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Sample records for assessing local determinants

  1. Assessing the Determinants of Renewable Electricity Acceptance Integrating Meta-Analysis Regression and a Local Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In dealing with renewable electricity (RE, individuals are involved both as end-consumers on the demand side and as stakeholders (citizens in the local production process on the supply side. Empirical evidence shows that in many countries, consumers are willing to pay a significant amount to facilitate adoption of RE. By contrast, environmental externalities are often the cause of strong opposition to RE adoption if local communities are involved as stakeholders in wind, solar or biomass investment projects. Looking at the literature on willingness to pay and on willingness to accept, we have investigated RE acceptance mechanisms. First, we have used the meta-analysis to assess the major determinants of RE acceptance on both demand and supply sides. Meta-analysis has provided some insights useful for managing field research on an onshore wind farm enlargement project located in the Umbria region. Meta-analysis and survey results confirm that the local community plays a central role in local RE acceptance. Furthermore, people who have previous experience with windmills require less compensation, or are willing to pay more, for RE development. Results suggest that these attributes should be included in future research to improve understanding of determinants of RE acceptance.

  2. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  3. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre J Obeid; Bilal E1-Khoury; Joanne Burger; Samer Aouad; Mira Younis; Amal Aoun; John Hanna El-Nakat

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet.However,very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption.This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption.Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh,frozen,processed,and canned fish.All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight.The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 μg/g in fresh samples,0.0059 to 0.0665 μg/g in frozen samples,and 0.0305 to 0.1190 μg/g in canned samples.The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure.Moreover,the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia),Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus),Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops),and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury.On the other hand,processed fish such as fish fillet,fish burger,small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury.Lebanese population should therefore,be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  4. 34 CFR 222.23 - How does a local educational agency determine the aggregate assessed value of its eligible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Allocatedproportion (percent) Eligible Federal acres allocated to expected use category (Col. 2 × acres in expected... Total 4,450,000 200.75 NA Average value/acre (TOTAL Col. 2/TOTAL Col. 3) 22,166.87 (iii) The local... acresallocated to property use categories (Col. 2 × eligible acres) Proportionallocated to non-assessed or...

  5. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    The development of new creep-resistant and cost effective die casting magnesium alloys, such as AE, MRI, MEZ, ACM, AXJ, AJ, WE, have emerged as an alternative, to fulfil the modern demands in structurally relevant applications, such as engine blocks, gears and converter boxes. However, in most cases, magnesium components are screwed with aluminium and steel bolts, which lead the screwed joints to lose the preload force, due to relaxation. This barrier thereby limits the broad use of magnesium within this segment and should somehow find an adequate solution to help overcome this limitation. Furthermore, together with alloy development and the addition of reinforcement (MMCs), local material engineering processes have been conceived and are considered a method to improve the properties and therefore expand the number of potential applications for magnesium alloys. In this context, Friction Welding (FW) and particularly Friction Hydro Pillar Processing (FHPP), which can be described as a drill and fill process, appear to be an alternative to make the use of magnesium more widespread. For this reason, FHPP is intended to be used, to locally reinforce the mechanically fastened magnesium components. With this approach, regions submitted to the stresses imposed by tightening forces can be compensated by the use of a material with superior properties. It is not required to fabricate the whole structure from an expensive material, thus saving costs and thereby satisfying the economic pressures of an increasingly competitive global market. In the present work, a preliminary experimental matrix was defined and used to determine the optimal welding conditions for each specific material combination selected. Further, elaborate experimental techniques are used to describe the process parameters-microstructure-properties relationships and the consequent mechanisms leading to bonding in FHPP welds in similar and dissimilar configurations. The welds were performed using a hydraulic

  6. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    The development of new creep-resistant and cost effective die casting magnesium alloys, such as AE, MRI, MEZ, ACM, AXJ, AJ, WE, have emerged as an alternative, to fulfil the modern demands in structurally relevant applications, such as engine blocks, gears and converter boxes. However, in most cases, magnesium components are screwed with aluminium and steel bolts, which lead the screwed joints to lose the preload force, due to relaxation. This barrier thereby limits the broad use of magnesium within this segment and should somehow find an adequate solution to help overcome this limitation. Furthermore, together with alloy development and the addition of reinforcement (MMCs), local material engineering processes have been conceived and are considered a method to improve the properties and therefore expand the number of potential applications for magnesium alloys. In this context, Friction Welding (FW) and particularly Friction Hydro Pillar Processing (FHPP), which can be described as a drill and fill process, appear to be an alternative to make the use of magnesium more widespread. For this reason, FHPP is intended to be used, to locally reinforce the mechanically fastened magnesium components. With this approach, regions submitted to the stresses imposed by tightening forces can be compensated by the use of a material with superior properties. It is not required to fabricate the whole structure from an expensive material, thus saving costs and thereby satisfying the economic pressures of an increasingly competitive global market. In the present work, a preliminary experimental matrix was defined and used to determine the optimal welding conditions for each specific material combination selected. Further, elaborate experimental techniques are used to describe the process parameters-microstructure-properties relationships and the consequent mechanisms leading to bonding in FHPP welds in similar and dissimilar configurations. The welds were performed using a hydraulic

  7. Assessment of local food distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmark, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in local food, as consumers feel confidence in such food. Local food has good opportunities to fulfil quality aspects/requirements of transparency and traceability in the supply chain due to the possibilities for direct interaction between producers and consumers. However, local food producers often face logistics challenges due to their small scale, decentralisation and integration difficulties with larger supply chains. This necessitates analysis of specific log...

  8. Assessing local tissue edema in postmastectomy lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N

    2007-06-01

    Overall limb lymphedema can be assessed by several methods but none are suitable to determine local edema. Quantifying local edema could provide important information not previously available. Our goal was to determine the suitability of using the tissue dielectric constant (TDC) as and index of local tissue water to detect and quantify edema in postmastectomy patients with unilateral arm lymphedema. Segmental arm volume and TDC were measured in both arms of 18 women with unilateral lymphedema, and in 15 premenopausal and 15 postmenopausal controls. TDC was measured at a frequency of 300 MHz using open-ended coaxial probes with effective measuring depths of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 5.0 mm. For patients and controls, absolute TDC depended on measurement depth but for any depth the TDC of lymphedematous segments was significantly greater than for non-affected contralateral arms (pTDC ratio between arms for patients was 1.64+/-0.30 vs.1.04+/-0.04 for both control groups (pTDC ratio was as low as 1.2 and no control subject's TDC ratio was as great as 1.2. Results suggest that this method is a good quantitative discriminator of the presence of lymphedema in patients with unilateral limb lymphedema.

  9. LOCAL PRODUCTS IMAGE DETERMINANT COMMUNES OF NISKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  10. Assessment Of Professional Tour Guides’ Performances By Local Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atınç Olcay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the help of internet and other social networks, a more conscious tourist profile has gained momentum in this new tourism era. The professional tour guide (PTG services, one of the most important components of the tourism services, have been inspired due to these developments. The PTG contributes tremendously to the success of packaged tours. As such, this research aims to determine the importance levels of the expected PTG's qualifications and assessing the performance of PTG’s from the local tourists’ perspectives. In order to ascertain the aim, survey was conducted with 472 local tourists that visited Gaziantep in 2014 with guided package tours in the months of March and April. The findings indicated that the ratings give PTGs’ performances were lower than that of their qualifications’ importance level. From this point of view, it can be suggested that PTGs’ performance levels stay under local tourists’ expectations within the research framework. The results also indicate statistically significant differences with %5 significance level between local tourists’ assessments on knowledge, abilities/skills and characteristics of PTGs and local tourist’ education levels, genders and package tour participation frequencies

  11. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of Quang Tri in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  12. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  13. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.

  14. Local Linear Embedding Algorithm with Adaptively Determining Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenduo Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local linear embedding is a kind of very competitive nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique with good representational capacity for a broader range of manifolds and high computational efficiency. However, it is based on the assumption that the whole data manifolds are evenly distributed so that it determines the neighborhood for all points with the same neighborhood size. Accordingly, it fails to nicely deal with most real problems that are unevenly distributed. This paper presents a new approach that takes the general conceptual framework of Hessian locally linear embedding so as to guarantee its correctness in the setting of local isometry for an open connected subset, but dynamically determines the local neighborhood size for each point. This approach estimates the approximate geodesic distance between any two points by the shortest path in the local neighborhood graph, and then determines the neighborhood size for each point by using the relationship between its local estimated geodesic distance matrix and local Euclidean distance matrix. This approach has clear geometry intuition as well as the better performance and stability. It deals with the sparsely sampled or noise contaminated data sets that are often unevenly distributed. The conducted experiments on benchmark data sets validate the proposed approach

  15. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  16. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  17. Determination and analysis of local seasonal terms of latitude variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloducha, Barbara

    1991-03-01

    Local seasonal terms of latitude variations were determined on the basis of phi data of 17 BIH/IMPS stations and x, y, z data of the BIH global solution during the years 1967-1978. Some models for local corrections R to the latitude introduced by the BIH are created. The corrections R obtained from the least squares adjustment from one year data appear to be the best. The present study shows that it is necessary to determine these more frequently than once a year or to compute them for all stations simultaneously with the ERP. This will be particularly important in view of the future re-reduction of past astrometric data.

  18. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy.

  19. Local magnetic structure determination using polarized neutron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakál, Alex, E-mail: szakal.alex@wigner.mta.hu; Markó, Márton, E-mail: marko.marton@wigner.mta.hu; Cser, László, E-mail: cser.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Konkoly Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-05-07

    A unique and important property of the neutron is that it possesses magnetic moment. This property is widely used for determination of magnetic structure of crystalline samples observing the magnetic components of the diffraction peaks. Investigations of diffraction patterns give information only about the averaged structure of a crystal but for discovering of local spin arrangement around a specific (e.g., impurity) nucleus remains still a challenging problem. Neutron holography is a useful tool to investigate the local structure around a specific nucleus embedded in a crystal lattice. The method has been successfully applied experimentally in several cases using non-magnetic short range interaction of the neutron and the nucleus. A mathematical model of the hologram using interaction between magnetic moment of the atom and the neutron spin for polarized neutron holography is provided. Validity of a polarized neutron holographic experiment is demonstrated by applying the proposed method on model systems.

  20. Determination of Geopotential of Local Vertical Datum Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper first develops the approaches to determine the geopotential of the local mean sea level,and then investigates the offset of the 1985 vertical datum surface defined by the mean sea level of Yellow Sea at the Dagang Tide Gauge in Qingdao city using the developed approaches and GPS/leveling data.It shows that the geopotential of the local mean sea level at the tide gauge is equal to 62 636 853.5±0.2 m2*s-2 and that the 1985 vertical datum surface is 24.6±5.4 cm above the geoid realized by the geopotential W0=62 636 856.0±0.5 m2*s-2.

  1. A local factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cè, Marco; Schaefer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD with Wilson-type fermions that leads to a bosonic action local in the block fields. The interaction among gauge fields on distant blocks is mediated by multiboson fields located on the boundaries of the blocks. The resultant multiboson domain-decomposed hybrid Monte Carlo passes extensive numerical tests carried out by measuring standard gluonic observables. The combination of the determinant factorization and of the one of the propagator, that we put forward recently, paves the way for multilevel Monte Carlo integration in presence of fermions. We test this possibility by computing the disconnected correlator of two flavor-diagonal pseudoscalar densities, and we observe a significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio due to a two-level integration.

  2. [Determination of visual function in legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C; Bültmann, S; Krastel, H; Rohrschneider, K

    2007-06-01

    For the determination of visual function an objective assessment is essential. Basic ophthalmologic examinations such as measurement of visual acuity and perimetry are dependent on patient statements. If the patient is not being able to provide adequate answers, as is the case for small children or mentally retarded patients, or also if the accuracy of the patient's statements is doubtful or simulation or aggravation is suspected, the denoted function in the evaluation of visual acuity has to be checked on consistency using different examination methods, and the results of objective functional tests, such as electrophysiology and morphological features, have to be taken into account.

  3. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Vulnerability Assessment and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    vulnerability assessment capability within the Marine Corps. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 177 14. SUBJECT TERMS Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), WiFi ... WiFi Protected Access xviii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xix...intelligence officers in how to hack into U.S. computers2. Government networks, proprietary commercial information, and scientific research are all

  4. Determination of riverbank erosion probability using Locally Weighted Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Elena; Flori, Aikaterini; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Giannakis, Georgios; Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Riverbank erosion is a natural geomorphologic process that affects the fluvial environment. The most important issue concerning riverbank erosion is the identification of the vulnerable locations. An alternative to the usual hydrodynamic models to predict vulnerable locations is to quantify the probability of erosion occurrence. This can be achieved by identifying the underlying relations between riverbank erosion and the geomorphological or hydrological variables that prevent or stimulate erosion. Thus, riverbank erosion can be determined by a regression model using independent variables that are considered to affect the erosion process. The impact of such variables may vary spatially, therefore, a non-stationary regression model is preferred instead of a stationary equivalent. Locally Weighted Regression (LWR) is proposed as a suitable choice. This method can be extended to predict the binary presence or absence of erosion based on a series of independent local variables by using the logistic regression model. It is referred to as Locally Weighted Logistic Regression (LWLR). Logistic regression is a type of regression analysis used for predicting the outcome of a categorical dependent variable (e.g. binary response) based on one or more predictor variables. The method can be combined with LWR to assign weights to local independent variables of the dependent one. LWR allows model parameters to vary over space in order to reflect spatial heterogeneity. The probabilities of the possible outcomes are modelled as a function of the independent variables using a logistic function. Logistic regression measures the relationship between a categorical dependent variable and, usually, one or several continuous independent variables by converting the dependent variable to probability scores. Then, a logistic regression is formed, which predicts success or failure of a given binary variable (e.g. erosion presence or absence) for any value of the independent variables. The

  5. Multidetector CT of Locally Invasive Advanced Gastric Cancer: Value of Oblique Coronal Reconstructed Images for the Assessment of Local Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Ah Yong; Kim, Hye Jin; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Yu, Eun Sil; Jang, Yoon Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Yong Moon; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of oblique coronal reconstructed CT images to determine the local invasion of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Thirty-four consecutive patients, who were suspected to have locally invasive advanced gastric cancer (more than T3 stage) on a preoperative MDCT scan and underwent a diagnostic or curative laparotomy, were enrolled in this study. Two reviewers performed an independent blind review of three series of MDCT images in random order; axial (AXI), conventional coronal (CCI), and oblique coronal (OCI) (parallel to long axis of gastric body and pancreas) images. In assessing the local invasion, the reader's confidence for the local invasion of AGC was graded using a five point scale (1 = definitely negative, 5 = definitely positive: T4). With surgical findings and histopathological proofs as reference standards, the diagnostic performance of the three different plans of CT images was employed for the verification of local invasion of AGC on a preoperative CT scan using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. Agreements between the two reviewers were analyzed using weighted kappa statistics. Results: In 19 out of 34 patients, local invasion was confirmed surgically or histopathologically (13 pancreas invasion, 6 liver invasion, 4 major vascular invasion, 3 colon and mesocolon invasion, and 2 spleen invasion). The diagnostic performance of OCI was superior to AXI or CCI in the local invasion of AGC. The differences in the area under the curve of AXI (0.770 {+-} 0.087, 0.700 {+-} 0.094), CCI (0.884 {+-} 0.058, 0.958 {+-} 0.038), and OCI (0.954 {+-} 0.050, 0.956 {+-} 0.049), were statistically significant for both reviewers. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for OCI ({kappa}= .973), which was greater than CCI (({kappa}= .839), and AXI (({kappa}= .763). On a CT scan, OCI might be a useful imaging technique in evaluating locally invasive advanced gastric cancer.

  6. Serial assessment of local peripheral vascular function after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Bladon, Kallie J; Lawrence, Jennifer L; McGlinchy, Sarah A; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2013-12-01

    Muscle damage is a common response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise; however, the effects of skeletal muscle damage on local vascular function and blood flow are poorly understood. This study examined serial local vascular responses to flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) dilation in the brachial artery after strenuous eccentric exercise and serially assessed resting blood flow. Ten healthy males performed 50 maximal eccentric unilateral arm contractions to induce muscle damage to the biceps brachii. Changes in maximal isometric strength and vascular responses were assessed 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after exercise. Mean blood velocities and arterial diameters, measured with Doppler ultrasound, were used to calculate blood flow and shear stress (expressed as area under the curve). Eccentric exercise resulted in impaired maximal isometric strength for up to 96 h (p exercise, 9.4% ± 2.6%; 1 h after exercise, 5.1% ± 2.2%) and nitroglycerin responses (before exercise, 26.3% ± 6.5%; 1 h after exercise, 20.7% ± 4.7%) were observed in the 1 h after exercise and remained lower for 96 h (p exercise and remained impaired for 48 h (p eccentric exercise leads to impaired local endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function. Lower shear stress after exercise might contribute to the observed reduction in flow-mediated dilation responses, but the mechanism responsible for the attenuated endothelial-independent vasodilation remains unclear.

  7. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

    2016-05-01

    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  8. Caribbean tsunamis - Regional exposure and local risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimsdal, S.; Harbitz, C. B.; Zamora, N.; Gour, N.; Frauenfelder, R.; Smebye, H. C.; Sverdrup-Thygeson, K.; Lovholt, F.; Bungum, H.

    2009-12-01

    Funded by the Norwegian Government, NGI and the University of the West Indies (UWI) with support from the Coastal Zone Management Unit Barbados (CZMU) have completed a two years capacity building program on natural disasters mitigation in the Caribbean, where the following is undertaken: i) preparation of regional tsunami hazard and exposure maps to identify the region’s natural disaster hot spot areas; and ii) implementation of a tsunami risk assessment demonstration project in close cooperation with the local authorities. The selected site for the demonstration project is Bridgetown, Barbados. Studies of both seismic and non-seismic tsunamigenic sources are included to provide examples of various kinds of sources with a regional distribution. Special attention is paid to the coupling between the numerical models for dispersive wave propagation and run-up models for nonlinear wave inundation. In the tsunami risk assessment demonstration project, local vulnerability and mortality risk maps are produced. The maps are based on evaluations of the tsunami inundation distance and a detailed survey of the populational pattern, buildings, and infrastructure in Bridgetown.

  9. 29 CFR 4.54 - Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4... Wage Determination Procedures § 4.54 Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. (a... within which a wage or fringe benefit determination is applicable is, therefore, defined in each...

  10. THE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY USING THE SYSTEM OF INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Danilina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the local government performance, as any other serious work, is improved and undergone major changes every year. The objective of this article-is the research of the methodological aspects of forming the system of indicators, which reflect the local government performance. The difficulties with which the constituent entities of the Russian Federation face while making assessment according to the procedure accepted on the federal level have been exposed. Some imperfections of the currently used procedure of the integrated assessment have been stated. The author concludes that the existing problems of acquiring the official and timely information from the statistical bodies, the absence of accounting the budgetary efficiency of costs and the financial status of certain municipal units, the difference in the approaches and methods of holding the opinion polls of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, call into a question the issue of fairness of the assessment results. The conducted study has allowed the author to identify the possible opportunities for the further studies. Although the methods do not require making the assessment of the performance targets approved in the strategies of the municipalities, it would be worthwhile to consider these indicators over time. While assessing the local government performance, it is recommended to use two approaches. One of them-which is obligatory for all (according to the procedure accepted on the federal level. Another approach-is holding own secondary monitoring, involving self-assessment of the activity on the effective territory management, while paying attention to the determination of the areas requiring the priority attention of the local governments. Municipalities are recommended to study the available foreign practices and the Russian achievements in the field of assessing the public body performance, which could include, for example, the European model of CAF.

  11. Attitudinal Determinants of Local Public Health Workers' Participation in Hurricane Sandy Recovery Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errett, Nicole A; Egan, Shannon; Garrity, Stephanie; Rutkow, Lainie; Walsh, Lauren; Thompson, Carol B; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Altman, Brian; Schor, Kenneth; Barnett, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Local health departments play a critical role in short-, intermediate-, and long-term recovery activities after a public health emergency. However, research has not explored attitudinal determinants of health department workers' participation in the recovery phase following a disaster. Accordingly, this qualitative investigation aims to understand perceived facilitators and barriers to performing recovery-related activities following Hurricane Sandy among local health department workers. In January 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted in geographically representative clusters of local health departments affected by Hurricane Sandy (1 cluster in Maryland and 1 cluster in New Jersey). Focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed to qualitatively assess attitudes toward Hurricane Sandy recovery activities. This analysis identified 5 major thematic categories as facilitators and barriers to participation in recovery activities: training, safety, family preparedness, policies and planning, and efficacy. Systems that support engagement of health department personnel in recovery activities may endeavor to develop and communicate intra- and interjurisdictional policies that minimize barriers in these areas. Development and implementation of evidence-informed curricular interventions that explain recovery roles may also increase local health department worker motivation to participate in recovery activities.

  12. 29 CFR 4.51 - Prevailing in the locality determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of narrowing the gap between the wage rates and fringe benefits prevailing for service employees and... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Wage Determination... wages and fringe benefits set forth in determinations of the Secretary are based on all...

  13. Local environments as determinants of walking in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Rebecca; Jolley, Damien; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2010-06-01

    Structural changes to neighbourhoods that promote walking are likely to benefit everyone in a community and result in long-term improvements in the population's physical activity and health. We consider time spent walking in relation to objectively measured features of people's local environments (functionality, safety, destinations and aesthetics) in Melbourne, Australia. We used multilevel ordered logistic regression analysis to examine variations in time spent walking amongst 2334 residents of 49 small areas (Census Collection Districts - CCDs). Features on each street segment within a 400 m radius of a randomly selected household within each CCD were measured, supplemented by geographic information system data. Models were adjusted for socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individual and socio-economic characteristics of areas. We found that increasing track length, having paths located closer to roads, fewer buildings with driveways, a greater presence and variety of destinations and views of shops, light industry, offices and/or schools (commercial views) were associated with more time spent walking in local environments in adjusted models. As such, each of the four features of local environments considered (design, safety, destinations and aesthetics) were associated on at least one measure with walking. Characteristics of areas reflecting urbanisation (destinations, commercial views, path location and driveways) were associated with increased time spent walking. This study provides important evidence on how urban design can be utilised to improve physical activity.

