The method described has provided 274 spatially...... distributed measurements of a local hydraulic conductivity at a tracer test site at Vejen, Denmark. The mini slug test results calculated by a modified Dax slug test analysing method, applying the elastic storativity in the Dax equations instead of the specific yield, are in good accordance with the results...

  8. Assessment of local seismic response of the Stracciacappa maar (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Simionato, Maurizio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Sottili, Gianluca; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Sirianni, Pietro; Pileggi, Domenico; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Razzano, Roberto; Mancini, Marco; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we face the definition of a subsoil model aimed at the local seismic response assessment of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy) (e.g., De Rita and Zanetti, 1986; Marra et al., 2014). The pyroclastic succession of Stracciacappa records two main hydromagmatic eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago (e.g., Sottili et al., 2010). The preserved crater, with a diameter of about 1500 meters and a crater floor of about 30-40 m, hosted a lake until it was drained in AD 1834. In the framework of the cooperation between CNR IGAG and Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC funds 2014), a multidisciplinary approach including detailed stratigraphic and geophysical study has been carried out in the Stracciacappa maar and surrounding areas. New geological map and cross sections illustrate the complex geometric relationships between the thick pyroclastic surge succession, showing diffuse sandwave structures, and even meter-sized lava ballistic. A composite interdigitation between lacustrine and epiclastic debris sediments fills the crater floor. A continuous coring borehole was drilled inside the crater, 45 meters deep from the wellhead, with sampling of undisturbed samples. In addition, four MASW and one SCPTU test were carried out, in order to define the velocity profile of the s-waves within the lacustrine deposits. This Vs profile was then extended at higher depths by using the results of four 2D seismic passive arrays. Moreover, in order to define the resonance frequency of sedimentary covers via the HVSR technique, twenty-eight measurements were carried out with digital sensor Tromino® and seven measurements were performed with a Lennartz® Le-3D/5s sensor with Lennartz Marslite® digitizer. Finally, three electrical resistivity tomography tests, with a total length of about 3500 meters, were carried out with the purpose of constraining the subsoil model. Regarding the non linear

  9. Morphological and physiological determinants of local adaptation to climate in Rocky Mountain butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Higgins, Jessica K.; Buckley, Lauren B.; Kingsolver, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Flight is a central determinant of fitness in butterflies and other insects, but it is restricted to a limited range of body temperatures. To achieve these body temperatures, butterflies use a combination of morphological, behavioural and physiological mechanisms. Here, we used common garden (without direct solar radiation) and reciprocal transplant (full solar radiation) experiments in the field to determine the thermal sensitivity of flight initiation for two species of Colias butterflies along an elevation gradient in the southwestern Rocky Mountains. The mean body temperature for flight initiation in the field was lower (24–26°C) than indicated by previous studies (28–30°C) in these species. There were small but significant differences in thermal sensitivity of flight initiation between species; high-elevation Colias meadii initiated flight at a lower mean body temperature than lower-elevation Colias eriphyle. Morphological differences (in wing melanin and thoracic setae) drive body temperature differences between species and contributed strongly to differences in the time and probability of flight and air temperatures at flight initiation. Our results suggest that differences both in thermal sensitivity (15% contribution) and in morphology (85% contribution) contribute to the differences in flight initiation between the two species in the field. Understanding these differences, which influence flight performance and fitness, aids in forecasting responses to climate change. PMID:27668080

  10. Automatic Threshold Determination for a Local Approach of Change Detection in Long-Term Signal Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hewson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CUSUM (cumulative sum is a well-known method that can be used to detect changes in a signal when the parameters of this signal are known. This paper presents an adaptation of the CUSUM-based change detection algorithms to long-term signal recordings where the various hypotheses contained in the signal are unknown. The starting point of the work was the dynamic cumulative sum (DCS algorithm, previously developed for application to long-term electromyography (EMG recordings. DCS has been improved in two ways. The first was a new procedure to estimate the distribution parameters to ensure the respect of the detectability property. The second was the definition of two separate, automatically determined thresholds. One of them (lower threshold acted to stop the estimation process, the other one (upper threshold was applied to the detection function. The automatic determination of the thresholds was based on the Kullback-Leibler distance which gives information about the distance between the detected segments (events. Tests on simulated data demonstrated the efficiency of these improvements of the DCS algorithm.

  11. Assessment of Antibody Responses in Local and Immigrant Residents of Areas with Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Piperaki, Evangelia-Theofano; Mavrouli, Maria; Tseroni, Maria; Routsias, John; Kallimani, Athina; Veneti, Lamprini; Georgitsou, Maria; Chania, Maria; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Greece has been officially malaria free since 1974. However, from 2009 to 2012, several locally acquired, cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria were detected, in immigrants and in Greek citizens. In this study, the antibody (Ab) response of Greeks and immigrants with documented malaria was initially assessed, followed by an Ab screening of Greeks and immigrant residents of local transmission areas. Of the 38 patients tested, 10.5% of Greeks and 15.7% of immigrants were positive 5–7 months after i...

  12. Localization and functional significance of a polymorphic determinant in the third component of human complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Hansen, O C; Ploug, M;

    1987-01-01

    A polymorphic epitope in the third component of human complement was studied. This allotypic system is distinct from the electrophoretically determined C3 S/F polymorphism and is defined by the recognition of one allotype by a monoclonal antibody. Allotypic protein variants, C3F+ (reactive with...... this antibody) and C3S- (non-reactive with the antibody), were purified. Deglycosylation studies and N-terminal sequencing of CNBr fragments, reactive with the antibody, revealed that the polymorphic epitope was present in a beta chain fragment of mol. wt 20,000. In the intact C3 molecule, this...... fragment is situated with N-terminus at residue No. 202, using the numbering of the cDNA derived amino acid sequence of human prepro C3. Addition of Fab fragments from the alloselective antibody preferentially inhibited the activity of C3F+ in a haemolytic assay which is selective for the C3 activity in...

  13. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead......, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA......-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies....

  14. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jonas N.; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in a mega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies.

  15. Local positive feedback regulation determines cell shape in root hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Seiji; Gapper, Catherine; Kaya, Hidetaka; Bell, Elizabeth; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Dolan, Liam

    2008-02-29

    The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that Ca2+, in turn, activated the RHD2 NADPH oxidase to produce ROS at the growing point in the root hair. Together, these components could establish a means of positive feedback regulation that maintains an active growth site in expanding root hair cells. Because the location and stability of growth sites predict the ultimate form of a plant cell, our findings demonstrate how a positive feedback mechanism involving RHD2, ROS, and Ca2+ can determine cell shape.

  16. Volcanic pulses determined by local re-melting throughout plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, V.; Moretti, R.; neuville, D. R.; Le Losq, C.; Allard, P.; Arienzo, I.; Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; Flank, A.; Lagarde, P.; Metrich, N.; Orsi, G.; Papale, P.

    2012-12-01

    would buffer the redox state at Fe2+/Fe3+ ~ 1 as shown by XANES measurements of olivine hosted MIs and KD computations. The voluminous crystal mushes geophysically inferred in the crustal roots of studied volcanoes would behave as mushy sponges locally producing magma batches rising upward.

  17. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of

  18. The assessment of the local budgets financial condition at the regional level

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhtreiska, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the problems of estimation of financial state of local budgets in Ukraine are examined. The promising directions of reforming the financial regional policy are found out. Ways of strengthening the financial base of regions are investigated.

  19. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE LOCAL BUDGETS FINANCIAL CONDITION AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhtreiska, N. V.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the problems of estimation of financial state of local budgets in Ukraine are examined. The promising directions of reforming the financial regional policy are found out. Ways of strengthening the financial base of regions are investigated.

  20. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    Full Text Available DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR. Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR. Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization, uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are

  1. Attention modeling for video quality assessment:balancing global quality and local quality

    OpenAIRE

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in ...

  2. Assessment of the Turkish Local e-Governments: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Arslan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we first evaluated the current practices of the Turkish local e-governments. Then, building upon an earlier study of local e-governments in Europe (Key Elements for Electronic Local Authorities’ Networks [KEeLAN], 2002, we compared the Turkish local e-government stages with their European counterparts to give a broader perspective. The basic framework focuses on the evaluation of current practices on the supply side (government, rather than the demand side (citizen. The emphasis of this research is on the evaluation of each web site in terms of nine basic public services (additional sub-services available comprised of policy making, economic development, personal documents, credit and loans/financial support, education, building permits, environment, culture and leisure, and information dissemination. It is assumed that at least four of those services (randomly are supplied in a local context among the Member Countries, including Turkey. We suggest the results might provide a deeper understanding of local e-governments in Turkey and lend support to advances in this under-researched area.

  3. [Determinants of induced abortion among poor women admitted to hospitals in a locality of northeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, W; Misago, C; Correia, L L; Parente, J A; Oliveira, F C

    1996-02-01

    In Brazil, abortion is legally allowed only when it is necessary to save a woman's life or when pregnancy has occurred following rape. Despite this law, induced abortion is widely carried out. This study presents the findings as to the determinants of 2,084 abortions admitted to two major obstetric hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, between October 1992 and September 1993. Most of these women (2,074) have admitted an attempt to terminate pregnancy and 10 women were classified as induced abortion cases based on the findings of signs of intervention such as cervical laceration, perforation or foreign bodies in the vagina or uterus. The study findings indicate that self-administration of medicines plays an important role in terminating pregnancy. Among the 2,074 women who admitted to terminating the pregnancy 66% reported using misoprostol to induce abortion. Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil. Misoprostol has some uterine effects but it is not effective in inducing abortion. Among women who were hospitalized for complications resulting from abortion about 59.7% were 20 to 29 years old and 22.6% were aged less than 20. The majority of the women (91.6%) were Catholic and only 4.3% were illiterate. About 62% of the abortion cases lived alone or did not have a stable partner. Most of the women (59.2%) reported less than 2 live births and 11.8% had experienced a previous abortion; 61.1% of the women were not using a contraceptive method at the time of conception. The main reasons for this were "fear of side effects", "did not expect to have sexual intercourse" and "did not expect to get pregnant". The authors suggest that the situation of a high rate of self-inflicted abortion may be changed by the application of an appropriate contraceptive and reproductive health programme. PMID:9008918

  4. Determination of local material properties of laser beam welded aluminium-steel and aluminium-titanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunkel, M.; Hehl, A. von [IWT Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik Bremen (Germany); Barr, A.

    2012-04-15

    The combination of different metallic materials, such as aluminium and steel or aluminium and titanium, by firmly bonding via laser beam welding enables the production of customised hybrid lightweight designs with enhanced properties. Both weld geometry and local material behaviour, which are responsible for the final load characteristics of the compound, are influenced by the process parameters during welding. A novel approach of coupling process, microstructure and mechanical simulation, considering the development of weld geometry and local material conditions is intended to deliver a fast and reliable method for evaluating the quasi-static strength of laser beam welded hybrid compounds. Besides the objective to promote a reduction of expensive welding experiments, the developed method can enhance the performance of hybrid structures as well as their lightweight potential for automotive and aircraft applications. The experimental determination of the local mechanical properties as the basis for the regarded simulation approach is an essential part of a running research project. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Application of the counterfactual method to assess of the local economic impact of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have examined the local economic effects of nuclear power stations. However, their heterogeneity within countries and between countries indicate that one must be very cautious in drawing general conclusions about the positive and negative local economic effects of nuclear power stations over time. Using information about a specific nuclear facility in Spain and its zone of influence, we investigate the local economic impact of a nuclear facility by applying an infrequently used methodology called the “counterfactual” method. The purpose of this application of the counterfactual method is to establish what would have happened if the nuclear power plant had not been built where it was. This method permits observation of the impact of the nuclear power plant on the evolution of a set of variables whose influence is extremely important for the local area, such as the population, unemployment level, per capita income, and municipal governments’ revenues. Generalization of this method could offer the possibility of providing comparative results. However, the method must be complemented with other short-term approaches to provide a more specific analysis of the economic effects on the local actors involved and to offer incentives to policymakers to design and develop policies aimed at boosting economic activity in the area. - Highlights: • The Trillo Nuclear Power Plant plays a key role in stimulating its local environment. • The counterfactual method is estimated based on the performance of control group. • At least at the beginning of its operation the population dynamism was clear. • There is not strong evidence about the rise of employment and local public revenues. • The expenditure flow assesses the local turnover, jobs and municipal revenues

  6. Indicative role of urban tree vegetation in the assessment of natural and man-made complex in Akhtubinsk and its local areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, L V; Volkova, I V

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted as a part of the selection of the objects of phytomonitoring for the environmental assessment on the value of fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological parameters. The territorial structure of flora of tree layer in Akhtubinsk and its local areas was determined as of 2013. The living conditions and species and quantitative composition of the tree layer of urban landscape were examined. The vital status of trees was assessed on a ten-point scale of the categories: good condition; satisfactory; weakened plants (Bukharina and Dvoeglazova 2010). The quantitative assessment of biodiversity of tree layer was made on the basis of conventional indices of individual dominance and dominating structures, as well as the method of multivariate statistical analysis. This is an objective method that has been used by other authors in a variety of the environmental studies for a long time, but it has not been actively used in the studies of the Astrakhan area vegetation yet. The results of the study make it possible to believe that the most appropriate indicator of tree vegetation for biomonitoring of intact floodplain, residential and recreational areas in the urban territory in the arid climate of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain is the Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.),as the most widespread, numerous and sensitive. It is noted that the tree vegetation cannot be a universal bioindicator of the urban environment in Akhtubinsk and its local areas by fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological parameters. PMID:27485614

  7. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    cannot happen without providing alternative livelihood solutions for local communities dependent on them, global experiences illustrate that the successful integration of conservation and development continues to be elusive. We adapted the approach based on “participatory vulnerability assessments...... as a first step in improving decision making. Project activities are not implemented in isolation from the global context and are therefore not the only drivers of adaptation for local communities. One of our main findings is that new external stimuli, such as markets, may be highly influential, potentially......” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  8. The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Norwana, A.A.B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research process assessing the local economic, social and environmental impacts from feedstock expansion for the growing biofuel sector (see German et al. 2011). Nonetheless, in the Malaysian context, biofuel production volumes are negligible despite government interest in promoting sector expansion. Since Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer in the world, palm oil is slated to become the primary feedstock for biofuel production in the country. Sinc...

  9. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotto...

  10. The development and pilot testing of a rapid assessment tool to improve local public health system capacity in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Vivian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To operate effectively the public health system requires infrastructure and the capacity to act. Public health's ability to attract funding for infrastructure and capacity development would be enhanced if it was able to demonstrate what level of capacity was required to ensure a high performing system. Australia's public health activities are undertaken within a complex organizational framework that involves three levels of government and a diverse range of other organizations. The question of appropriate levels of infrastructure and capacity is critical at each level. Comparatively little is known about infrastructure and capacity at the local level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers in two Australian states with different frameworks for health administration. They were asked to reflect on the critical components of infrastructure and capacity required at the local level. The interviews were analyzed to identify the major themes. Workshops with public health experts explored this data further. The information generated was used to develop a tool, designed to be used by groups of organizations within discrete geographical locations to assess local public health capacity. Results Local actors in these two different systems pointed to similar areas for inclusion for the development of an instrument to map public health capacity at the local level. The tool asks respondents to consider resources, programs and the cultural environment within their organization. It also asks about the policy environment - recognizing that the broader environment within which organizations operate impacts on their capacity to act. Pilot testing of the tool pointed to some of the challenges involved in such an exercise, particularly if the tool were to be adopted as policy. Conclusion This research indicates that it is possible to develop a tool for the systematic assessment of public health capacity at the local level

  11. Determination of the local contact potential difference of PTCDA on NaCl: a comparison of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, S A; LeDue, J M; Miyahara, Y; Topple, J M; Fostner, S; Grütter, P

    2009-07-01

    There has been increasing focus on the use of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for the determination of local electronic structure in recent years, especially in systems where other methods, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy, may be intractable. We have examined three methods for determining the local apparent contact potential difference (CPD): frequency modulation KPFM (FM-KPFM), amplitude modulation KPFM (AM-KPFM), and frequency shift-bias spectroscopy, on a test system of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on NaCl, an example of an organic semiconductor on a bulk insulating substrate. We will discuss the influence of the bias modulation on the apparent CPD measurement by FM-KPFM compared to the DC-bias spectroscopy method, and provide a comparison of AM-KPFM, AM-slope detection KPFM and FM-KPFM imaging resolution and accuracy. We will also discuss the distance dependence of the CPD as measured by FM-KPFM for both the PTCDA organic deposit and the NaCl substrate. PMID:19509452

  12. Determination of the local contact potential difference of PTCDA on NaCl: a comparison of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been increasing focus on the use of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for the determination of local electronic structure in recent years, especially in systems where other methods, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy, may be intractable. We have examined three methods for determining the local apparent contact potential difference (CPD): frequency modulation KPFM (FM-KPFM), amplitude modulation KPFM (AM-KPFM), and frequency shift-bias spectroscopy, on a test system of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on NaCl, an example of an organic semiconductor on a bulk insulating substrate. We will discuss the influence of the bias modulation on the apparent CPD measurement by FM-KPFM compared to the DC-bias spectroscopy method, and provide a comparison of AM-KPFM, AM-slope detection KPFM and FM-KPFM imaging resolution and accuracy. We will also discuss the distance dependence of the CPD as measured by FM-KPFM for both the PTCDA organic deposit and the NaCl substrate.

  13. Determination of the local contact potential difference of PTCDA on NaCl: a comparison of techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, S A; LeDue, J M; Miyahara, Y; Topple, J M; Fostner, S; Gruetter, P [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal H3A 2T8 (Canada)], E-mail: burkes@physics.mcgill.ca

    2009-07-01

    There has been increasing focus on the use of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for the determination of local electronic structure in recent years, especially in systems where other methods, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy, may be intractable. We have examined three methods for determining the local apparent contact potential difference (CPD): frequency modulation KPFM (FM-KPFM), amplitude modulation KPFM (AM-KPFM), and frequency shift-bias spectroscopy, on a test system of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on NaCl, an example of an organic semiconductor on a bulk insulating substrate. We will discuss the influence of the bias modulation on the apparent CPD measurement by FM-KPFM compared to the DC-bias spectroscopy method, and provide a comparison of AM-KPFM, AM-slope detection KPFM and FM-KPFM imaging resolution and accuracy. We will also discuss the distance dependence of the CPD as measured by FM-KPFM for both the PTCDA organic deposit and the NaCl substrate.

  14. Simultaneous determination of optical constants, local thickness and roughness of ZnSe thin films by imaging spectroscopic reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, D.; Ohlídal, I.; Franta, D.; Ohlídal, M.; Vodák, J.

    2016-01-01

    A rough non-uniform ZnSe thin film on a GaAs substrate is optically characterised using imaging spectroscopic reflectometry (ISR) in the visible, UV and near IR region, applied as a standalone technique. A global-local data processing algorithm is used to fit spectra from all pixels together and simultaneously determine maps of the local film thickness, roughness and overlayer thickness as well as spectral dependencies of film optical constants determined for the sample as a whole. The roughness of the film upper boundary is modelled using scalar diffraction theory (SDT), for which an improved calculation method is developed to process the large quantities of experimental data produced by ISR efficiently. This method avoids expensive operations by expressing the series obtained from SDT using a double recurrence relation and it is shown that it essentially eliminates the necessity for any speed-precision trade-offs in the SDT calculations. Comparison of characterisation results with the literature and other techniques shows the ability of multi-pixel processing to improve the stability and reliability of least-squares data fitting and demonstrates that standalone ISR, coupled with suitable data processing methods, is viable as a characterisation technique, even for thin films that are relatively far from ideal and require complex modelling.