  14. EXAFS determination of cation local order in layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M. E.; Fuentes M, L.; Duarte M, J. A.; Fuentes C, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Garcia G, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Mehta, A.; Webb, S. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2008-02-15

    EXAFS analysis of Bi{sub 6}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 18} Aurivillius ceramic was performed to elucidate the local environment of Fe cations. Experiments were performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, at T = 10, 30, 50, 75, 100 and 298 K, in fluorescence regime. EXAFS spectra were processed using the ab initio multiple scattering program FEFF6. Distances among representative atomic pairs were refined. As a basic result, the previous hypothesis suggested by X-ray diffraction experiments, regarding a preference of iron atoms for the centered perovskite layer of the unit cell, was confirmed. (Author)

  15. Sequences determining the cytoplasmic localization of a chemoreceptor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, L; Bailey, J; Manoil, C

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor (Tsr) is a protein with a simple topology consisting of two membrane-spanning sequences (TM1 and TM2) separating a large periplasmic domain from N-terminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions. We analyzed the contributions of several sequence elements to the cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain by using chemoreceptor-alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. The principal findings were as follows. (i) The cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain depended on TM2 but was quite tolerant of mutations partially deleting or introducing charged residues into the sequence. (ii) The basal level of C-terminal domain export was significantly higher in proteins with the wild-type periplasmic domain than in derivatives with a shortened periplasmic domain, suggesting that the large size of the wild-type domain promotes partial membrane misinsertion. (iii) The membrane insertion of deletion derivatives with a single spanning segment (TM1 or TM2) could be controlled by either an adjacent positively charged sequence or an adjacent amphipathic sequence. The results provide evidence that the generation of the Tsr membrane topology is an overdetermined process directed by an interplay of sequences promoting and opposing establishment of the normal structure. PMID:7730259

  16. Application of the local approach to the fatigue assessment for welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东坡; 张玉凤; 霍立兴; 陈俊梅; 王文先

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of welded structures is currently determined by means of recommendations defined in terms of S-N curve corresponding to the detail classes of welded joints without taking account of the actual geometry of the weld. A new fatigue strength assessment method based on Dang Van multiaxial fatigue limit criterion was introduced, which is named the local approach and presented by Institut de Soudure recently. The local approach has advantages in taking welding residual stresses and the geometry of the weld toe and weld root into consideration. The application of the local approach to the fatigue strength assessment of low carbon steel Q235B welded joints was studied. The fatigue tests and finite element analysis results show that the local approach parameters recommended by Institut de Soudure were incorrectly for low carbon steel Q235B welded joints. With aluminum alloy welded joints being used widely, the parameters of the local approach used for aluminum alloy welded joints were obtained and verified on bases of the fatigue tests and finite element analysis.

  17. SIMULATING LOCAL DENSE AREAS USING PMMA TO ASSESS AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, R W; Binst, J; Dance, D R; Young, K C; Broeders, M J M; den Heeten, G J; Veldkamp, W J H; Bosmans, H; van Engen, R E

    2016-06-01

    Current digital mammography (DM) X-ray systems are equipped with advanced automatic exposure control (AEC) systems, which determine the exposure factors depending on breast composition. In the supplement of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, a phantom-based test is included to evaluate the AEC response to local dense areas in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study evaluates the proposed test in terms of SNR and dose for four DM systems. The glandular fraction represented by the local dense area was assessed by analytic calculations. It was found that the proposed test simulates adipose to fully glandular breast compositions in attenuation. The doses associated with the phantoms were found to match well with the patient dose distribution. In conclusion, after some small adaptations, the test is valuable for the assessment of the AEC performance in terms of both SNR and dose.

  18. A Research to Determine Local Governors Motivating Behaviour Their Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıçlar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ranging from public management of administrative authority with conception measure they motivated to the extent that their subordinates and by identifying the factors that influence the motivation in this context, is intended to make proposals for the improvement of the activity.The population of the study comprise the district governors who are serving actively in all the districts of Turkey. The survey was administered by governors sent through all the governorates. As a result of the research, it is necessary to motivate the employees of almost all of the local administrative authority, and which you be lieve would be helpful at this point to use all the motivational tools have been identified. However, previous studies did not adequately reflect the thinking of application the motivation of managers. Suggestions on how to motivate their employees to engage officials in the civil service are presented

  19. Gravity field determination and error assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D. N.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Linear estimation theory, along with a new technique to compute relative data weights, was applied to the determination of the Earth's geopotential field and other geophysical model parameters using a combination of satellite ground-based tracking data, satellite altimetry data, and the surface gravimetry data. The relative data weights for the inhomogeneous data sets are estimated simultaneously with the gravity field and other geophysical and orbit parameters in a least squares approach to produce the University of Texas gravity field models. New techniques to perform calibration of the formal covariance matrix for the geopotential solution were developed to obtain a reliable gravity field error estimate. Different techniques, which include orbit residual analysis, surface gravity anomaly residual analysis, subset gravity solution comparisons and consider covariance analysis, were applied to investigate the reliability of the calibration.

  20. The Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    As the solar wind plasma flows away from the Sun, it eventually collides with the local interstellar medium, creating the heliosphere. Neutral atoms from interstellar space travel inside the heliosphere and charge-exchange with the solar wind plasma, creating energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Some of these ENAs travel outside the heliosphere, undergo two charge-exchange events, and travel back inside the heliosphere towards Earth, with the strongest intensity in directions perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field (IMF). It is widely believed that this process generates the "ribbon" of enhanced ENA intensity observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), and has been shown to explain many key features of the observations. IBEX observations of the ribbon are composed of a complex, line-of-sight integration of ENAs that come from different distances beyond the heliopause, and thus the ENAs detected by IBEX over a wide range of energies are uniquely coupled to the IMF draped around the heliosphere. We present a detailed analysis of the IBEX ribbon measurements using 3D simulations of the heliosphere and computations of the ribbon flux at Earth based on IBEX capabilities, and derive the magnitude and direction of the IMF required to reproduce the position of the IBEX ribbon in the sky. These results have potentially large implications for our understanding of the solar-interstellar environment.

  1. The LC resonance probe for determining local plasma density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boris, D R; Fernsler, R F; Walton, S G, E-mail: david.boris.ctr@nrl.navy.mi [Naval Research Laboratory, Charge Particle Physics Branch-Code 6752, Plasma Physics Division, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a novel plasma diagnostic for measuring local plasma density in reactive-gas plasmas, and depositing plasmas. The diagnostic uses a network analyzer to measure the LC resonance (LCR) frequency of a parallel plate capacitor with inductive leads. The location of the LCR ({omega}{sub R}) in frequency space is then used as a measure of the plasma dielectric constant bold varepsilon{sub p} between the plates. By properly constructing the LCR probe, {omega}{sub R} can be tuned such that {omega}{sub R} >> {omega}{sub ce}, where {omega}{sub ce} is the electron-cyclotron frequency. Thus, the probe can be used in plasmas with varying degrees of magnetization while avoiding complications introduced to bold varepsilon{sub p} when {omega} is comparable to {omega}{sub ce}. Density measurements from the LCR probe are compared with Langmuir probe measurements in an electron-beam generated plasma in which density varied from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. An axial magnetic field, typically used to confine the electron beam, was varied between 0 to 300 G. The LCR probe showed good agreement with a Langmuir probe across the entire range of magnetic fields.

  2. Seismic hazard assessment of Chennai city considering local site effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Boominathan; G R Dodagoudar; A Suganthi; R Uma Maheswari

    2008-11-01

    Chennai city suffered moderate tremors during the 2001 Bhuj and Pondicherry earthquakes and the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. After the Bhuj earthquake, Indian Standard IS: 1893 was revised and Chennai city was upgraded from zone II to zone III which leads to a substantial increase of the design ground motion parameters. Therefore, a comprehensive study is carried out to assess the seismic hazard of Chennai city based on a deterministic approach. The seismicity and seismotectonic details within a 100 km radius of the study area have been considered. The one-dimensional ground response analysis was carried out for 38 representative sites by the equivalent linear method using the SHAKE91 program to estimate the ground motion parameters considering the local site effects. The shear wave velocity profile was inferred from the corrected blow counts and it was verified with the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) test performed for a representative site. The seismic hazard is represented in terms of characteristic site period and Spectral Acceleration Ratio (SAR) contours for the entire city. It is found that structures with low natural period undergo significant amplification mostly in the central and southern parts of Chennai city due to the presence of deep soil sites with clayey or sandy deposits and the remaining parts undergo marginal amplification.

  3. Navigation using local position determination from a mobile satellite terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Steven M.; Marquart, Robert C.

    The authors describe the implementation and performance evaluation of a location-determination system which uses a mobile satellite transmitter for one-way communications of position data for vehicle tracking. Field results have demonstrated that a mobile satellite terminal can provide reliable messaging and position reporting for many over-the-road applications. With installation techniques suitable for nontechnical personnel using a minimum of test equipment, the mobile terminal can provide proximity reporting adequate for most fleet dispatch requirements. Position data with one-way or two-way communications can improve the logistics and management of service fleets by eliminating deadhead mileage, maximizing route efficiencies, and heading off problems with up-to-date status information of transported loads.

  4. Negative predictive value of preoperative computed tomography in determining pathologic local invasion, nodal disease, and abdominal metastases in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagedan, D.J.; Frankul, F.; El-Sedfy, A.; McGregor, C.; Elmi, M.; Zagorski, B.; Dixon, M.E.; Mahar, A.L.; Vasilevska-Ristovska, J.; Helyer, L.; Rowsell, C.; Swallow, C.J.; Law, C.H.; Coburn, N.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Before undergoing curative-intent resection of gastric adenocarcinoma (ga), most patients undergo abdominal computed tomography (ct) imaging to determine contraindications to resection (local invasion, distant metastases). However, the ability to detect contraindications is variable, and the literature is limited to single-institution studies. We sought to assess, on a population level, the clinical relevance of preoperative ct in evaluating the resectability of ga tumours in patients undergoing surgery. Methods In a provincial cancer registry, 2414 patients with ga diagnosed during 2005–2008 at 116 institutions were identified, and a primary chart review of radiology, operative, and pathology reports was performed for all patients. Preoperative abdominal ct reports were compared with intraoperative findings and final pathology reports (reference standard) to determine the negative predictive value (npv) of ct in assessing local invasion, nodal involvement, and intra-abdominal metastases. Results Among patients undergoing gastrectomy, the npv of ct imaging in detecting local invasion was 86.9% (n = 536). For nodal metastasis, the npv of ct was 43.3% (n = 450). Among patients undergoing surgical exploration, the npv of ct for intra-abdominal metastases was 52.3% (n = 407). Conclusions Preoperative abdominal ct imaging reported as negative is most accurate in determining local invasion and least accurate in nodal assessment. The poor npv of ct should be taken into account when selecting patients for staging laparoscopy. PMID:27536178

  5. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  6. Local hybrid functionals: an assessment for thermochemical kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, Martin; Bahmann, Hilke; Arbuznikov, Alexei V

    2007-11-21

    Local hybrid functionals with position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a new class of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory that promise to advance the available accuracy in many areas of application. Local hybrids with different local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the position dependence are validated for the heats of formation of the extended G3/99 set, and for two sets of barriers of hydrogen-transfer and heavy-atom transfer reactions (HTBH38 and NHTBH38 databases). A simple local hybrid Lh-SVWN with only Slater and exact exchange plus local correlation and a one-parameter LMF, g(r)=b(tau(W)(r)tau(r)), performs best and provides overall mean absolute errors for thermochemistry and kinetics that are a significant improvement over standard state-of-the-art global hybrid functionals. In particular, this local hybrid functional does not suffer from the systematic deterioration that standard functionals exhibit for larger molecules. In contrast, local hybrids based on generalized gradient approximation exchange tend to give rise to nonintuitive LMFs, and no improved functionals have been obtained along this route. The LMF is a real-space function and thus can be analyzed in detail. We use, in particular, graphical analyses to rationalize the performance of different local hybrids for thermochemistry and reaction barriers.

  7. The relevance of international assessments to GRAS determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Claire

    2016-08-01

    A discussion of the risk assessment process as applied to the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) determination of safety for new ingredients can benefit from an international perspective. When we think about how risk assessments are performed around the world it is critical to assess what can be learned. What are the similarities? What are the differences? What are the takeaways? It is important to talk about the similarities in processes, because it validates the approach taken by risk assessors who are charged with protecting the food supply. It is also instructive to evaluate the differences in order to determine where improvements can be made to our process.

  8. Assessing the Local Environmental Performance in Western Moldavia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Alexandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental performance is a result of measurable characteristics emerging from the functionality of integrated environmental management systems based on various sustainable development policies at different administrative levels. This paper aims to quantify some dimensions of environmental performance in terms of outcomes and administrative efficiency for Western Moldavia region, using the latest available data. The obtained results demonstrate the territorial heterogeneity of environmental state, pressure and spatial resilience by highlighting the importance of ecosystems viability (forest cover, land degradation, sustainable local governance (environmental expenditure, energy, water quality, sanitation and environmental health (sanitation services, access to water and sewage, use of renewable energy. If completed in future by integrating other local environmental performance indicators the outcome of this research could become a viable tool for local and regional system of government in establishing policies in order to effectively preserve the environment.

  9. Assessment of Public Health Infrastructure to Determine Public Health Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    62 Confirmed Positive 39 92 42 Residences Abated 40 92 43 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal Bite Investigation3 1,280 … … Pets...Shops Inspected 9 9 100 Notes: 1 LHER: Local Health Evaluation Report 2 Zoonosis : Diseases transmitted from animals to humans 3 Number of...5,984 5,984 Childhood Lead Poisoning Risk assessments 2 466 932 Residences abated 8 40 320 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal

  10. Assessment of Deformation of Shear Localized Chip in High Speed Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T; C; LEE; W; S; LAU; S; K; CHAN

    2002-01-01

    As the cutting speed goes higher, the mechanism of chip deformation will be changed significantly, i.e., continuous chip in low cutting speed will shift to serrated chip with shear localization. For the shear localized chip, the parameters used to assess the chip deformation for continuous chip, such as shorten coefficient ξ, shear angle φ and shear strain ε, can not describe the chip deformation correctly or comprehensively. This paper deals with the assessment of chip deformation of shear localization. Th...

  11. Workshop on Measurement Needs for Local-Structure Determination in Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin, Igor

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional responses (e. g., dielectric, magnetic, catalytic, etc. of many industrially-relevant materials are controlled by their local structure-a term that refers to the atomic arrangements on a scale ranging from atomic (sub-nanometer to several nanometers. Thus, accurate knowledge of local structure is central to understanding the properties of nanostructured materials, thereby placing the problem of determining atomic positions on the nanoscale-the so-called "nanostructure problem"-at the center of modern materials development. Today, multiple experimental techniques exist for probing local atomic arrangements; nonetheless, finding accurate comprehensive, and robust structural solutions for the nanostructured materials still remains a formidable challenge because any one of these methods yields only a partial view of the local structure. The primary goal of this 2-day NIST-sponsored workshop was to bring together experts in the key experimental and theoretical areas relevant to local-structure determination to devise a strategy for the collaborative effort required to develop a comprehensive measurement solution on the local scale. The participants unanimously agreed that solving the nanostructure problem-an ultimate frontier in materials characterization-necessitates a coordinated interdisciplinary effort that transcends the existing capabilities of any single institution, including national laboratories, centers, and user facilities. The discussions converged on an institute dedicated to local structure determination as the most viable organizational platform for successfully addressing the nanostructure problem. The proposed "institute" would provide an intellectual infrastructure for local structure determination by (1 developing and maintaining relevant computer software integrated in an open-source global optimization framework (Fig. 2, (2 connecting industrial and academic users with experts in measurement techniques, (3

  12. Workshop on Measurement Needs for Local-Structure Determination in Inorganic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Igor; Vanderah, Terrell

    2008-01-01

    The functional responses (e. g., dielectric, magnetic, catalytic, etc.) of many industrially-relevant materials are controlled by their local structure-a term that refers to the atomic arrangements on a scale ranging from atomic (sub-nanometer) to several nanometers. Thus, accurate knowledge of local structure is central to understanding the properties of nanostructured materials, thereby placing the problem of determining atomic positions on the nanoscale-the so-called "nanostructure problem...

  13. Defect localization, characterization and reliability assessment in emerging photovoltaic devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haase, Gad S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tangyunyong, Paiboon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Colr, Edward Isaac [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielson, Gregory N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Microsystems-enabled photovoltaics (MEPV) can potentially meet increasing demands for light-weight, portable, photovoltaic solutions with high power density and efficiency. The study in this report examines failure analysis techniques to perform defect localization and evaluate MEPV modules. CMOS failure analysis techniques, including electroluminescence, light-induced voltage alteration, thermally-induced voltage alteration, optical beam induced current, and Seabeck effect imaging were successfully adapted to characterize MEPV modules. The relative advantages of each approach are reported. In addition, the effects of exposure to reverse bias and light stress are explored. MEPV was found to have good resistance to both kinds of stressors. The results form a basis for further development of failure analysis techniques for MEPVs of different materials systems or multijunction MEPVs. The incorporation of additional stress factors could be used to develop a reliability model to generate lifetime predictions for MEPVs as well as uncover opportunities for future design improvements.

  14. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (RdI and RdI(0.5)) and wave energy (RI and RI(0.5)) as well as the measured pressure (RdP) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, RdP, RdI(0.5) and RI(0.5) are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst RdI and RI provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the method

  15. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  16. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  17. Modeling the leakage of LCD displays with local backlight for quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.;

    2014-01-01

    The recent technique of local backlight dimming has a significant impact on the quality of images displayed with a LCD screen with LED local dimming. Therefore it represents a necessary step in the quality assessment chain, independently from the other processes applied to images. This paper inve...

  18. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    , all exhibiting some already mapped cycles, that are indispensable for the study of underlying mechanisms. A variety of cognitive, neurobehavioral and neuropsychological as well as cardiovascular functions will need to be investigated to more precisely map their chronomes in space and time, in order to understand chronoastrobiology, based on both the system times and time horizons yielded by chronomes assessed in communities worldwide. Thus, we critically introduce a preventive health care, while keeping the flow of data for the assessment of space weather and its consequences in the evolution thus far of terrestrial life.

  19. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Medhat Moustafa E.; Singh Vishwanath P.; Shirmardi Seyed P.

    2015-01-01

    In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative ana...

  20. Identification and determination of elements in Taraxacum officinale plant from different Bratislava localities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, E.; Bumbalova, A.; Jombik, J.; Harangozo, M. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta)

    1983-01-01

    Elements Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb and Sr were determined by the method of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis with semiconductor detection in samples of Taraxacum officinale from various localities of Bratislava. The dependence of their content on the source and the degree of the air pollution was found out.

  1. 34 CFR 222.152 - When may a local educational agency request reconsideration of a determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may a local educational agency request reconsideration of a determination? 222.152 Section 222.152 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT...

  2. Assessment of meat quality of local lamb breeds in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, the marketing of lamb is in the majority of farmers after weaning at relatively low weight. Thus, it was deemed necessary to conduct a test of fattening lambs Tunisian landraces (Barbarine (BGQ, fine Tail from the west (QFO Black Thibar (NT and Sicilo-Sarde (SS after weaning to evaluate their growth performance and determine the quality of carcasses and meat. To do so, four uniform lots of lambs (age and weight were conducted simultaneously in two months and fed with oat hay ad libitum supplemented with 300g of concentrate/day/lamb. It was clear from this work that the lambs of the breed Black Thibar had better daily growth (87.5g vs. 64.2; 66.3, 72.6 respectively for the QFO, BGQ and SS, feed efficiency (5.94. The quality of meat (6.89% fat and pieces of the first category (leg, the net and found the square (53.43%. To enjoy optimum production of red meat, it is strongly recommended that fattened lambs after weaning with diets tailored to the farming area where profitability is better and food is available.

  3. Identifying Local Determinants Of Research Commercialization Strategies In Iranian Biotechnology Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Yadollahi Fars

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology industry has a special place among novel industries. The majority of biotech companies are start-ups or small companies that have been working for several years yet are not profitable. Evidences showed that firms and researchers have problems in turning academic findings to commercial revenue and there is problem in commercialization process and choosing method of the exploitation academic opportunities or choosing proper commercialization strategy in this industry. In this study, firstly, the local determinants of commercialization strategy in 41 Iranian young biotechnology companies were identified through interview and then a questionnaire was prepared integrating these determinants and the rest of them exist in literature and was distributed among a larger sample in order to obtain the integrity. Finally, after analyzing the questionnaires, the local determinants of commercialization strategies for Iranian researcher in biotechnology sector were identified.

  4. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of the Guandong Province in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes...

  5. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

  6. Analysis of the Determinant Factors Development of Maintenance Culture in Malaysian Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani S.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.

  7. Seismic risk assessment of architectural heritages in Gyeongju considering local site effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cultural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea's ancient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Buddhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site response analyses were carried out at each historical site and the amplification characteristics, site period, and response spectrum of the site were determined for the earthquake levels of 2400 yr and 1000 yr return periods based on the Korean seismic hazard map. Response spectrum and corresponding site coefficients obtained from site response analyses considering geologic conditions differ significantly from the current Korean seismic code. This study confirms the importance of site-specific ground response analyses considering local geological conditions. Results are given in the form of the spatial distribution of bedrock depth, site period, and site amplification coefficients, which are particularly valuable in the context of a seismic vulnerability study. This study presents the potential amplification of hazard maps and provides primary data on the seismic risk assessment of each cultural heritage.

  8. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment.

  9. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss and 2 species of epiphytic moss. The concentrations of 32 elements have been determined in moss samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA and atom emission spectrometry (AES. Interspecies and intraspecies comparison revealed significant differences in accumulation properties. The accumulation capacity of Dicranum polysetum was higher than other terrestrial mosses and Aulacomnium palustre had higher accumulation capacity than other paludal mosses. These moss species have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory, particularly for research of transboundary transfer of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation property of epiphytic moss was higher than others. The epiphytic moss could be found on the bark of old trees (aspens, poplars, birch that are of frequent occurrence in urban areas. Therefore, epiphytic moss can be used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory and for research of atmospheric pollution in industrial centers, inhabited locations as well as assessment of atmospheric contamination in local pollution source. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5566

  10. Determinants of frailty: the added value of assessing medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago eCoelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze which determinants predict frailty in general and each frailty domain (physical, psychological, and social, considering the integral conceptual model of frailty, and particularly to examine the contribution of medication in this prediction. A cross-sectional study was designed using a non-probabilistic sample of 252 community-dwelling elderly from three Portuguese cities. Frailty and determinants of frailty were assessed with the Tilburg Frailty Indicator. The amount and type of different daily-consumed medication were also examined. Hierarchical regression analysis were conducted. The mean age of the participants was 79.2 years (±7.3, and most of them were women (75.8%, widowed (55.6% and with a low educational level (0-4 years: 63.9%. In this study, determinants explained 46% of the variance of total frailty, and 39.8%, 25.3%, and 27.7% of physical, psychological, and social frailty respectively. Age, gender, income, death of a loved one in the past year, lifestyle, satisfaction with living environment and self-reported comorbidity predicted total frailty, while each frailty domain was associated with a different set of determinants. The number of medications independently predicted an additional 2.5% of total frailty and 5.3% of physical frailty. The adverse effects of polymedication and its direct link with the amount of comorbidities could explain the independent contribution of this variable to frailty prediction. Furthermore, the consumption of drugs for cardiovascular diseases was particularly important for the prediction of frailty and of its physical domain. In the present study, a significant part of frailty was predicted, and the different contributions of each determinant to frailty domains provided additional evidence of the integral model of frailty’s relevance. The added value of a simple assessment of medication was considerable, and it should be taken into account for effective identification of

  11. Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eGoffaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated.Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts (i.e., inducing robust IFP or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context, (i.e., engaging local processing. Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area (OFA, the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, and early visual cortex (EVC, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local

  12. Patterns of local and nonlocal water resource use across the western U.S. determined via stable isotope intercomparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P.; Kennedy, Casey D.; Stalker, Jeremy C.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Beasley, Melanie M.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel. J.

    2014-10-01

    In the western U.S., the mismatch between public water demands and natural water availability necessitates large interbasin transfers of water as well as groundwater mining of fossil aquifers. Here we identify probable situations of nonlocal water use in both space and time based on isotopic comparisons between tap waters and potential water resources within hydrologic basins. Our approach, which considers evaporative enrichment of heavy isotopes during storage and distribution, is used to determine the likelihood of local origin for 612 tap water samples collected from across the western U.S. We find that 64% of samples are isotopically distinct from precipitation falling within the local hydrologic basin, a proxy for groundwater with modern recharge, and 31% of samples are isotopically distinct from estimated surface water found within the local basin. Those samples inconsistent with local water sources, which we suggest are likely derived from water imported from other basins or extracted from fossil aquifers, are primarily clustered in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, and central Arizona. Our isotope-based estimates of nonlocal water use are correlated with both hydrogeomorphic and socioeconomic properties of basins, suggesting that these factors exert a predictable influence on the likelihood that nonlocal waters are used to supply tap water. We use these basin properties to develop a regional model of nonlocal water resource use that predicts (r2 = 0.64) isotopically inferred patterns and allows assessment of total interbasin transfer and/or fossil aquifer extraction volumes across the western U.S.

  13. An approach to determining the local boundaries of voltage stability region with wind farms in power injection space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to determining the local boundaries of voltage stability region in power injection space (IVSR) for power system with wind farms is presented. It can be used for power system voltage stability analysis and on-line security assessment with considering the output uncertainty of the wind farms. Firstly, power flow tracing and double dispatching are used to determine the generators that are closely related to the wind farms, in order to balance the power fluctuations caused by the wind speed variation. Then, modal analysis is used to get the key generators to achieve an effective dimension reduction for IVSR. Finally, the forecasting output power (or wind speed) of wind farms is divided into several intervals. For each interval, the corresponding local IVSR boundaries can be calculated by the method based on small disturbance. Moreover, parallel process is used to accelerate the computing speed. The presented approach is validated by several power systems. It can be revealed that the approach can give the local IVSR boundaries at different wind speeds and has a good engineering application prospect.

  14. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  15. Dachsous-Dependent Asymmetric Localization of Spiny-Legs Determines Planar Cell Polarity Orientation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Ayukawa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, planar cell polarity (PCP molecules such as Dachsous (Ds may function as global directional cues directing the asymmetrical localization of PCP core proteins such as Frizzled (Fz. However, the relationship between Ds asymmetry and Fz localization in the eye is opposite to that in the wing, thereby causing controversy regarding how these two systems are connected. Here, we show that this relationship is determined by the ratio of two Prickle (Pk isoforms, Pk and Spiny-legs (Sple. Pk and Sple form different complexes with distinct subcellular localizations. When the amount of Sple is increased in the wing, Sple induces a reversal of PCP using the Ds-Ft system. A mathematical model demonstrates that Sple is the key regulator connecting Ds and the core proteins. Our model explains the previously noted discrepancies in terms of the differing relative amounts of Sple in the eye and wing.

  16. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  17. Statewide assessment of local wellness policies in Pennsylvania public school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probart, Claudia; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, J Elaine; Schilling, Lisa; Fekete, Vonda

    2008-09-01

    With the passage of the Child Nutrition and Women, Infants, and Children Reauthorization Act of 2004, schools that sponsor school meals programs are required to establish local wellness policies to address childhood obesity. Little is known about how school districts will respond to this mandate, the nature of local wellness policies, and their compliance with this mandate. The objectives of this cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in early 2007, were to assess local wellness policies established by Pennsylvania public school districts, compare these policies to local wellness policy mandate requirements, and provide information about local wellness policy development and implementation. Local wellness policies were collected from all Pennsylvania public school districts that sponsor school meals programs (N=499). School district representatives also completed and submitted a local wellness policy checklist, providing information about local wellness policy development and implementation. Policy goal data were abstracted and entered into a Microsoft Access database along with local wellness policy data. Frequencies were calculated. All required public school districts (N=499) submitted local wellness policies. Most school district local wellness policies (85.6%-100%) met each mandate requirement (eg, included goals for nutrition education, physical activity, etc.). The most common policy goals were general and may be difficult to measure, suggesting school staff may need assistance developing action plans and measuring policy implementation. Most respondents identified the superintendent (n=377; 75.6%) and school foodservice director (n=301; 60.3%) as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation. Questions remain about feasibility of these district-level personnel to ensure policy implementation at the school level. The ability of local wellness policies to impact childhood obesity will depend on efforts at both the school and district

  18. Uniqueness and local stability for the inverse scattering problem of determining the cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Lixin; MA; Fuming

    2005-01-01

    Considering a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave incident on an arbitrarily shaped open cavity embedded in infinite ground plane, the physical process is modelled by Maxwell's equations. We investigate the inverse problem of determining the shape of the open cavity from the information of the measured scattered field. Results on the uniqueness and the local stability of the inverse problem in the 2-dimensional TM (transverse magnetic) polarization are proved in this paper.

  19. A Local Geoid Determination Based on Ellipsoid Approximation in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new methodology for precise geoid determination with finest local details based on ellipsoidal approximation is presented.This methodology is formulated through the "fixed-free two-boundary value problem" based on the observable of the type modulus of gravity intensity,gravity acceleration and gravity potential at the GPS positioned stations,with support of the known geoid's potential value,W0.

  20. How the dark energy can reconcile Planck with local determination of the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Ke

    2016-09-01

    We try to reconcile the tension between the local 2.4 % determination of Hubble constant and its global determination by Planck CMB data and BAO data through modeling the dark energy variously. We find that the chi-square is significantly reduced by Δ χ ^2_ {all}=-6.76 in the redshift-binned dark energy model where the 68 % limits of the equation of state of dark energy read w(0≤ z≤ 0.1)=-1.958_{-0.508}^{+0.509}, w(0.11.5) is fixed to -1.

  1. Determination of the Local Thermal Conductivity of Functionally Graded Materials by a Laser Flash Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Determination of thermal conductivity of construction materials is essential to estimate their insulation capabilities. In most cases, homogenous materials are used and well developed methods exist for measurements of their thermal conductivity. The task becomes more challenging when dealing...... with non-homogenous materials, where the properties are changing over the volume. In the present study a test procedure is presented to address this problem. The measurement is based on a transient laser flash technique, which is used to determine the local transport properties of heterogeneous samples...... applied to create a map of thermal conductivity of a functionally graded material sample....

  2. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  3. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Method to Determine Tectonic Stress Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai; QI Lan; HAO Caizhe; GUO Lei

    2007-01-01

    The tectonic stress patterns were determined by a fuzzy comprehensive assessment method. Data of in-situ survey and fault information were utilized in the method. First, by making pressure and tension in the directions of along-river, cross-river, shear clockwise, and shear counter-clockwise, 26 types of tectonic stress patterns were presented. And the stress vector of each pat-tern was obtained with FE software by taking unit displacement as boundary load. Then, by takingthe 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and 3 main stresses as factor set and choosing various operators, comparison of directions of computational stress vector and survey stress vector was made and the most possible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Taking the 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and strike angle as factor set, comparison of relationships between formation of fault and tectonic stress was made, and the tectonic stress patterns were assessed with known fault information. By summarizing the above assessment results, the most impossible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Finally an engineering case was quoted to validate that the method is more feasible and reliable than traditional empirical method.

  4. Determination of the differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments using local FDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudin J-J

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thousands of genes in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, for detecting differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments. The expected proportion of false positive genes in a set of genes, called the False Discovery Rate (FDR, has been proposed to measure the statistical significance of this set. Various procedures exist for controlling the FDR. However the threshold (generally 5% is arbitrary and a specific measure associated with each gene would be worthwhile. Results Using process intensity estimation methods, we define and give estimates of the local FDR, which may be considered as the probability for a gene to be a false positive. After a global assessment rule controlling the false positive error, the local FDR is a valuable guideline for deciding wether a gene is differentially expressed. The interest of the method is illustrated on three well known data sets. A R routine for computing local FDR estimates from p-values is available at http://www.inapg.fr/ens_rech/mathinfo/recherche/mathematique/outil.html. Conclusions The local FDR associated with each gene measures the probability that it is a false positive. It gives the opportunity to compute the FDR of any given group of clones (of the same gene or genes pertaining to the same regulation network or the same chromosomic region.

  5. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy.

  6. Local Alternative for Energy Supply: Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Prasad Koirala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated community energy systems (ICESs are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due to community objectives, such as cost and emission reductions as well as resiliency, assessment and evaluation are still lacking on the value that these systems can provide both to the local communities as well as to the whole energy system. In this paper, we present a model-based framework to assess the value of ICESs for the local communities. The distributed energy resources-consumer adoption model (DER-CAM based ICES model is used to assess the value of an ICES in the Netherlands. For the considered community size and local conditions, grid-connected ICESs are already beneficial to the alternative of solely being supplied from the grid both in terms of total energy costs and CO2 emissions, whereas grid-defected systems, although performing very well in terms of CO2 emission reduction, are still rather expensive.

  7. The utility of comparative models and the local model quality for protein crystal structure determination by Molecular Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlowski Marcin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational models of protein structures were proved to be useful as search models in Molecular Replacement (MR, a common method to solve the phase problem faced by macromolecular crystallography. The success of MR depends on the accuracy of a search model. Unfortunately, this parameter remains unknown until the final structure of the target protein is determined. During the last few years, several Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs that predict the local accuracy of theoretical models have been developed. In this article, we analyze whether the application of MQAPs improves the utility of theoretical models in MR. Results For our dataset of 615 search models, the real local accuracy of a model increases the MR success ratio by 101% compared to corresponding polyalanine templates. On the contrary, when local model quality is not utilized in MR, the computational models solved only 4.5% more MR searches than polyalanine templates. For the same dataset of the 615 models, a workflow combining MR with predicted local accuracy of a model found 45% more correct solution than polyalanine templates. To predict such accuracy MetaMQAPclust, a “clustering MQAP” was used. Conclusions Using comparative models only marginally increases the MR success ratio in comparison to polyalanine structures of templates. However, the situation changes dramatically once comparative models are used together with their predicted local accuracy. A new functionality was added to the GeneSilico Fold Prediction Metaserver in order to build models that are more useful for MR searches. Additionally, we have developed a simple method, AmIgoMR (Am I good for MR?, to predict if an MR search with a template-based model for a given template is likely to find the correct solution.

  8. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of waste management siting and routing activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, H.W.; Lipman, D.S.; Owens, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    There is a rich mixture of formal and informal approaches being used in our sister nuclear democracies in their attempts to deal with the difficulties of obtaining local acceptance for siting of waste management facilities and activities. Some of these are meeting with a degree of success not yet achieved in the US. Although this survey documents and assesses many of these approaches, time did not permit addressing in any detail their relevance to common problems in the US. It would appear the US could benefit from a periodic review of the successes and failures of these efforts, including analysis of their applicability to the US system. Of those countries (Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, and the US) who are working to a time table for the preparation of a high-level waste (HLW) repository, Germany is the only country to have gained local siting acceptance for theirs. With this (the most difficult of siting problems) behind them they appear to be in the best overall condition relative to waste management progress and plans. This has been achieved without a particularly favorable political structure, made up for by determination on the part of the political leadership. Of the remaining three countries studied (France, UK and Canada) France, with its AVM production facility, is clearly the world leader in the HLW immobilization aspect of waste management. France, Belgium and the UK appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions. US, Switzerland and Canada appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions.

  9. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  10. Linking local vulnerability to climatic hazard damage assessment for integrated river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Liu, Yi-Chung; Chien, Sung-Ying

    2015-04-01

    1. Background Major portions of areas in Asia are expected to increase exposure and vulnerability to climate change and weather extremes due to rapid urbanization and overdevelopment in hazard-prone areas. To prepare and confront the potential impacts of climate change and related hazard risk, many countries have implemented programs of integrated river basin management. This has led to an impending challenge for the police-makers in many developing countries to build effective mechanism to assess how the vulnerability distributes over river basins, and to understand how the local vulnerability links to climatic (climate-related) hazard damages and risks. However, the related studies have received relatively little attention. This study aims to examine whether geographic localities characterized by high vulnerability experience significantly more damages owing to onset weather extreme events at the river basin level, and to explain what vulnerability factors influence these damages or losses. 2. Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including exposure, biophysical, socioeconomic, land-use and adaptive capacity factors) that could serve as proxies for attributes of local vulnerability. This framework is applied by combining geographical information system (GIS) techniques with multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to evaluate and map integrated vulnerability to climatic hazards across river basins. Furthermore, to explain the relationship between vulnerability factors and disaster damages, we develop a disaster damage model (DDM) based on existing disaster impact theory. We then synthesize a Zero-Inflated Poisson regression model with a Tobit regression analysis to identify and examine how the disaster impacts and vulnerability factors connect to typhoon disaster damages and losses. To illustrate the proposed methodology, the study collects data on the vulnerability attributes of

  11. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, aswell as their possible drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diversity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii) reg...

  12. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  13. A New Fast Method for Determining Local Properties of Striped Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Egolf, D A; Bodenschatz, E; Egolf, David A.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    1997-01-01

    From the striped coats of zebras to the ripples in windblown sand, the natural world abounds with locally banded patterns. Such patterns have been of great interest throughout history, and, in the last twenty years, scientists in a wide variety of fields have been studying the patterns formed in well-controlled experiments that yield enormous quantities of high-precision data. These experiments involving phenomena as diverse as chemical reactions in shallow layers, thermal convection in horizontal fluid layers, periodically shaken layers of sand, and the growth of slime mold colonies often display patterns that appear qualitatively similar. Methods are needed to characterize in a reasonable amount of time the differences and similarities in patterns that develop in different systems, as well as in patterns formed in one system for different experimental conditions. In this Letter, we introduce a novel, fast method for determining local pattern properties such as wavenumber, orientation, and curvature as a fun...

  14. In Vivo Recognition of Ovalbumin Expressed by Transgenic Leishmania Is Determined by Its Subcellular Localization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Sara; Gray, Peter M.; Colpitts, Sara L.; Scott, Phillip; Kaye, Paul M.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the site of Ag localization within microbial pathogens for the effective generation of CD8+ T cells has been studied extensively, generally supporting the view that Ag secretion within infected target cells is required for optimal MHC class I-restricted Ag presentation. In contrast, relatively little is known about the importance of pathogen Ag localization for the activation of MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells, despite their clear importance for host protection. We have used the N-terminal targeting sequence of Leishmania major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B to generate stable transgenic lines expressing physiologically relevant levels of full-length OVA on the surface of metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes. In addition, we have mutated the hydrophilic acylated surface protein B N-terminal acylation sequence to generate control transgenic lines in which OVA expression is restricted to the parasite cytosol. In vitro, splenic dendritic cells are able to present membrane-localized, but not cytosolic, OVA to OVA-specific DO.11 T cells. Strikingly and unexpectedly, surface localization of OVA is also a strict requirement for recognition by OVA-specific T cells (DO.11 and OT-II) and for the development of OVA-specific Ab responses in vivo. However, recognition of cytosolic OVA could be observed with increasing doses of infection. These data suggest that, even under in vivo conditions, where varied pathways of Ag processing are likely to operate, the site of Leishmania Ag localization is an important determinant of immunogenicity and hence an important factor when considering the likely candidacy of vaccine Ags for inducing CD4+ T cell-dependent immunity. PMID:16585577

  15. Quality assessment of images displayed on LCD screen with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a subjective experiment collecting quality assessment of images displayed on a LCD with local backlight dimming using two methodologies: absolute category ratings and paired-comparison. Some well-known objective quality metrics are then applied to the stimuli and their respect...

  16. Assessing the Usability of WorldCat Local: Findings and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; Berube, Katy; Devereaux, Peter; Dhakal, Kerry; Powers, Stephen; Ray, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    A number of academic, public, regional, and state libraries use WorldCat Local (WCL) as a resource location tool that enables users to search, find, and gain access to a range of print and electronic resources. This article describes a study undertaken to assess a Research I university's implementation of WCL. The study sought to understand the…

  17. Local Assessment: Using Genre Analysis to Validate Directed Self-Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Anne Ruggles; Aull, Laura; Escudero, Moises Damian Perales; Lancaster, Zak; Lei, Elizabeth Vander

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in the principle that writing assessment should be locally developed and controlled, this article describes a study that contextualizes and validates the decisions that students make in the modified Directed Self-Placement (DSP) process used at the University of Michigan. The authors present results of a detailed text analysis of…

  18. Local determination of the amount of integration of an atom into a crystal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgmann, K.; Gawronski, H.; Zaum, Ch; Rusina, G. G.; Borisova, S. D.; Chulkov, E. V.; Morgenstern, K.

    2014-10-01

    Collective vibrational modes of crystal lattices, called phonons, determine fundamental material properties, such as their thermal and electrical conductivities. Bulk phonon spectra are influenced by point defects. More recently, the importance of phonons on nanostructures has come into the focus of attention. Here we show a spatially resolved phonon spectra of point defects that reveal distinctly different signatures for a cavity alone and an impurity atom fully integrated into the surface as opposed to one placed into a cavity. The spectra are indicative for delocalized phonons and localized vibrations, respectively, as confirmed by theory.

  19. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  20. A History of New York State Literacy Test Assessment: Historicizing Calls to Localism in Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serviss, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon archival materials, I describe the history, design, and assessment of literacy tests from early 20th century New York state. Practitioners working with these early standardized writing tests grappled with tensions created by public Nativist sentiment, the legislation of "literacy," and calls to score the tests in…

  1. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to

  2. Assessment of local thin areas in a marine pipeline by using the FITNET FFS corrosion module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, S. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y de los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, ETS. Ingenieros de Caminos, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); INESCO Ingenieros SL, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad de Cantabria, Fase A, Mod. 2003, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)], E-mail: ciceros@unican.es; Lacalle, R.; Cicero, R.; Ferreno, D. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y de los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, ETS. Ingenieros de Caminos, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); INESCO Ingenieros SL, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad de Cantabria, Fase A, Mod. 2003, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This paper analyses the structural integrity of the marine stretch of a pipeline which is placed over a natural bay. The pipeline is part of a 30-year-old installation used for the provision of petrochemical products to a nearby chemical plant. Although there have been no relevant leaks in the past, both the visual inspections performed (revealing numerous local thin areas) and the fact that it is located in a highly sensitive place with high ecological and tourist value recommend the assessment of the pipeline in order to ensure that it is working in safe conditions and that there are no risks for the environment or the people living in the surrounding area. The assessment has been performed using the newly developed FITNET FFS procedure, whose local thin areas assessment methodology is also explained and compared to the analyses proposed by other well known procedures.

  3. How the dark energy can reconcile Planck with local determination of the Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qing-Guo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Ke [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    We try to reconcile the tension between the local 2.4 % determination of Hubble constant and its global determination by Planck CMB data and BAO data through modeling the dark energy variously. We find that the chi-square is significantly reduced by Δχ{sup 2}{sub all} = -6.76 in the redshift-binned dark energy model where the 68 % limits of the equation of state of dark energy read w(0 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) = -1.958{sub -0.508}{sup +0.509}, w(0.1 < z ≤ 1.5) = -1.006{sub -0.082}{sup +0.092}, and here w(z > 1.5) is fixed to -1. (orig.)

  4. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Dani; Ayalon, Ofira; Kan, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly influence WM costs, and therefore the optimal scheme is one under which each local authority is able to implement its best-fitting mechanism, given that national guidelines are kept. The main result is that strict national/regional WM policies may be less efficient, unless some type of local flexibility is implemented. Our model is designed both for top-down and bottom-up assessment, and can be easily adapted for a wide range of WM option comparisons at different levels.

  5. Local 3D matrix confinement determines division axis through cell shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Chen, Weitong; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Jimenez, Angela; Wong, Bin Sheng; San, Angela; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wirtz, Denis

    2016-02-01

    How the division axis is determined in mammalian cells embedded in three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains elusive, despite that many types of cells divide in 3D environments. Cells on two-dimensional (2D) substrates typically round up completely to divide. Here, we show that in 3D collagen matrices, mammalian cells such as HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibit division modes distinct from their Counterparts on 2D substrates, with a markedly higher fraction of cells remaining highly elongated through mitosis in 3D matrices. The long axis of elongated mitotic cells accurately predicts the division axis, independently of matrix density and cell-matrix interactions. This 3D-specific elongated division mode is determined by the local confinement produced by the matrix and the ability of cells to protrude and locally remodel the matrix via β1 integrin. Elongated division is readily recapitulated using collagen-coated microfabricated channels. Cells depleted of β1 integrin still divide in the elongated mode in microchannels, suggesting that 3D confinement is sufficient to induce the elongated cell-division phenotype.

  6. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  7. Determination of waterscape beauties through visual quality assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zohre; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-07-01

    Besides being an indispensable life element, water is also in the first rows among the most important landscape elements that have the visual reserve value in both natural and cultural environments. In this study, the aim was to present suggestions about the use of waterscapes in landscape design and planning attempts by determining the water types bearing high visual reserve values among different types of waterscapes bearing high visual reserve values. The visual quality assessment method was used in this study. One hundred and twenty eight university students ranked the six waterscapes in a visual quality survey. The results showed that urban waterscape scenery [visual quality point (VQP) = 6.0391], was the most preferred category, whereas, river scenery (VQP = 3.5547) was the least preferred. The second preferred waterscape was waterfall (in rural landscape) scenery (VQP = 5.8594) and the third was standing water scenery (SWS; VQP = 5.3672). The relationships between landscape parameters and visual quality of landscape indicated that vividness and fascinaty parameters had a significant relation with preference. Some suggestions were made regarding the use of wa terscapes visual value in planning and designing of the landscape.