  15. Determination of radon distribution patterns in the upper soil as a tool for the localization of subsurface NAPL contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.schubert@ufz.de; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, D.F. Mexico 11801 (Mexico); Balcazar, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, D.F. Mexico 11801 (Mexico); Meissner, R. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lopez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, D.F. Mexico 11801 (Mexico); Flores, J.H. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico 04510 (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    A radon survey was carried out at an abandoned military airfield, heavily contaminated with non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). Geo-statistical analysis of the data was used to confirm the validity of the chosen soil gas sampling pattern. The survey revealed a non-uniform distribution of the soil gas radon concentration in the upper soil in spite of a virtually homogenous geological situation. The radon distribution pattern showed minimum zones with radon concentrations decreased by up to 90% with regard to the local background level. The determined radon minimum anomalies could be explicitly associated with the NAPL subsurface contamination. The observed effect is due to the strong partitioning of radon into NAPLs from soil gas or groundwater. Corresponding partitioning coefficients were determined in the laboratory for some NAPL. As result of the study, it was shown that naturally occurring soil gas radon has the potential to be used as an indicator for the localization of subsurface NAPL contamination. As possible options for survey equipment, the AlphaGUARD radon monitor and passive solid-state nuclear track detectors were successfully evaluated.

  16. Simultaneous determination of optical constants, local thickness and roughness of ZnSe thin films by imaging spectroscopic reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rough non-uniform ZnSe thin film on a GaAs substrate is optically characterised using imaging spectroscopic reflectometry (ISR) in the visible, UV and near IR region, applied as a standalone technique. A global-local data processing algorithm is used to fit spectra from all pixels together and simultaneously determine maps of the local film thickness, roughness and overlayer thickness as well as spectral dependencies of film optical constants determined for the sample as a whole. The roughness of the film upper boundary is modelled using scalar diffraction theory (SDT), for which an improved calculation method is developed to process the large quantities of experimental data produced by ISR efficiently. This method avoids expensive operations by expressing the series obtained from SDT using a double recurrence relation and it is shown that it essentially eliminates the necessity for any speed–precision trade-offs in the SDT calculations. Comparison of characterisation results with the literature and other techniques shows the ability of multi-pixel processing to improve the stability and reliability of least-squares data fitting and demonstrates that standalone ISR, coupled with suitable data processing methods, is viable as a characterisation technique, even for thin films that are relatively far from ideal and require complex modelling. (paper)

  17. Determination of radon distribution patterns in the upper soil as a tool for the localization of subsurface NAPL contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radon survey was carried out at an abandoned military airfield, heavily contaminated with non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). Geo-statistical analysis of the data was used to confirm the validity of the chosen soil gas sampling pattern. The survey revealed a non-uniform distribution of the soil gas radon concentration in the upper soil in spite of a virtually homogenous geological situation. The radon distribution pattern showed minimum zones with radon concentrations decreased by up to 90% with regard to the local background level. The determined radon minimum anomalies could be explicitly associated with the NAPL subsurface contamination. The observed effect is due to the strong partitioning of radon into NAPLs from soil gas or groundwater. Corresponding partitioning coefficients were determined in the laboratory for some NAPL. As result of the study, it was shown that naturally occurring soil gas radon has the potential to be used as an indicator for the localization of subsurface NAPL contamination. As possible options for survey equipment, the AlphaGUARD radon monitor and passive solid-state nuclear track detectors were successfully evaluated

  18. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  19. The local projection in the density functional theory plus U approach: A critical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Chao; Chen, Ze-Hua; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Density-functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) method is widely used in first-principles studies of strongly correlated systems, as it can give qualitatively (and sometimes, semi-quantitatively) correct description of energetic and structural properties of many strongly correlated systems with similar computational cost as local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation. On the other hand, the DFT + U approach is limited both theoretically and practically in several important aspects. In particular, the results of DFT + U often depend on the choice of local orbitals (the local projection) defining the subspace in which the Hubbard U correction is applied. In this work we have systematically investigated the issue of the local projection by considering typical transition metal oxides, β-MnO2 and MnO, and comparing the results obtained from different implementations of DFT + U. We found that the choice of the local projection has significant effects on the DFT + U results, which are more significant for systems with stronger covalent bonding (e.g., MnO2) than those with more ionic bonding (e.g., MnO). These findings can help to clarify some confusion arising from the practical use of DFT + U and may also provide insights for the development of new first-principles approaches beyond DFT + U.

  20. The Local Integrity Approach for Urban Contexts: Definition and Vehicular Experimental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Margaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cooperative integrity monitoring concept, called “local integrity”, suitable to automotive applications in urban scenarios, is discussed in this paper. The idea is to take advantage of a collaborative Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET architecture in order to perform a spatial/temporal characterization of possible degradations of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals. Such characterization enables the computation of the so-called “Local Protection Levels”, taking into account local impairments to the received signals. Starting from theoretical concepts, this paper describes the experimental validation by means of a measurement campaign and the real-time implementation of the algorithm on a vehicular prototype. A live demonstration in a real scenario has been successfully carried out, highlighting effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach.

  1. The Local Integrity Approach for Urban Contexts: Definition and Vehicular Experimental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, Davide; Falletti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    A novel cooperative integrity monitoring concept, called "local integrity", suitable to automotive applications in urban scenarios, is discussed in this paper. The idea is to take advantage of a collaborative Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) architecture in order to perform a spatial/temporal characterization of possible degradations of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. Such characterization enables the computation of the so-called "Local Protection Levels", taking into account local impairments to the received signals. Starting from theoretical concepts, this paper describes the experimental validation by means of a measurement campaign and the real-time implementation of the algorithm on a vehicular prototype. A live demonstration in a real scenario has been successfully carried out, highlighting effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach. PMID:26821028

  2. Assessing local planning to control groundwater depletion: California as a microcosm of global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has caused excessive groundwater depletion around the world, yet regulating pumping remains a profound challenge. California uses more groundwater than any other U.S. state, and serves as a microcosm of the adverse effects of pumping felt worldwide—land subsidence, impaired water quality, and damaged ecosystems, all against the looming threat of climate change. The state largely entrusts the control of depletion to the local level. This study uses internationally accepted water resources planning theories systematically to investigate three key aspects of controlling groundwater depletion in California, with an emphasis on local-level action: (a) making decisions and engaging stakeholders; (b) monitoring groundwater; and (c) using mandatory, fee-based and voluntary approaches to control groundwater depletion (e.g., pumping restrictions, pumping fees, and education about water conservation, respectively). The methodology used is the social science-derived technique of content analysis, which involves using a coding scheme to record these three elements in local rules and plans, and State legislation, then analyzing patterns and trends. The study finds that Californian local groundwater managers rarely use, or plan to use, mandatory and fee-based measures to control groundwater depletion. Most use only voluntary approaches or infrastructure to attempt to reduce depletion, regardless of whether they have more severe groundwater problems, or problems which are more likely to have irreversible adverse effects. The study suggests legal reforms to the local groundwater planning system, drawing upon its empirical findings. Considering the content of these recommendations may also benefit other jurisdictions that use a local groundwater management planning paradigm.

  3. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators, Vulnerability Assessments, and Projections of Future Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Houghton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnerability and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance community resilience. This review draws on a guidance document developed by the U.S. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists’ State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative climate change working group to present a three-tiered approach to develop local climate change EPHIs. Local climate change EPHIs can assist local health departments (LHDs in implementing key steps of the 10 essential public health services and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework. They also allow LHDs to incorporate climate-related trends into the larger health department planning process and can be used to perform vulnerability assessments which can be leveraged to ensure that interventions designed to address climate change do not exacerbate existing health disparities.

  4. Determining Faculty Effectiveness. Assessing Teaching, Research, and Service for Personnel Decisions and Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centra, John A.

    An authoritative, research-based guide to determining faculty effectiveness is offered. Assessment of classroom teaching, scholarship and research, public service, and student advising are faculty tasks examined for personnel decisions and general improvement. Emphasis on educational accountability in academe, due to declining enrollments and…

  5. 46 CFR 502.603 - Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation to compromise. 502.603 Section 502.603 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... policies for deterrence and future compliance with the Commission's rules and regulations and...

  6. Multimodal presentation of local danger warnings for drivers: A situation-dependent assessment of usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Müller, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses how advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) should communicate with drivers, focusing on the local danger warning function. To achieve high-quality assistance, the communication mode needs to be adaptive to changes in driving situation (driver's state, workload and environment

  7. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  8. Assessing the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability: Towards a theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Rio, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, the existing literature has put much emphasis on the environmental benefits (including the reduction of global and local pollutants), while socioeconomic impacts have not received a comparable attention. These include diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. With the exception of the diversification and security of energy supply, these benefits have usually been mentioned, but their analysis has been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and, even more so, the local level, has been lacking. At most, studies provide scattered evidence of some of those regional and local benefits, but without an integrated conceptual framework to analyse them. This paper tries to make a contribution in this regard by developing an integrated theoretical framework which allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of renewable energy on local sustainability and which can be empirically applied to identify these benefits in different territories. (author)

  9. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  10. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia;

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...... of bioremediation scenarios (86-98 % of the human toxicity impacts at Site 1). The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental assessment of remediation alternatives gives a more complete basis for comparison of technologies with substantially different timeframes and efficiencies....

  11. From Global Climate Model Projections to Local Impacts Assessments: Analyses in Support of Planning for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snover, A. K.; Littell, J. S.; Mantua, N. J.; Salathe, E. P.; Hamlet, A. F.; McGuire Elsner, M.; Tohver, I.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    Assessing and planning for the impacts of climate change require regionally-specific information. Information is required not only about projected changes in climate but also the resultant changes in natural and human systems at the temporal and spatial scales of management and decision making. Therefore, climate impacts assessment typically results in a series of analyses, in which relatively coarse-resolution global climate model projections of changes in regional climate are downscaled to provide appropriate input to local impacts models. This talk will describe recent examples in which coarse-resolution (~150 to 300km) GCM output was “translated” into information requested by decision makers at relatively small (watershed) and large (multi-state) scales using regional climate modeling, statistical downscaling, hydrologic modeling, and sector-specific impacts modeling. Projected changes in local air temperature, precipitation, streamflow, and stream temperature were developed to support Seattle City Light’s assessment of climate change impacts on hydroelectric operations, future electricity load, and resident fish populations. A state-wide assessment of climate impacts on eight sectors (agriculture, coasts, energy, forests, human health, hydrology and water resources, salmon, and urban stormwater infrastructure) was developed for Washington State to aid adaptation planning. Hydro-climate change scenarios for approximately 300 streamflow locations in the Columbia River basin and selected coastal drainages west of the Cascades were developed in partnership with major water management agencies in the Pacific Northwest to allow planners to consider how hydrologic changes may affect management objectives. Treatment of uncertainty in these assessments included: using “bracketing” scenarios to describe a range of impacts, using ensemble averages to characterize the central estimate of future conditions (given an emissions scenario), and explicitly assessing

  12. Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D'Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the α-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1(low) mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1(low) mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1(low) mice were crossed with P-sel(null) mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1(low)P-sel(wt), Gata1(low)P-sel(null) and Gata1(WT)P-sel(null) or Gata1(wt)P-sel(wt) (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1(low) mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1(low) mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1(low) mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1(low) mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1

  13. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 childr...

  14. Global and Local Sea Level During the Last Interglacial: A Probabilistic Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Robert E; Maloof, Adam C; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG) stage, with polar temperatures likely 3-5 C warmer than today, serves as a partial analogue for low-end future warming scenarios. Based upon a small set of local sea level indicators, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) inferred that LIG global sea level (GSL) was about 4-6 m higher than today. However, because local sea levels differ from GSL, accurately reconstructing past GSL requires an integrated analysis of globally distributed data sets. Here we compile an extensive database of sea level indicators and apply a novel statistical approach that couples Gaussian process regression of sea level to Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of geochronological errors. Our analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that LIG GSL was higher than today, probably peaking at 6-9 m. Our results highlight the sea level hazard associated with even relatively low levels of sustained global warming.

  15. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.; Leth, H; Lou, H.C.;

    1995-01-01

    hyperventilated voluntarily, the vascular reactivity was homogeneously distributed predominantly over the grey matter. The experiments demonstrate that local impairment of vascular CO2 reactivity in the distressed infant brain can be detected by T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI, which is also known as functional......The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal...... of the brain slice investigated decreased by 1.2-2.6% per kPa change in PCO2 as a reflection of decreased cerebral blood flow during hyperventilation. Pixel-wise analysis revealed absence of vascular response in the basal ganglia, the thalamus or in the occipital region. In two adult controls, who...

  16. Analysis of p53 expression and proliferative assessment using PCNA in localized prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite K.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical specimens from 51 men submitted to radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were examined by immunohistochemistry using proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA monoclonal antibody to evaluate the proliferative index (PI. The relationship between PI, biological variables and p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. PI was low in invasive localized prostate carcinoma (mean, 12.4% and the incidence of PCNA-positive cells was significantly higher in tumors with p53 expression (P = 0.0226. There was no statistical difference in PCNA values when biological parameters such as Gleason score, tumor volume, extraprostatic involvement, seminal vesicle infiltration or lymph node metastasis were considered. We conclude that proliferative activity is usually low in prostate carcinoma but is correlated with p53 immune staining, indicating that p53 is important in cell cycle control in this neoplasm.

  17. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2' sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal of the brain slice investigated decreased by 1.2-2.6% per kPa change in PCO2 as a reflection of decreased cerebral blood flow during hyperventilation. Pixel-wise analysis revealed absence of vascular response in the basal ganglia, the thalamus or in the occipital region. In two adult controls, who hyperventilated voluntarily, the vascular reactivity was homogeneously distributed predominantly over the grey matter. The experiments demonstrate that local impairment of vascular CO2 reactivity in the distressed infant brain can be detected by T2' sensitive gradient-echo MRI, which is also known as functional MRI. (orig.)

  18. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  19. Assessing Conformity of Scientific Voices and Local Needs to Combat Forest Fire in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Meti Ekayani; Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat; Bambang Hero Saharjo; James Thomas Erbaugh

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the compatibility of scientific voices with the needs to combat forest fire as perceived by relevant stakeholders through a review of scholarly output, an evaluation of the conformity between scientists and stakeholder views on forest fire issues, and an analysis of how different types of scientists and voice channels contribute the local needs to combat forest fire in Indonesia. This research indicates that although forest fire has cross-country border impacts, forest...

  20. Assessing the Impacts of Local Knowledge and Technology on Climate Change Vulnerability in Remote Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kliskey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of ‘knowledge-providers’ influence community perception about changes to their local climate.

  1. Assessing the Effectiveness of Local Management of Coral Reefs Using Expert Opinion and Spatial Bayesian Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen S Ban; Pressey, Robert L.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors are an increasing concern in the management and conservation of ecosystems, and have been identified as a key gap in research. Coral reefs are one example of an ecosystem where management of local stressors may be a way of mitigating or delaying the effects of climate change. Predicting how multiple stressors interact, particularly in a spatially explicit fashion, is a difficult challenge. Here we use a combination of an expert-elicited Bayesian network (BN) and spatial env...

  2. New computer simulation technology of WSPEEDI for local and regional environmental assessment during nuclear emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Masamichi; Furuno, Akiko; Terada, Hiroaki; Kitabata, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The increase of nuclear power plants in the Asian region necessitates the capability to predict long-range atmospheric dispersions of radionuclides and radiological impacts due to a nuclear accident. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based emergency response system WSPEEDI. This paper aims to expanding the capability of WSPEEDI so that it can be applied to simultaneous multi-scale predictions of local and regional scales in the Asian region.

  3. Assessment Of Blending Local And Imported Aggregates On Properties Of Their Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin, Magdy S.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental conditions in the State of Qatar together with lack of good-quality aggregates seem to severely reduce the service lives of constructed pavements. The current practice of road construction agencies in Qatar is to utilize Marshall method of mix design to arrive at the best combination of aggregates, commonly crushed local limestone or imported Gabbro as coarse and fine aggregates and a mineral filler, and the 60/70 pen. grade bitumen. Little effort was undertaken to investigate ...

  4. Assessment of Local Biodiversity Loss in Uranium Mining-Tales And Its Projections On Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharshenova, D.; Zhamangulova, N.

    2015-12-01

    In Min-Kush, northern Kyrgyzstan there are 8 mining tales with an estimate of 1 961 000 tones of industrial Uranium. Local ecosystem services have declined rapidly. We analyzed a terrestrial assemblage database of Uranium mine-tale to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and environmental changes. In the worst-affected habitats species richness reduced by 95.7%, total abundance by 60.9% and rarefaction-based richness by 72.5%. We estimate that, regional mountain ecosystem affected by this pressure reduced average within-sample richness (by 17.01%), total abundance (16.5%) and rarefaction-based richness (14.5%). Business-as-usual scenarios are the widely practiced in the region and moreover, due to economic constraints country can not afford any mitigation scenarios. We project that biodiversity loss and ecosystem service impairment will spread in the region through ground water, soil, plants, animals and microorganisms at the rate of 1km/year. Entire Tian-Shan mountain chain will be in danger within next 5-10 years. Our preliminary data shows that local people live in this area developed various forms of cancer, and the rate of premature death is as high as 40%. Strong international scientific and socio-economic partnership is needed to develop models and predictions.

  5. Bismuth labeling for the CT assessment of local administration of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Luengo, Y.; Serna, C. J.; Andrés-Vergés, M.; Varela, M.; Calero, Macarena; Lazaro-Carrillo, Ana; Villanueva, Angeles; Sisniega, A.; Montesinos, P.; Morales, M. P.

    2015-03-01

    Many therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles involve the local administration of nanometric iron oxide based materials as seeds for magnetothermia or drug carriers. A simple and widespread way of controlling the process using x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners is desirable. The combination of iron and bismuth in one entity will increase the atenuation of x-rays, offering such a possibility. In order to check this possibility core-shell nanocrystals of iron oxide@bismuth oxide have been synthesized by an aqueous route and stabilized in water by polyethylene glycol (PEG), and we have evaluated their ability to generate contrast by CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the radiopacity and proton relaxivities using phantoms. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed that the material consists of a highly crystalline 8 nm core of maghemite and a 1 nm shell of bismuth atoms either isolated or clustered on the nanocrystal’s surface. The comparison of μCT and MRI images of mice acquired in the presence of the contrast shows that when local accumulations of the magnetic nanoparticles take place, CT images are more superior in the localization of the magnetic nanoparticles than MRI images, which results in magnetic field inhomogeneity artifacts.

  6. Assessing the Effectiveness of Local Management of Coral Reefs Using Expert Opinion and Spatial Bayesian Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Ban

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors are an increasing concern in the management and conservation of ecosystems, and have been identified as a key gap in research. Coral reefs are one example of an ecosystem where management of local stressors may be a way of mitigating or delaying the effects of climate change. Predicting how multiple stressors interact, particularly in a spatially explicit fashion, is a difficult challenge. Here we use a combination of an expert-elicited Bayesian network (BN and spatial environmental data to examine how hypothetical scenarios of climate change and local management would result in different outcomes for coral reefs on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia. Parameterizing our BN using the mean responses from our experts resulted in predictions of limited efficacy of local management in combating the effects of climate change. However, there was considerable variability in expert responses and uncertainty was high. Many reefs within the central GBR appear to be at risk of further decline based on the pessimistic opinions of our expert pool. Further parameterization of the model as more data and knowledge become available could improve predictive power. Our approach serves as a starting point for subsequent work that can fine-tune parameters and explore uncertainties in predictions of responses to management.