  8. BAYESIAN LOCAL INFLUENCE ASSESSMENTS IN A GROWTH CURVE MODEL WITH GENERAL COVARIANCE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a Bayesian approach based on Kullback Leibler divergence for assessing local influence in a growth curve model with general covariance structure.Under certain prior distribution assumption,the Kullback-Leibler divergence is used to measure the influence of some minor perturbation on the posterior distribution of unknown parameter.This leads to the diagnostic statistic for detecting which response is locally influential.As an application,the common covariance-weighted perturbation scheme is thoroughly considered.

  9. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Dani, E-mail: danib@techunix.technion.ac.il [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ayalon, Ofira [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Kan, Iddo [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  10. Local homogeneity combined with DCT statistics to blind noisy image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingxian; Chen, Li; Chen, Heping

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a novel method for blind noisy image quality assessment is proposed. First, it is believed that human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to the local smoothness area in a noise image, an adaptively local homogeneous block selection algorithm is proposed to construct a new homogeneous image named as homogeneity blocks (HB) based on computing each pixel characteristic. Second, applying the discrete cosine transform (DCT) for each HB and using high frequency component to evaluate image noise level. Finally, a modified peak signal to noise ratio (MPSNR) image quality assessment approach is proposed based on analysis DCT kurtosis distributions change and noise level above-mentioned. Simulations show that the quality scores that produced from the proposed algorithm are well correlated with the human perception of quality and also have a stability performance.

  11. Emergy as embodied energy based assessment for local sustainability of a constructed wetland in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-02-01

    Ecological treatment engineering has been widely accepted as an artificially designed work to deal with the deteriorating ecological environment with low energy and resource consumption. To measure the energy and resource consumption and environmental support contained in the constructed wetland as a kind of ecological treatment engineering, emergy as embodied solar energy based assessment is performed and relative emergy-based indices including emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy load ratio (ELR), emergy sustainability index (ESI), net economic benefit index (Np), and renewable percentage index (Pr), are also modified to evaluate the local sustainability of the constructed wetland in this paper. A case study on Longdao River constructed wetland compared with those of some earlier conventional treatment systems indicate that more local renewable resources and less ecological cost are involved, thus promoting the economic benefit due to less energy and resource consumption and simultaneously lowering the environmental stress of the treatment system on the local areas.

  12. Using GPS and leveling data in local precise geoid determination and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B.; Çelik, R. N.; Erol, S.

    2003-04-01

    the fundamental mathematical equation; N=h-H. In the equation, "h" is the ellipsoidal height of a point P, "H" is the orthometric height of the same point and "N" is "geoid undulation" value. Normally, "H" orthometric height derived from leveling measurements but these measurements are tiring applications. So, while having a geoid model in the region as the essential part of geodetic infrastructure, number leveling measurements can be reduced from the procedure and by this way time and labor is saved. Geoid determination is modeling of the data in such a way that geoid height can be obtained digital or analog at a point whose horizontal position is known. Geoid models can be developed for local, regional or global regions. Using satellite techniques, especially GPS, in geodetic measurements are increased importance of geoid. Because geoid is a natural tie between high precision geodetic coordinates and coordinates which obtained from satellites. There are several geoid determination methods according to used data and models. GPS/Leveling method, which is also known as geometric method, is one of these methods. This method is appropriate for local precise geoid determination in respectively small areas. In this paper, it is going to be given information about GPS/Leveling geoid determination method and mathematical models, which are used in geoid determination with this method. And Izmir local geoid model will be presented as a case study. Izmir is one of the west metropolitan cities of Turkey and located near Aegean Sea. The topography is extremely rough in the region. There are two different geoid determination studies which were carried out in 1996 and 2001 in Izmir. Both models were accomplished according to GPS/Leveling method. Those two geoid models of Izmir Metropolitan region are investigated in here, the conflict of them were discussed. The relation between distribution of common reference points and differences of geoid undulation values, which are calculated

  13. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physio...

  14. Assessing Regional Climate and Local Landcover Impacts on Vegetation with Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel Brunsell; Pei-Ling Lin

    2013-01-01

    Landcover change alters not only the surface landscape but also regional carbon and water cycling. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impacts of landcover change across the Kansas River Basin (KRB) by comparing local microclimatic impacts and regional scale climate influences. This was done using a 25-year time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and precipitation (PPT) data analyzed using multi-resolution information theory metrics. Results showed bot...

  15. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    OpenAIRE

    Katcher Brian S; Lichtensztajn Daphne Y; Aragón Tomás J; Reiter Randy; Katz Mitchell H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature d...

  16. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, Tomás J; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Katcher, Brian S; Reiter, Randy; Katz, Mitchell H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death amo...

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  18. Determination of relationship between some Turkish local tomato genotypes by using phenotypic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asu OĞUZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the fourth producer country among the other countries in the world and tomato are produced around 11 million tons per year. Over many years, tomato adapted to the geography of Turkey has shown a high biodiversity. In this research, with 76 local tomato genotypes collected from 52 different provience, 4 foreign and 8 wild species, total 88 tomato genotypes were used. Morphological variations among these materials were investigated. Some of the local genotypes were determined to be accessions increasing variations. A cluster diagram obtained from the morphological descriptors produced ten main sub-cluster groups of tomato accessions at a coefficient of 0.15. Accessions were put into cluster groups based on certain qualities unique. It was observed that 86 out of 88 tomato accessions under study were distinct accessions. G80 and G83 were recorded similar (94% accessions in all accessions. Similarity coefficient values among the 88 accessions ranged from -0.11 to 0.94. Accessions with similar quantitative and qualitative morphological characters appeared well grouped in the same cluster. These accessions are considered as important genetic resources in tomato breeding studies.

  19. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  20. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally-determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally-determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With only three parameters per solvent, this `CANDLE' model simultaneously reproduce...

  1. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  2. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  3. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-01-01

    Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process a...

  4. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process are researched in view of specificity of the sector.

  5. Sequence determinants of the Caenhorhabditis elegans dopamine transporter dictating in vivo axonal export and synaptic localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah B; Hardaway, J Andrew; Hardie, Shannon L; Wright, Jane; Glynn, Ryan M; Bermingham, Daniel P; Han, Qiao; Sturgeon, Sarah M; Freeman, Phyllis; Blakely, Randy D

    2017-01-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) acts across phylogeny to modulate both simple and complex behaviors. The presynaptic DA transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of DA signaling capacity in ensuring efficient extracellular DA clearance. In humans, DAT is also a major target for prescribed and abused psychostimulants. Multiple structural determinants of DAT function and regulation have been defined, though largely these findings have arisen from heterologous expression or ex vivo cell culture studies. Loss of function mutations in the gene encoding the Caenhorhabditis elegans DAT (dat-1) produces rapid immobility when animals are placed in water, a phenotype termed swimming-induced paralysis (Swip). The ability of a DA neuron-expressed, GFP-tagged DAT-1 fusion protein (GFP::DAT-1) to localize to synapses and rescue Swip in these animals provides a facile approach to define sequences supporting DAT somatic export and function in vivo. In prior studies, we found that truncation of the last 25 amino acids of the DAT-1 C-terminus (Δ25) precludes Swip rescue, supported by a deficit in GFP::DAT-1 synaptic localization. Here, we further defined the elements within Δ25 required for DAT-1 export and function in vivo. We identified two conserved motifs ((584)KW(585) and (591)PYRKR(595)) where mutation results in a failure of GFP::DAT-1 to be efficiently exported to synapses and restore DAT-1 function. The (584)KW(585) motif conforms to a sequence proposed to support SEC24 binding, ER export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and surface expression of mammalian DAT proteins, whereas the (591)PYRKR(595) sequence conforms to a 3R motif identified as a SEC24 binding site in vertebrate G-protein coupled receptors. Consistent with a potential role of SEC24 orthologs in DAT-1 export, we demonstrated DA neuron-specific expression of a sec-24.2 transcriptional reporter. Mutations of the orthologous C-terminal sequences in human DAT (hDAT) significantly reduced

  6. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  7. Quantum efficiency of self-assembled quantum dots determined by a modified optical local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, I.S.;

    2007-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics....

  8. Assessing Local People's Knowledge of the Endangered Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) in Alejandro de Humboldt National Park, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique-Díaz, Lázaro M.; OHDACHI, Satoshi; Kita, Masaki; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Páez, Rafael Borroto; Labañino, Jorge L. Delgado; Díez, Jorgelino Gámez; HOSON, Osamu; SAITO, Chiemi

    2014-01-01

    Assessing local people's knowledge of endangered species is important not only for the planning and implementation of environmental education programs, but also to address community-based conservation issues and guarantee an effective engagement of local residents in conservation efforts. A questionnaire-based study conducted in Alejandro de Humboldt National Park assessed local people’s knowledge of the endangered Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus). From this it was found that although chil...

  9. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using local binary pattern in infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xulong; Hong, Wenxue; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhenying

    2013-02-01

    Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0.86 and 0.89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0.657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis.

  10. Validity of portfolio assessment: which qualities determine ratings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, E.W.; Overeem, K.; Tartwijk, J. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The portfolio is becoming increasingly accepted as a valuable tool for learning and assessment. The validity of portfolio assessment, however, may suffer from bias due to irrelevant qualities, such as lay-out and writing style. We examined the possible effects of such qualities in a portfolio progra

  11. Coupled Ground- and Space-Based Assessment of Regional Inundation Dynamics to Assess Impact of Local and Upstream Changes on Evaporation in Tropical Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schwerdtfeger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of human land use and climate change are known to be a threat for the health and proper functioning of tropical wetlands. They interfere with the seasonal flood pulse, which is seen as the most important driver for biodiversity and directly controls evaporation. In order to investigate the impact of local and upstream changes on wetlands, a regional assessment of evaporation is crucial but challenging in such often remote and poorly gauged ecosystems. Evaporation is the major water balance component of these wetlands and links the flood pulse with the ecosystem. It can therefore be seen as a proxy for their functioning. In the last decades, information from space became an important data source to assess remote wetland areas. Here, we developed a new approach to quantify regional evaporation driven by inundation dynamics as its dominant control. We used three water and vegetation indices (mNDWI (modified Normalized Difference Water Index, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance products to assess regional inundation dynamics between the dry and wet seasons. Two years of continual in situ water level measurements at different locations in our study area, the Pantanal wetland of South America, provided the reference to evaluate our method. With process-based modeling that used the inundation dynamics to determine the water available for evaporation, we were able to estimate actual evaporation (AET on a regional scale. Relating AET to changes in discharge due to upstream flow modifications and on local precipitation over the last 13 years, we found that the Pantanal is more vulnerable to alternated inundation dynamics than to changes in local precipitation. We concluded that coupling ground- and space-based information in this remote wetland area is a valuable first step to investigate the status of the Pantanal

  12. Determining the torus covering factors for a sample of type 1 AGN in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ezhikode, Savithri H; Done, Chris; Ward, Martin; Dewangan, Gulab C; Misra, Ranjeev; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    The unification scheme of active galactic nuclei (AGN) proposes the presence of a dusty torus around the central source, governing the differences between AGN spectral properties. A fraction of the AGN luminosity is absorbed by the dusty torus and is re-radiated in the infrared (IR) band. Thus the fraction of the sky covered by the torus as seen from the central source, known as the covering factor f_c, can be obtained from the ratio of the IR to the bolometric luminosities of the source. However, because of the uncertainty in determining bolometric luminosities, the estimation of covering factors has proven difficult, especially in the local Universe where the peak of the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) lie in the ultraviolet. In this work, we determine the covering factors of an X-ray/optically selected sample of 51 type 1 AGN analysed by Jin et al. The bolometric luminosities of these sources can be derived using a self-consistent, energy-conserving model that estimates the contribution in th...

  13. Strategic environmental assessment for local transport plans; Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Vera

    2008-08-15

    The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) makes new demands for plans and programs also in the transport sector. Particularly on local level transport is one of the biggest causers of negative environmental effects. But there exists no SEA obligation for local transport plans, however many factors suggest to make such an examination in this sector. At the latest in the urban land use planning transport effects are a component for the SEA. Synergies can be exhausted and the individual planning steps are appropriately co-ordinated by the meaningful integration of transport and urban development planning. Additional synergies can gained in connection with further local and/or regional planning like e.g. the clean air planning or noise reduction planning. The aim of the doctoral thesis is to draft recommendations how to integrate the SEA into local transport planning process. For that purpose it is necessary to deduce the requirements demanded by the SEA and to demonstrate the current state of the local transport planning. The doctoral thesis is based on partial results of the research project FE 73.0237 ''Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklungsplanung'' in behalf of the German Ministry of Transport (Bundesministerium fuer Verkehr, Bauen und Stadtentwicklung) and mentored by the Federal Office of civil engineering (Bundesamt fuer Bauwesen und Raumordnung). The author of this thesis was instrumental in acquiring those results. The thesis contains a detailed literature research. The SEA's requirements are also described as well as the current state of the local transport planning. The state of the SEA on the different planning levels in the German transport sector is presented. Another part is a survey of 13 municipalities concerning their previous practice of the local transport and environmental planning as well as their experience with the SEA on local level and the analyse of local data. Furthermore three

  14. Determining hypocentral parameters for local earthquakes under ill conditions using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woohan; Hahm, In-Kyeong; Kim, Won-Young; Lee, Jung Mo

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that GA-MHYPO determines accurate hypocentral parameters for local earthquakes under ill conditions, such as limited number of stations (phase data), large azimuthal gap, and noisy data. The genetic algorithm (GA) in GA-MHYPO searches for the optimal 1-D velocity structure which provides the minimum traveltime differences between observed (true) and calculated P and S arrivals within prescribed ranges. GA-MHYPO is able to determine hypocentral parameters more accurately in many circumstances than conventional methods which rely on an a priori (and possibly incorrect) 1-D velocity model. In our synthetic tests, the accuracy of hypocentral parameters obtained by GA-MHYPO given ill conditions is improved by more than a factor of 20 for error-free data, and by a factor of five for data with errors, compared to that obtained by conventional methods such as HYPOINVERSE. In the case of error-free data, GA-MHYPO yields less than 0.1 km errors in focal depths and hypocenters without strong dependence on azimuthal coverage up to 45°. Errors are less than 1 km for data with errors of a 0.1-s standard deviation. To test the performance using real data, a well-recorded earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquakes recorded under ill conditions in the High Himalaya are relocated by GA-MHYPO. The hypocentral parameters determined by GA-MHYPO under both good and ill conditions show similar computational results, which suggest that GA-MHYPO is robust and yields more reliable hypocentral parameters than standard methods under ill conditions for natural earthquakes.

  15. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Funsten, H. O., E-mail: ezirnstein@swri.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  16. The spatial structure of hunter access determines the local abundance of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Blake, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In many previously remote regions in the world, increasing and often unregulated access is leading to dramatic increases in hunting pressure and declines in the densities of prey species, sometimes to the point of local extinction. Not surprisingly, numerous studies have found a correlation between the distance to the closest access point and prey densities. Here we hypothesized that, for many wide-ranging species, local abundances are reduced by hunting associated with multiple access points as opposed to just the closest access points. We also hypothesized that the distribution of hunter access determines both patterns of occupancy and abundance in occupied areas and that these two patterns (occupancy and abundance) respond to access at different spatial scales. Using data on the distribution of abundances of African forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in and around five national parks in Central Africa, we tested these hypotheses using a model comparison framework. We found that models including an index based on the distance to multiple roads outperformed models including other access-based covariates, including a model based on distance to the closest road only. We also found that models that allowed us to model occupancy and abundance separately outperformed simpler models. Occupancy responds to access at the same scale as previous estimates of average maximum displacement in the subspecies, while the scale of the response of abundance is more ambiguous, but appears to be greater. Lastly, we show that incorporating indices based on multiple access points and modeling abundance and occupancy has important practical consequences for our understanding of overall regional abundances and the distribution of abundances within regions.

  17. The arresting phase determines the total healing time of a locally irradiated skin wound in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; ZHOU Yuan-guo; ZHANG En; LIU Xia; LIU Jian-zhong; LIU Ping; PENG Yan; XIONG Ren-ping; CHEN Xing-yu; ZHAO Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Radiation is an important cause of delayed wound healing,and there still exist many questions regarding the patterns and mechanisms of wound healing.This study investigated the characteristics of wound healing after varying doses of local radiation and explored possible causes of the delay in healing caused by radiation.Methods:A full-thickness dorsal longitudinal skin tissue,2 cm in diameter,was excised after local irradiation on one side of the back of swine,and the other side was wounded as a control.The size of the wound area was recorded every two days after injury.Pathological changes,proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA,immunohistochemistry)and apoptosis levels(TUNEL assay)were measured at different time points after wounding.Results:The course of wound healing can be divided into four phases,namely:the arresting phase,the healing priming phase,the fast healing phase,and the healed phase.Although the total wound healing time was closely correlated to the dose of irradiation(R2=0.9758),it was more dependent on the length of the arresting phase(R2=0.9903)because once the arresting phase ended,the wound healed at a similar speed regardless of radiation doses.Pathological analysis showed that compared with the control side there were more necrotic tissues,slower epithelial crawling,as well as fewer blood vessels and cellular components in the irradiated side at the arresting phase,while other phases revealed no significant difference concerning these measurements.Immunohistochemistry showed that the irradiated wounds had significantly less PCNA-positive and more TUNEL-positive labeling of cells in the arresting phase than in other phases.Moreover,the changes were positively related to the radiation doses,but there was no obvious difference in cell proliferation or apoptosis among the healing priming phase,fast healing phase or healed phase,whether on the control side or on the irradiated side.Conclusions:After local irradiation,the length of the

  18. Validity of portfolio assessment: which qualities determine ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Erik W; Overeem, Karlijn; van Tartwijk, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Muijtjens, Arno M M

    2006-09-01

    The portfolio is becoming increasingly accepted as a valuable tool for learning and assessment. The validity of portfolio assessment, however, may suffer from bias due to irrelevant qualities, such as lay-out and writing style. We examined the possible effects of such qualities in a portfolio programme aimed at stimulating Year 1 medical students to reflect on their professional and personal development. In later curricular years, this portfolio is also used to judge clinical competence. We developed an instrument, the Portfolio Analysis Scoring Inventory, to examine the impact of form and content aspects on portfolio assessment. The Inventory consists of 15 items derived from interviews with experienced mentors, the literature, and the criteria for reflective competence used in the regular portfolio assessment procedure. Forty portfolios, selected from 231 portfolios for which ratings from the regular assessment procedure were available, were rated by 2 researchers, independently, using the Inventory. Regression analysis was used to estimate the correlation between the ratings from the regular assessment and those resulting from the Inventory items. Inter-rater agreement ranged from 0.46 to 0.87. The strongest predictor of the variance in the regular ratings was 'quality of reflection' (R 0.80; R2 66%). No further items accounted for a significant proportion of variance. Irrelevant items, such as writing style and lay-out, had negligible effects. The absence of an impact of irrelevant criteria appears to support the validity of the portfolio assessment procedure. Further studies should examine the portfolio's validity for the assessment of clinical competence.

  19. Local Community Assessment on the Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects of Ecotourism in Lobo, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Dian D. Bansil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the economic, environmental and social aspects of ecotourism in Lobo, Batangas, Philippines. Lobo is situated in the Verde Island Passage, the “center of the center of marine biodiversity” in the world. Lobo is also home to scenic beaches with spectacular dive spots and fish sanctuaries; mountain ranges with the endangered tree specie, the Philippine teak or Tectona philippinensis; and the 120-year old Malabrigo Lighthouse, which is overlooking Verde Island. The assessment was made by 394 residents of 18 barangays or local communities within the ecotourism areas, who are selected through stratified-proportional random sampling. The study is descriptive in nature and a survey questionnaire was the instrument used in data gathering. Results show that ecotourism in Lobo is economically, viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable. However, the local government of Lobo and the tourism industry should be constantly cautious in every aspect of ecotourism development to assure its sustainability in the long run. In addition, residents of the local communities should also be always vigilant on the protection of the Lobo environment and conservation of its natural resources outweighing whatever economic benefits they may be offered by industries, tourism or any else.

  20. Assessing Regional Climate and Local Landcover Impacts on Vegetation with Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Brunsell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Landcover change alters not only the surface landscape but also regional carbon and water cycling. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impacts of landcover change across the Kansas River Basin (KRB by comparing local microclimatic impacts and regional scale climate influences. This was done using a 25-year time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and precipitation (PPT data analyzed using multi-resolution information theory metrics. Results showed both entropy of PPT and NDVI varied along a pronounced PPT gradient. The scalewise relative entropy of NDVI was the most informative at the annual scale, while for PPT the scalewise relative entropy varied temporally and by landcover type. The relative entropy of NDVI and PPT as a function of landcover showed the most information at the 512-day scale for all landcover types, implying different landcover types had the same response across the entire KRB. This implies that land use decisions may dramatically alter the local time scales of responses to global climate change. Additionally, altering land cover (e.g., for biofuel production may impact ecosystem functioning at local to regional scales and these impacts must be considered for accurately assessing future implications of climate change.

  1. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise; Determination de l'ebullition locale dans les reacteurs a eau legere par correlation du bruit neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)

  2. 75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of United Auto Workers Local... petition filed on behalf of workers at United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was...

  3. Robot-assisted assessment of vibration perception and localization on the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2013-03-01

    Sensory perception is crucial for motor learning and the control of fine manipulations. However, therapy after stroke still strongly focuses on the training of motor skills. Sensory assessments are often left out or provide only very subjective data from poorly controlled stimuli. This paper presents a vibration detection/localization test with the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a device that focuses entirely on the assessment and training of sensory function of the hand, with the aim of gaining insights into the prevalence and severity of sensory deficits after stroke, and to provide semiobjective data on absolute and difference perception thresholds in patients. An initial feasibility study investigated localization performance and reaction time during the discrimination of vibration stimuli presented in four locations on the dominant and nondominant hands of 13 healthy volunteers. High correct detection rates were observed (mean ± SD of 99.6% ± 0.6%), touch screen PC Robotic Sensory Trainer which were found to be significantly different between stimulus locations on the dominant hand. Average correct detection rates were not statistically different between dominant and nondominant hand. These data will serve as baseline for future measurements on elderly and stroke subjects, and suggest that data from the nonimpaired hand could be used to identify and assess sensory deficits in the affected hand of stroke patients.

  4. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  5. Complex ultrasound diagnostic assessment of the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (Stages IIB–IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current complex ultrasound diagnosis using novel imaging techniques can assess, to a high accuracy, different tumor parameters during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT for locally advanced cervical cancer (CC (Stages IIB–IIB. This assessment is very important and necessary to define further treatment policy.Materials and methods. A total of 199 patients diagnosed with Stages IIB–IIIB CC, including 60 patients with Stage IIB (T2bN0M0, 4 with Stage IIIА (T3aN0M0, and 135 with Stage IIIВ (T2bN1M0, T3aN1M0, T3bN0–1M0 (according to the International Federationof Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO classification, who received NCT at Stage 1 of treatment, were examined. Complex ultrasound study was conducted before treatment initiation and after each NCT cycle. The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor was evaluated in surgically treated patients.Results. The criteria have been determined for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for locally advanced CC, which are based on current ultrasonographic techniques including B-mode, Doppler ultrasound (power, spectral, three-dimensional ones, as well as on the results of therapeutic pathomorphism.Conclusion. The criteria for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for CC should be based on current complex ultrasonographic techniques.