  7. Determination of Rectification Corrections for Semi Gantry Crane Rail Axes in the Local 3D Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak Daria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.

  8. Determination of phenolic compositions and quality characteristic of some local Turkish table grape varieties cultivated in Egirdir/Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargin Seckin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the phenolic substances and antioxidant activities of 11 local grape cultivars (Burdur Dimriti, Siyah Gemre, Ak Gemre, Antep Büzgülü, Şam Büzgülü, Kuş Yüregi, Ak Dimrit, Marzımat, Senirkent Dimriti, Devegözü, Tilki Kuyrugu grown in Egirdir/Isparta province of Turkey by the means of High Performance Liquid Chromatog- raphy (HPLC and also were evaluated for their yield and quality characterics. Burdur Dimriti, Antep Büzgülü, Şam Büzgülü cultivars were evaluated good for yield and table consumption. Ak Gemre, Marzımat, Devegözü, Ak Dimrit, Senirkent Dimriti and Kuş Yüregi varieties were evaluated good for must production. Gallic acid, cafeic acid, p-cumaric acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, kaemferol, myricetin, rutin hydrate, resveratrol, quercetin were determined in berry samples of 11 cultivars. Phenolic substances varied between 0 and 101.466 μg/ml in frozen berry samples varying to grape variety. Some of the cultivars can be evaluated as a good source of resveratrol, gallic acid, quercetin, and catechin. Antep Büzgülü, Burdur Dimriti, Kuş Yüregi, Senirkent Dimriti, Siyah Gemre were evaluated hopeful phenolic sources for further studies. Further detailed studies will be planned about phenolic and antioxidant compositions of these hopeful local varieties according to research results.

  9. Determinants of Local Progression After Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Unresectable Lung Tumors: 9-Year Experience in a Single Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine the local control rate and contributing factors to local progression after computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable lung tumor. This study included 138 lung tumors in 72 patients (56 men and 16 women; age 70.0 ± 11.6 years (range 31-94); mean tumor size 2.1 ± 1.2 cm [range 0.2-9]) who underwent lung RFA between June 2000 and May 2009. Mean follow-up periods for patients and tumors were 14 and 12 months, respectively. The local progression-free rate and survival rate were calculated to determine the contributing factors to local progression. During follow-up, 44 of 138 (32%) lung tumors showed local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall local control rates were 61, 57, 57, and 38%, respectively. The risk factors for local progression were age (≥70 years), tumor size (≥2 cm), sex (male), and no achievement of roll-off during RFA (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified tumor size ≥2 cm as the only independent factor for local progression (P = 0.003). For tumors <2 cm, 17 of 68 (25%) showed local progression, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall local control rates were 77, 73, and 73%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that age ≥70 years was an independent determinant of local progression for tumors <2 cm in diameter (P = 0.011). The present study showed that 32% of lung tumors developed local progression after CT-guided RFA. The significant risk factor for local progression after RFA for lung tumors was tumor size ≥2 cm.

  10. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of.... or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5... (“Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations”) must be based on quantitative analysis using the applicable...

  11. Determination and Quantification of the Local Environments in Stoichiometric and Defect Jarosite by Solid-State 2H NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Grey, Clare P.; Majzlan, Juraj

    2008-01-01

    The nature and concentrations of the local environments in a series of deuterated jarosite (nominally AFe3(SO4)2(OD)6 with A = K, Na, and D3O) samples with different levels of iron and cation vacancies have been determined by 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy at ambient temperatures. Three different local ...

  12. Three dimensional intravascular ultrasonic assessment of the local mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Costa (Marco); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); K. Kozuma (Ken); A.L. Gaster; M. Sabaté (Manel); I.P. Kay (Ian Patrick); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); P. Thayssen; M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); D.P. Foley (David); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty. DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENTS: 13 patients treated with balloon angioplasty. INTERVENTIONS: 111 coronary subsegments (2 mm each) were analysed after balloon angioplasty and at a six month follow up using th

  13. Mining Sector. Basic Skills Needs Assessment. INCO (Manitoba Division) & Local 6166 United Steelworkers of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lee Thomas

    A project examined the skills gap within the mining industry, identified and prioritized skills common to all jobs and occupations, and provided insight into skills that workers are likely to need in the future. The research for the basic skills needs assessment was conducted from June-October 1993 at INCO's Manitoba Division Operations in…

  14. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  15. Prioritizing health: a systematic approach to scoping determinants in health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McCallum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of Health Impact Assessment (HIA, the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted including both primary and grey literature. A total of 10 HIA Scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors such as impact, public concern and data availability to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programmed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool.

  16. Prioritizing Health: A Systematic Approach to Scoping Determinants in Health Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Ollson, Christopher A; Stefanovic, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of health impact assessment (HIA), the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical) for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted, including both primary and gray literature. A total of 10 HIA scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors, such as impact, public concern, and data availability, to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool. PMID:27597937

  17. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles.

  18. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  19. Using Monoclonal Antibody to Determine Lead Ions with a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Fiber-optic Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mon-Fu Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reflection-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR fiber-optic probe has been developed to determine the heavy metal lead ion concentration. Monoclonal antibody as the detecting probe containing massive amino groups to capture Pb(II-chelate complexes was immobilized onto gold nanoparticle-modified optical fiber (NMAuOF. The optimal immobilizing conditions of monoclonal antibody on to the NMAuOF are 189 μg/mL in pH7.4 PBS for 2 h at 25°C. The absorbability of the functionalized NMAuOF sensor increases to 12.2 % upon changing the Pb(II-EDTA level from 10 to 100 ppb with a detection limit of 0.27 ppb. The sensor retains 92.7 % of its original activity and gives reproducible results after storage in 5% D-( -Trehalose dehydrate solution at 4°C for 35 days. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibody-functionalized NMAuOF sensor shows a promising result for determining the concentration of Pb(II with high sensitivity.

  20. Assessing the Institutional Capacity of External Agencies in Holding Local Government Accountable in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Kakumba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Uganda established external agencies as part of the control mechanisms aimed at promoting accountability in the public sector in general and local governments (LGs in particular. The two cardinal control agencies include the Office of the Auditor General (OAG and the Inspectorate of Government (IG, who are mandated to enhance public service through efficient and effective resource management, ensuring adherence to standards and regulations, and promoting responsiveness to community needs. In spite of these institutional controls, a surge of unbearable events involving abuse of authority and misuse of public resources still exists, suggesting significant managerial and capacity handicaps, not only in the internal mechanisms of LGs, but also in the external control agencies. This paper presents findings of a study conducted to evaluate the institutional capacity of the OAG and the IG in the enhancement of accountability in local governments (LGs in Uganda. The findings demonstrate deficiencies in institutional capacity across the spectrum of financial, human and material resources, as well as the enabling legislation and lack stakeholder support. The scenario is a recipe for encouraging public malfeasance. The paper makes a strong case for strengthening institutional capacity, through improvements in planning, resource facilitation and collaborative relations among the key stakeholders. It is argued that the establishment of a special anti-corruption court could help reduce the delays and provide appropriate corrective measures in support of accountability.

  1. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during radiotherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer - Treatment response assessment using different segmentation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted;

    2015-01-01

    distribution of ADC values. This study evaluates: 1) different segmentation methods; and 2) how they affect assessment of tumor ADC value during RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven patients with locally advanced cervical cancer underwent MRI three times during their RT: prior to start of RT (PRERT), two weeks......2-weighted MR images using the Jaccard similarity index (JSI). ADC values from segmented volumes were compared and changes of ADC values during therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant difference between the four volumes (GTV, DWIcluster, DWISD4 and DWIregion) was found (p

  2. An integrated model for disaster risk assessment for local government in South Africa / Maliga Reddy

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Maliga

    2010-01-01

    The intensifying nature and extent of disasters together with the associated devastation and astronomical costs required to manage the rippling effects of disasters, enunciates the national and international focus on disaster risk reduction. Further the ever evolving and complex dynamics of risk as the decisive contributor to disasters has heightened the urgency to pursue effective disaster risk assessment as a prerequisite to inform the disaster risk management planning and disaster risk red...

  3. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova; Rogova, Natalia S.; Borisenko, Alex L.

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss an...

  4. Structural durability assessment of welded offshore K-nodes by different local design concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Sonsino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The structural durability design of complex welded structures should not rely only on one single design method but should apply different methods for assuring the reliability of the assessment. In this context the application of the structural stress concept, notch stress concept and crack propagation concept are discussed through the example of K-nodes used in energetic offshore constructions like oil platforms or windpower plants, presenting the state of the art.

  5. Seismic risk assessment of architectural heritages in Gyeongju considering local site effects

    OpenAIRE

    H.-J. Park; D.-S. Kim; D.-M. Kim

    2013-01-01

    A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cultural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea's ancient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Buddhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site ...

  6. Life-Cycle Assessment of Oilseeds for Biojet Production Using Localized Cold-Press Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Stone, James J

    2016-05-01

    As nonfood oilseed varieties are being rapidly developed, new varieties may affect agricultural production efficiency and life-cycle assessment results. Current, detailed feedstock production information is necessary to accurately assess impacts of the biofuel life-cycle. The life-cycle impacts of four nonfood oilseeds (carinata [ L. Braun], camelina [ L. Crantz], canola or rapeseed [ L.], and sunflower [ L.]) were modeled using Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model to compare feedstocks for renewable biojet production using cold-press oil extraction. Only feedstock-related inputs were varied, allowing isolation of feedstock influence. Carinata and camelina performed slightly better than other oilseed crops at most product stages and impact categories as a result of current, low-input agricultural information and new feedstock varieties. Between 40 to 50% of SO and NO emissions, ∼25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ∼40% of total energy consumption for the biojet production impact occurred during feedstock production. Within the first standard deviation, total well-to-tank emissions varied between ∼13% (GHG) and ∼35% (SO) for all feedstocks emphasizing the importance of accurate agricultural production information. Nonfood oilseed feedstock properties (e.g., oil content, density) and agricultural management (e.g., fertilization, yield) affect life-cycle assessment results. Using biofuels in feedstock production and focusing on low-impact management would assist producers in improving overall product sustainability. PMID:27136164

  7. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead ...

  8. A new methodology for deterministic landslide risk assessment at the local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotecchia, F.; Santaloia, F.; Lollino, P.; Vitone, C.; Mitaritonna, G.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper discusses the formulation of a methodology that is being developed for regional landslide risk assessment within geologically complex areas and some preliminary results of its application at the intermediate scale (i.e. between the regional and the slope scale). In particular, the methodology is the subject of an on-going multidisciplinary research project, which aims at the assessment of the landslide hazard, of the corresponding vulnerability of structures and of their exposition, involving different expertises. As such, both the landslide hazard and the structure vulnerability assessments are meant to be based upon the knowledge of the failure mechanisms and to benefit from scientific knowledge in the fields of both geotechnical engineering and structural mechanics. At the same time, the exposure of the elements at risk is to be investigated according to analyses of the socio-economical context where the risk is being evaluated. In the present paper only the work relating to landslide hazard is presented. This work aims at the further development of Quantitative Landslide Hazard Assessment, QHA, following a deterministic approach. As such, it is aimed at exporting the geo-mechanical interpretation of slope stability and landslide mechanisms from the slope scale (site-specific) to the regional scale. The results of such a methodology will be implemented in a GIS system and reported in guidelines. As concerns the landslide hazard assessment, the proposed methodology involves two interconnected working phases, the first one at regional scale and the second one at town scale. During the first phase, an analytical database of all the factors affecting the slope equilibrium is created and a geo-hydro-mechanical classification of the soil masses is defined together with the definition of the main landslide typologies present in the region. Thereafter, the connections existing among the sets of internal factors of landslides, which characterise the geo

  9. Determining Component Weights in a Communications Assessment Using Judgmental Policy Capturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo M. Harvill, PhD

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Tools are needed for determining appropriate weights for complex performance assessment components in medical education. The feasibility of using judgmental policy capturing (JPC, a procedure to statistically describe the information processing strategies of experts, for this purpose was investigated. Methods: Iterative JPC was used to determine appropriate weighting for the six core communication skill scores from a communications objective structured clinical examination (OSCE for medical students using a panel of four communication skill experts. Results: The mean regression weights from the panel indicated they placed less importance on information management (8.5%, moderate and nearly equal importance on rapport building (15.8%, agenda setting (15.4%, and addressing feelings (14.1%, and greater importance on active listening (20.1% and reaching common ground with the patient (25.5%. Discussion: JPC is an effective procedure for determining appropriate weights for complex clinical assessment components. The derived weights may be very different for those assessment components

  10. Meteorological analyses data set for air quality assessment modelling from national to local scale: verification and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finardi, S.; Pace, G.; Tinarelli, G.; Vitali, C.

    2009-09-01

    Since 2002, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of the Environment, ENEA has been leading a national Project, named MINNI (National Integrated Modelling system for International Negotiation), for the development of an Integrated Assessment Modelling system. The objective of the project is to support policy makers in the elaboration and assessment of air pollution policies at international, national and local level, by means of the more recent understandings of the atmospheric processes. The project activities include the realisation of air quality analysis and assessment at national and sub-national scale through model simulations with space resolution of 20x20 and 4x4 km2 and hourly time step on different target years. A Eulerian Atmospheric Modelling System (AMS), built around the chemical transport model FARM, has been applied to years 1999 and 2005 during the first phase of the project, while a second phase is presently ongoing and foresees simulations for years 2003 and 2007. The meteorological analyses used to drive the quality model have been produced by means of the meteorological models RAMS (http://atmet.com/) and LAPS (http://laps.noaa.gov/) using ECMWF synoptic analyses and surface observations as main input data. The meteorological data set is being used for MINNI project but also distributed to Regional Environmental Protection Agencies and other users to support air quality simulations at local scale employing different air quality model types. To verify the meteorological fields reliability and possibly define the usability limits of the dataset, model results have been compared with independent observations over different areas of the country (Friuli, Piedmont, Sardinia, Lazio and Puglia). The comparison confirmed that analysed meteorological fields can be considered representative over most part of the country, even if some critical areas emerged mainly due to the limited density of the input observations network and to the coarse resolution of

  11. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low. PMID:19564072

  12. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  13. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  14. Generalized Fragility Relationships with Local Site Conditions for Probabilistic Performance-based Seismic Risk Assessment of Bridge Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivathayalan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of detailed seismic risk assessment cannot be easily applied to all the bridges in a large transportation networks due to limited resources. This paper presents a new approach for seismic risk assessment of large bridge inventories in a city or national bridge network based on the framework of probabilistic performance based seismic risk assessment. To account for the influences of local site effects, a procedure to generate site-specific hazard curves that includes seismic hazard microzonation information has been developed for seismic risk assessment of bridge inventories. Simulated ground motions compatible with the site specific seismic hazard are used as input excitations in nonlinear time history analysis of representative bridges for calibration. A normalizing procedure to obtain generalized fragility relationships in terms of structural characteristic parameters of bridge span and size and longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios is presented. The seismic risk of bridges in a large inventory can then be easily evaluated using the normalized fragility relationships without the requirement of carrying out detailed nonlinear time history analysis.

  15. Quality Assessment of Retinal Fundus Images using Elliptical Local Vessel Density

    OpenAIRE

    Giancardo, Luca; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Chaum, Edward; Tobin, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the chapter, the quality assessment for fundus images was defined as "the characteristics of an image that allow the retinopathy diagnosis by a human or software expert". The literature was surveyed to find techniques which could help to achieve this goal. General image QA does not seem well suited for our purposes, as they are mainly dedicated to the detection of artefacts due to compression and they often require the original non-degraded image, something that does not m...

  16. Local impact of renewables on employment: Assessment methodology and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llera Sastresa, Eva; Uson, Alfonso Aranda; Bribian, Ignacio Zabalza; Scarpellini, Sabina [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption - Polytechnic Centre, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents an integrated method that assesses the socio-economic impact of establishing renewable energy on a regional scale, in particular on the creation of jobs. The method proposed is based on the collection, critical analysis and presentation of the results obtained using primary information sources considering the jobs created as the most direct measure of the socio-economic potential of renewable energy sources. Its design includes contributions extracted from a prior analysis of the existing assessment methods, to lessen the uncertainty of the job ratios often used in these types of analysis. The integrated method implemented has been applied to the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain) as a pilot case, through which the method has been tested and the indicators selected to analyse the socio-economic impact of renewable energy sources on the jobs created, the quality of the jobs and other factors related to the socio-economic development of a territory: technological development, per capita income, territorial development and human capital. (author)

  17. Local impact of renewables on employment: Assessment methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an integrated method that assesses the socio-economic impact of establishing renewable energy on a regional scale, in particular on the creation of jobs. The method proposed is based on the collection, critical analysis and presentation of the results obtained using primary information sources considering the jobs created as the most direct measure of the socio-economic potential of renewable energy sources. Its design includes contributions extracted from a prior analysis of the existing assessment methods, to lessen the uncertainty of the job ratios often used in these types of analysis. The integrated method implemented has been applied to the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain) as a pilot case, through which the method has been tested and the indicators selected to analyse the socio-economic impact of renewable energy sources on the jobs created, the quality of the jobs and other factors related to the socio-economic development of a territory: technological development, per capita income, territorial development and human capital. (author)

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HYDROLOGICAL MODELS IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sojka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibility of application of the hydrological model HEC-HMS in the development of a strategic environmental assessment of local spatial development plans on surface water. The practical possibility of using simulation models of catchment response to high intensity precipitation is shown on the example of the Różany Potok watercourse catchment which is subject to rapid urbanization process. The area of Różany Potok catchment is 8.1 km2 and a stream length is 5.57 km. In the years 1992–2012 there was a significant increase in impervious areas in the catchment of about 5.2 to 16%. In addition, new local spatial development plans are prepared within the catchment area. The implementation of their records may contribute to the increase in the proportion of impervious areas to over 20%. The increase in the share of impervious areas in the catchment area and traditional approach of precipitation water management can lead to doubling flood flows and increase the risk of local flooding.

  19. Assessment of frontal sinus dimensions to determine sexual dimorphism among Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Belaldavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex identification of unknown individuals is important in forensic sciences. At times when only skull remains are found and other means of identification fails, radiographs of frontal sinus can be used for identification. Frontal sinus morphology is unique to individual and can be used effectively in person identification; whereas its use in determining sexual dimorphism is limited. Aim: To determine sexual dimorphism among Indians by evaluating frontal sinus pattern using postero-anterior radiograph. Materials and Methods: The right and left areas, maximum height and width of frontal sinus were determined in 300 digital postero-anterior view radiographs obtained from 150 males and 150 females aged between 18-30 years. The measurements were carried out by transferring the image to Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 extended. Comparison of values were done using student′s t-test and accuracy of sex determination was assessed through Logistic regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and forty seven males and 142 females show presence of frontal sinus with seven individuals showing unilateral/bilateral absence of frontal sinuses. The mean values of the frontal sinus height, width and area are greater in males. Right frontal sinus is larger than the left sinus in both the sex. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gives an average concordance index for sex determination of 64.6%. Thus, frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination among Indian population. This may be due to its greater variation in morphology.