  6. Assessing implicit odor localization in humans using a cross-modal spatial cueing paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Moessnang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Navigation based on chemosensory information is one of the most important skills in the animal kingdom. Studies on odor localization suggest that humans have lost this ability. However, the experimental approaches used so far were limited to explicit judgements, which might ignore a residual ability for directional smelling on an implicit level without conscious appraisal. METHODS: A novel cueing paradigm was developed in order to determine whether an implicit ability for directional smelling exists. Participants performed a visual two-alternative forced choice task in which the target was preceded either by a side-congruent or a side-incongruent olfactory spatial cue. An explicit odor localization task was implemented in a second experiment. RESULTS: No effect of cue congruency on mean reaction times could be found. However, a time by condition interaction emerged, with significantly slower responses to congruently compared to incongruently cued targets at the beginning of the experiment. This cueing effect gradually disappeared throughout the course of the experiment. In addition, participants performed at chance level in the explicit odor localization task, thus confirming the results of previous research. CONCLUSION: The implicit cueing task suggests the existence of spatial information processing in the olfactory system. Response slowing after a side-congruent olfactory cue is interpreted as a cross-modal attentional interference effect. In addition, habituation might have led to a gradual disappearance of the cueing effect. It is concluded that under immobile conditions with passive monorhinal stimulation, humans are unable to explicitly determine the location of a pure odorant. Implicitly, however, odor localization seems to exert an influence on human behaviour. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show implicit effects of odor localization on overt human behaviour and thus support the hypothesis of residual

  7. STUDY TO ASSESS THE DISINFECTION OF DENTAL PROSTHESES TO CLEAR LOCALLY PREVALENT MICROBIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of four disinfectant solutions (Sodium hypochlorite 1%, chlorhexidine gluconate 2%, 100% vinegar and sodium perborate 3.8% in making acrylic resin specimens free of locally prevalent strains of three different micro-organisms. The organisms tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The study was conducted following a request by the Prosthodontics Department in the college, as part of the annual quality appraisal. One hundred and fifty samples of the standardized acrylic resin specimens were participated in the study, of which, 30 specimens were run as controls. It was concluded that 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 100% vinegar and 3.8% sodium perborate are all useful as disinfectants of acrylic resin, to make it free from local strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

  8. A Simple Magnetostatic Sensing Method for Assessing the Local Hysteresis Properties in Ferromagnetic Sheet Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan J. Garshelis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global hysteretic properties of electrical steels can be measured using ring or strip samples, while the assessment of the local hysteretic properties is a much more difficult task since the measurement method needs to be very sensitive. This paper presents a new method wherein the intensity and spatial distribution of the magnetic field, arising from large gradients in the local magnetization, are measured. These large gradients are induced by the passage of a test sample through the steep gradient field of a small, proximate permanent magnet. Magnetic field measurements during both directions of motion provide information indicative of the hysteresis properties. We theoretically analyze these measurements and show experimentally that the measurements correlate well with all the significant aspects of conventional hysteresis loops. The results given in this paper are qualitative, and the method is both by its simplicity and its sensitivity to important hysteresis features a powerful means of magnetic nondestructive evaluation.

  9. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia;

    2011-01-01

    . Although two different remediation methods reach the same remedial target with time, their timeframes can be substantially different and lead to a difference in the local toxic impacts over time. By including primary impacts in the LCA of remediation this quality difference is accounted for. Primary...... of metabolites during biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, of which particularly vinyl chloride is problematic due to its toxic and carcinogenic effects. In this study, the assessment of local toxic impacts with the USEtox model was therefore combined with site-specific reactive transport modeling...... with chlorinated solvents. Secondary and primary impacts of a number of remediation options for the two sites are evaluated and compared. The results show that especially vinyl chloride, which is an intermediate product during biodegradation of trichloroethene, contributes significantly to the human toxicity...

  10. Determination of global and local residual stresses in SOFC by X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Julie; Sicardy, Olivier; Fortunier, Roland; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Bleuet, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a high-performance electrochemical device for energy conversion. A single cell is composed of five layers made of different ceramic materials: anode support, anode functional layer, electrolyte, cathode functional layer and cathode. The mechanical integrity of the cell is a major issue during its lifetime, especially for the electrolyte layer. Damage of the cells is mainly due to the high operating temperature, the "redox" behaviour of the anode and the brittleness of the involved materials. Since residual stresses are known to play a significant role in the damage evolution, it is important to determine them. For this purpose, residual stresses in an anode-supported planar SOFC were measured by X-ray diffraction. Firstly, macroscopic stresses in each phase of each layer were studied using the sin 2ψ method on a laboratory X-ray goniometer at room temperature. This technique enables the calculation of residual stress of the material from the measurement of the crystal lattice deformation. The electrolyte has been found under bi-axial compressive stress of -920 MPa. Secondly, X-ray measurements controlling depth penetration were made in the electrolyte using grazing incidence method. The results show that the stress is not homogenous in the layer. The first five micrometers of the electrolyte have been found less constrained (-750 MPa) than the complete layer, suggesting a gradient of deformation in the electrolyte from the interface with the Anode Functional Layer to the free surface. Finally, local stress measurements were made on the electrolyte layer by X-ray synchrotron radiation that allows high accuracy measurement on the (sub-) micrometer scale. Polychromatic and monochromatic beams are used to determine the complete strain tensor from grain to grain in the electrolyte. First results confirm the macroscopic stress trend of the electrolyte. These X-ray techniques at different scales will contribute to a better understanding of

  11. Direct Determination of Spatial Localization of Carriers in CdSe-CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (QDs have gained significant attention due to their tunable band gap, simple solution processability, ease of scale-up, and low cost. By carefully choosing the materials, core-shell heterostructure QDs (HQDs can be further synthesized with a controlled spatial spread of wave functions of the excited electrons and holes for various applications. Many investigations have been done to understand the exciton dynamics by optical characterizations. However, these spectroscopic data demonstrate that the spatial separation of the excitons cannot distinguish the distribution of excited electrons and holes. In this work, we report a simple and direct method to determine the localized holes and delocalized electrons in HQDs. The quasi-type-II CdSe-CdS core-shell QDs were synthesized via a thermolysis method. Poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT nanofiber and ZnO nanorods were selected as hole and electron conductor materials, respectively, and were combined with HQDs to form two different nanocomposites. Photoelectrical properties were evaluated under different environments via a quick and facile characterization method, confirming that the electrons in the HQDs were freely accessible at the surface of the nanocrystal, while the holes were confined within the CdSe core.

  12. Colorimetric determination of Timolol concentration based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Bagheri, Mozhgan; Heydari, Mojgan; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a rapid and simple colorimetric method based on the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed for the detection of the drug Timolol. The method used is based on the interaction of Timolol with the surface of the as-synthesized AgNPs, which promotes aggregation of the nanoparticles. This aggregation exploits the surface plasmon resonance through the electric dipole-dipole interaction and coupling among the agglomerated particles, hence bringing forth distinctive changes in the spectra as well as the color of colloidal silver. UV-vis spectrophotometery was used to monitor the changes of the localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at wavelengths of 400 and 550 nm. The developed colorimetric sensor has a wide dynamic range of 1.0 × 10-7 M-1.0 × 10-3 M for detection of Timolol with a low detection limit of 1.2 × 10-6 M. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Timolol concentration in ophthalmic eye-drop solution with a response time lower than 40 s.

  13. Determination of suitable pollinizers for some selected local persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Seren SAĞIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of suitable pollinizers is very important for persimmon that have a widespread problem in fruit setting. This study aims to contribute for solving this problem. Study was carried out in 2010 vegetation period with 17 years old persimmon trees in Adana conditions. For this purpose, the suitability of Bruniquel and Ghora Gali pollinizer cultivars were searched for 9 local persimmon types (07TH05, 07TH06, 07TH13, 07TH14, 07TH17, 31TH01, 31TH02, 31TH03 and 33TH01. In laboratory tests of pollen viability, germination and quantity, it was determined that the potential of Ghora Gali and Bruniquel is satisfactory for a pollinizer. With controlled-pollination treatments, fruit drop was reduced compared with open pollination and non-pollination treatments. In terms of this, the best pollinator for 07TH14 and 33TH01 was Bruniquel and for 07TH06 and 07TH17 it was Ghora Gali. Both Bruniquel and Ghora Gali became suitable pollinators for 07TH05. In 07TH13, 31TH02 and 31TH03 genotypes, the best results were obtained from open pollination treatments. At the same time, 07TH14 and 33TH01 genotypes have high affinity to parthenocarpy because of their fruit set ability while there is not any pollinizer.

  14. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mullane, Monica, E-mail: Monica.omullane@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work/Fakulta Zdravotnictva a Socialnej Prace, Trnavska univerzita, Univerzitne namestie 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Quinlivan, Aodh, E-mail: A.quinlivan@ucc.ie [Department of Government, College of Business and Law, 2nd Floor O' Rahilly Building, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  15. Assessing climate change and health vulnerability at the local level: Travis County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Natasha; Houghton, Adele; Luber, George

    2016-10-01

    We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health measures using 1999-2005 age-adjusted cardiovascular and combined diabetes and hypertension mortality rates to correspond with social-built environment indices. We mapped US Census block groups by linked age-adjusted mortality and a PCA-created social-built environment index. The goal was to measure flooding and excessive heat event vulnerability as proxies for population vulnerability to climate change for Travis County, Texas. This assessment identified communities where baseline poor health, social marginalisation and built environmental impediments intersected. Such assessments may assist targeted interventions and improve emergency preparedness in identified vulnerable communities, while fostering resilience through the focus of climate change adaptation policies at the local level.

  16. Local Dynamic Stability Assessment of Motion Impaired Elderly Using Electronic Textile Pants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Jones, Mark; Martin, Tom

    2008-10-01

    A clear association has been demonstrated between gait stability and falls in the elderly. Integration of wearable computing and human dynamic stability measures into home automation systems may help differentiate fall-prone individuals in a residential environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the capability of a pair of electronic textile (e-textile) pants system to assess local dynamic stability and to differentiate motion-impaired elderly from their healthy counterparts. A pair of e-textile pants comprised of numerous e-TAGs at locations corresponding to lower extremity joints was developed to collect acceleration, angular velocity and piezoelectric data. Four motion-impaired elderly together with nine healthy individuals (both young and old) participated in treadmill walking with a motion capture system simultaneously collecting kinematic data. Local dynamic stability, characterized by maximum Lyapunov exponent, was computed based on vertical acceleration and angular velocity at lower extremity joints for the measurements from both e-textile and motion capture systems. Results indicated that the motion-impaired elderly had significantly higher maximum Lyapunov exponents (computed from vertical acceleration data) than healthy individuals at the right ankle and hip joints. In addition, maximum Lyapunov exponents assessed by the motion capture system were found to be significantly higher than those assessed by the e-textile system. Despite the difference between these measurement techniques, attaching accelerometers at the ankle and hip joints was shown to be an effective sensor configuration. It was concluded that the e-textile pants system, via dynamic stability assessment, has the potential to identify motion-impaired elderly.

  17. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  18. Development of a novel method for surgical implant design optimization through noninvasive assessment of local bone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiuma, D; Brianza, S; Tami, A E

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed to improve the design of locking implants by finding the optimal paths for the anchoring elements, based on a high resolution pQCT assessment of local bone mineral density (BMD) distribution and bone micro-architecture (BMA). The method consists of three steps: (1) partial fixation of the implant to the bone and creation of a reference system, (2) implant removal and pQCT scan of the bone, and (3) determination of BMD and BMA of all implant-anchoring locations along the actual and alternative directions. Using a PHILOS plate, the method uncertainty was tested on an artificial humerus bone model. A cadaveric humerus was used to quantify how the uncertainty of the method affects the assessment of bone parameters. BMD and BMA were determined along four possible alternative screw paths as possible criteria for implant optimization. The method is biased by a 0.87 ± 0.12 mm systematic uncertainty and by a 0.44 ± 0.09 mm random uncertainty in locating the virtual screw position. This study shows that this method can be used to find alternative directions for the anchoring elements, which may possess better bone properties. This modification will thus produce an optimized implant design.

  19. An Integrated Framework of Drivetrain Degradation Assessment and Fault Localization for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As wind energy proliferates in onshore and offshore applications, it has become significantly important to predict wind turbine downtime and maintain operation uptime to ensure maximal yield. Two types of data systems have been widely adopted for monitoring turbine health condition: supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA and condition monitoring system (CMS. Provided that research and development have focused on advancing analytical techniques based on these systems independently, an intelligent model that associates information from both systems is necessary and beneficial. In this paper, a systematic framework is designed to integrate CMS and SCADA data and assess drivetrain degradation over its lifecycle. Information reference and advanced feature extraction techniques are employed to procure heterogeneous health indicators. A pattern recognition algorithm is used to model baseline behavior and measure deviation of current behavior, where a Self-organizing Map (SOM and minimum quantization error (MQE method is selected to achieve degradation assessment. Eventually, the computation and ranking of component contribution to the detected degradation offers component-level fault localization. When validated and automated by various applications, the approach is able to incorporate diverse data resources and output actionable information to advise predictive maintenance with precise fault information. The approach is validated on a 3 MW offshore turbine, where an incipient fault is detected well before existing system shuts down the unit. A radar chart is used to illustrate the fault localization result.

  20. Assessment of damage localization based on spatial filters using numerical crack propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deraemaeker, Arnaud, E-mail: aderaema@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Civil Engineering Department (BATir), 50 av. Franklin Roosevelt, CP 194/02, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-19

    This paper is concerned with vibration based structural health monitoring with a focus on non-model based damage localization. The type of damage investigated is cracking of concrete structures due to the loss of prestress. In previous works, an automated method based on spatial filtering techniques applied to large dynamic strain sensor networks has been proposed and tested using data from numerical simulations. In the simulations, simplified representations of cracks (such as a reduced Young's modulus) have been used. While this gives the general trend for global properties such as eigen frequencies, the change of more local features, such as strains, is not adequately represented. Instead, crack propagation models should be used. In this study, a first attempt is made in this direction for concrete structures (quasi brittle material with softening laws) using crack-band models implemented in the commercial software DIANA. The strategy consists in performing a non-linear computation which leads to cracking of the concrete, followed by a dynamic analysis. The dynamic response is then used as the input to the previously designed damage localization system in order to assess its performances. The approach is illustrated on a simply supported beam modeled with 2D plane stress elements.

  1. A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Adam G.; Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Scolnic, Dan; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E.; Reid, Mark J.; Jones, David O.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Chornock, Ryan; Challis, Peter; Yuan, Wenlong; Brown, Peter J.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2016-07-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant from 3.3% to 2.4%. The bulk of this improvement comes from new near-infrared (NIR) observations of Cepheid variables in 11 host galaxies of recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), more than doubling the sample of reliable SNe Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance to a total of 19; these in turn leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on ˜300 SNe Ia at z system NGC 4258 have been observed with WFC3 in the optical and NIR, thus nullifying cross-instrument zeropoint errors in the relative distance estimates from Cepheids. Other noteworthy improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC 4258, a larger sample of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a more robust distance to the LMC based on late-type detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST-based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC 4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes measured with HST/FGS, HST/WFC3 spatial scanning and/or Hipparcos, and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The Hubble constant from each is 72.25 ± 2.51, 72.04 ± 2.67, 76.18 ± 2.37, and 74.50 ± 3.27 km s-1 Mpc-1, respectively. Our best estimate of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1 combines the anchors NGC 4258, MW, and LMC, yielding a 2.4% determination (all quoted uncertainties include fully propagated statistical and systematic components). This value is 3.4σ higher than 66.93 ± 0.62 km s-1 Mpc-1 predicted by ΛCDM with 3 neutrino flavors having a mass of 0.06 eV and the new Planck data, but the discrepancy reduces to 2.1σ relative to the prediction of 69.3 ± 0.7 km s-1 Mpc-1 based on the comparably precise combination of WMAP+ACT+SPT+BAO observations, suggesting that systematic

  2. DETERMINANTS OF ADAPTATION TO DEFORESTATION AMONG FARMERS IN MADAGALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Mustapha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (chi-square test statistics. The result indicated that majority (84% of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age representing 58.50%. The study also showed that most (45% of the respondents had attained post primary education with majority (80% having 6 and above years of farming experience. The respondents perceived fuel wood extraction as the major (42% cause of deforestation in the study area. The result showed that the most (30.50% frequently employed adaptation strategy against deforestation was reducing quantity of fire wood consumption. The study further showed that the factors which significantly influenced adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were age, farming experience and educational status with X2=9.216, 8.697 and 11.238 at P<0.05 respectively. While those factors which did not influence adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were gender, access to agricultural credit and access to extension services with X2=1.286, 7.923 and 5.862 at P<0.05 respectively. The major constraints faced by respondents in adaptation to deforestation were lack of capital and lack of accessible alternative energy. The study recommends that awareness campaign should be mounted to increase the level of knowledge of respondents on the significance of adaptation to deforestation. Respondents should also be encouraged towards establishment of adaptation cooperative societies in order to take advantage of some government policies and programmes.

  3. Local Adaptation in European Firs Assessed through Extensive Sampling across Altitudinal Gradients in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Dragos; Lascoux, Martin; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Källman, Thomas; Leonarduzzi, Cristina; Liepelt, Sascha; Piotti, Andrea; Popescu, Flaviu; Roschanski, Anna M.; Zhelev, Peter; Fady, Bruno; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. Methods A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced. Its power was assessed through simulations and compared to classical ‘within-site’ approaches (FDIST, BAYESCAN) and a simplified, within-site, version of the model introduced here (SBM). Results HBM demonstrates that hierarchical approaches are very powerful to detect replicated patterns of adaptive divergence with low false-discovery (FDR) and false-non-discovery (FNR) rates compared to the analysis of different sites separately through within-site approaches. The hypothesis of local adaptation to altitude was further addressed by analyzing replicated Abies alba population pairs (low and high elevations) across the species’ southern distribution range, where the effects of climatic selection are expected to be the strongest. For comparison, a single population pair from the closely related species A. cephalonica was also analyzed. The hierarchical model did not detect any pattern of adaptive divergence to altitude replicated in the different study sites. Instead, idiosyncratic patterns of local adaptation among sites were detected by within-site approaches. Conclusion Hierarchical approaches may miss idiosyncratic patterns of adaptation among sites, and we strongly recommend the use of both hierarchical (multi-site) and classical (within-site) approaches when addressing the question of adaptation across broad spatial scales. PMID:27392065

  4. Determination of the local flow in a BWR by means of neutron noise analysis; Determinacion del caudal local en un BWR por medio del analisis de ruido neutronico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz E, J.A.; Castillo D, R.; Rojas S, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Blazquez M, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calleros M, G. [CFE, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The signal to noise of the local power of range monitors (LPRM for their initials in English) its are used to estimate the reactor power, but this signal includes information of the dynamic behavior of a boiling water reactor. An interesting parameter that one can obtain by means of the data of the local power monitors is the resistance time of the holes. That to make with the measures of these times that are inversely proportional to the local flow? It can be carried out a 'local surveillance' of the flow. In this work a relationship that allows to obtain the permanency time of the holes in the refrigeration channel in the reactor core with base in the mensurations of the index of the decay ratio and of the characteristic frequency value of the reactor of the neutronic signal in stationary state. The method of the first minimum of the transfer function between two detectors of neutron flow to different height to obtain the local residence time of the holes is also presented. For the determination of the permanency time of the holes in the refrigeration channel obtained signals of the backs of the SIIP of special sampling of the Unit 2 of Laguna Verde Central during 2006 were used. Firstly its were preconditioning the power signals and the signals of the neutronic noise to which are applied the first minimum method in the transfer function were obtained. Later on the STABIL code was used which contains an autoregressive model to obtain the DR and the frequency, with those that the holes residence times were determined. (Author)

  5. DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESS OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL BRANDS IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of global and local brands in Latin America by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how product category characteristics affect the success of global and local brands in the region. Hypotheses are tested using data obtained from top brands rankings reported in five Latin American markets (Argentina, Brazil, the Caribbean and Central America, Chile and Mexico. The study design considers estimating a logistic regression on a binomial dependent variable measuring whether 475 top brands are global or local brands, with product category characteristics as independent variables. Results reveal that product categories related to subscriptions, local tastes, high-tech, and global citizenship do have an impact on the success of global and local brands in Latin America.

  6. ASSESSING FDI DETERMINANTS IN CEE COUNTRIES DURING AND AFTER TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI OANA CRISTINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify if the drivers of inward foreign direct investments’ stocks in Central and Eastern European countries changed in the last 20 years, given two substantial economic evolutions encountered in this period: the transition process and the adhesion at the European Union. We are interested if foreign investors are attracted by the quality of institutions, the labour market or by the telecommunications infrastructure, expressed by 10 variables, in the 11 newest EU member states. Therefore, we use a fixed effects panel data approach during 1994-2013 which we apply in two stages. In the first stage, we find the variables that strongly influence FDI in each of the three groups of determinants. In the second stage, the panel data analysis is applied only for the variables previously find as significant for FDI, to which we add traditional FDI determinants, such as trade openness and GDP per capita. Also, the mentioned years are divided into two sub periods, the first representing the transition period (from 1994 until 2003 and the second one the years comprising the EU adhesion process (from 2004 until 2013. The results confirm that there are changes in FDI determinants in these countries. During 1994 to 2003, investors were mostly interested in the quality of institutions, the openness of the economies and the environments capable of growth, where the products can be sold. For the period starting with 2004, the analyzed countries are attractive mainly through their capacity of providing labour force with low costs and created resources, such as the development of the mobile networks. The results obtained are of particular importance for the public policy decision makers, as the changes in FDI determinants require the adaptation of public policies in the CEE countries in order to remain attractive for foreign investors.