  20. Assessment of some heavy metals in fruit from local market in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruits play important role in providing the individuals daily needs from vitamins iron, potassium and metals that need in the daily food as dietary supplementation or as an important elements that from some hormones or enzymes in small concentrations, if exists in high concentrations become toxic with bad effects. This study aims to detect some of metals and find this elements their concentrations in some fruits that is most consumed in Sudan which are: bananas, oranges, tomatoes and watermelons. These fruits were randomly collected from local markets in Khartoum state from the three localities: Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman. Another sample was collected from the original farm to represent the samples. That's to compare was dried and pressured into pulled to be analyze it. The following metals were detecting: Br, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn in ppm K, Ca and Fe measured in g/kg. It was found that the mean concentration of these metals in banana: 52.66, 28.01, 50.31, 15.79, 0.57, 31.98, 60.92, 10,07, 1.42, 18.41, 5.37 and 19.22 respectively. And the mean concentration of them in orange: 6.80, 9.83, 19.00, 52.88, 0.35, 26.54, 13.05, 41.53, 1.74, 49.80, 14.85, and 15.41, respectively. The mean concentration of them in tomato: 39.30, 5.45, 50.52, 20.03, 0.88, 62.45, 82.13, 9.44, 1.79, 59.78, 26.38, and 41.31, respectively. The mean concentration of metals watermelon: 33.00, 6.96, 26.08, 14.30, 1. 32, 43.93, 52,67, 6.01, 1.69. 38.51, 43.90, and 25,45, respectively. It is noted that these concentrations were far higher than the concentrations in other countries underwent the same study. The statistics showed in some fruits that the significant ratio between the case and the control was p < 0.05 i.e. the significant is different and may be caused by pollution.(Author)

  1. Indicators of bioenergy-related certification schemes – An analysis of the quality and comprehensiveness for assessing local/regional environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is receiving increasing attention because it may reduce greenhouse gas emissions, secure and diversify energy supplies and stimulate rural development. The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production systems is often determined through life-cycle assessments that focus on global environmental effects, such as the emission of greenhouse gases or air pollutants. Local/regional environmental impacts, e.g., the impacts on soil or on biodiversity, require site-specific and flexible options for the assessment of environmental sustainability, such as the criteria and indicators used in bioenergy certification schemes. In this study, we compared certification schemes and assessed the indicator quality through the environmental impact categories, using a standardized rating scale to evaluate the indicators. Current certification schemes have limitations in their representation of the environmental systems affected by feedstock production. For example, these schemes predominantly use feasible causal indicators, instead of more reliable but less feasible effect indicators. Furthermore, the comprehensiveness of the depicted environmental systems and the causal links between human land use activities and biophysical processes in these systems have been assessed. Bioenergy certification schemes seem to demonstrate compliance with underlying legislation, such as the EU Renewable Energy Directive, rather than ensure environmental sustainability. Beyond, certification schemes often lack a methodology or thresholds for sustainable biomass use. Lacking thresholds, imprecise causal links and incomplete indicator sets may hamper comparisons of the environmental performances of different feedstocks. To enhance existing certification schemes, we propose combining the strengths of several certification schemes with research-based indicators, to increase the reliability of environmental assessments. - Highlights: • Certification schemes for bioenergy feedstocks are

  2. Assessing Conformity of Scientific Voices and Local Needs to Combat Forest Fire in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meti Ekayani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the compatibility of scientific voices with the needs to combat forest fire as perceived by relevant stakeholders through a review of scholarly output, an evaluation of the conformity between scientists and stakeholder views on forest fire issues, and an analysis of how different types of scientists and voice channels contribute the local needs to combat forest fire in Indonesia. This research indicates that although forest fire has cross-country border impacts, forest fire discourses were dominated by home country issues rather than the concerns of global forest fire events. Further, although information about forest fire is widely available in the scientific journals, the “knowledge utilization” of this information remains low. To improve “knowledge utilization”, scientists can use different channels to disseminate information, in addition to scientific journals. While socialeconomic aspects are perceived to be the prime problem of forest fire in Indonesia, the minimal presentation of social scientists within forest fire discourse is a concern. To address these primary concerns within and outside scientific journals, the involvement of social scientists within the forest fire discourse is very important.

  3. Numerical assessment of time-domain methods for the estimation of local arterial pulse wave speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey, Jordi

    2011-03-15

    A local estimation of pulse wave speed c, an important predictor of cardiovascular events, can be obtained at arterial locations where simultaneous measurements of blood pressure (P) and velocity (U), arterial diameter (D) and U, flow rate (Q) and cross-sectional area (A), or P and D are available, using the PU-loop, sum-of-squares (∑(2)), lnDU-loop, QA-loop or new D(2)P-loop methods. Here, these methods were applied to estimate c from numerically generated P, U, D, Q and A waveforms using a visco-elastic one-dimensional model of the 55 larger human systemic arteries in normal conditions. Theoretical c were calculated from the parameters of the model. Estimates of c given by the loop methods were closer to theoretical values and more uniform within each arterial segment than those obtained using the ∑(2). The smaller differences between estimates and theoretical values were obtained using the D(2)P-loop method, with root-mean-square errors (RMSE) smaller than 0.18 ms(-1), followed by averaging the two c given by the PU- and lnDU-loops (RMSE elastic effects were small and nearby junctions were well-matched for forward-travelling waves. The ∑(2) performed better at proximal locations. PMID:21211799

  4. An Assessment on the Production of Abrasive Sandpaper from Locally Sourced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Obot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of abrasive sandpaper made from two locally sourced and easily available materials, periwinkle and palm kernel shells was carried out to evaluate their viability as replacements for foreign imported abrasives sandpaper. Composites of crushed shells with polyester resin bond were developed separately for the periwinkle and palm kernel shell samples using mould compression, and the sandpaper prototype was produced using hand-spray method. A study on the physico-mechanical properties of the produced composite carried out was found that at 12 wt.% content of resin, periwinkle shell (PWS/resin composites had higher physico-mechanical properties such as density with 77.74 % difference, hardness with 17.13 % difference and compressive strength with 182.42 % difference over the palm kernel shell-resin composites. Water absorption for palm kernel (PKS shell/resin composite was a 186.59 % difference over the PWS/resin composite. Surface morphology using SEM revealed PWS/resin composite to have less distortional effects on the grains from compressive force of 15.7 N/mm2 applied compared to the palm kernel shell grains, and also shows PWS grains held together in close packing by the resin bond. The concentration used for sandpaper production was 87 wt.% of periwinkle shell grains to 12 wt.% of resin. The obtained physical and mechanical properties were compared to garnet sandpaper and found to be close to acceptable standards.

  5. Integration of remote sensing datasets for local scale assessment and prediction of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet E; Abbas, Sawaid

    2015-02-01

    Recent attempts to integrate remote sensing-based drought indices with precipitation data seem promising, and can compensate for potential uncertainties from image-based parameters alone, which may be unrelated to meteorological drought. However most remote sensing-based studies have been at regional or global scale and have not considered differences between different land cover types. This study examines a drought-prone region in Central Yunnan Province of China over a four-year period including a notable severe drought event in 2010. The study investigates the phase relationships between meteorological drought from image-based rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), and imaged drought from a remote sensing drought index, the Normalised Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI) for different land cover types at local scale. The land cover types derived from MODIS and Landsat images were resampled to 250 m to match all datasets used. Significant differences between cover types are observed, with cropland and shrubland most highly correlated with 64 days' earlier rainfall and evergreen forest most responsive to rainfall 90 days earlier, indicating a need to consider detailed land cover information for accurate integrated drought indices. The finding that concurrent rainfall is only weakly correlated with observed drought, suggests that existing drought indices, which compute lowest weightings for the most distant lag period would be unrepresentative.

  6. Quality Assessment of Shallow Groundwater in Some Selected Agrarian Communities in Patigi Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Musa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Study was conducted to determine the biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in agrarian communities. An in-situ membrane filtration test kit was used to determine the microbiological quality of water and a photometer was used for the chemical analyses. Water samples were collected from protected shallow wells during wet and dry seasons of the year 2012 to determine the change in quality with different seasons. The results of the analysis show that Gapkan had the least value of pH of 6.7 while Lade had the highest value of 8.4. ANOVA (P<0.05 showed pH to be statistically higher during the wet season than in the dry season. The conductivity during the wet season was observed to range between 1210 µS/cm and 1678 µS/cm for Kpada and Gakpan communities respectively. Turbidity values during the wet season ranged between 4 and 7 NTU while dry season analysis ranged between 2 and 3 NTU. Sulphate concentration was the lowest at 431 mg/L in Fey and highest of 532 mg/L at Duro and Rifun Woro during the wet season. Chloride content within the wet season varied between 260 and 269 mg/L while that of the dry season varied between 124 and 130 mg/L. Highest and lowest concentrations of nitrate recorded during wet season was 0.42 and 0.23 mg/L for Kusogi and Fey respectively. The colour observed during the wet season ranged between 17 TCU and 19TCU while that of the dry season ranged between 10 and 13 TCU. Current status of the water in the study areas are fit as source of drinking water for the community, though plans should be put in place for mini treatment plants that can serve these communities to enhance good drinking water delivery..

  7. Safety Assessment of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Hazards: An Analysis Supporting Reduced Animal Use for the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Haseman, Joseph K.; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Salicru, Eleni; Paris, Michael; Tice, Raymond R.; Stokes, William S.

    2010-01-01

    The original Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 429 (OECD TG 429) for the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) required five mice/group if mice were processed individually. We used data from 83 LLNA tests (275 treated groups) to determine the impact on the LLNA outcome of reducing the group size from five to four. From DPM measurements, we formed all possible four-mice and five-mice combinations for the treated and control groups. Stimulation index (SI) valu...

  8. Determination of the Support Level of Local Organizations in a Model Forest Initiative: Do Local Stakeholders Have Willingness to Be Involved in the Model Forest Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the theme of this study. Within this scope, the views of the stakeholders comprising local government units (LGUs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, village councils (VCs, professional organizations (POs and forest products enterprises (FPEs located in the district of Bucak were collected by utilizing a survey technique. The data were analysed by using non-parametric statistical analyses due to the absence of a normal distribution. The results show that the information provided about the Model Forest concept to the stakeholders located in the district on the Bucak Model Forest initiative was identified as a factor impacting the support level. Moreover, it was also observed that the stakeholders were more willing to provide advisory support rather than financial support. NGOs and VCs were identified as stakeholders who could not provide financial support due to their restricted budgets. We discuss the benefits for a Model Forest initiative of establishing international cooperation to strengthen the local and regional sustainable development process.

  9. Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rençber, Seda; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Yılmaz, Fethiye Ferda; Eraç, Bayri; Nenni, Merve; Özbal, Seda; Pekçetin, Çetin; Gurer-Orhan, Hande; Hoşgör-Limoncu, Mine; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP) formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS), polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Besides, evaluation of the antifungal effect of the optimum formulation was evaluated using agar diffusion method, fungicidal activity-related in vitro release study, and time-dependent fungicidal activity. The effect of the optimum NP formulation on the healing of oral candidiasis was investigated in an animal model, which was employed for the first time in this study. The zeta potential, mucoadhesion, and in vitro drug release studies of various NP formulations revealed that chitosan-coated NP formulation containing EUDRAGIT(®) RS 2.5% had superior properties than other formulations. Concerning the stability study of the selected formulation, the formulation was found to be stable for 6 months. During the ex vivo drug diffusion study, no drug was found in receptor phase, and this is an indication of local effect. The in vitro antifungal activity studies showed the in vitro efficacy of the NP against Candida albicans for an extended period. Also, the formulation had no cytotoxic effect at the tested concentration. For the in vivo experiments, infected rabbits were successfully treated with local administration of the optimum NP formulation once a day. This study has shown that the mucoadhesive NP formulation containing fluconazole is a promising candidate with once-a-day application for the local treatment of oral candidiasis.

  10. Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rençber, Seda; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Yılmaz, Fethiye Ferda; Eraç, Bayri; Nenni, Merve; Özbal, Seda; Pekçetin, Çetin; Gurer-Orhan, Hande; Hoşgör-Limoncu, Mine; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP) formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS), polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Besides, evaluation of the antifungal effect of the optimum formulation was evaluated using agar diffusion method, fungicidal activity-related in vitro release study, and time-dependent fungicidal activity. The effect of the optimum NP formulation on the healing of oral candidiasis was investigated in an animal model, which was employed for the first time in this study. The zeta potential, mucoadhesion, and in vitro drug release studies of various NP formulations revealed that chitosan-coated NP formulation containing EUDRAGIT® RS 2.5% had superior properties than other formulations. Concerning the stability study of the selected formulation, the formulation was found to be stable for 6 months. During the ex vivo drug diffusion study, no drug was found in receptor phase, and this is an indication of local effect. The in vitro antifungal activity studies showed the in vitro efficacy of the NP against Candida albicans for an extended period. Also, the formulation had no cytotoxic effect at the tested concentration. For the in vivo experiments, infected rabbits were successfully treated with local administration of the optimum NP formulation once a day. This study has shown that the mucoadhesive NP formulation containing fluconazole is a promising candidate with once-a-day application for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27358561

  11. Local structure of Ca(2+) induced hydrogels of alginate-oligoguluronate blends determined by small-angle-X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ami; Padoł, Anna Maria; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2016-11-01

    Short oligoguluronates, oligoG's, are reported to affect the ionotropic gelation of alginates both with respect to altered gelation kinetics and elastic properties of the resulting gels. The local structure of Ca(2+) induced changes in oligoguluronates and blends of oligoguluronates and alginates was determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calcium was introduced in the aqueous polysaccharide solutions by in situ release of Ca(2+) from Ca-EGTA. The scattering profiles of the Ca(2+)-induced structures in the alginate-oligoG blends were accounted for by a two-component broken rod-like model, also with an additional term representing structural inhomogeneity by a Debye-Bueche term. Adding oligoG to the alginate yields an increase in the largest cross-sectional radius in the region of fractional Ca(2+) saturation of α-l-GulA units from 0.5 to 1. The time-lapse characterization during the Ca-induced changes in the alginate-oligoG blends shows that oligoG delays the emergence of the more extensive laterally aggregated junction zones.

  12. Oxygen mass transfer and hydrodynamic behaviour in wastewater: determination of local impact of surfactants by visualization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Mélanie; Dietrich, Nicolas; Grace, John R; Hébrard, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Powerful techniques, based on the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, are deployed to locally visualize and quantify the impact of surfactants in wastewaters on hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer. Bubble diameter, aspect ratio, rise velocity, contamination angle, as well as flux, flux density, liquid side mass transfer and diffusion coefficients of transferred oxygen are determined based on these techniques applied in the wake of rising bubbles of diameter 1 mm and through planar gas/liquid interfaces. The initial experiments were performed in demineralized water containing small amounts of surfactant. Different concentrations of surfactant were added to finally reach the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). Bubbles have classically been found to be more spherical with a reduced rise velocity in the presence of surfactants up to the CMC. Above the CMC, these hydrodynamic characteristics were found to be almost constant, although the oxygen mass transfer decreased due to the presence of surfactants. Experimental results were markedly lower than predicted by the well-known Frössling equation with rigid surfaces. This is believed to be caused by a barrier of surfactants hindering the oxygen mass transfer at the interface. Similar hindrance of oxygen mass transfer applies to waters from sewage plants (filtered raw water and treated water), making accurate design of aeration tanks difficult.

  13. Separating Hazardous Aerosols from Ambient Aerosols: Role of Fluorescence-Spectral Determination, Aerodynamic Deflector and Pulse Aerodynamic Localizer (PAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Cobler, Patrick J.; Rhodes, Scott A.; Halverson, Justin; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-08-22

    An aerosol deflection technique based on the single-shot UV-laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from a flowing particle is presented as a possible front-end bio-aerosol/hazardous-aerosol sensor/identifier. Cued by the fluorescence spectra, individual flowing bio-aerosol particles (1-10 {micro}m in diameter) have been successfully deflected from a stream of ambient aerosols. The electronics needed to compare the fluorescence spectrum of a particular particle with that of a pre-determined fluorescence spectrum are presented in some detail. The deflected particles, with and without going through a funnel for pulse aerodynamic localization (PAL), were collected onto a substrate for further analyses. To demonstrate how hazardous materials can be deflected, TbCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O (a simulant material for some chemical forms of Uranium Oxide) aerosol particles (2 {micro}m in diameter) mixed with Arizona road dust was separated and deflected with our system.

  14. Analysis of wastewater as a new approach to determine the amount of drugs intake by local communities. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Boroń

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis of wastewater in terms of the amount of illegal drugs and their metabolites is a modern method of research, which is considered to be an objective and effective way to determine the amount of substances taken and excreted by humans. The results obtained in a real time allow for a quick identification of the quantitative and qualitative changes of the drugs intake. Such approach allows to estimate the daily intake of the drug by the local communities in terms of cities, countries and even the continent. Most often the estimation refers to the intake of the following drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis. The wastewater`s monitoring provides information on the dynamics of the drug level changes depending on the weekday, and the general trend in a year. Retrospective estimation of drug intake carries errors, dependent from sampling, sewer system tightness, the stability of the analytes and mixtures of the wastewater itself but remains objective by providing very valuable information for the institutions struggling with drug crime.

  15. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Bustin, Paul M J; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports, and (2) to evaluate these instruments regarding their validity for talent development. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect and SPORTDiscus (1990 to 31 March 2014). Search terms represented tennis, table tennis, badminton and squash, the concept of talent, methods of testing and children. Thirty articles with information regarding over 100 instruments were included. Validity evaluation showed that instruments focusing on intellectual and perceptual abilities, and coordinative skills discriminate elite from non-elite players and/or are related to current performance, but their predictive validity is not confirmed. There is moderate evidence that the assessments of mental and goal management skills predict future performance. Data on instruments measuring physical characteristics prohibit a conclusion due to conflicting findings. This systematic review yielded an ambiguous end point. The lack of longitudinal studies precludes verification of the instrument's capacity to forecast future performance. Future research should focus on instruments assessing multidimensional talent determinants and their predictive value in longitudinal designs. PMID:26109450

  16. An Assessment of Records Management Practice in Selected Local Government Councils in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare, Abdullahi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What government does/fails to do is conveyed to the public largely by records and information of various types in the public service, without which there will be no government. When records are poorly managed, much time is involved in sorting and locating needed information from large volumes of records. The rate of records misplaced or lost from which useful information for decision making is usually obtained makes it difficult to provide concise and up-to-date records of both past and present operations, raising the challenge of effective record-keeping. Thus this study examined records management practices in selected local government councils in Ogun State, Nigeria, adopting the descriptive survey research method using questionnaires for data collection. Its population comprised 415 records of personnel in the selected councils, of which 208 were sampled using simple random technique. From the 208 copies of the questionnaire administered on the registry personnel, 150 copies were useable, with a 72.12% response rate. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. The results indicated a prevalence of paper as the dominant medium for recording/conveying information in the councils with most of these being either in active state, semi-active, and vital and were kept and maintained in the registry, while in-active records were kept in the records store. Storage facilities for record-keeping were insufficient. Security measures against unauthorized access to records were by restrictions and subject users to managerial clearance. The study concluded that council records were in chaos and recommended the formulation of coherent records management policy, adequate budgetary provision, and adequate finance.

  17. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  18. Availability, content and quality of local guidelines for the assessment of suicide attempters in university and general hospitals in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Waarde, J.A. van; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Gerritsen, G.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the availability, content and quality of local guidelines for the assessment of suicide attempters in the Netherlands. METHOD: All university and general hospitals in the Netherlands were asked to provide their local guidelines. Published national g

  19. Marketing prospect and assessment for local manufacture of wind converters in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakpahan, S.; Utami, N.S.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Indonesia provide opportunities to improve the delivery of electricity consumption for small and medium scale applications particularly for rural and remote areas and will be developed as the part of national rural electrification programs. By proper selection of design, this kind of energy source has shown to be a technically proven and affordable means of providing electricity at those areas. The promotion of WECS technology have been initiated in Indonesia by establishing some pilot projects at selected areas while in commercialization efforts, several private companies are now being involved. Dissemination of WECS technology should be based on proper selection of WECS types including economic consideration and marketing programs; for obtaining this, manufacturing of some WECS components / parts have been initiating using available materials and components; while other components that`s still not producible in Indonesia will be produced by cooperation with industry. In addition, wind resource assessments will be extended sustainably in order to identify more potential areas and locations. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Gender Differences in Musculoskeletal Lipid Metabolism as Assessed by Localized Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendhil Velan; Department of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in lipid metabolism are poorly understood and difficult to study using conventional approaches. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS permits non-invasive investigation of lipid metabolism. We employed novel two- dimensional MRS techniques to quantify intramyocellular (IMCL and extramyocellular (EMCL lipid compartments and their degree of unsaturation in normal weight adult male and female subjects. Using muscle creatine (Cr for normalization, a statistically significant (p 0.05 increase in IMCL/Cr (7.8 ± 1.6 and EMCL/Cr (22.5 ± 3.6 for female subjects was observed (n = 8, as compared to IMCL/Cr (5.9 ± 1.7 and EMCL/Cr (18.4 ± 2.64 for male subjects. The degree of unsaturation within IMCL and EMCL was lower in female subjects, 1.3 ± 0.075 and 1.04 ± 0.06, respectively, as compared to that observed in males (n = 8, 1.5 ± 0.08 and 1.12 ± 0.03, respectively (p 0.05 male vs female for both comparisons. We conclude that certain salient gender differences in lipid metabolism can be assessed noninvasively by advanced MRS approaches.

  1. Glutamine transaminase K intranephron localization in rats determined by urinary excretion after treatment with segment-specific nephrotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, A.; Fanelli, G.; Bicciato, F.; Stocco, E. [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Univ. of Padova (Italy); Cristofori, P. [Medicine Safety Evaluation, Pathology Department, GlaxoWellcome S.p.A., Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamine transaminase K(GTK) excretion assessed in urine and by kidney histology was evaluated in rats after single treatment with 1.0 mg/kg i.p. of mercuric chloride, 100 mg/kg i.p. of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (both S{sub 3}, pars recta, segment-specific nephrotoxicants) and 25 mg/kg s.c. of potassium dichromate (S{sub 1}-S{sub 2}, pars convoluta, segment-specific nephrotoxicant). The aim was to correlate segment-specific injury and enzyme excretion in order to assess, using non-vasive methods, localization of GTK along the proximal tubule. Mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene produced early focal damage in the pars recta (focal necrosis was shown 10 h after treatment, and diffuse necrosis appeared later at 34 and 24 h after treatment). Changes of the pars convoluta were occasional and delayed (72 h after treatment for both substances). On the contrary, potassium dichromate induced damage of the pars convoluta (vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis were evident 24 h and 48 h after treatment, respectively), whereas the pars recta was affected later (focal vacuolar degeneration was observed 72 h after treatment). Increase urinary GTK excretion was early after treatment with mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (significant increase was observed within 10 h), with a peak for both substances 24 h after treatment, in agreement with the necrosis of the pars recta. Potassium dichromate induced a significant increase of enzyme excretion in urine also 24 h after injection, according to histological features showing vacuolar degeneration of the pars convoluta; the peak of excretion was reached 48 h after treatment (delay was due, probably, to s.c. administration). The results show that GTK increased in urine after treatment with S{sub 3}and S {sub 1}-S {sub 2} specific nephrotoxicants; the combination of histological examination and urinary enzyme supports the evidence that the enzyme is distributed along the whole of the proximal tubule. (orig

  2. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  3. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  4. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Layton, D.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rutz, E.E. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils.

  5. Phase analysis and determination of local charge carrier concentration in eutectic Mg{sub 2}Si–Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E.M., E-mail: levin@iastate.edu [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hanus, R. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Cui, J. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Xing, Q.; Riedemann, T. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lograsso, T.A. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Schmidt-Rohr, K. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Multiphase materials attract attention due to possible combination of various properties attributed to each phase. The phase diagram of Mg–Si system shows that solidification of a melt containing about 45 and 55 at.% of Mg and Si should result in formation of Mg{sub 2}Si and Si. Two alloys, Mg{sub 45}Si{sub 55} and Mg{sub 46}Si{sub 54} + 0.5 wt.% Cu have been synthesized and studied using XRD, SEM, and {sup 29}Si NMR at 300 K, and the Seebeck effect, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300–750 K have been measured. {sup 29}Si NMR detects two distinct signals, at −177 and −80 ppm, in both materials, which are assigned to Mg{sub 2}Si and Si phases, respectively. Both phases are slightly nonstoichiometric and doped with Mg. Two phases also are found by XRD and electron microscopy. {sup 29}Si NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in Mg{sub 2}Si and Si phases show at least two components, short and long, which can be attributed to different local carrier concentrations, high and low, respectively, reflecting a local electronic inhomogeneity in each phase. The carrier concentrations range between 0.6 × 10{sup 19} and 9 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The Seebeck coefficient in both alloys is mostly determined by the Si phase, while the thermal conductivity is limited by the Mg{sub 2}Si phase with a lower value than that of the Si phase. By utilizing all characterization tools, we show how various experimental methods can be used as complementary methods to better understand the individual and combined properties of multiphase alloys. - Highlights: • Two distinct phases, Mg{sub 2}Si and Si, are found in Mg{sub 45}Si{sub 55} and Mg{sub 46}Si{sub 54} + 0.5 wt.% Cu alloys. • {sup 29}Si NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements demonstrate two relaxation components in each phase. • XRD, electron microscopy, and NMR have been demonstrated as complementary methods to study multiphase alloys.

  6. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  7. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada); Redekop, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: dredekop@tesla.cc.uottawa.ca

    2005-03-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading.

  8. An integrated system for the determination of the local, regional and long-transport contributions to Particulate Matter concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Daresta, B. E.; de Gennaro, G.; di Gilio, A.; Ielpo, P.,; Placentino, C. M.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M.

    2010-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the negative effects of air pollution on human health, which range from respiratory and cardiovascular disease to neurotoxic effects, and cancer. Most recent investigations have been focused on health toxicological features of Particulate Matter (PM) and its interactions with other pollutants: it was found that fine particles (PM2.5) could be an effective media to transport these pollutants deeply into the lung and to cause many kind of reactions which include oxidative stress, local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses (Künzli and Perez, 2009). Based on these implications on public health, many countries have developed plans to suggest effective control strategies which involve the identification of Particulate Matter sources, the quantitative estimation of the emission rates of the pollutants, the understanding of PM transport, mixing and transformation processes and the identification of main factors influencing PM concentrations. In this field, receptor models can be useful tools to estimate sources contributions to PM collected in an area under investigations. Different approaches to receptor model analysis can be distinguished on basis of whether chemical characteristics of emission sources are required to be known before the source apportionment. The multivariate approach could be preferred when a lack of information concerning sources profiles occurred (Hopke, 2003). In this work, the results obtained by applying an integrated approach in the monitoring of PM using several typologies of instrumentations will be shown. A prototype for the determination of the contributions of a single source (‘fugitive emission') on the fine PM concentrations has been developed: it consists of a Swam dual-channel sampler, an OPC Monitor, a sonic anemometer and a PBL Mixing monitor. The investigated site chosen for the application of prototype will be the iron and steel pole of Taranto (Apulia Region, South of Italy

  9. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    extirpation for a local population may rapidly increase with only minimal increases in wind mortality. Conservation biologists and wildlife managers may need to consider this mortality pattern when issuing take permits and developing monitoring protocols for wind facilities. We also describe how our branching process models may be generalized across a wider range of species for a larger assessment project and then describe how our methods may be applied to other stressors in addition to wind.

  10. Generic assessment procedures for determining protective actions during a reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides the tools, procedures and data needed to evaluate the consequences of a nuclear accident occurring at a nuclear power plant throughout all phases of the emergency before, during and after a release of radioactive material. It is intended for use by on-site and off-site groups responsible for evaluating the accident consequences and making recommendations for the protection of the plant personnel, the emergency workers and the public. The scope of this manual is restricted to the technical assessment of radiological consequences. It does not address the emergency response infrastructure requirements, nor does it cover the emergency management aspects of accident assessment (e.g. reporting, staff qualification, shift replacement, and procedure implementation). The procedures and methods in this manual were developed based on a number of assumptions concerning the design and operation of the nuclear power plant and national practices. Therefore, this manual must be reviewed as part of the planning process to match the potential accidents, local conditions, national criteria and other unique characteristics of an area or nuclear reactor where it may be used. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Establishing the Basis for a Multi-Purpose Local Labor Market Information System: Assessment of User Need and Data Availability. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, George; Meredith, Dwight

    To develop a coordinated interagency effort to improve North Carolina citizen access to employment opportunities, a statewide assessment was conducted of the availability and need for local labor market information in 1977-1978. Need and availability was assessed across five state agencies--Vocational Education, Community Colleges, CETA…

  12. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  13. A WTG system for local grid supply substitution: stages to implementation and monitoring. Wind resource assessment, Carmichael Estate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thinking behind the setting up of a wind energy demonstration project on the Carmichael Estate, Lanark UK, is outlined. The feasibility study was carried out in 1994. The main objectives of the project were: (i) to provide a showcase for wind energy for both local use and for export to the national grid; (ii) to test the institutional problems likely to be encountered in constructing and operating the facility; (iii) to obtain information on the properties of an installation novel to the European market and (iv) to promote manufacture of advanced small to medium sized grid connectable units for both the home and the European market by helping inward investment. The paper reports on activities prior to deployment of the turbine, including assessment of the suitability of the site

  14. Assessing the Quality of a Local Authority Conference and Hospitality Venue Using the ServQual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Mike

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The close attention paid to service quality by successful private companies has become part of the environment within which most public service organizations now operate. The ServQual model has been used with success to help companies quantify customers' expectations and perceptions of their service and to use this analysis as the basis for improvement. More recently, the ServQual approach has been applied in public service contexts with mixed reliability and validity. This paper reports on the application of the ServQual model to a conference and hospitality venue operated by a Scottish local authority. The study investigates five distinct customer segments: conferences, meetings, receptions, performances, and weddings. The expectations-perceptions gaps are assessed for each of these segments using the ServQual model and the size and antecedents of ServQual Gap 1 is also examined.

  15. Assessing Local Administrations In Respect Of Public Relations: Eskişehir Tepebaşi Muncipality Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Uzoğlu Bayçu; Sezen Ünlü; Canan Uluyağcı

    2011-01-01

    Today, local administrations have an important position in societies. Concepts particularly including participation, citizen orientation and transparence started to gain important position within management approach. Accordingly, local administration restructuring gained significance.Local administration services should be managed in a professional manner. Good servicing, satisfaction of the local community from the services offered and trouble-free performance of works related with local adm...

  16. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere

  17. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  18. internal radiation dose assessment due to ionizing radio contaminants in some local foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 30 years, radioactivity has been monitored in foodstuffs in Egypt. The present work deals with the radioactivity monitored during two years (1990 - 1992) at eight major Egyptian governorates. Sampled food items were selected to cover most foodstuffs eaten by egyptian population according to their habits. The daily food consumption by egyptian population and the constituents of such consumption were estimated according to published international data and knowledge of the different feeding habits of the egyptians. About 1200 samples were collected from the markets of the main city of each governorate and prepared for counting according to the egyptian kitchen habits. The counting systems used in determination and indentification of radionuclides were : a 3 inch HPGe detector attached to 800 channel MCA and PC and a 3 inch phoswich detector attached to an anticoincidence circuit for low beta / gamma counting. The gamma spectroscopy system was calibrated using isotopic solution mixture while the low beta counting system was calibrated using H CI. Counting time for the first system was 20 - 72 hours and for the second system was half to one hour. The main radionuclides identified in foodstuffs were Cs - 137 and K - 40 . The radioactivity concentration of Cs - 137 was found to be in the range between 1.0 Bq / Kg for macaroni and 3.5 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The K - 40 concentration range between 19 Bq / Kg for macaroni to 363 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The population weighted values in case of Cs - 137 was found as 3.56 Bq /d and for K - 40 was 188 Bq /d. The resulted effective dose due to food intake was found be 16 . 4 U Sv /a for Cs-137 and 354 μSv / a for K -40 . This value for Cs - 137 is found in the exemption limit while that of K -40 is twice the published value. This may depend on the egyptian feeding habit which depends mainly on wheat (bread) and nile beans which are very rich in potassium.The resulted collective dose was found to be : 21323 person

  19. Assessment of Neuroprotective Effects of Local Administration of 17- Beta- Estradiol on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Nobakhti-Afshar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the neuroprotective effects of local administration of 17- beta- estradiol on nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty female Wistar rats were overiectomized and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15, randomly: In autograft group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and re-implanted reversely. In sham-surgery group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using a silicon conduit filled with 10 µL (0.1 mg/mL 17- beta- estradiol. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in other groups (p<0.05. Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in other groups. Conclusion: Local administration of 17-beta-estradiol improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection.

  20. Assessment of Neuroprotective Effects of Local Administration of 17- Beta- Estradiol on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakhti-Afshar, Ahmadreza; Najafpour, Alireza; Mohammadi, Rahim; Zarei, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the neuroprotective effects of local administration of 17- beta- estradiol on nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty female Wistar rats were overiectomized and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: In autograft group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and re-implanted reversely. In sham-surgery group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using a silicon conduit filled with 10 µL (0.1 mg/mL) 17- beta- estradiol. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in other groups (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in other groups. Conclusion: Local administration of 17-beta-estradiol improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection. PMID:27540548

  1. Environmental Assessment for Small- and Medium-Scale Road Projects Implemented in Local Authority Areas: A Case Study from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparb Trethanya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Thailand, an Environmental Assessment (EA is conducted only for projects prescribed by environmental legislation. Numerous projects, especially those that are small- and medium-scale in size and scope, are implemented in areas by a local authority without any type of EA. Based on a comparative analysis of the environmental status of large-, medium- and small-scale road development projects implemented by a local authority in Thailand, this paper attempts to justify the enforcement of EAs for medium- and small-scale projects. The justification is mainly based on theperceptions of people affected by these projects. Environmental impact scores, computed on the basis of people’s perceptions, reveal that, irrespective of the size of a project, the impacts caused by different sized projects are perceived as similar. Since every development project is implemented for the purpose of human development, this paper proposes to integrate environmental screening and initial EAs into the existing development control measures enforced by urban planning regulations and laws.

  2. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5]. PMID:26217807

  3. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zea Escamilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI. All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount into mass (kg units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road and international (freight ship, which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5

  4. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone. PMID:17690924

  5. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  6. An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Poulsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts. The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ≤ 70, 24 scored 71–80 (referred for behavioural modification, and 82 (score > 80 failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well.

  7. Levels of selected heavy metals in varieties of vegetable oils consumed in kingdom of saudi arabia and health risk assessment of local population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 meug/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population. (author)

  8. Development of the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process for Determining Environmental Flows for New Jersey Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Henriksen, James A.; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The natural flow regime paradigm and parallel stream ecological concepts and theories have established the benefits of maintaining or restoring the full range of natural hydrologic variation for physiochemical processes, biodiversity, and the evolutionary potential of aquatic and riparian communities. A synthesis of recent advances in hydroecological research coupled with stream classification has resulted in a new process to determine environmental flows and assess hydrologic alteration. This process has national and international applicability. It allows classification of streams into hydrologic stream classes and identification of a set of non-redundant and ecologically relevant hydrologic indices for 10 critical sub-components of flow. Three computer programs have been developed for implementing the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process (HIP): (1) the Hydrologic Indices Tool (HIT), which calculates 171 ecologically relevant hydrologic indices on the basis of daily-flow and peak-flow stream-gage data; (2) the New Jersey Hydrologic Assessment Tool (NJHAT), which can be used to establish a hydrologic baseline period, provide options for setting baseline environmental-flow standards, and compare past and proposed streamflow alterations; and (3) the New Jersey Stream Classification Tool (NJSCT), designed for placing unclassified streams into pre-defined stream classes. Biological and multivariate response models including principal-component, cluster, and discriminant-function analyses aided in the development of software and implementation of the HIP for New Jersey. A pilot effort is currently underway by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in which the HIP is being used to evaluate the effects of past and proposed surface-water use, ground-water extraction, and land-use changes on stream ecosystems while determining the most effective way to integrate the process into ongoing regulatory programs. Ultimately, this scientifically defensible

  9. Health-related quality of life in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer. Assessment with the SF-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 8-items Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) questionnaire in Japanese patients with early prostate cancer. A cross-sectional analysis was done in 457 patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and watchful waiting or a combination these therapies. General HRQOL was measured using the Japanese version of the SF-8 questionnaire and disease-specific HRQOL was assessed using the Japanese version of the Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite. The external beam radiotherapy group reported significantly lower values for the physical health component summary score (PCS) in comparison to the radical prostatectomy and brachytherapy groups (P<0.05). In the analysis of both the PCS and the mental health component summary score (MCS) over time after treatment, higher scores with time were found in the radical prostatectomy group. No significant change over time after androgen deprivation therapy in the PCS was found. In contrast, the MCS was found to deteriorate in the early period, showing a significant increase over time. SF-8 in combination with the Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite has shown to be a helpful tool in the HRQOL assessment of Japanese patients treated for localized prostate cancer. (author)

  10. Assessing Landscape Constraints on Species Abundance: Does the Neighborhood Limit Species Response to Local Habitat Conservation Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Powell, Larkin A.; Lusk, Jeffery J.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants. PMID:24918779

  11. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhath Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61% was most prevalent, followed by Type I′ (28%, Type II (9%, Type III (2%, Type IV (1%, and Type V (1%; in the male population, Type I (33% was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%, Type III (18%, Type IV (14%, Type I′ (10%, and Type V (3%. Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870 and females (κ = 0.870. Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  12. Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rençber S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seda Rençber,1 Sinem Yaprak Karavana,1 Fethiye Ferda Yilmaz,2 Bayri Eraç,2 Merve Nenni,3 Seda Özbal,4 Çetin Pekçetin,4 Hande Gurer-Orhan,3 Mine Hoşgör Limoncu,2 Pelin Güneri,5 Gökhan Ertan11Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Ege University, Bornova, Turkey; 4Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Inciralti, Turkey; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Ege University, Bornova, TurkeyAbstract: This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS, polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Besides, evaluation of the antifungal effect of the optimum formulation was evaluated using agar diffusion method, fungicidal activity-related in vitro release study, and time-dependent fungicidal activity. The effect of the optimum NP formulation on the healing of oral candidiasis was investigated in an animal model, which was employed for the first time in this study. The zeta potential, mucoadhesion, and in vitro drug release studies of various NP formulations revealed that chitosan-coated NP formulation containing EUDRAGIT® RS 2.5% had superior properties than other formulations. Concerning the stability study of the selected formulation, the formulation was found to be stable for 6 months. During the ex vivo drug diffusion study, no drug was found in receptor phase, and this is an indication of local effect. The in vitro antifungal

  13. Mechanical assessment of local bone quality to predict failure of locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röderer, Götz; Brianza, Stefano; Schiuma, Damiano; Schwyn, Ronald; Scola, Alexander; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Gebhard, Florian; Tami, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The importance of osteoporosis in proximal humerus fractures is well recognized. However, the local distribution of bone quality in the humeral head may also have a significant effect because it remains unclear in what quality of bone screws of standard implants purchase. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the failure of proximal humerus locked plating can be predicted by the DensiProbe (ARI, Davos, Switzerland). A 2-part fracture with metaphyseal impaction was simulated in 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric humeri. Using the DensiProbe, local bone quality was determined in the humeral head in the course of 6 proximal screws of a standard locking plate (Philos; Synthes GmbH, Solothurn, Switzerland). Cyclic mechanical testing with increasing axial loading until failure was performed. Bone mineral density (BMD) significantly correlated with cycles until failure. Head migration significantly increased between 1000 and 2000 loading cycles and significantly correlated with BMD after 3000 cycles. DensiProbe peak torque in all screw positions and their respective mean torque correlated significantly with the BMD values. In 3 positions, the peak torque significantly correlated with cycles to failure; here BMD significantly influenced mechanical stability. The validity of the DensiProbe was proven by the correlation between its peak torque measurements and BMD. The correlation between the peak torque and cycles to failure revealed the potential of the DensiProbe to predict the failure of locked plating in vitro. This method provides information about local bone quality, potentially making it suitable for intraoperative use by allowing the surgeon to take measures to improve stability.