  7. A Randomized Prospective Comparison of Patient-Assessed Satisfaction and Clinical Outcomes with Radioactive Seed Localization versus Wire Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Erica V; Ajkay, Nicolas; Patil, Sujata; Collett, Abigail E; Frazier, Thomas G; Barrio, Andrea V

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive seed localization (RSL) has emerged as an alternative to wire localization (WL) in patients with nonpalpable breast cancer. Few studies have prospectively evaluated patient satisfaction and outcomes with RSL. We report the results of a randomized trial comparing RSL to WL in our community hospital. We prospectively enrolled 135 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer between 2011 and 2014. Patients were randomized to RSL or WL. Patients rated the pain and the convenience of the localization on a 5-point Likert scale. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. Of 135 patients enrolled, 10 were excluded (benign pathology, palpable cancer, mastectomy, and previous ipsilateral cancer) resulting in 125 patients. Seventy patients (56%) were randomized to RSL and 55 (44%) to WL. Fewer patients in the RSL group reported moderate to severe pain during the localization procedure compared to the WL group (12% versus 26%, respectively, p = 0.058). The overall convenience of the procedure was rated as very good to excellent in 85% of RSL patients compared to 44% of WL patients (p patient satisfaction with RSL provides another incentive for surgeons to strongly consider RSL as an alternative to WL.

  8. Do great local minds think alike? Comparing perceptions of the social determinants of health between non-profit and governmental actors in two Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patricia A

    2012-06-01

    Cities are important sites for intervention on social determinants of health (SDOH); yet, little is known about how influential local actors, namely workers in municipal governments (GOVs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), perceive the SDOH. Capturing and comparing perceptions between these groups are important for assessing how SDOH discourse has permeated local actors' thinking--a meaningful endeavour as local-level health equity action often invokes inter-institutional partnerships. This paper compares SDOH perceptions between CBO workers in Hamilton, Ontario, with politicians and senior-level staff in GOVs in Vancouver, British Columbia, based on two studies with surveys containing identical questions on SDOH perceptions. Overall, there was high comparability between the groups in their relative ratings of the SDOH. Both groups assigned high levels of 'influence' and 'priority' to 'healthy lifestyles' and 'clean air and water' and lower levels to 'strong community' and 'income'. Given the importance of a shared vision in collaborative enterprises, the comparability of perceptions between the groups found here holds promise for the prospect of inter-institutional partnerships. However, the low rating assigned to more structural health determinants suggests that more work is needed from researchers and advocates to effectively advance a health equity agenda at the local level in Canada.

  9. Assessment and visualization of uncertainty for countrywide soil organic matter map of Hungary using local entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is a general term expressing our imperfect knowledge in describing an environmental process and we are aware of it (Bárdossy and Fodor, 2004). Sampling, laboratory measurements, models and so on are subject to uncertainty. Effective quantification and visualization of uncertainty would be indispensable to stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, society). Soil related features and their spatial models should be stressfully targeted to uncertainty assessment because their inferences are further used in modelling and decision making process. The aim of our present study was to assess and effectively visualize the local uncertainty of the countrywide soil organic matter (SOM) spatial distribution model of Hungary using geostatistical tools and concepts. The Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's SOM data (approximately 1,200 observations) and environmental related, spatially exhaustive secondary information (i.e. digital elevation model, climatic maps, MODIS satellite images and geological map) were used to model the countrywide SOM spatial distribution by regression kriging. It would be common to use the calculated estimation (or kriging) variance as a measure of uncertainty, however the normality and homoscedasticity hypotheses have to be refused according to our preliminary analysis on the data. Therefore, a normal score transformation and a sequential stochastic simulation approach was introduced to be able to model and assess the local uncertainty. Five hundred equally probable realizations (i.e. stochastic images) were generated. The number of the stochastic images is fairly enough to provide a model of uncertainty at each location, which is a complete description of uncertainty in geostatistics (Deutsch and Journel, 1998). Furthermore, these models can be applied e.g. to contour the probability of any events, which can be regarded as goal oriented digital soil maps and are of interest for agricultural management and decision making as well. A

  10. 77 FR 58590 - Determining Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Risk-Informed License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Determining Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Risk-Informed License... NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 19.1, ``Determining the Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment...

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  12. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  13. Similar Reference Image Quality Assessment: A New Database and A Trial with Local Feature Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingbo; Zhou, Wengang; Li, Houqiang

    2016-12-01

    Conventionally, the reference image for image quality assessment (IQA) is completely available (full-reference IQA) or unavailable (no-reference IQA). Even for reduced-reference IQA, the features that are used to predict image quality are still extracted from the pristine reference image. However, the pristine reference image is always unavailable in many real scenarios. In contrast, it is convenient to obtain a number of similar reference images via retrieval from the Internet. These similar reference images may share similar contents and scenes with the image to be assessed. In this paper, we attempt to discuss the image quality assessment problem from the view of similar images, i.e. similar reference IQA. Although the similar reference images share similar contents with the degraded image, the difference between them still cannot be ignored. Therefore, we propose an IQA framework based on local feature matching, which can help to identify the similar regions and structures. Then the IQA features are computed only from these similar regions to predict the final image quality score. Besides, since there is no IQA databases for the similar reference IQA problem, we establish a novel IQA database that consists of 272 images from four scenes. The experiments demonstrate that the performance of our scheme goes beyond state-of-the-art no-reference IQA methods and some full-reference IQA algorithms.

  14. Determination of source parameters for local and regional earthquakes in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataeva, G.; Shapira, A.; Hofstetter, A.

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated earthquake source parameters and seismic moment-magnitude relations from 103 regional and local earthquakes with moment magnitude 2.6 to 7.2, which occurred in a distance range from 4.5 to 550 km during 1995-2012 by applying Brune's seismic source model (J Geophys Res 75:4997-5009, 1970, J Geophys Res 76:5002, 1971) for P- and S/Lg-wave displacement spectra. Considering P- and S-wave data separately, we first studied the empirical dependence of the Fourier spectral amplitudes Ω due to the geometrical spreading and the inelastic attenuation and of the corner frequency, f 0, with the epicentral distances, R. We found the distance correction parameters, Re 0.0042 R and R 0.8333 e 0.00365 R for the low-frequency spectral amplitudes and f 0 = f {0/'} e 0.00043 R and f 0 = f {0/'} e 0.00044 R for the corner frequency at the source, f 0, and observed at the station, f {0/'}, from P-wave and S-wave spectra, respectively. Applying the distance correction procedure, we determined the source displacement spectrum of P and S waves for each earthquake to estimate the seismic moment, M 0; the moment magnitude, M W; the source radius, r; and the stress drop, Δσ. The seismic moments range from 1.06 × 1013 to 7.67 × 1019 N m, and their corresponding moment magnitudes are in the range of 2.6-7.2. Values of stress drop Δσ vary from 0.1 to 44 MPa. It was found that the stress drop increases with the increasing seismic moment in the range of 1013-1016 N m and possibly becomes constant at higher magnitudes, reaching a maximum value of about 40-45 MPa. We demonstrate that the values of the M 0 and M W estimated from P-wave and S-wave analysis are consistent and confirmed by the results of waveform inversions, i.e., centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution.

  15. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzell Euridice Hernández-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization.

  16. 42 CFR 405.1062 - Applicability of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC. 405.1062 Section 405.1062 Public Health CENTERS FOR... of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC. (a) ALJs and the MAC are not bound by LCDs, LMRPs, or CMS program guidance, such as program memoranda and...

  17. 31 CFR 13.7 - Reimbursement when the Assistant Secretary makes no determination to utilize State and local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement when the Assistant Secretary makes no determination to utilize State and local government services, personnel, equipment and facilities. 13.7 Section 13.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury...

  18. Local Productive Arrangements for Biodiesel Production in Brazil – Environmental Assessment of Small-holder’s Integrated Oleaginous Crops Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments were carried out in small-holders’ farms in four territories where productive arrangements have been organized for production of minor oleaginous crops under the Brazilian biodiesel program. The study aimed at checking local impacts of the biodiesel productive chains at the rural establishment scale, and promoting the environmental performance of the selected farms, henceforth proposed as sustainable management demonstration units. Assessments were carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, which integrates 62 objective and quantitative indicators related to five sustainability dimensions: i Landscape Ecology, ii Environmental Quality (Atmosphere, Water and Soil, iii Socio-cultural Values, iv Economic Values and v Management and Administration. The main results point out that, in general, the ecological dimensions of sustainability, that is, the Landscape Ecology and Atmosphere, Water, and Soil quality indicators, show adequate field conditions, seemingly not yet negatively affected by increases in chemical inputs and natural resources use predicted as important potential impacts of the agro-energy sector. The Economic Values indicators have been favorably influenced in the studied farms, due to a steadier demand and improved prices for the oleaginous crops. On the other hand, valuable positive consequences expected for favoring farmers’ market insertion, such as improved Socio-cultural Values and Management & Administration indicators, are still opportunities to be materialized. The Environmental Management Reports issued to the farmers, based on the presented sustainability assessment procedures, offer valuable documentation and communication means for consolidating the organizational influence of the local productive arrangements studied. These productive arrangements were shown to be determinant for the selection of crop associations and diversification, as well as for the provision of technical assistance

  19. Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeth, C; Monetti, R; Bauer, J; Sidorenko, I [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mueller, D [Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Matsuura, M [Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Pettenkoferstrasse 11, 80336 Muenchen (Germany); Lochmueller, E-M [Department of Gynaecology I, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Maistrasse 11, 80337 Muenchen (Germany); Zysset, P [Institute for Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology (TU-Wien), Gusshausstrasse 27-29, 1040 Wien (Austria); Eckstein, F [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: cwr@mpe.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    The visualization and subsequent assessment of the inner human bone structures play an important role for better understanding the disease- or drug-induced changes of bone in the context of osteoporosis giving prospect for better predictions of bone strength and thus of the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients. In this work, we show how the complex trabecular bone structure can be visualized using {mu}CT imaging techniques at an isotropic resolution of 26 {mu}m. We quantify these structures by calculating global and local topological and morphological measures, namely Minkowski functionals (MFs) and utilizing the (an-)isotropic scaling index method (SIM) and by deriving suitable texture measures based on MF and SIM. Using a sample of 151 specimens taken from human vertebrae in vitro, we correlate the texture measures with the mechanically measured maximum compressive strength (MCS), which quantifies the strength of the bone probe, by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The structure parameters derived from the local measures yield good correlations with the bone strength as measured in mechanical tests. We investigate whether the performance of the texture measures depends on the MCS value by selecting different subsamples according to MCS. Considering the whole sample the results for the newly defined parameters are better than those obtained for the standard global histomorphometric parameters except for bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). If a subsample consisting only of weak bones is analysed, the local structural analysis leads to similar and even better correlations with MCS as compared to BV/TV. Thus, the MF and SIM yield additional information about the stability of the bone especially in the case of weak bones, which corroborates the hypothesis that the bone structure (and not only its mineral mass) constitutes an important component of bone stability.

  20. Image Quality Assessment Based on Local Linear Information and Distortion-Specific Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanli; Fu, Jie; Lin, Weisi; Hu, Sudeng; Kuo, C-C Jay; Zuo, Lingxuan

    2016-12-14

    Image Quality Assessment (IQA) is a fundamental yet constantly developing task for computer vision and image processing. Most IQA evaluation mechanisms are based on the pertinence of subjective and objective estimation. Each image distortion type has its own property correlated with human perception. However, this intrinsic property may not be fully exploited by existing IQA methods. In this paper, we make two main contributions to the IQA field. First, a novel IQA method is developed based on a local linear model that examines the distortion between the reference and the distorted images for better alignment with human visual experience. Second, a distortion-specific compensation strategy is proposed to offset the negative effect on IQA modeling caused by different image distortion types. These score offsets are learned from several known distortion types. Furthermore, for an image with an unknown distortion type, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based method is proposed to compute the score offset automatically. Finally, an integrated IQA metric is proposed by combining the aforementioned two ideas. Extensive experiments are performed to verify the proposed IQA metric, which demonstrate that the local linear model is useful in human perception modeling, especially for individual image distortion, and the overall IQA method outperforms several state-of-the-art IQA approaches.

  1. Locally converging algorithms for determining the critical temperature in Ising systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Robb, Daniel T.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce a class of algorithms that converge to criticality automatically, in a way similar to the invaded cluster algorithm. Unlike the invaded cluster algorithm which uses global percolation as a test for criticality, these local algorithms use an average over local observables, specifically the number of satisfied bonds, in a feedback loop which drives the system toward criticality. Two specific algorithms are introduced, the average algorithm and the locally converging Wolff algorithm. We apply these algorithms to study the Ising square lattice and the Ising Bethe lattice. We find reasonable convergence to the critical temperature for both systems under the locally converging Wolff algorithm. We also re-examine the phase diagram of the dilute two-dimensional (2D) Ising model and find results supporting our previously reported conclusions regarding the existence of a local regime of magnetization below the percolations threshold. In addition, the presented algorithms are computationally more efficient than the invaded cluster algorithm, requiring less CPU time and memory.

  2. Suitability of single tissue dielectric constant measurements to assess local tissue water in normal and lymphedematous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Davey, Suzanne; Shapiro, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    Previous reports described the use of average tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements to assess local tissue water and its change. Our goal was to determine if a single TDC measurement could be used in place of the average of multiple measurements. The comparison criteria used to test this was the extent to which single and averaged measurements yielded similar TDC values in both normal and lymphedematous tissue. Measurements were made in two groups of women; a control group (n = 20) and a group with unilateral arm lymphedema (n = 10). In the control group, TDC was measured to multiple depths (0.5-5.0 mm) on both ventral forearms and to a depth of 2.5 mm on the lateral thorax on both body sides. In the lymphedematous group, TDC was measured on both ventral forearms to a depth of 2.5 mm. Results showed that the 95% confidence interval for differences between single and averaged TDC values was less than +/-1 TDC unit and that the limits of agreement between methods was less than +/-2.5 TDC units (+/-6.5%) for each condition, site and depth measured. This finding suggests that where this level of agreement is acceptable suitable clinical assessments can be made using a single TDC measurement.

  3. Sexual size dimorphism and sex determination by morphometric measurements in locally adapted muscovy duck (Cairina moschata in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Olusegun OGUNTUNJI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI, sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological traits; body weight, body girth, body length, wing length, shank length, shank circumference, thigh length, total leg length, bill length and bill width were taken from 1,020 extensively managed adult Muscovy ducks comprising 287 males and 733 females. These birds were randomly sampled from Rain Forest, Derived Savanna and Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Sex significantly (P < 0.001 affected all morphometric measurements in favour of males. Assessment of relative contribution of morphological traits to SSD through SDI and SSDI revealed that body weight followed by skeletal frame-related variables (body length and wing length were the most dimorphic traits. Three Principal Components were generated for each sex; accounting for 62.70 % and 54.24 % of the total variance explained of male and female ducks, respectively. In tandem with the SDI and SSDI results, Stepwise Discriminant analysis indicated body weight as the best predictor of sex of adult Muscovy ducks followed by wing length and body length; correctly classifying 98.5 % of ducks and are reliable for sex determination in the field. The established SSD in this study could be employed for description, utilization, selection and planning of improvement programs of male and female Muscovy ducks.

  4. Local strain distributions in partially recrystallized copper determined by in situ tensile investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang; Ubhi, H.S.; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    A partially recrystallized copper sample produced by cold-rolling and annealing was deformed in situ by uniaxial tension in a scanning electron microscope, and electron backscatter diffraction data were collected before and after deformation to certain strains. The local strain distributions...... are quantified using digital image correlation. Distributions of the normal strain along the tensile direction (εxx) are shown in this paper. The recrystallized grains are found to deform more than the remaining unrecrystallized matrix. When εxx is averaged along lines perpendicular to the tensile direction......, significant variation are observed, which may be related to the local recrystallized volume fraction....

  5. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELBET, R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.

  6. Development of a localized surface plasmon resonance-based gold nanobiosensor for the determination of prolactin hormone in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridli, Zahra; Mahani, Mohamad; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Fasihi, Javad

    2016-02-15

    A localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay has been developed to determine prolactin hormone in human serum samples. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized, and the probe was prepared by electrostatic adsorption of antibody on the surfaces of gold nanoparticles. The pH and the antibody-to-gold nanoparticle ratio, as the factors affecting the probe functions, were optimized. The constructed nanobiosensor was characterized by dynamic light scattering. The sensor was applied for the determination of prolactin antigen concentration based on the amount of localized surface plasmon resonance peak shift. A linear dynamic range of 1-40 ng ml(-1), a detection limit of 0.8 ng ml(-1), and sensitivity of 10 pg ml(-1) were obtained. Finally, the nanobiosensor was applied for the determination of prolactin in human control serum sample.

  7. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax, probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  8. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  9. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the

  10. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  11. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  12. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  13. Classification of windfields: a diagnostic tool for real-time determination of local air pollution dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, W.K.; Buerki, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In the framework of the project `WINDBANK unteres Aaretal` local winds over complex terrain were measured over a 4 month period and a cluster analysis is used to identify 13 different typical wind fields. A subset of representative stations is established to identify the classes for future applications in emergency planning. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  15. Determinants of Off-Farm Income and Its Local Patterns: A Spatial Microsimulation of Dutch Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Eveline; Dekkers, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Apart from their contribution to the local economy in terms of input, output and employment, farmers also play a major role in shaping and maintaining our (natural) environment and landscapes. However, with the (planned) decrease in agricultural subsidies, these activities are at risk. For that reason, it would be useful when farmers could benefit…

  16. Assessment of Trace Elements Levels in Sediment and Water in Some Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining(ASM Localities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of eight trace elements, Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg and arsenic(As in sediment and water were assessed in four artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM localities in the Amansie West District (6°28′N 1°53′W of Ghana along two river courses from May 2011to July 2011. Triplicate water and sediment samples were randomly taken at five different points at each of the localities and the elements determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS . Using the Geo-accumulation Index( Igeo assessment, the sediments were found to be polluted to different degrees with Cu(Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated, Hg (Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated and As(Moderately contaminated/Moderately to strongly contaminated. The Enrichment Factor (EF indicated human influence - artisanal mining activities on the sediment concentration of Cd and Pb for all the localities and only some of the localities for the rest of the trace elements. The elements are major sediment pollutants ( EF > 2 in one or more of the localities. The Igeo and EF gave diverse status of the sediment qualities of the localities. Cd, Pb, Hg and As water concentrations in the four artisanal mining localities were all found to be above the WHO maximum acceptable of levels for drinking water. Inhabitants in the mining localities face the risk of getting various diseases by drinking the waters contaminated with the trace elements.

  17. Expression of viral polymerase and phosphorylation of core protein determine core and capsid localization of the human hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroubaix, Aurélie; Osseman, Quentin; Cassany, Aurélia; Bégu, Dominique; Ragues, Jessica; Kassab, Somar; Lainé, Sébastien; Kann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Biopsies from patients show that hepadnaviral core proteins and capsids - collectively called core - are found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. In the majority of studies, cytoplasmic core localization is related to low viraemia while nuclear core localization is associated with high viral loads. In order to better understand the molecular interactions leading to core localization, we analysed transfected hepatoma cells using immune fluorescence microscopy. We observed that expression of core protein in the absence of other viral proteins led to nuclear localization of core protein and capsids, while expression of core in the context of the other viral proteins resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. Analysis of which viral partner was responsible for cytoplasmic retention indicated that the HBx, surface proteins and HBeAg had no impact but that the viral polymerase was the major determinant. Further analysis revealed that ϵ, an RNA structure to which the viral polymerase binds, was essential for cytoplasmic retention. Furthermore, we showed that core protein phosphorylation at Ser 164 was essential for the cytoplasmic core localization phenotype, which is likely to explain differences observed between individual cells.

  18. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2014-01-01

    studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study...... their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition...

  19. Nematode development after removal of egg cytoplasm: absence of localized unbound determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, J S; von Ehrenstein, G

    1981-01-23

    Embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans develop into fertile adults after cell fragments, containing presumptive cytoplasm of somatic and germ line precursors, are extruded from uncleaved eggs or early blastomeres through laser-induced holes in the eggshells. This suggests that the determinate development of this worm is not dependent on the prelocalization of determinants in specific regions of the egg cytoplasm.

  20. A Simple Approach for Local Contact Angle Determination on a Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2011-05-17

    We report a simple approach for measuring the local contact angle of liquids on a heterogeneous surface consisting of intersected hydrophobic and hydrophilic patch arrays, specifically by employing confocal microscopy and the addition of a very low concentration of Rhodamine-B (RB) (2 × 10 -7 mol/L). Interestingly, RB at that concentration was found to be aggregated at the air-liquid and solid (hydrophobic patch only)-liquid interfaces, which helps us to distinguish the liquid and solid interfaces as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic patches by their corresponding fluorescent intensities. From the measured local contact angles, the line tension can be easily derived and the value is found to be (-2.06-1.53) × 10-6 J/m. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  2. Magnetic vortex chirality determination via local hysteresis loops measurements with magnetic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Coïsson; Gabriele Barrera; Federica Celegato; Alessandra Manzin; Franco Vinai; Paola Tiberto

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic vortex chirality in patterned square dots has been investigated by means of a field-dependent magnetic force microscopy technique that allows to measure local hysteresis loops. The chirality affects the two loop branches independently, giving rise to curves that have different shapes and symmetries as a function of the details of the magnetisation reversal process in the square dot, that is studied both experimentally and through micromagnetic simulations. The tip-sample interaction ...

  3. Determination Of Some Morphological And Phenological Characteristics Of Local Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely crucial that botanic gene resources are recorded and preserved in developing new species. Even though the materials are collected in a single city, there can emerge numerous variations to be observed among them. Detecting these variations is highly important for breeding studies. In this study, local dry bean genotypes have been collected from the city center of Giresun and other provinces in order to use on breeding studies for various purposes. It has been aimed that some mo...

  4. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Azucena; Maza, María Teresa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack of availability in the market is an aspect limiting its consumption. The most important factors explaining the intention to purchase for consumers who would purchase this meat if it were not available in their usual store are the importance attached to the animal breed and their social embeddedness with the local area. An appropriate food policy would be to inform consumers about the importance of the animal breed in the quality of the meat and the local origin.

  5. Efficient determination of soft spots in amorphous solids using local structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ekin; Schoenholz, Samuel; Malone, Brad; Liu, Andrea; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2014-03-01

    Structural defects such as dislocations are also flow defects that control plastic flow in crystalline solids. In disordered solids, it is more challenging to identify such local regions that are susceptible to rearrangement. We propose an extremely fast method for identifying soft spots with high accuracy, which scales linearly with number of particles. We achieve this by training a supervised learning model with instances of local neighborhoods and their subsequent plastic flow behavior. By characterizing local neighborhoods with not just one structural quantity, such as bond orientational order, but a combination of multiple structural quantities, we are able to identify a population of regions that correlates just as strongly with rearrangements as do soft spots calculated from vibrational modes. This method does not require knowledge of the interparticle interactions and can readily be applied to experiments that measure the positions of constituent particles in a disordered packing. Furthermore, this also allows for the prediction of plastic behavior in systems like lithiated amorphous silicon, which is important for addressing the durability issues encountered in recent work on improving lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Applications of X-ray fluorescence holography to determine local lattice distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: khayashi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Hosokawa, Shinya [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We summarized topics of X-ray fluorescence holography focused on the local lattice distortions. • We found details of behaviors of nearest neighbor atoms around dopants. • We found the average distributions of the atoms at the individual sites in mixed crystals. • Distorted and undistorted sires sometimes coexist in a same mixed crystal. - Abstract: X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method for investigating atomic order up to the medium ranges, and can provide 3D atomic images around specific elements within a radius of nm order. In addition to these characteristics, XFH is sensitive to positional fluctuations of atoms, and therefore it is useful for characterizing the local lattice distortions around specific elements. We have applied XFH to dopants and mixed crystals. We found interesting features in local lattice distortions, such as the displacements of first-neighbor atoms around dopants, far-sighted views of the atomistic fluctuations in mixed crystals, and the coexistence of distorted/undistorted sites in the same material.