  14. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pareas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  15. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ye

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05 than provincial protected areas (PPAs and other protected areas (OPAs, respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3% than PPAs (34.8% and OPAs (33.4% in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01. To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  16. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori; R. Hernández Rubio; M. Piedra Díaz

    2006-01-01

    En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras...

  17. The total amount of DNA damage determines ultraviolet-radiation-induced cytotoxicity after uniform or localized irradiation of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have recently developed a micropore ultraviolet irradiation technique. An isopore membrane filter with 3 μm diameter pores shields ultraviolet C radiation from cultured human fibroblasts, leading to partial irradiation within the cells with an average of about three exposed areas per nucleus. This study addressed the question of whether the spatial distribution of DNA damage within a cell nucleus is important in triggering ultraviolet-induced cytotoxicity. We have examined whether there are differences in cytotoxicity between partially ultraviolet-irradiated cells and uniformly irradiated cells after equal amounts of DNA damage were induced in the cell nuclei. We first determined DNA damage formation in normal human fibroblasts using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 5 J per m2 ultraviolet irradiation produced an equivalent amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts per cell as 100 J per m2 with the membrane filter shield. At those doses, we found that both types of ultraviolet irradiation induced similar levels of cytotoxicity as assessed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4- sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. Both types of ultraviolet-irradiated cells also had similar cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis as measured by flow cytometry. Moreover, no significant differences in repair kinetics for either type of photolesion were observed between the two different ultraviolet treatments. Similar results were obtained in Cockayne syndrome cells that are defective in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Present results indicate that in the range of photoproducts studied, the spatial distribution of DNA damage within a cell is less important than the amount of damage in triggering ultraviolet-induced cytotoxicity

  18. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; P. K. Bøcher; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Z. Q. Hao; H. D. Gong; Zhang, Y.T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; J.-C. Svenning

    2013-01-01

    The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to dat...

  19. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and paleoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; P. K. Bøcher; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Z. Q. Hao; H. D. Gong; Zhang, Y.T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; J.-C. Svenning

    2014-01-01

    The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese fo...

  20. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  1. Assessment of social psychological determinants of satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracke Piet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fulfilment of expectations, labour pain, personal control and self-efficacy determine the postpartum evaluation of birth. However, researchers have seldom considered the multiple determinants in one analysis. To explore to what extent the results can be generalised between countries, we analyse data of Belgian and Dutch women. Although Belgium and the Netherlands share the same language, geography and political system and have a common history, their health care systems diverge. The Belgian maternity care system corresponds to the ideal type of the medical model, whereas the Dutch system approaches the midwifery model. In this paper we examine multiple determinants, the fulfilment of expectations, labour pain, personal control and self-efficacy, for their association with satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective. Methods Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first 2 weeks after childbirth either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 560 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004–2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept. Labour pain was rated retrospectively using Visual Analogue Scales. Personal control was assessed with the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire and Pearlin and Schooler's mastery scale. A hierarchical linear analysis was performed. Results Satisfaction with childbirth benefited most consistently from the fulfilment of expectations. In addition, the experience of personal control buffered the lowering impact of labour pain. Women with high self-efficacy showed more satisfaction with self-, midwife- and physician-related aspects of the birth experience. Conclusion Our

  2. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  3. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge; Joanne Saher; Theresa Childers

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  4. A comparative assessment of alternatives to the full-leg radiograph for determining knee joint alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navali Amir M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of alternative measures of frontal plane knee alignment, namely the radiographic anatomic axis and two clinical measures in patients complaining of knee malalignment as compared with the mechanical axis on full-length radiograph of lower limbs. Methods The knee-alignment angle was measured in 100 knees of 50 subjects with the chief complaint of frontal knee malalignment according to the following methods: lower-limb mechanical axis on radiograph, lower-limb anatomic axis on radiograph, distance between medial femoral condyles or medial malleoli using a calliper and lower-limb alignment using a goniometer. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. Results The anatomic axis best correlated with the mechanical axis (r = 0.93, P Conclusions The anatomic axis on radiograph, the calliper method and to a lesser extent the goniometer measurement appear to be valid alternatives to the mechanical axis on full-leg radiograph for determining frontal plane knee alignment. These alternative measures have the potential to provide useful information regarding knee alignment and may increase the assessment of this parameter by clinicians and researchers.

  5. Assessing the Uncertainties on Seismic Source Parameters: Towards Realistic Estimates of Moment Tensor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, F.; Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Casarotti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic moment tensor is one of the most important source parameters defining the earthquake dimension and style of the activated fault. Moment tensor catalogues are ordinarily used by geoscientists, however, few attempts have been done to assess possible impacts of moment magnitude uncertainties upon their own analysis. The 2012 May 20 Emilia mainshock is a representative event since it is defined in literature with a moment magnitude value (Mw) spanning between 5.63 and 6.12. An uncertainty of ~0.5 units in magnitude leads to a controversial knowledge of the real size of the event. The possible uncertainty associated to this estimate could be critical for the inference of other seismological parameters, suggesting caution for seismic hazard assessment, coulomb stress transfer determination and other analyses where self-consistency is important. In this work, we focus on the variability of the moment tensor solution, highlighting the effect of four different velocity models, different types and ranges of filtering, and two different methodologies. Using a larger dataset, to better quantify the source parameter uncertainty, we also analyze the variability of the moment tensor solutions depending on the number, the epicentral distance and the azimuth of used stations. We endorse that the estimate of seismic moment from moment tensor solutions, as well as the estimate of the other kinematic source parameters, cannot be considered an absolute value and requires to come out with the related uncertainties and in a reproducible framework characterized by disclosed assumptions and explicit processing workflows.

  6. In vivo assessment in sheep of thromboresistant materials by determination of platelet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon, J N; Collins, R E; Coe, N P; Jagoda, A; Brier-Russell, D; Merrill, E W; Salzman, E W

    1980-01-01

    The thromboresistance of 13 potentially blood-compatible polymers was assessed in sheep by determining survival of 51Cr-labeled platelets. Polymer tubing (120-150 cm x 2.0-2.3 mm i.d.) coiled around the neck was incorporated into the circulation through silicone rubber connectors as a carotid artery-external jugular vein shunt. The mean platelet half-life in control animals ("shunt control") was 78.2 +/- 2.8 (SEM) hours. Eleven of the 13 polymers tested significantly shortened platelet half-life. Polyvinyl chloride (T1/2 = 45.4 +/- 3.0 hours), polyperfluoro ethylene (T1/2 = 47.0 +/-1.6 hours), and a polymethylacrylate (PMA)/acrilonitrile copolymer (T1/2 = 50.7 +/- 7.0 hours) produced the greatest shortening. Only silica-free polydimethyl siloxane (T1/2 = 74.7 +/- 4.9 hours) and PMA (T1/2 = 81.5 +/- 3.4 hours) were indistinguishable from shunt controls. Pretreatment of PMA tubing with autologous plasma in a paired trial significantly increased platelet half-life (P less than 0.05 vs. untreated PMA). This system offers an economical, reproducible, sensitive, and biologically relevant method for assessment of the reactivity of artificial surfaces with platelets. PMID:7349921

  7. Differences in water depth determine leaf-litter decomposition in streams: implications on impact assessment reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter decomposition is a widespread functional indicator to assess the stream ecosystem status. However, the spatial location of leaf-bags could distort the impact assessment since intrinsic features of a given site have an important role in the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates, which could affect decomposition rate. A source of variability that can be easily controlled is the water depth at which bags are incubated in stream bed. Therefore, we tested if water depth within a same mesohabitat (riffles can determine decomposition rates. Due to the seasonal variability of macroinvertebrate assemblages in temperate regions, the study was performed in autumn-winter and spring to test the consistency of the findings. In three streams from North of Spain 15 mesh bags with alder leaves were placed in riffles covering a gradient of depths. Depth had a positive effect on decomposition rates and biomass of associated total invertebrates and shredders in autumn-winter, fauna variables helping to explain the differences in rates. In spring, depth affected negatively rates, the observed variability being weakly explained by invertebrates, which did not show differences along depth. Despite the opposite trend between seasons, water depth influences the decomposition rates, which may reduce or increase differences among systems if the water depth distribution is greatly biased. Our study highlights the importance of covering a similar range of water depths in the different systems being compared.

  8. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, L.; Grive, M.; Cera, E.; Gaona, X.; Domenech, C.; Bruno, J. [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    This report presents the results for solubility limit calculations for the SR-Can assessment. It has been organized into five chapters that constitute the core of the report, supported by several appendices containing additional and supporting information. The updated thermodynamic database used to conduct the solubility calculations has been issued as a separate report. The near field system for which the concentration limits of the radionuclides are assessed and the scenarios selected by SKB to calculate the solubility limits are thoroughly described. Several sources of information have been used to support the calculated solubility limits. In particular results from selected spent fuel dissolution experiments and natural analogue data are discussed to introduce the proper perspective to the results from the thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the main conceptual and numerical uncertainties associated to the assessment of the concentration limits of each element are numerically evaluated and discussed. Equilibrium calculations have been conducted to select the solubility limiting solid phase for each element. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of parameters of interest for each element is presented and the impact of the uncertainties identified on the solubility of each element quantified. The results are presented in a series of tables containing the calculated solubility for each radionuclide under the reference conditions. Finally concentration limits that are recommended result from the expert judgement built-up around the various sources of information together with the quantification of radionuclide solubility data and their associated uncertainties. The results are compared to previous solubility limits determination performed by SKB in SR 97, as well as the recommended values from other HLNW management organisations.

  9. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results for solubility limit calculations for the SR-Can assessment. It has been organized into five chapters that constitute the core of the report, supported by several appendices containing additional and supporting information. The updated thermodynamic database used to conduct the solubility calculations has been issued as a separate report. The near field system for which the concentration limits of the radionuclides are assessed and the scenarios selected by SKB to calculate the solubility limits are thoroughly described. Several sources of information have been used to support the calculated solubility limits. In particular results from selected spent fuel dissolution experiments and natural analogue data are discussed to introduce the proper perspective to the results from the thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the main conceptual and numerical uncertainties associated to the assessment of the concentration limits of each element are numerically evaluated and discussed. Equilibrium calculations have been conducted to select the solubility limiting solid phase for each element. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of parameters of interest for each element is presented and the impact of the uncertainties identified on the solubility of each element quantified. The results are presented in a series of tables containing the calculated solubility for each radionuclide under the reference conditions. Finally concentration limits that are recommended result from the expert judgement built-up around the various sources of information together with the quantification of radionuclide solubility data and their associated uncertainties. The results are compared to previous solubility limits determination performed by SKB in SR 97, as well as the recommended values from other HLNW management organisations

  10. Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory (HUSCO): A concept to assess the impact of moisture and energy fluxes of urban soils on local climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, S.; Ament, F.; Kutzbach, L.; Eschenbach, A.

    2010-09-01

    Soil as a storage and transmitter for water and thermal energy is able to influence and modify the local climate. The aim of this research project is a more precise understanding of the interactions between pedosphere and atmosphere in urban environments. HUSCO focuses on the impact of the modified soil hydrology by different typical urban structural units. The local effect of groundwater and soil properties on meteorological variables in the urban environment will be assessed by integrated flux measurements over urban districts with different groundwater table depth and urban land-uses. The results should open up opportunities to make more tangible predictions about the impacts of climate change in urban areas and to develop adaptation strategies to climate change for urban planning. Long-term measurements will start in early summer 2010 in the city of Hamburg, Germany. To quantify the climate-controlling processes, like fluxes of energy and water, two stationary and one temporary and mobile Eddy covariance system will be used, and various soil measurement stations will be mounted to analyze seasonal variations in soil water balance, ground water table and soil thermal properties. To detect the resulting climate effects, namely the heterogeneity of temperature and humidity in urban areas, coupled "Meteo-stations" will be set up to analyze core atmospheric parameters. In addition, data of the weather mast of Hamburg will be used to evaluate the greater meteorological conditions. The measurement sites were selected with regard to the local groundwater table, the type of housing estate, and size and vegetation of the green space. Two measurement sites - i.e. two urban districts - with different groundwater table depths were chosen: a low groundwater table depth of 5 m. Each site features two measurement stations, one located in a housing estate and one in a green space. Another two stations will be located inside a sealed courtyard, and in a perimeter block

  11. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2014-01-01

    importance for the geographic patterns of the functional (as represented by variation in maximum canopy height) and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest's woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while paleoclimate has left a strong......The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly...... studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study...

  12. Local approaches for the fracture assessment of notched components: the research work developed by Professor Paolo Lazzarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brittle failure of components weakened by cracks or sharp and blunt V-notches is a topic of active and continuous research. It is attractive for all researchers who face the problem of fracture of materials under different loading conditions and deals with a large number of applications in different engineering fields, not only with the mechanical one. This topic is significant in all the cases where intrinsic defects of the material or geometrical discontinuities give rise to localized stress concentration which, in brittle materials, may generate a crack leading to catastrophic failure or to a shortening of the assessed structural life. Whereas cracks are viewed as unpleasant entities in most engineering materials, U- and V-notches of different acuities are sometimes deliberately introduced in design and manufacturing of structural components. Dealing with brittle failure of notched components and summarising some recent experimental results reported in the literature, the main aim of the present contribution is to present a review of the research work developed by Professor Paolo Lazzarin. The approach based on the volume strain energy density (SED, which has been recently applied to assess the brittle failure of a large number of materials. The main features of the SED approach are outlined in the paper and its peculiarities and advantages accurately underlined. Some examples of applications are reported, as well. The present contribution is based on the author’s experience over about 15 years and the contents of his personal library. This work is in honor and memory of Prof. Paolo Lazzarin who suddenly passed away in September 2014.

  13. DETERMINING UNDISTURBED GROUND TEMPERATURE AS PART OF SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The undisturbed ground temperature is one of the key thermogeological parameters for the assessment and utilization of shallow geothermal resources. Geothermal energy is the type of energy which is stored in the ground where solar radiation has no effect. The depth at which the undisturbed ground temperature occurs, independent of seasonal changes in the surface air temperature, is functionally determined by climate parameters and thermogeological properties. In deeper layers, the increase of ground temperature depends solely on geothermal gradient. Determining accurate values of undisturbed ground temperature and depth of occurrence is crucial for the correct sizing of a borehole heat exchanger as part of the ground-source heat pump system, which is considered the most efficient technology for utilising shallow geothermal resources. The purpose of this paper is to define three specific temperature regions, based on the measured ground temperature data collected from the main meteorological stations in Croatia. The three regions are: Northern Croatia, Adriatic region, and the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.

  14. Technology assessment of disposal alternatives to determine a reference geological repository system for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to determine the most promising alternative, that will be developed further as a reference HLW repository system, by comparing the 7 alternatives that were proposed based on the spent fuel packaging options concerning the characteristics of spent PWR and CANDU fuel generated from the domestic NPP and the waste package arrangements and repository layout options. It should be determined by comparing the proposed alternatives from the aspects of technology, safety and economics. In this study, however, the comparison of alternatives was just based on the technology assessment because of the lack of the relevant information. The comparison criteria includes the degree of difficulty, development and maturity of the technology to be applied in repository system construction, operation, retrieval, etc. and the safety during the repository construction and operation. Based on such comparison criteria, the alternative comparison study was performed by a typical pair-wise comparison method. The result showed that, from the aspect of the construction, vertical emplacement options ranked high so that HSA and HCop ranked first and second, respectively. On the other hand, from the aspect of operation, the vertical emplacement options ranked high and VSA and VAT were ranked first and second. Depending upon the degree of importance of construction and operation of the repository, the final results of the alternatives comparison could be changed. (author). 19 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs

  15. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  16. The localization of key Bacillus subtilis penicillin binding proteins during cell growth is determined by substrate availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lages, Marta Carolina Afonso; Beilharz, Katrin; Angeles, Danae Morales; Veening, Jan-Willem; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The shape of bacteria is maintained by the cell wall. The main component of the cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG) that is synthesized by penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). The correct positioning of PBPs is essential for the maintenance of cell shape. In the literature, two different models for local

  17. Determinants of "Community Participation": The Tradition of Local Initiatives and the Institutionalisation of School Management Committees in Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2014-01-01

    A School Management Committee (SMC) is an administrative tool adopted in many developing countries to decentralise administrative and financial responsibilities at school level, while involving local people in decision-making and making education more responsive to demands. I question the assumption linking administrative decentralisation and…

  18. Comparing Input- and Output-Oriented Measures of Technical Efficiency to Determine Local Returns to Scale in DEA Models

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Ray

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how one can infer the nature of local returns to scale at the input- or output-oriented efficient projection of a technically inefficient input-output bundle, when the input- and output-oriented measures of efficiency differ.

  19. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-09-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotton pieces that had been soaked with 0.5 ml amifostine solution or saline were applied gently on the buccal mucosa of each guinea pig for 30 min. The animals in Groups A, B and C were irradiated individually with a single dose of 30 Gy to the bilateral buccal mucosa. Eight days after irradiation, the animals were scored macroscopically; they were then euthanized, and the buccal mucosal tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and ICAM-1 immunohistochemical analysis. In Groups A and B, the mean macroscopic scores were 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 1.1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, when they were separately compared with Group C (4.4 ± 0.7), a noticeable difference was obtained (P amifostine-treated groups were better than in Group C. The results demonstrated that topical administration of amifostine to the oral mucosa is effective treatment of acute radiation-induced mucositis. PMID:24706999

  20. ICU director data: using data to assess value, inform local change, and relate to the external world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David J; Ogbu, Ogbonna C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine's six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients. PMID:25846533

  1. Assessing airflow rates of a naturally ventilated test facility using a fast and simple algorithm supported by local air velocity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    De Vogeleer, G.; Van Overbeke, P.; Brusselman, E.; Mendes, L.B.; Pieters, J.G.; Demeyer, P.

    2016-01-01

    The high spatial and temporal variations of airflow patterns in ventilation openings of naturally ventilated animal houses make it difficult to accurately measure the airflow rate. This paper focuses on the development of a fast assessment technique for the airflow rate of a naturally ventilated test facility through the combination of a linear algorithm and local air velocity measurements. This assessment technique was validated against detailed measurement results obtained by the measurin...

  2. Mucosal/submucosal blood flow in the small intestine in pigs determined by local washout of 133Xe and microsphere techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Olsen, J; Sejrsen, P;

    1990-01-01

    In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal and submucosal blood flow rate in the small intestine of the pig was determined by a local application of 133Xe and by 6.5-microns radioactive microspheres. The 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed a multiexp....../submucosa. There was a good relationship between blood flow determined by the two techniques. The correlation coefficient, R, between the two techniques was 0.89.......In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal and submucosal blood flow rate in the small intestine of the pig was determined by a local application of 133Xe and by 6.5-microns radioactive microspheres. The 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed...... a multiexponential configuration. As localization studies of 133Xe in the intestinal mucosa showed a constant high concentration of 133Xe in the luminal part of the mucosa due to shunting by diffusion, the initial slope of the 133Xe washout was used for blood flow determination in the mucosa...

  3. Determination of mesopelagic food web structure for ecological impact assessment of carbon dioxide ocean sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, S.; Kita, J.; Ohsumi, T. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ocean sequestration refers to the intentional injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into the deep-sea to prevent global warming. This paper explored the impact that CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration may have on the deep-sea ecosystem, with particular reference to determining the food web structure in the deep-sea by stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen ({delta}1{sup 3C} and {delta}{sup 15}N). Through the metabolism of organisms, the heavier isotope is accumulated in their body while the lighter isotope is excreted to the ambient environment. Isotope ratios in the organisms become heavier with the increase in the trophic level because of their feeding habits over the long term. The enrichment of the isotope ratios at a single feeding process were reported from -1 to +2 per cent for {delta}1{sup 3C} and from +2 to +5 per cent for {delta}{sup 15}N. These values provide information on the prey and the trophic level, respectively. The structure of mesopelagic food web was considered because of its simplicity and limited food source. The potential biological impacts induced by CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration can be categorized into acute and chronic. Acute impacts could be determined by laboratory and field experiments and assessed by simulation models. However, chronic effects, such as sublethal effects of CO{sub 2} on the population dynamics and biodiversity those directly related to the marine ecosystem, would be difficult to verify by means of laboratory experiments and to assess using ecosystem models. Rather, induced alteration of the marine ecosystem would be reflected in food web structure. It was concluded that the intentional injection of CO{sub 2} into the deep-sea will result in alteration of the trophic position of each organism. It is expected that such a change in the ecosystem could be monitored by means of stable isotope ratios of the organism. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. 137Cs and 210Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 210Po and 137Cs were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 210Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 137Cs which are several times lower than those of 210Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for 137Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 13'7Cs is negligible compared to 210Po.(Author)

  5. Local Structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, N.; Jiang, Y.; Anderson, I. E.; Belanger, D. P.; Booth, C. H.; Bridges, F.; Mitchell, J. F.; Proffen, Th.; Zheng, H.

    2009-01-26

    The combined local structure techniques, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function analysis, have been used for temperatures 4<= T<= 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of the Co-O bond in La1?xSrxCoO3 for a significant fraction of Co sites (x<= 0.35), indicating few, if any, JT-active, singly occupied eg Co sites exist.

  6. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 children 12-23 months. The collected data was then analyzed with SPSS software package. Results showed that vaccination coverage as revealed by showed vaccination card alone was 63.4% while it was increased to 82.2% when both history and cards were used. Some (5.6%) of children were completely non-vaccinated. The factors contributing to the low vaccination coverage were found to be knowledge problems of mothers (51%), access problems (15%) and attitude problems (34%). Children whose mother attended antenatal care and those from urban areas were more likely to complete their immunization schedule. In conclusion, the vaccination coverage in the studied area was low compared to the national coverage. Efforts to increase vaccination converge and completion of the scheduled plan should focus on addressing concerns of caregivers particularly side effects and strengthening the Expanded Programmer on Immunization services in rural areas. PMID:25729558

  7. Simple measurements on diffusion-weighted MR imaging for assessment of complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Pei-Qiang; Wu, Yao-Pan; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Wu, Pei-Hong [Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); An, Xin [Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Medical Oncology, Guangzhou (China); Qiu, Xue; Kong, Ling-Heng; Liu, Guo-Chen; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong [Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-15

    To determine diagnostic performance of simple measurements on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessment of complete tumour response (CR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by signal intensity (SI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Sixty-five patients with LARC who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and subsequent surgery were included. Patients underwent pre-CRT and post-CRT 3.0 T MRI. Regions of interest of the highest brightness SI were included in the tumour volume on post-CRT DWI to calculate the SI{sub lesion}, rSI, ADC{sub lesion} and rADC; diagnostic performance was compared by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In order to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of the current strategy, the same procedure was reproduced in 80 patients with LARC at 1.5 T MRI. Areas under the ROC curve for identification of a CR, based on SI{sub lesion}, rSI, ADC{sub lesion}, and rADC, respectively, were 0.86, 0.94, 0.66, and 0.71 at 3.0 T MRI, and 0.92, 0.91, 0.64, and 0.61 at 1.5 T MRI. Post-CRT DWI SI{sub lesion} and rSI provided high diagnostic performance in assessing CR and were significantly more accurate than ADC{sub lesion}, and rADC at 3.0 T MRI and 1.5 T MRI. (orig.)

  8. A Systems-Based Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Determinants of a Social License to Operate in the Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted—complex adaptive systems and resilience—and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  9. Socioeconomic assessment guidance report: Determining the effects of amenity characteristics on business location decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating perception-based impacts of hazardous waste facilities has become an increasingly important part of socioeconomic impact assessments in recent years. One area of discussion has been the potential effect of risk perceptions on business location decision making. This report evaluates the importance of environmental amenities (broadly defined to include natural, cultural, and recreational features; environmental quality; and other indexes of quality of life) with respect to decisions on locating both manufacturing and business service activities. It discusses the major theoretical and empirical issues that arise in attempting to determine the effects of environmental amenities on the location choices for businesses and business activities. This discussion is followed by a survey of major findings from the academic literature and a review of research by the state of Nevada. A number of recommendations for further research are also provided to help the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management better understand the importance of perception-based impacts in business location decision making and estimate the scale of socioeconomic impacts that would result from siting a high-level waste repository in Nevada

  10. Fertility exposure analysis: A new method for assessing the contribution of proximate determinants to fertility differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Little, R J

    1984-03-01

    Summary Several recent papers have dealt with the problem of assessing the impact of the proximate determinants on fertility. All these approaches rely on combining a series of separately estimated aggregate level indicators. This paper proposes an approach which uses individual-level data and thus permits regression analyses as well as analyses for sub-groups. In the course of development it became clear that there are several deficiencies and inconsistencies in the measurement and formation of indices proposed elsewhere, which are overcome. We illustrate our approach with data from the Dominican Republic. The approach used involves attributing exposure to one or more of several states, including pregnancy, lactational and non-lactational components of post-partum amenorrhoea, absence of sexual relations and contraception. Key elements are efficacies of contraception and components of post-partum infecundity and the treatment of overlaps through an explicit hierarchy. We treat both unconditional (or additive) and conditional analyses. Intriguing findings on the age-specific pattern of fertility control emerge. Major advantages of regression analysis, such as simultaneous treatment of several variables and estimation of sampling variation are stressed.

  11. Socioeconomic assessment guidance report: Determining the effects of amenity characteristics on business location decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.

    1993-02-01

    Evaluating perception-based impacts of hazardous waste facilities has become an increasingly important part of socioeconomic impact assessments in recent years. One area of discussion has been the potential effect of risk perceptions on business location decision making. This report evaluates the importance of environmental amenities (broadly defined to include natural, cultural, and recreational features; environmental quality; and other indexes of quality of life) with respect to decisions on locating both manufacturing and business service activities. It discusses the major theoretical and empirical issues that arise in attempting to determine the effects of environmental amenities on the location choices for businesses and business activities. This discussion is followed by a survey of major findings from the academic literature and a review of research by the state of Nevada. A number of recommendations for further research are also provided to help the US Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management better understand the importance of perception-based impacts in business location decision making and estimate the scale of socioeconomic impacts that would result from siting a high-level waste repository in Nevada.

  12. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no daterestriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases thateach index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  13. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling. PMID:26537927

  14. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks.

  15. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. PMID:26580741

  16. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the awareness of radiation dose and associated risks caused by radiological procedures among local patients. All subjects were recruited by randomly sampling the patients receiving radiological examinations. These subjects were stratified on age, sex and education. The questionnaire was in Chinese and consisted of 28 questions mostly in multiple choice/true-or-false format, divided into three sections examining demographic data, radiation knowledge/awareness and expectations. A total of 173 questionnaires were returned (83 females and 84 females; mean age of 53). Of these, 32.6% had attended college, 32.6% had completed matriculation and 24.4% secondary school. Most subjects underwent CT (75), MRI (70) and PET-CT (18). Education significantly affected the radiation knowledge (P=0.013). 60.7% and 32.7% were not aware of the radiation-free nature of MRI and USG, respectively. Respectively, 45.4% and 43.5% were of the misconception that Barium enema and Barium swallow studies do not involve radiation. Moreover, 77.6% and 87.9% were aware of the radiation-laden nature of CT and plain X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, 34% and 50%, respectively, think that they are not exposed to radiation at home and on a plane. Regarding the fatal cancer risk from CT, 17.8% chose the correct answer and 62% underestimated the risk. 32.2% correctly estimated the equivalent dose of CT in terms of number of conventional X-rays and 43.2% underestimated the dose. Most (98.2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information.

  17. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Deniz, E-mail: deniz.sari@tubitak.gov.tr [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model.

  18. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model

  19. Prevalence and Socio-demografic Determinants of Under-Weight and Pre-obesity among in -School Adolescents in Olorunda Local Goverment Area, Osun State, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    James Olusegun Bamidele; Esther Olufunmiolayo Asekun-Olarinmoye; Folake Olajumoke Olajide; Olugbenga Lanre Abodunrin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescent obesity is under-estimated in this part of the world. However, there is a global change in the trend of over-weight and obesity in both developed and developing countries. OBJECTIVES: The study determined the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of under-weight and pre-obesity among in-school adolescents in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional study using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was carrie...

  20. La stampa locale in Italia: un'indagine empirica

    OpenAIRE

    Vaglio Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses three basic issues in the economics of the newspaper industry. The first issue is the meaning of the distinction between local and non-local newspapers. The notion of revealed local competitiveness is defined and a method for empirically assessing it is applied to Italian departments in 1999 and 2003. The second issue regards the determinants of the size of the local press in a given area (under the definition of local competitiveness mentioned above). Since the choice on...

  1. Local structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sundaram, Nalini [UCSC; Jiang, Y [UCSC; Anderson, Ingrid [UCSC; Belanger, D P [UCSC; Booth, C H [LBNL; Bridges, F [UCSC; Mitchell, J F [ANL; Zheng, H [ANL

    2008-01-01

    The combined local structure techniques, extended X-ray absorption fine struture (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, have been used for temperatures 4 {<=} T {<=} 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion of the Co-O bond in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} for a significant fraction of Co sites (x {<=} 0.35), indicating few, if any, J-T active, single-occupied e{sub g} Co sites exist.

  2. Determinants of extinction-colonization dynamics in Mediterranean butterflies: the role of landscape, climate and local habitat features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Chacón, Albert; Stefanescu, Constantí; Genovart, Meritxell; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Páramo, Ferran; Turco, Marco; Oro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many species are found today in the form of fragmented populations occupying patches of remnant habitat in human-altered landscapes. The persistence of these population networks requires a balance between extinction and colonization events assumed to be primarily related to patch area and isolation, but the contribution of factors such as the characteristics of patch and matrix habitats, the species' traits (habitat specialization and dispersal capabilities) and variation in climatic conditions have seldom been evaluated simultaneously. The identification of environmental variables associated with patch occupancy and turnover may be especially useful to enhance the persistence of multiple species under current global change. However, for robust inference on occupancy and related parameters, we must account for detection errors, a commonly overlooked problem that leads to biased estimates and misleading conclusions about population dynamics. Here, we provide direct empirical evidence of the effects of different environmental variables on the extinction and colonization rates of a rich butterfly community in the western Mediterranean. The analysis was based on a 17-year data set containing detection/nondetection data on 73 butterfly species for 26 sites in north-eastern Spain. Using multiseason occupancy models, which take into account species' detectability, we were able to obtain robust estimates of local extinction and colonization probabilities for each species and test the potential effects of site covariates such as the area of suitable habitat, topographic variability, landscape permeability around the site and climatic variability in aridity conditions. Results revealed a general pattern across species with local habitat composition and landscape features as stronger predictors of occupancy dynamics compared with topography and local aridity. Increasing area of suitable habitat in a site strongly decreased local extinction risks and, for a number of species

  3. The assessment of knowledge as determinant of learning process in year 5 social studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtačnik, Danica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of schooling is to acquire high quality knowledge. To achieve this objective, an important role is played by careful teacher planning and prudent action of carrying out all stages of the learning process, from introduction of the topic to assessment and grading. Assessment is present in every learning stage. Aware of the fact that assessment is the key linking process as well as the indicator of the learning process, the basic subject of the master thesis is assessment as indicator of...

  4. A Framework for Determining the Authenticity of Assessment Tasks: Applied to an Example in Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Authentic assessment tasks enhance engagement, retention and the aspirations of students. This paper explores the discipline-generic features of authentic assessment, which reflect what students need to achieve in the real world. Some assessment tasks are more authentic than others and this paper designs a proposed framework supported by the…

  5. Public hearing or 'hearing public'? an evaluation of the participation of local stakeholders in environmental impact assessment of Ghana's Jubilee oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes. PMID:23716010

  6. Public Hearing or `Hearing Public'? An Evaluation of the Participation of Local Stakeholders in Environmental Impact Assessment of Ghana's Jubilee Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.

  7. Public hearing or 'hearing public'? an evaluation of the participation of local stakeholders in environmental impact assessment of Ghana's Jubilee oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.

  8. Determining iron oxide nanoparticle heating efficiency and elucidating local nanoparticle temperature for application in agarose gel-based tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rhythm R; Dombrowsky, Alexander R; Paulson, Abigail L; Johnson, Margaret P; Nikles, David E; Brazel, Christopher S

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have been developed for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy, where cancer cells are treated through the heat generated by application of a high frequency magnetic field. This heat has also been proposed as a mechanism to trigger release of chemotherapy agents. In each of these cases, MNPs with optimal heating performance can be used to maximize therapeutic effect while minimizing the required dosage of MNPs. In this study, the heating efficiencies (or specific absorption rate, SAR) of two types of MNPs were evaluated experimentally and then predicted from their magnetic properties. MNPs were also incorporated in the core of poly(ethylene glycol-b-caprolactone) micelles, co-localized with rhodamine B fluorescent dye attached to polycaprolactone to monitor local, nanoscale temperatures during magnetic heating. Despite a relatively high SAR produced by these MNPs, no significant temperature rise beyond that observed in the bulk solution was measured by fluorescence in the core of the magnetic micelles. MNPs were also incorporated into a macro-scale agarose gel system that mimicked a tumor targeted by MNPs and surrounded by healthy tissues. The agarose-based tumor models showed that targeted MNPs can reach hyperthermia temperatures inside a tumor with a sufficient MNP concentration, while causing minimal temperature rise in the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. PMID:27523991

  9. The N-terminal Part of Arabidopsis thaliana Starch Synthase 4 Determines the Localization and Activity of the Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Sandy; Ragel, Paula; Rojas, Tomás; Mérida, Ángel

    2016-05-13

    Starch synthase 4 (SS4) plays a specific role in starch synthesis because it controls the number of starch granules synthesized in the chloroplast and is involved in the initiation of the starch granule. We showed previously that SS4 interacts with fibrillins 1 and is associated with plastoglobules, suborganelle compartments physically attached to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. Both SS4 localization and its interaction with fibrillins 1 were mediated by the N-terminal part of SS4. Here we show that the coiled-coil region within the N-terminal portion of SS4 is involved in both processes. Elimination of this region prevents SS4 from binding to fibrillins 1 and alters SS4 localization in the chloroplast. We also show that SS4 forms dimers, which depends on a region located between the coiled-coil region and the glycosyltransferase domain of SS4. This region is highly conserved between all SS4 enzymes sequenced to date. We show that the dimerization seems to be necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Both dimerization and the functionality of the coiled-coil region are conserved among SS4 proteins from phylogenetically distant species, such as Arabidopsis and Brachypodium This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of SS4 is conserved among different plant species. PMID:26969163

  10. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

  11. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sinang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

  12. Determination of local optical response functions of nanostructures with increasing complexity by using single and coupled Lorentzian oscillator models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Brixner, Tobias; Fischer, Alexander; Hensen, Matthias; Huber, Bernhard; Kilbane, Deirdre; Kramer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Walter; Piecuch, Martin; Thielen, Philip

    2016-07-01

    We reconstruct the optical response of nanostructures of increasing complexity by fitting interferometric time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) data from an ultrashort (21 fs) laser excitation source with different harmonic oscillator-based models. Due to its high spatial resolution of ~40 nm, PEEM is a true near-field imaging system and enables in normal incidence mode a mapping of plasmon polaritons and an intuitive interpretation of the plasmonic behaviour. Using an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we record two-pulse correlation signals with 50 as time resolution that contain information about the temporal plasmon polariton evolution. Spectral amplitude and phase of excited plasmon polaritons are extracted from the recorded phase-resolved interferometric two-pulse correlation traces. We show that the optical response of a plasmon polariton generated at a gold nanoparticle can be reconstructed from the interferometric two-pulse correlation signal using a single harmonic oscillator model. In contrast, for a corrugated silver surface, a system with increased plasmonic complexity, in general an unambiguous reconstruction of the local optical response based on coupled and uncoupled harmonic oscillators, fails. Whereas for certain local responses different models can be discriminated, this is impossible for other positions. Multidimensional spectroscopy offers a possibility to overcome this limitation.

  13. Local Marine Geoid Variations and Jason-2 Bias Determination using the Gavdos Permanent Cal/Val Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, S. P.; Daskalakis, A.; Tziavos, I. N.;

    2012-01-01

    This work outlines how changes in steep bathymetry (from 200 m to 3500 m depth over a distance of 10 km) are reflected on the determined sea surface anomalies at the Gavdos site used for satellite altimeter calibration. After almost 4 years of Jason-2 calibration activities, it has been observed......, but others are related to under-sampling of the Earth's gravity field due to the resolution of the geoid model. New reference surfaces for calibration have thus emerged. Finally, new updated values for the Jason-2 altimeter bias have been determined as 191.81 ± 2.80 mm with the geoid model and as 181.51 ± 2...

  14. International Management Skills for Success in Asia: A Needs-Based Determination of Skills for Foreign Managers and Local Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Kent E.; Baughn, C. Cristopher; Dao, Thi Thanh Lam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies skills necessary in order to succeed in Vietnam and proposes a training program to develop such skills. Design/methodology/approach: To determine necessary skills, 74 managers were interviewed using critical incident methodology to identify training needs. Critical incident approach asks respondents to describe the…

  15. Assessing Local Administrations In Respect Of Public Relations: Eskişehir Tepebaşi Muncipality Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Uzoğlu Bayçu; Sezen Ünlü; Canan Uluyağcı

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, local administrations have an important position in societies. Concepts particularly including participation, citizen orientation and transparence started to gain important position within management approach. Accordingly, local administration restructuring gained significance.Local administration services should be managed in a professional manner. Good servicing, satisfaction of the local community from the services offered and trouble-free performance of works related with local administration are examples for most significant issues pertaining to local administrations. Accordingly, it is extremely important for local administrations that they understand expectations of citizens very well in order to strengthen communication with the citizen and that they even make efforts to create optimum structure via measuring those expectations. Undoubtedly, establishment of this structure cannot be considered independent from the concept of public relations, since significant part of studies conducted for satisfaction of the citizen is included within scope of public relation activities. For example, announcement of studies conducted by local administration in fields such as environment, infrastructure, culture and art, and measurement of citizens’ satisfaction level due to those studies can be perceived as an extension of public relations.