  7. Sensitivity Assessment. Localization of Road Transport Infrastructures in the Province of Lucca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Santini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The work, result of a research carried out in collaboration with the Chamber of Commerce of Lucca, aims to implement a tool for the evaluation of positive and negative effects arising by the “widening” or “new construction” of road transport infrastructures in the territory. In particular, with respect to the impacts generated by the project actions relating to the construction or widening of roads, the research has produced several sensitivity maps of the studied area and a graphical interface, accessible on the Internet and user friendly, allowing the synthetic evaluation of the impacts and the comparison of different scenarios The implemented methodology, through the use of advanced tools for data management and processing and for impacts quantification and assessment, has allowed us to define a very detailed database related to all components of study area, both natural and anthropic, and to build a "synthetic sensitivity index", obtained from the combination of thematic information about each component and from the relationships that involve each others. It’s therefore to consider an indispensable support tool for planners and evaluators (eg. SEA procedures, but also for others users (eg organizations representing businesses, consumer associations, etc.. In fact it allows to acquire a deep knowledge of the area (environmental and economic resources, to verify the sensitivity of each part of the area with respect to a series of project actions concerning both the construction of new roads that the widening of the existing ones and finally to evaluate different localization scenarios for the same type of project or different impact scenarios for the same localization.

  8. A hybrid framework for assessing socioeconomic drought: Linking climate variability, local resilience, and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Mazdiyasni, Omid; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Socioeconomic drought broadly refers to conditions whereby the water supply cannot satisfy the demand. Most previous studies describe droughts based on large-scale meteorological/hydrologic conditions, ignoring the demand and local resilience to cope with climate variability. Reservoirs provide resilience against climatic extremes and play a key role in water supply and demand management. Here we outline a unique multivariate approach as a measure of socioeconomic drought, termed Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). The model combines information on the inflow and reservoir storage relative to the demand. MSRRI combines (I) a "top-down" approach that focuses on processes/phenomena that cannot be simply controlled or altered by decision makers, such as climate change and variability, and (II) a "bottom-up" methodology that represents the local resilience and societal capacity to respond or adapt to droughts. MSRRI is based on a nonparametric multivariate distribution function that links inflow-demand reliability indicator to water storage resilience indicator. These indicators are used to assess socioeconomic drought during the Australian Millennium drought (1998-2010) and the 2011-2014 California drought. The results show that MSRRI is superior to univariate indices because it captures both early onset and persistence of water stress over time. The suggested framework can be applied to both individual reservoirs and a group of reservoirs in a region, and it is consistent with the currently available standardized drought indicators. MSRRI provides complementary information on socioeconomic drought development and recovery based on reservoir storage and demand that cannot be achieved from the commonly used drought indicators.

  9. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  10. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  11. Assessing the ability of current climate information to facilitate local climate services for the water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of ECLISE EU FP6 project researchers, in close cooperation with local users of the water sector from the area of Crete, Greece, explored the ability of current climate information to develop and support local climate services water resources management and climate adaption policies. A wealth of climate modeling output ranging from event scale to decadal and centennial experiments, at temporal scales ranging from hourly to monthly, and at spatial scales from very high resolution regional climate models (2 km) to typical GCMs, were used in order to practically assess climate change impacts on water resources. Water resources availability issues analysed and facilitated within the project, focusing on estimates of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with seven "state of the art" CMIP5 simulations within COMBINE framework (under RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to estimate water resources availability, during 21st century. The ability of decadal GCM prediction experiments to reproduce basic hydrometeorological variables like precipitation and temperature for local impact studies, was also examined. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model for a range of different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. A robust signal of temperature increase and precipitation decrease is projected for all the pathways. Several messages could be extracted from this provider - user interaction such as the communication of basic concepts and uncertainties, user skepticism and feedback. The main user concern was the coarse spatial scale of climate information and in order to cope with this feedback a special case was framed in collaboration with the project modeling groups for demonstrating a high resolution climate modeling application of an extreme precipitation-flood event over the study area. This effort provided a realistic reproduction of the

  12. Exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of municipal waste incinerator: Additional exposure via local vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yujie; Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Dong, Zhaomin; Hu, Jianying

    2017-05-01

    While the exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) for people living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) has been investigated, indirect exposure to MSWI-emitted PCDD/Fs via consumption of local foods has not been well assessed. In this study, the PCDD/F concentration in the local vegetables grown near a MSWI located in Shenzhen, South China, was determined to be 0.92 ± 0.59 pg/g wet weight (ww), significantly higher than that (0.25 ± 0.35 pg/g ww) in commercial vegetables (p Ficus microcarpa) samples collected from 5 sampling sites at 1 km intervals from the MSWI were found to be significantly decreased with increasing distance, suggesting that the local plants would be impacted by emissions from the MSWI. The exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of MSWI was carried out by simultaneously analyzing PCDD/Fs in other food groups that were commonly consumed by the residents. If only the local vegetables were consumed and other foods were acquired commercially, the total dietary intake for a general adult was 0.94 ± 0.41 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of local vegetables accounted for 52.3%. If all foods consumed including vegetables were from a commercial source, the total dietary intake was 0.56 ± 0.30 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of commercial vegetables accounted for 20.1%. The present study for the first time reported the additional human exposure to PCDD/Fs via consumption of local vegetables impacted by emissions from MSWI.

  13. Determination Method of Focal Depth of Local Earthquake Using the Travel-time Difference between Pn and sPn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dengwei; Xu Qinping; Ma Fuhong; Cheng Xuefen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derived the relationships between the travel time difference of sPn and Pn and the local earthquake focal depth. In these equations, the travel time difference of sPn and Pn is not related to the epicentral distance, but depends only on the regional crustal mode and the focal depth. According to the equations, we provided a simple and accurate method to determine local earthquake focal depth by using the travel time difference between phase sPn and Pn. This method has been used to determine the focal depths of two earthquake of Ms6. 1 and Ms5.6 which occurred at the junction of Panzhihua and Huili, Sichuan on August 30 and 31, 2008. The results were compared to those from other sources such as the China Earthquake Networks Center, and the comparison shows that the results are accurate and reliable.

  14. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96.

  15. Towards a New Assessment of Urban Areas from Local to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; McKee, J.; Weaver, J.; Bright, E.; Weber, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000s, starting with NASA MODIS, satellite based remote sensing has facilitated collection of imagery with medium spatial resolution but high temporal resolution (daily). This trend continues with an increasing number of sensors and data products. Increasing spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data archives, from both public and commercial sources, have significantly enhanced the quality of mapping and change data products. However, even with automation of such analysis on evolving computing platforms, rates of data processing have been suboptimal largely because of the ever-increasing pixel to processor ratio coupled with limitations of the computing architectures. Novel approaches utilizing spatiotemporal data mining techniques and computational architectures have emerged that demonstrates the potential for sustained and geographically scalable landscape monitoring to be operational. We exemplify this challenge with two broad research initiatives on High Performance Geocomputation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: (a) mapping global settlement distribution; (b) developing national critical infrastructure databases. Our present effort, on large GPU based architectures, to exploit high resolution (1m or less) satellite and airborne imagery for extracting settlements at global scale is yielding understanding of human settlement patterns and urban areas at unprecedented resolution. Comparison of such urban land cover database, with existing national and global land cover products, at various geographic scales in selected parts of the world is revealing intriguing patterns and insights for urban assessment. Early results, from the USA, Taiwan, and Egypt, indicate closer agreements (5-10%) in urban area assessments among databases at larger, aggregated geographic extents. However, spatial variability at local scales could be significantly different (over 50% disagreement).

  16. Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass and Hypertrophy in Hemodialysis Patients Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajan K.; Oliver, Scott; Mark, Patrick B.; Powell, Joanna R.; Emily P. McQuarrie; Traynor, James P.; Dargie, Henry J.; Jardine, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for premature cardiovascular death in hemodialysis (HD) patients and one of the three forms of uremic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a volume-independent technique to assess cardiac structure. We used CMR to assess the determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVH in HD patients.

  17. Gas-Expanded Liquids: Synergism of Experimental and Computational Determinations of Local Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles A. Eckert; Charles L. Liotta; Rigoberto Hernandez

    2007-06-26

    This project focuses on the characterization of a new class of solvent systems called gas-expanded liquids (GXLs), targeted for green-chemistry processing. The collaboration has adopted a synergistic approach combining elements of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and spectroscopic experiments to explore the local solvent behavior that could not be studied by simulation or experiment alone. The major accomplishments from this project are: • Applied MD simulations to explore the non-uniform structure of CO2/methanol and CO2/acetone GXLs and studied their dynamic behavior with self-diffusion coefficients and correlation functions • Studied local solvent structure and solvation behavior with a combination of spectroscopy and MD simulations • Measured transport properties of heterocyclic solutes in GXLs through Taylor-Aris diffusion techniques and compared these findings to those of MD simulations • Probed local polarity and specific solute-solvent interactions with Diels-Alder and SN2 reaction studies The broader scientific impact resulting from the research activities of this contract have been recognized by two recent awards: the Presidential Green Chemistry Award (Eckert & Liotta) and a fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Hernandez). In addition to the technical aspects of this contract, the investigators have been engaged in a number of programs extending the broader impacts of this project. The project has directly supported the development of two postdoctoral researcher, four graduate students, and five undergraduate students. Several of the undergraduate students were co-funded by a Georgia Tech program, the Presidential Undergraduate Research Award. The other student, an African-American female graduated from Georgia Tech in December 2005, and was co-funded through an NSF Research and Education for Undergraduates (REU) award.

  18. Magnetic vortex chirality determination via local hysteresis loops measurements with magnetic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Manzin, Alessandra; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola

    2016-07-18

    Magnetic vortex chirality in patterned square dots has been investigated by means of a field-dependent magnetic force microscopy technique that allows to measure local hysteresis loops. The chirality affects the two loop branches independently, giving rise to curves that have different shapes and symmetries as a function of the details of the magnetisation reversal process in the square dot, that is studied both experimentally and through micromagnetic simulations. The tip-sample interaction is taken into account numerically, and exploited experimentally, to influence the side of the square where nucleation of the vortex preferably occurs, therefore providing a way to both measure and drive chirality with the present technique.

  19. X-ray Constrained Extremely Localized Molecular Orbitals: Theory and Critical Assessment of the New Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Alessandro

    2013-07-09

    Following the X-ray constrained wave function approach proposed by Jayatilaka, we have devised a new technique that allows to extract molecular orbitals strictly localized on small molecular fragments from sets of experimental X-ray structure factors amplitudes. Since the novel strategy enables to obtain electron distributions that have quantum mechanical features and that can be easily interpreted in terms of traditional chemical concepts, the method can be also considered as a new useful tool for the determination and the analysis of charge densities from high-resolution X-ray experiments. In this paper, we describe in detail the theory of the new technique, which, in comparison to our preliminary work, has been improved both treating the effects of isotropic secondary extinctions and introducing a new protocol to halt the fitting procedure against the experimental X-ray scattering data. The performances of the novel strategy have been studied both in function of the basis-sets flexibility and in function of the quality of the considered crystallographic data. The tests performed on four different systems (α-glycine, l-cysteine, (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid and N-(trifluoromethyl)formamide) have shown that the achievement of good statistical agreements with the experimental measures mainly depends on the quality of the crystal structures (i.e., geometry positions and thermal parameters) used in the X-ray constrained calculations. Finally, given the reliable transferability of the obtained Extremely Localized Molecular Orbitals (ELMOs), we envisage to exploit the novel approach to construct new ELMOs databases suited to the development of linear-scaling methods for the refinement of macromolecular crystal structures.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  1. Local decision makers’ awareness of the social determinants of health in Turkey: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Evci (Kiraz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social determinants have been described as having a greater influence than other determinants of health status. The major social determinants of health and the necessary policy objectives have been defined; it is now necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these policies. Previous studies have shown that descriptions of the awareness level of citizens and local decision makers, practice-based research and evidence, and intersectoral studies are the best options for investigating the social determinants of health at the community level. The objective of the present study was to define local decision makers’ awareness of the social determinants of health in the Aydin province of Turkey. Methods A total of 53 mayors serve the Aydin city center, districts and towns. Aydin city center has 22 neighborhoods and 22 headmen responsible for them. The present study targeted all mayors and headmen in Aydin - a total of 75 possible participants. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was faxed to the mayors and administered face-to-face with the headmen. Results Headmen identified the three most important determinants of public health as environmental issues, addictions (smoking, alcohol and malnutrition. According to the mayors, the major determinant of public health is stress, followed by malnutrition, environmental issues, an inactive lifestyle, and the social and economic conditions of the country. Both groups expressed that the Turkish Ministry of Health, municipalities and universities are the institutions responsible for developing health policy. Headmen were found to be unaware and mayors were aware of the social determinants of health as classified by the World Health Organisation. Both groups were classified as unaware with regard to their awareness of the Marmot Review policy objectives. Conclusions Studies such as the present study provide important additional information on the social

  2. Ssr analysis for genetic structure and diversity determination of maize local populations from former Yugoslavia territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović-Micić, D; Drinić, S Mladenović; Nikolić, A; Lazić-Jancić, V

    2008-11-01

    A collection of 2178 local populations from ex-Yugoslavia territories is maintained in Maize Research Institute (MRI) gene bank. These populations were characterized mainly by morphological markers. In this work 21 local populations belonging to seven different agro-ecological groups have been subjected to SSR analysis using a DNA-pooling strategy. The objective of this work was to develop genetic fingerprints for characterization, identification and classification of the populations, as well as for estimation of their genetic diversity. Also, a DNA-pooling strategy was employed with the aim to certify if it could be applied for population analysis with SSR markers. Statistical analysis of 25 informative SSR primers revealing 224 alleles (bands) showed that the average within-population mean number of alleles was 2.55, the average values for total and within-population diversity were 0.784 and 0.502, respectively and G(ST) value was 0.360. Genetic distance values calculated using Modified Rogers' Distance were in the range from 0.35 to 0.60. The silver staining method of DNA used for bulked samples showed some weakness that could be overcome with a more sensitive staining method. Nevertheless, the results in this work indicate that the SSR analysis of bulks could be used for characterizing a large number of populations in gene banks.

  3. Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolhouse Mark EJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD transmission have assumed a homogeneous landscape across which Euclidean distance is a suitable measure of the spatial dependency of transmission. This paper investigated features of the landscape and their impact on transmission during the period of predominantly local spread which followed the implementation of the national movement ban during the 2001 UK FMD epidemic. In this study 113 farms diagnosed with FMD which had a known source of infection within 3 km (cases were matched to 188 control farms which were either uninfected or infected at a later timepoint. Cases were matched to controls by Euclidean distance to the source of infection and farm size. Intervening geographical features and connectivity between the source of infection and case and controls were compared. Results Road distance between holdings, access to holdings, presence of forest, elevation change between holdings and the presence of intervening roads had no impact on the risk of local FMD transmission (p > 0.2. However the presence of linear features in the form of rivers and railways acted as barriers to FMD transmission (odds ratio = 0.507, 95% CIs = 0.297,0.887, p = 0.018. Conclusion This paper demonstrated that although FMD spread can generally be modelled using Euclidean distance and numbers of animals on susceptible holdings, the presence of rivers and railways has an additional protective effect reducing the probability of transmission between holdings.

  4. Determination of ductile damage parameters by local deformation fields: Measurement and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmann, M. [Chair of Structural Mechanics and Vehicle Vibrational Technology, BTU Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany); Kuna, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This work comprises the development, implementation and application of methods for the parameter identification of damage mechanical constitutive laws. Ductile damage is described on a continuum mechanical basis by extension of the von Mises yield condition with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman as well as with the Rousselier model. The classical Rousselier model is complemented by accelerated void growth and void nucleation. The non-linear boundary and initial value problem is solved by the finite element system SPC-PMHP, which was developed in the frame of the special research program SFB393 for parallel computers. The material parameters are identified by locally measured displacement fields and measured force-displacement curves. For the material parameter identification a non-linear optimization algorithm is used, which renders the objective function to a minimum by means of a gradient based method. A useful strategy to identify the material parameters was found by careful numerical studies. Finally, using the object grating method the local displacement fields as well as the force-displacement curves are measured at notched flat bar tension specimens made of StE 690 and the parameters of the material are identified. (orig.)

  5. Ontological Determinism non-locality and the system problem in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Maurice; Post, Jonathan Vos

    2011-01-01

    Wave functions live on configuration space. Schrodinger called this entanglement. The linearity of the Schrodinger equation prevents the wave function from representing reality. If the equation were non-linear (e.g., reduction models) the wave function living on configuration space still by itself could not represent reality in physical space. In this paper, we continue the line of reasoning discussed in our previous paper, "The Fundamental Importance of Discourse in Theoretical Physics", [arXiv:1001.4111], to explore the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics. In particular we present a new interpretation of quantum decoherence, and a novel critique of the double slit experiment. In addition, we review the use of "determinism" in the discourse of quantum mechanics, resolving the confusion created by theories which attempt to restore determinism to quantum mechanics while confusing determinism with ontological necessity. Finally, we review Bell's Theorem in order to demonstrate that nonlocality is an inhe...

  6. Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C Okafor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the impact of the caretaker committees in Nigerian Local Government on the practice of constitutional democracy. The discussion is framed by the theoretical perspectives and Nigerian literature on local government and constitutional democracy, and by the recent phenomenal wave of dissolving elected local government councils and subsequent replacement with caretaker committees. Contrary to popular belief, that local government as the third tier of government has failed to achieve the objective for which it was created, this paper observes that party politics has been the bane of Nigerian local government since its inception, and that democratically elected local councils with political and financial autonomy are the major conditions for an effective and efficient multi-purpose local government system in Nigeria.

  7. 76 FR 20623 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... from pansy and wishbone flower produces blue pigments in the rose lines, altering the flower color... Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses...., Ltd., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for roses designated as IFD-524 1-4 and IFD-529...

  8. Mucosal/submucosal blood flow in the gut wall determined by local washout of 133Xenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Olsen, J; Bülow, J

    1991-01-01

    the initial slope of the washout was used for measuring blood flow rate. Blood flow rate was simultaneously measured by microsphere entrapment technique. There was an excellent correlation between the blood flow rate determined by the two techniques the correlation coefficient R being 0.89 in the small...

  9. Heuristic algorithm for determination of local properties of scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrovic, M

    2006-01-01

    Complex networks are everywhere. Many phenomena in nature can be modeled as networks: - brain structures - protein-protein interaction networks - social interactions - the Internet and WWW. They can be represented in terms of nodes and edges connecting them. Important characteristics: - these networks are not random; they have a structured architecture. Structure of different networks are similar: - all have power law degree distribution (scale-free property) - despite large size there is usually relatively short path between any two nodes (small world property). Global characteristics: - degree distribution, clustering coefficient and the diameter. Local structure: - frequency of subgraphs of given type (subgraph of order k is a part of the network consisting of k nodes and edges between them). There are different types of subgraphs of the same order.

  10. Localization of GroEL determined by in vivo incorporation of a fluorescent amino acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Wang, Jiangyun; Brustad, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells, indicated colocalization with the cell division protein FtsZ at the cleavage furrow, while a second E. coli study of fixed cells indicated more even distribution throughout the cytoplasm. Here, for the first time, we have examined the spatial distribution of GroEL in living cells using......The molecular chaperone GroEL is required for bacterial growth under all conditions, mediating folding assistance, via its central cavity, to a diverse set of cytosolic proteins; yet the subcellular localization of GroEL remains unresolved. An earlier study, using antibody probing of fixed...... incorporation of a fluorescent unnatural amino acid into the chaperone. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that GroEL is diffusely distributed, both under normal and stress conditions. Importantly, the present procedure uses a small, fluorescent unnatural amino acid to visualize GroEL in vivo, avoiding...

  11. Age determination of the nuclear stellar population of Active Galactic Nuclei using Locally Weighted Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada-Piedra, T; Terlevich, R J; Fuentes, O; Terlevich, E; Estrada-Piedra, Trilce; Torres-Papaqui, Juan Pablo; Terlevich, Roberto; Fuentes, Olac; Terlevich, Elena

    2003-01-01

    We present a new technique to segregate old and young stellar populations in galactic spectra using machine learning methods. We used an ensemble of classifiers, each classifier in the ensemble specializes in young or old populations and was trained with locally weighted regression and tested using ten-fold cross-validation. Since the relevant information concentrates in certain regions of the spectra we used the method of sequential floating backward selection offline for feature selection. The application to Seyfert galaxies proved that this technique is very insensitive to the dilution by the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) continuum. Comparing with exhaustive search we concluded that both methods are similar in terms of accuracy but the machine learning method is faster by about two orders of magnitude.

  12. Atomic determinants of state-dependent block of sodium channels by charged local anesthetics and benzocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Bruhova, Iva; Zhorov, Boris S

    2006-11-13

    Molecular modeling predicts that a local anesthetic (LA) lidocaine binds to the resting and open Na(v)1.5 in different modes, interacting with LA-sensing residues known from experiments. Besides the major pathway via the open activation gate, LAs can reach the inner pore via a "sidewalk" between D3S6, D4S6, and D3P. The ammonium group of a cationic LA binds in the focus of the pore-helices macrodipoles, which also stabilize a Na(+) ion chelated by two benzocaine molecules. The LA's cationic group and a Na(+) ion in the selectivity filter repel each other suggesting that the Na(+) depletion upon slow inactivation would stabilize a LA, while a LA would stabilize slow-inactivated states.

  13. Determination of glucose concentration from near-infrared spectra using locally weighted partial least square regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bilal; Benaissa, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of locally weighted partial least square regression (LW-PLSR) as an alternative multivariate calibration method for the prediction of glucose concentration from NIR spectra. The efficiency of the proposed model is validated in experiments carried out in a non-controlled environment or sample conditions using mixtures composed of glucose, urea and triacetin. The collected data spans the spectral region from 2100 nm to 2400 nm with spectra resolution of 1 nm. The results show that the standard error of prediction (SEP) decreases to 23.85 mg/dL when using LW-PLSR in comparison to the SEP values of 49.40 mg/dL, and 27.56 mg/dL using Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Square (PLS) regression respectively.