  16. Inter-laboratory assessment of a prototype multiplex kit for determination of recent HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Curtis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate and reliable laboratory-based assays are needed for estimating HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional samples. We recently described the development of a customized, HIV-1-specific Bio-Plex assay that allows for the measurement of HIV-specific antibody levels and avidity to multiple analytes for improved HIV-1 incidence estimates. METHODS: To assess intra- and inter-laboratory assay performance, prototype multiplex kits were developed and evaluated by three distinct laboratories. Longitudinal seroconversion specimens were tested in parallel by each laboratory and kit performance was compared to that of an in-house assay. Additionally, the ability of the kit to distinguish recent from long-term HIV-1 infection, as compared to the in-house assay, was determined by comparing the reactivity of known recent (infected 12 months drug naïve specimens. RESULTS: Although the range of reactivity for each analyte varied between the prototype kit and in-house assay, a measurable distinction in reactivity between recent and long-term specimens was observed with both assays in all three laboratories. Additionally, kit performance was consistent between all three laboratories. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV, between sample replicates for all laboratories, ranged from 0.5% to 6.1%. The inter-laboratory CVs ranged from 8.5% to 21.3% for gp160-avidity index (a and gp120-normalized mean fluorescent intensity (MFI value (n, respectively. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the feasibility of producing a multiplex kit for measuring HIV antibody levels and avidity, with the potential for improved incidence estimates based on multi-analyte algorithms. The availability of a commercial kit will facilitate the transfer of technology among diverse laboratories for widespread assay use.

  17. Genotype 1 hepatitis C virus envelope features that determine antiviral response assessed through optimal covariance networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Murray

    Full Text Available The poor response to the combined antiviral therapy of pegylated alfa-interferon and ribavarin for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection may be linked to mutations in the viral envelope gene E1E2 (env, which can result in escape from the immune response and higher efficacy of viral entry. Mutations that result in failure of therapy most likely require compensatory mutations to achieve sufficient change in envelope structure and function. Compensatory mutations were investigated by determining positions in the E1E2 gene where amino acids (aa covaried across groups of individuals. We assessed networks of covarying positions in E1E2 sequences that differentiated sustained virological response (SVR from non-response (NR in 43 genotype 1a (17 SVR, and 49 genotype 1b (25 SVR chronically HCV-infected individuals. Binary integer programming over covariance networks was used to extract aa combinations that differed between response groups. Genotype 1a E1E2 sequences exhibited higher degrees of covariance and clustered into 3 main groups while 1b sequences exhibited no clustering. Between 5 and 9 aa pairs were required to separate SVR from NR in each genotype. aa in hypervariable region 1 were 6 times more likely than chance to occur in the optimal networks. The pair 531-626 (EI appeared frequently in the optimal networks and was present in 6 of 9 NR in one of the 1a clusters. The most frequent pairs representing SVR were 431-481 (EE, 500-522 (QA in 1a, and 407-434 (AQ in 1b. Optimal networks based on covarying aa pairs in HCV envelope can indicate features that are associated with failure or success to antiviral therapy.

  18. Determination of Local Slope on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using a Multibeam Photon-Counting Lidar in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Walsh, Kaitlin M.; Markus, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The greatest changes in elevation in Greenland and Antarctica are happening along the margins of the ice sheets where the surface frequently has significant slopes. For this reason, the upcoming Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) mission utilizes pairs of laser altimeter beams that are perpendicular to the flight direction in order to extract slope information in addition to elevation. The Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL) is a high-altitude airborne laser altimeter designed as a simulator for ICESat-2. The MABEL design uses multiple beams at fixed angles and allows for local slope determination. Here, we present local slopes as determined by MABEL and compare them to those determined by the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) over the same flight lines in Greenland. We make these comparisons with consideration for the planned ICESat-2 beam geometry. Results indicate that the mean slope residuals between MABEL and ATM remain small (slopes using ICESat-2 beam geometry. Furthermore, when MABEL data are subsampled by a factor of 4 to mimic the planned ICESat-2 transmit-energy configuration, the results are indistinguishable from the full-data-rate analysis. Results from MABEL suggest that ICESat-2 beam geometry and transmit-energy configuration are appropriate for the determination of slope on 90-m spatial scales, a measurement that will be fundamental to deconvolving the effects of surface slope from the ice-sheet surface change derived from ICESat-2.

  19. Assessment of the dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period series during atrial fibrillation: effects of isoproterenol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantica Massimo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autonomic nervous system (ANS plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF, but quantification of its electrophysiologic effects is extremely complex and difficult. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of linear and non-linear indexes to capture the fine changing dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period (LAP series during adrenergic activation induced by isoproterenol (a sympathomimetic drug infusion. Methods Nine patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF (aged 60 ± 6 underwent electrophysiological study in which isoproterenol was administered to patients. Atrial electrograms were acquired during i sinus rhythm (SR; ii sinus rhythm during isoproterenol (SRISO administration; iii atrial fibrillation (AF and iv atrial fibrillation during isoproterenol (AFISO administration. The level of organization between two electrograms was assessed by the synchronization index (S, whereas the degree of recurrence of a pattern in a signal was defined by the regularity index (R. In addition, the level of predictability (LP and regularity of LAP series were computed. Results LAP series analysis shows a reduction of both LP and R index during isoproterenol infusion in SR and AF (RSR = 0.75 ± 0.07 RSRISO = 0.69 ± 0.10, p AF = 0.31 ± 0.08 RAFISO = 0.26 ± 0.09, p SR = 99.99 ± 0.001 LPSRISO = 99.97 ± 0.03, p AF = 69.46 ± 21.55 LPAFISO = 55 ± 24.75; p SR = 0.49 ± 0.08 RSRISO = 0.46 ± 0.09 p AF = 0.29 ± 0.09 RAFISO = 0.28 ± 0.08 n.s.. Conclusions The proposed parameters succeeded in discriminating the subtle changes due to isoproterenol infusion during both the rhythms especially when considering LAP series analysis. The reduced value of analyzed parameters after isoproterenol administration could reflect an important pro-arrhythmic influence of adrenergic activation on favoring maintenance of AF.

  20. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  1. Efficient star-topology solving local minima for geolocation in real UMTS networks: an experimental assessment with real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Juan Antonio; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Mariano;

    2015-01-01

    the presence of particular areas susceptible to contain local minima inside of it. In this paper, we investigate an optimal geometry for the Node B stations to be involved in such an iterative method. The key factor is to seek such an optimal configuration in the real map to be analysed with the purpose...... of avoiding any local minima. In this manner, errors in the positioning algorithm are only due to multipath environment and co-channel interference, ensuring that local minima do not affect the result offered by the positioning method. A provisional patent application based on this method has been filed...

  2. Contrasting and not-so-contrasting perspectives between local stakeholders and scientists and across dryland sites in participatory assessment of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.

    2015-04-01

    The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted

  3. Determination of the local site occupancy of Eu 3+ ions in ZnAl 2O 4 nanocrystalline powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Da; Abreu, Alison; Davolos, M. R.; Rosaly, Marian

    2011-06-01

    Once lanthanides-doped ZnAl 2O 4 have attracted attention for highly efficient phosphors and due to the complexity of this system, this work is focused in the understanding of the local site occupancy of the doped ions in the spinel structure by using Eu 3+ as a spectroscopic probe. Europium(III)-doped ZnAl 2O 4 nanocrystalline powder samples were prepared by the Pechini method. Different heat treatment temperatures and doping levels were investigated. No impurities of residual Eu 2O 3 were observed for the samples with Eu 3+ doping levels up to 10 at.%, indicating that the doping ions are diluted into the host. The luminescence spectroscopy from the Eu 3+ ions revealed the Eu 3+ ions might occupy at least two non-centro-symmetric sites and that the occupation ratio might be dependent on the heat treatment or doping level. It is observed that one site is related to a high covalent environment while at the other the ionic character prevails. This behavior is in agreement with the luminescence lifetime results. The decay curves were fitted according to double first-order decay model and it was confirmed the covalence difference between the two sites and also the population variation with the doping level. There are strong evidences that the europium ions substitute for the aluminum ones in the normal spinel structure. It cannot be disregarded that the dopant ions may be present on the surface of the particles.

  4. State and Local Policies as a Structural and Modifiable Determinant of HIV Vulnerability Among Latino Migrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeucia, Megan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-05-01

    We explore how state and local policies in labor, health, education, language, community and neighborhood environments, deportation, and state-authorized identification can reduce or exacerbate HIV vulnerability among Latino migrants in the United States. We reviewed literature on Latino migrants and HIV risk, on the structural-environmental contexts experienced by Latino migrants, and on the many domains in which policies influence those contexts. To illustrate the pathways through which policies across multiple sectors are relevant to HIV vulnerability, we describe how policies shape 2 mediating domains (a climate of hostility toward Latino migrants and the relative ease or difficulty of access to beneficial institutions) and how those domains influence behavioral risk practices, which increase vulnerability to HIV. This argument demonstrates the utility of considering the policy context as a modifiable element of the meso-level through which structural factors shape vulnerability to HIV. This approach has specific relevance to the consideration of HIV prevention for Latino migrants, and more generally, to structural approaches to HIV prevention.

  5. Local stress determination in chromia-former thanks to micro-Raman spectroscopy: A way to investigate spontaneous delamination processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerain, M.; Goudeau, P.; Panicaud, B.; Grosseau-Poussard, J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous delamination process for α-Cr2O3 thermal oxide films growing on NiCr-30 alloys is studied thanks to micro Raman spectroscopy. In particular, stress maps are performed through and around buckles developed on chromia films. Depending on the cooling rate at the end of the oxidation process, different buckle types appear which are investigated. Associated residual stress distribution clearly evidences the stress release field. In addition, geometrical features are determined for the different buckle types, and from comparison with modelling describing buckle formation and propagation, it is possible to get the interface toughness distribution.

  6. The application of the fluorescence procedure for the determination of local lubricant film thicknesses; Die Anwendung des Fluoreszenzverfahrens zur Bestimmung lokaler Schmierfilmdicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H.; Hildebrand, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallformung

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the friction and lubrication during the deformation of metals requires the determination of local lubricant film thicknesses. For this purpose the fluorescence procedure was used by the excitation with lasers. The aspired high local resolution could not be realized due to photolysis of the dye. A measuring spot of a minimum size of 1.5 x 1.5 mm was reached for the measurement of lubricant film thicknesses up to 5 {mu}m with a luminescence scanner. (orig.) [German] Die Analyse der Reibung und Schmierung in der Umformung von Metallen erfordert die Bestimmung lokaler Schmierfilmdicken. Dazu wurde das Fluoreszenzverfahren mit Anregung durch Laser angewendet. Die angestrebte hohe oertliche Aufloesung konnte infolge Fotolyse des Farbstoffes nicht realisiert werden. Mit einem Lumineszenztaster konnte ein Messfleck mit einer minimalen Groesse von 1,5 x 1,5 mm bei Schmierfilmdicken bis zu 5 {mu}m erreicht werden. (orig.)

  7. Observer reliability in assessment of mitotic activity and MIB-1-determined proliferation rate in pediatric sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W M; Plaat, B E; Berends, E R; te Meerman, G J

    2000-01-01

    In hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of 20 pediatric sarcomas the mitotic index was assessed by four experienced pathologists and four less-experienced observers without prior instructions. In adjacent sections immunolabeled for MIB-1, the proliferation index was assessed as the estimated percentag

  8. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  9. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Niessen (Maurice); E.L. Laan (Eva); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); N. Peek (Niels); R.A. Kraaijenhagen (Roderik); C.K. van Kalken (Coen); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. Objective: To analyze whether individual characterist

  10. Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening....

  11. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators, Vulnerability Assessments, and Projections of Future Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Adele Houghton; Paul English

    2014-01-01

    Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnera...

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in the Mt. Etna region (Italy): application to local volcano-tectonic earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Azzaro, Raffaele; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; D'Amico, Salvatore; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Tuvè, Tiziana; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are, by far, the most relevant source of hazard for the densely urbanised areas of Mt. Etna region. Local communities living in the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano continuously suffer social and economic losses due to the very high occurrence of damaging earthquakes, which produce intensities up to degree X EMS despite of low energy (M < 5.0). Seismic hazard in the Mt. Etna region is controlled by two distinct types of earthquakes, namely regional and local ...

  13. Development and Implementation of a Simplified System for Assessing the Condition of Irish Regional and Local Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Mulry, Brian; Feighan, Kieran; McCarthy, John

    2015-01-01

    The surface condition of road pavements is a vital element in pavement management to prioritize projects, select appropriate treatments and make the best use of available resources. In Ireland, the overall road network of 99,008 kilometres includes 5,415 kilometres of National Roads and 93,593 kilometres of Regional and Local Roads. To evaluate the condition of the Regional and Local Roads, a simplified pavement inspection methodology, the Pavement Surface Condition Index (PSCI) rating system...

  14. Sicily and southern Calabria focal mechanism database: a valuable tool for local and regional stress-field determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Scarfì

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new catalog of focal mechanisms calculated for earthquakes recorded in Sicily and southern Calabria. It comprises about 300 solutions, for events with magnitudes ranging from 2.7 to 4.8 that occurred from 1999 to 2011. We used P-wave polarities to compute the fault-plane solutions. Two main goals are achieved. For the first, the catalog allows the stress regime and kinematics characterizing the studied area to be depicted at a regional and more local scale. In particular, moving along the tectonic lineament that extends from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian Sea, there is a change from a regime characterized by sub-horizontal P-axes, ca. NW-SE directed, to an extensive one in the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, where T-axes striking in a NW-SE direction prevail. Our results also show that part of the seismicity is clustered along the main active seismogenic structures, of which the focal mechanisms indicate the kinematics. Finally, in the Etna volcano area, different stress fields act at different depths due to the combination of the regional tectonics, the strong pressurization of the deep magmatic system, and the dynamics of the shallower portion of the volcano. As a second goal, we highlight that the catalog also represents a valuable tool, through the data distribution on the internet, for further studies directed towards improving our understanding of the geodynamic complexity of the region, and for a better characterization of the seismogenic sources.

  15. A non-parametric method for automatic determination of P-wave and S-wave arrival times: application to local micro earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawles, Christopher; Thurber, Clifford

    2015-08-01

    We present a simple, fast, and robust method for automatic detection of P- and S-wave arrivals using a nearest neighbours-based approach. The nearest neighbour algorithm is one of the most popular time-series classification methods in the data mining community and has been applied to time-series problems in many different domains. Specifically, our method is based on the non-parametric time-series classification method developed by Nikolov. Instead of building a model by estimating parameters from the data, the method uses the data itself to define the model. Potential phase arrivals are identified based on their similarity to a set of reference data consisting of positive and negative sets, where the positive set contains examples of analyst identified P- or S-wave onsets and the negative set contains examples that do not contain P waves or S waves. Similarity is defined as the square of the Euclidean distance between vectors representing the scaled absolute values of the amplitudes of the observed signal and a given reference example in time windows of the same length. For both P waves and S waves, a single pass is done through the bandpassed data, producing a score function defined as the ratio of the sum of similarity to positive examples over the sum of similarity to negative examples for each window. A phase arrival is chosen as the centre position of the window that maximizes the score function. The method is tested on two local earthquake data sets, consisting of 98 known events from the Parkfield region in central California and 32 known events from the Alpine Fault region on the South Island of New Zealand. For P-wave picks, using a reference set containing two picks from the Parkfield data set, 98 per cent of Parkfield and 94 per cent of Alpine Fault picks are determined within 0.1 s of the analyst pick. For S-wave picks, 94 per cent and 91 per cent of picks are determined within 0.2 s of the analyst picks for the Parkfield and Alpine Fault data set

  16. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  17. Brain F-18 FDG PET for localization of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy: visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis for the localization of the epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy. Twenty-four patients with frontal lobe epilepsy were examined. All patients exhibited improvements after surgical resection (Engel class I or II). Upon pathological examination, 18 patients revealed cortical dysplasia, 4 patients revealed tumor, and 2 patients revealed cortical scar. The hypometabolic lesions were found in F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and SPM analysis. On SPM analysis, cutoff threshold was changed. MRI showed structural lesions in 12 patients and normal results in the remaining 12. F-18 FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones in 13 patients (54%) by visual assessment. Sensitivity of F-18 FDG PET in MR-negative patients (50%) was similar to that in MR-positive patients (67%). On SPM analysis, sensitivity deceased according to the decrease of p value. Using uncorrected p value of 0.05 as threshold, sensitivity of SPM analysis was 63%, which was not statistically different from that of visual assessment. F-18 FDG PET was sensitive in finding epileptogenic zones by revealing hypometabolic areas even in MR-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy as well as in MR-positive patients. SPM analysis showed comparable sensitivity to visual assessment and could be used as an aid in the diagnosis of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy

  18. Comparison of two analytical methods for the local quantitative determination of lithium and boron contents in cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized water reactors contain boric acid for reactivity control. As the acidic coolant conditions result in an increased attack of the circuit materials, LiOH is added to render the coolant slightly alkaline. However, LiOH can affect corrosion of the Zr alloy cladding. Thus the Li content in the oxide layers of irradiated fuel rods is of high interest, especially for new alloys (pathfinder rods). At the 'Paul Scherrer Institut' the lithium as well as the boron content in the oxide layers of claddings are determined by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Quantification is performed by direct comparison with a Zircaloy-oxide layer implanted with B and Li. A new and independent method using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was applied to cross-check the SIMS data. (authors)

  19. Seam-line determination for image mosaicking: A technique minimizing the maximum local mismatch and the global cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jaechoon; Kim, Hyongsuk; Lin, Chun-Shin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm that selects seam-lines for mosaicking image patches. This technique uses Dijkstra's algorithm to find a seam-line with the minimal objective function. Since a segment of seam-line with significant mismatch, even if it is short, is more visible than a lengthy one with small differences, a direct summation of the mismatch scores is inadequate. Limiting the level of the maximum difference along a seam-line should be part of the objective in the seam-line selection process. Our technique first determines this desired level of maximum difference, then applies Dijkstra's algorithm to find the best seam-line. A quantitative measure to evaluate a seam-line is proposed. The measure is defined as the sum of a fixed number of top mismatch scores. The proposed algorithm is compared with other techniques quantitatively and visually about various types of images.

  20. A method for determining a prostate-specific antigen cure after radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A method that allows the determination of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cure after definitive management for prostate carcinoma with radiation therapy is presented and tested. Methods and Materials: The method involves a calculation of the patient's theoretical baseline PSA prior to the development of prostate cancer by using three serial rising PSA determinations obtained prior to the institution of therapy. The rate of rise of the PSA prior to therapy and the rate of decline of the PSA posttherapy are calculated, using an exponential model. Two criteria must be satisfied to define a PSA cure. First, the PSA nadir after treatment should be less than the calculated theoretical baseline PSA. Second, the rate of decline of PSA posttreatment should be greater than the rate of rise of the PSA prior to treatment. Results: Applying these two criteria to the patient data base (n 16) at a median follow-up of 19 months enabled the accurate prediction of 6 out of 6 (100%) of patients with documented PSA failure and 7 out of 10 (70%) of patients without PSA failure. Therefore, despite short follow-up, all six patients with PSA failure were predicted. Further follow-up is needed to ascertain if the seven patients predicted to be cured will remain PSA failure free and if the three patients currently without PSA failure in whom the model predicts failure, will subsequently fail. Conclusion: Therefore, using each patient's PSA history as the natural control may eliminate the error that is introduced with defining a PSA cure by using a single value for the PSA nadir at a specified time after radiation therapy