  14. Novel determinants of H-Ras plasma membrane localization and transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Cox, A D; Solski, P A;

    1996-01-01

    cysteine did not abolish palmitoylation. However, despite continued lipid modification the mutant proteins failed to bind to plasma membranes and instead accumulated on internal membranes and, importantly, were not transforming. Addition of an N-terminal myristoylation signal to these defective mutants......, or to proteins entirely lacking the C-terminal 25 residues restored both plasma membrane association and transforming activity. Thus, H-Ras does not absolutely require prenylation or palmitoylation nor indeed its hypervariable domain in order to interact with effectors that ultimately cause transformation....... However, in this native state, the C-terminus appears to provide a combination of lipids and a previously unrecognized signal for specific plasma membrane targeting that are essential for the correct localization and biological function of H-Ras....

  15. Molecular Determinants Responsible for the Subcellular Localization of HSV-1 UL4 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei Pan; Jing Long; Jun-ji Xing; Chun-fu Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The function of the herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1)UL4 protein is still elusive. Our objective is to investigate the subcellular transport mechanism of the UL4 protein. In this study,fluorescence microscopy was employed to investigate the subcellular localization of UL4 and characterize the transport mechanism in living cells. By constructing a series of deletion mutants fused with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein(EYFP),the nuclear export signals(NES)of UL4 were for the first time mapped to amino acid residues 178 to 186. In addition,the N-terminal 19 amino acids are identified to be required for the granule-like cytoplasmic pattern of UL4.Furthermore,the UL4 protein was demonstrated to be exported to the cytoplasm through the NES in a chromosomal region maintenance 1(CRM l)-dependent manner involving RanGTP hydrolysis.

  16. The Anachronism of the Local Public Accountancy Determinate by the Accrual European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing the European accrual model upon cash accountancy model,presently used in Romania, at the level of the local communities, makespossible that the anachronism of the model to manifest itself on the discussion’sconcentration at the nominalization about the model’s inclusion in everydaypublic practice. The basis of the accrual model were first defined in the lawregarding the commercial societies adopted in Great Britain in 1985, when theydetermined that all income and taxes referring to the financial year “will betaken into consideration without any boundary to the reception or paymentdate.”1 The accrual model in accountancy needs the recording of the non-casheffects in transactions or financial events for their appearance periods and not inany generated cash, received or paid. The business development was the basisfor “sophistication” of the recordings of the transactions and financial events,being prerequisite for recording the debtors’ or creditors’ sums.

  17. Augmented Reality on a C-Arm System: A Preclinical Assessment for Percutaneous Needle Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racadio, John M; Nachabe, Rami; Homan, Robert; Schierling, Ross; Racadio, Judy M; Babić, Draženko

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To compare the navigational accuracy and radiation dose during needle localization of targets for augmented reality (AR) with and without motion compensation (MC) versus those for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) with real-time fluoroscopy navigation in a pig model. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Three operators each localized 15 targets (bone fragments) approximately 7 cm deep in the paraspinal muscles of nine Yorkshire pigs by using each of the three modalities (AR with and without MC and cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy). Target depth, accuracy (distance between needle tip and target), and radiation dose (dose-area product [DAP]) were recorded for each procedure. Correlation between accuracy and depth of target was assessed by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Two-way analysis of variance was used for differentiating accuracy and DAPs across navigation techniques and operator backgrounds. Results There was no correlation between depth of target and accuracy. There was no significant difference in accuracy between modalities (mean distance, 3.0 mm ± 1.9 [standard deviation] for cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy, 2.5 mm ± 2.0 for AR, and 3.2 mm ± 2.7 for AR with MC [P = .33]). There was, however, a significant difference in fluoroscopy radiation dose (10.4 Gy · cm(2) ± 10.6 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 2.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 2.4 for AR, and 3.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 4.6 for AR with MC [P < .05]) and therefore in total procedural radiation dose (20.5 Gy · cm(2) ± 13.4 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 12.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 5.3 for AR, 13.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 7.4 for AR with MC [P < .05]). Conclusion Use of an AR C-arm system reduces radiation dose while maintaining navigational accuracy compared with cone-beam CT fluoroscopy during image-guided percutaneous needle placement in a pig model. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Localized tissue water changes accompanying one manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) therapy session assessed by changes in tissue dielectric constant inpatients with lower extremity lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Davey, S; Shapiro, E

    2008-06-01

    Previous reports described the utility of assessing local tissue water via tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this method to evaluate lymphedema changes. For this purpose, we measured changes in TDC produced by one MLD treatment in 27 legs of 18 patients with lower extremity lymphedema. TDC values were measured to a depth of 2.5 mm at the greatest leg swelling site before and after one MLD treatment. Girth at the target site was measured with a calibrated tape measure. TDC values, which range from 1 for zero water to 78.5 for all water within the sampled volume, were measured four times and the average used to estimate local changes. Results showed that in every case the posttreatment TDC was reduced from its pretreatment value with percentage reductions (mean SD) of -9.8 +/- 5.64% (p TDC measurements reflect changes to a depth of about 2.5 mm whereas girth measurements reflect conditions of the entire cross-section, TDC assessment may be more sensitive to localized lymphedema changes. This finding suggests that TDC measurements are useful as complementary and perhaps as independent assessment methods of edema/lymphedema and treatment-related changes.

  19. Electronic Health Records and Meaningful Use in Local Health Departments: Updates From the 2015 NACCHO Informatics Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) are evolving the scope of operations, practices, and outcomes of population health in the United States. Local health departments (LHDs) need adequate health informatics capacities to handle the quantity and quality of population health data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain an updated view using the most recent data to identify the primary storage of clinical data, status of data for meaningful use, and characteristics associated with the implementation of EHRs in LHDs. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, which used a stratified random sampling design of LHD populations. Oversampling of larger LHDs was conducted and sampling weights were applied. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Forty-two percent of LHDs indicated the use of an EHR system compared with 58% that use a non-EHR system for the storage of primary health data. Seventy-one percent of LHDs had reviewed some or all of the current systems to determine whether they needed to be improved or replaced, whereas only 6% formally conducted a readiness assessment for health information exchange. Twenty-seven percent of the LHDs had conducted informatics training within the past 12 months. LHD characteristics statistically associated with having an EHR system were having state or centralized governance, not having created a strategic plan related to informatics within the past 2 years throughout LHDs, provided informatics training in the past 12 months, and various levels of control over decisions regarding hardware allocation or acquisition, software selection, software support, and information technology budget allocation. Conclusion: A focus on EHR implementation in public health is pertinent to examining the impact of public health programming and interventions for the positive change in population health. PMID:27684614

  20. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras claves: Almacenes, soterrado, humedad, conservación, coeficientes._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the mechanisms of humidity transport are explained. These mechanisms have place in underground warehousesaccording to the climatic and geohydrological characteristics of Cuba. An analogy with the Fick´s law is stated and it intends atheoretical model that describes this mechanism of transport toward the cavities. It was determined the local coefficients oftransport of humidity experimentally for different recover types in walls and different geometric forms of the warehouses.Key words: Store, buried, humidity, conservation, and coefficients.

  1. One size does not fit all: local determinants of measles vaccination in four districts of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah; Ansari, Umaira

    2009-01-01

    Background Rates of childhood vaccination in Pakistan remain low.There is continuing debate about the role of consumer and service factors in determining levels of vaccination in developing countries. Methods In a stratified random cluster sample of census enumeration areas across four districts in Pakistan, household interviews about vaccination of children and potentially related factors with 10,423 mothers of 14,542 children preceded discussion of findings in separate male and female focus...

  2. Determination of the local chemistry of iron in inorganic and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Clair C. [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.c.calvert@sheffield.ac.uk; Brown, Andy [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The systematic EELS analysis of a series of naturally occurring, synthetic and biological samples has provided a framework from which Fe valence of unknown materials can be determined and the relative ratios of the valences present can be calculated. The quantification of the relative ratios of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} is possible via the fitting of Gaussian or Voigt (with 89.3% Gaussian contribution) line profiles to the Fe L{sub 3}-edge. The ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe is determined from the areas under the fitted peaks. The method is robust and has an error in the range of <10% on Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe for samples with >2 atom% Fe. We present applications of this method including the investigation of polaron hopping in calcic amphibole, the quantification of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe in clay minerals from deep water sediments, quantification of Fe valence in human liver tissue and the determination of Fe valence in airborne particulate matter.

  3. Assessment and assortment: how fishes use local and global cues to choose which school to go to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashley J W; Hart, Paul J B; Krause, Jens

    2004-08-01

    Animals that live in groups are known preferentially to associate with phenotypically similar individuals. Despite this, groups of mixed phenotypic composition are the norm rather than the exception in several systems in the wild and this, combined with the large sizes of some animal groups, makes accurate global assessment by a choosing individual more difficult. In this study, we investigated the role of local and global information in mediating shoal-choice decisions in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by manipulating the positions and phenotypes of stimulus fish in relation to a focal fish. Focal fish were able to assess globally mixed shoals composed of individuals of different body-length classes, preferring to associate with shoals where the majority phenotype matched their own. When local cues were manipulated this preference disappeared, although overall shoal composition remaining constant. Finally, if both stimulus shoals had the same overall composition but differed in their local cues, then the focus fish chose according to which local fish was of matching body length. These findings indicate that both local and global information play an important role in mediating assessment and shoal choice in fishes.

  4. Radiomics versus physician assessment for the early prediction of local cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Johnson, Carol; Palma, David A.; Rodrigues, George; Louie, Alexander V.; Senan, Suresh; Yeung, Timothy P. C.; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has recently become a standard treatment option for patients with early-stage lung cancer, which achieves local control rates similar to surgery. Local recurrence following SABR typically presents after one year post-treatment. However, benign radiological changes mimicking local recurrence can appear on CT imaging following SABR, complicating the assessment of response. We hypothesize that subtle changes on early post- SABR CT images are important in predicting the eventual incidence of local recurrence and would be extremely valuable to support timely salvage interventions. The objective of this study was to extract radiomic image features on post-SABR follow-up images for 45 patients (15 with local recurrence and 30 without) to aid in the early prediction of local recurrence. Three blinded thoracic radiation oncologists were also asked to score follow-up images as benign injury or local recurrence. A radiomic signature consisting of five image features demonstrated a classification error of 24%, false positive rate (FPR) of 24%, false negative rate (FNR) of 23%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.85 at 2-5 months post-SABR. At the same time point, three physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury for overall errors of 34-37%, FPRs of 0-4%, and FNRs of 100%. These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence which are not typically considered by physicians. We aim to develop a decision support system which could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of patients with local recurrence following SABR.

  5. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  6. Reproducibility of Cutaneous Vascular Conductance Responses to Slow Local Heating Assessed Using seven-Laser Array Probes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, E.A.; Low, D.A.; Meeuwis, I.H.; Kerstens, F.G.; Atkinson, C.L.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gradual local heating of the skin induces a largely NO-mediated vasodilatation. However, use of this assessment of microvascular health is limited because little is known about its reproducibility. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 9) reported twice to the laboratory. CVC, derived from las

  7. The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayang Norwana, A.A.B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research process assessing the local economic, social and environmental impacts from feedstock expansion for the growing biofuel sector (see German et al. 2011). Nonetheless, in the Malaysian context, biofuel production volumes are negligible despite government intere

  8. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  9. A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Riess, Adam G; Hoffmann, Samantha L; Scolnic, Dan; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V; Tucker, Brad E; Reid, Mark J; Jones, David O; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Chornock, Ryan; Challis, Peter; Yuan, Wenlong; Foley, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant (H_0) from 3.3% to 2.4%. Improvements come from observations of Cepheid variables in 10 new hosts of recent SNe~Ia, more than doubling the sample of SNe~Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance for a total of 18; these leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on 300 SNe~Ia at z<0.15. All 18 hosts and the megamaser system NGC4258 were observed with WFC3, thus nullifying cross-instrument zeropoint errors. Other improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC4258, more Cepheids and a more robust distance to the LMC from late-type DEBs, HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST-based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes, and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The...

  10. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  11. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D.; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  12. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS MANAGED BY LOCAL INFILTRATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajay Bharti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylitis is a well known elbow disorder known to affect a variety of population. Though the disorder is expected to affect a lot of sports personnel, the incidence is not uncommon in persons of household activities. The management comprises of conservative to operative with a dilemma of what to be done in most of the affected population. A large number of interventions have been tried to delineate the best modality but none of them proved to be conclusive. The aim of the present study was to prove the efficacy of cheapest possible interventional modality autologous blood for treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis. Twenty five patients of Tennis elbow were included in this study who have attended the OPD of GSVM Medical College and associated LLR Hospital, Kanpur from November 2007 to April 2008 and fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. 78% were females, mostly housewives involved in regular household activities. All the patients were infiltrated autologous blood with local anaesthetic infiltration. Patients were deprived of regular activities for 3 weeks after infiltration. Follow up was done at weekly interval for 2 weeks and then at 6th week and 12th week. Assessment was done using Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS and Verhaar et al scoring system. Total follow up period was 3 months. We observed that the mean VAS score improved from preinfiltrative 6.40±1.22 to 0.48±1.53 with p value being < .001. 64% patients showed excellent results and 32% showed good results as per Verhaar et al scoring system on 12 weeks follow up. One patient did not respond to this procedure and showed poor result as per Verhaar et al score. Therefore, autologous blood infiltration is a safe and effective modality in treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

  13. A mini slug test method for determination of a local hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Andersen, Lars J.;

    1992-01-01

    from level to level and thereby establish vertical profiles of the hydraulic conductivity. The head data from the test well are recorded with a 10 mm pressure transducer, and the initial head difference required is established by a small vacuum pump. The method described has provided 274 spatially......A new and efficient mini slug test method for the determination of local hydraulic conductivities in unconfined sandy aquifers is developed. The slug test is performed in a small-diameter (1 inch) driven well with a 0.25 m screen just above the drive point. The screened drive point can be driven...... distributed measurements of a local hydraulic conductivity at a tracer test site at Vejen, Denmark. The mini slug test results calculated by a modified Dax slug test analysing method, applying the elastic storativity in the Dax equations instead of the specific yield, are in good accordance with the results...

  14. Morphological and physiological determinants of local adaptation to climate in Rocky Mountain butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-01-01

    Flight is a central determinant of fitness in butterflies and other insects, but it is restricted to a limited range of body temperatures. To achieve these body temperatures, butterflies use a combination of morphological, behavioural and physiological mechanisms. Here, we used common garden (without direct solar radiation) and reciprocal transplant (full solar radiation) experiments in the field to determine the thermal sensitivity of flight initiation for two species of Colias butterflies along an elevation gradient in the southwestern Rocky Mountains. The mean body temperature for flight initiation in the field was lower (24-26°C) than indicated by previous studies (28-30°C) in these species. There were small but significant differences in thermal sensitivity of flight initiation between species; high-elevation Colias meadii initiated flight at a lower mean body temperature than lower-elevation Colias eriphyle. Morphological differences (in wing melanin and thoracic setae) drive body temperature differences between species and contributed strongly to differences in the time and probability of flight and air temperatures at flight initiation. Our results suggest that differences both in thermal sensitivity (15% contribution) and in morphology (85% contribution) contribute to the differences in flight initiation between the two species in the field. Understanding these differences, which influence flight performance and fitness, aids in forecasting responses to climate change.

  15. Morphological and physiological determinants of local adaptation to climate in Rocky Mountain butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Higgins, Jessica K.; Buckley, Lauren B.; Kingsolver, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Flight is a central determinant of fitness in butterflies and other insects, but it is restricted to a limited range of body temperatures. To achieve these body temperatures, butterflies use a combination of morphological, behavioural and physiological mechanisms. Here, we used common garden (without direct solar radiation) and reciprocal transplant (full solar radiation) experiments in the field to determine the thermal sensitivity of flight initiation for two species of Colias butterflies along an elevation gradient in the southwestern Rocky Mountains. The mean body temperature for flight initiation in the field was lower (24–26°C) than indicated by previous studies (28–30°C) in these species. There were small but significant differences in thermal sensitivity of flight initiation between species; high-elevation Colias meadii initiated flight at a lower mean body temperature than lower-elevation Colias eriphyle. Morphological differences (in wing melanin and thoracic setae) drive body temperature differences between species and contributed strongly to differences in the time and probability of flight and air temperatures at flight initiation. Our results suggest that differences both in thermal sensitivity (15% contribution) and in morphology (85% contribution) contribute to the differences in flight initiation between the two species in the field. Understanding these differences, which influence flight performance and fitness, aids in forecasting responses to climate change. PMID:27668080

  16. Automatic Threshold Determination for a Local Approach of Change Detection in Long-Term Signal Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CUSUM (cumulative sum is a well-known method that can be used to detect changes in a signal when the parameters of this signal are known. This paper presents an adaptation of the CUSUM-based change detection algorithms to long-term signal recordings where the various hypotheses contained in the signal are unknown. The starting point of the work was the dynamic cumulative sum (DCS algorithm, previously developed for application to long-term electromyography (EMG recordings. DCS has been improved in two ways. The first was a new procedure to estimate the distribution parameters to ensure the respect of the detectability property. The second was the definition of two separate, automatically determined thresholds. One of them (lower threshold acted to stop the estimation process, the other one (upper threshold was applied to the detection function. The automatic determination of the thresholds was based on the Kullback-Leibler distance which gives information about the distance between the detected segments (events. Tests on simulated data demonstrated the efficiency of these improvements of the DCS algorithm.

  17. Local round robin test for determination of aromatics in diesel fuels by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segudović, Nikola; Tomić, Tatjana; Skrobonja, Liviana; Kontić, Ljubica

    2004-01-01

    Determination of aromatics in diesel fuels by HPLC is covered by European Standard EN 12916 (April 2000). The Standard is based on former standards IP 391/90 and IP 391/95. The method used for measurements is NP HPLC and separation is performed on silica or modified silica columns with RI detection. The precision of the method was checked by determining the repeatability and reproducibility. The content of aromatics was measured in a number of commercial samples. The measurements have been performed in three different laboratories and under different working and instrumental conditions. Satisfactory agreement was established for repeatability and was slightly poorer for reproducibility. The content of polyaromatics is within the tolerance range (IP 590/99) and the content of tricyclic and higher aromatics (tri+) is close to the limit of quantitition in some samples. Clear differences in the content of polycyclic aromatics in domestic diesel and eurodiesel fuels were observed. The results have confirmed the ruggedness and robustness of the measuring method.

  18. Local positive feedback regulation determines cell shape in root hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Seiji; Gapper, Catherine; Kaya, Hidetaka; Bell, Elizabeth; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Dolan, Liam

    2008-02-29

    The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that Ca2+, in turn, activated the RHD2 NADPH oxidase to produce ROS at the growing point in the root hair. Together, these components could establish a means of positive feedback regulation that maintains an active growth site in expanding root hair cells. Because the location and stability of growth sites predict the ultimate form of a plant cell, our findings demonstrate how a positive feedback mechanism involving RHD2, ROS, and Ca2+ can determine cell shape.

  19. Localization and functional significance of a polymorphic determinant in the third component of human complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Hansen, O C; Ploug, M

    1987-01-01

    is situated with N-terminus at residue No. 202, using the numbering of the cDNA derived amino acid sequence of human prepro C3. Addition of Fab fragments from the alloselective antibody preferentially inhibited the activity of C3F+ in a haemolytic assay which is selective for the C3 activity...... with this antibody) and C3S- (non-reactive with the antibody), were purified. Deglycosylation studies and N-terminal sequencing of CNBr fragments, reactive with the antibody, revealed that the polymorphic epitope was present in a beta chain fragment of mol. wt 20,000. In the intact C3 molecule, this fragment......A polymorphic epitope in the third component of human complement was studied. This allotypic system is distinct from the electrophoretically determined C3 S/F polymorphism and is defined by the recognition of one allotype by a monoclonal antibody. Allotypic protein variants, C3F+ (reactive...

  20. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead......, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA......-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies....

  1. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jonas N.; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in a mega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies.

  2. Determination of local heat transfer coefficient on the surface of longitudinally finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, T.; Taler, J. [Cracow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Process and Power Engineering

    2008-06-15

    The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient is calculated from temperature measurements at interior points of the solid, and the measured fluid temperature. The unknown parameters associated with the solution were selected to achieve the closest least squares agreement between the computed and measured temperatures using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The nonlinear least - squares problem is parameterised by assuming the stair-case changes of the heat transfer coefficient on the boundary, or by expressing the space variations of the heat transfer coefficient in its functional form. The determination of the circumferential heat transfer coefficient distribution on the heated tube with two longitudinal fins in cross flow demonstrates the accuracy of the developed method. The actual experimental data were used. Experiments were performed with an array of vertical tubes arranged in staggered pattern. (orig.)

  3. Volcanic pulses determined by local re-melting throughout plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, V.; Moretti, R.; neuville, D. R.; Le Losq, C.; Allard, P.; Arienzo, I.; Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; Flank, A.; Lagarde, P.; Metrich, N.; Orsi, G.; Papale, P.

    2012-12-01

    would buffer the redox state at Fe2+/Fe3+ ~ 1 as shown by XANES measurements of olivine hosted MIs and KD computations. The voluminous crystal mushes geophysically inferred in the crustal roots of studied volcanoes would behave as mushy sponges locally producing magma batches rising upward.

  4. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    Full Text Available DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR. Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR. Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization, uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are

  5. Multi-harmonic approach to determine load dependent local flux variations in power transformer cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riemer Björn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the flux distribution in power transformer cores considering nonlinear material, with reduced computational effort. The calculation is based on a weak coupled multi-harmonic approach. The methodology can be applied to 2D and 3D Finite Element models. The decrease of the computational effort for the proposed approach is >90% compared to a time-stepping method at comparable accuracy. Furthermore, the approach offers a possibility for parallelisation to reduce the overall simulation time. The speed up of the parallelised simulations is nearly linear. The methodology is applied to a single-phase and a three-phase power transformer. Exemplary, the flux distribution for a capacitive load case is determined and the differences in the flux distribution obtained by a 2D and 3D FE model are pointed out. Deviations are significant, due to the fact, that the 2D FE model underestimates the stray fluxes. It is shown, that a 3D FE model of the transformer is required, if the nonlinearity of the core material has to be taken into account.

  6. Assessment of local seismic response of the Stracciacappa maar (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Simionato, Maurizio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Sottili, Gianluca; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Sirianni, Pietro; Pileggi, Domenico; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Razzano, Roberto; Mancini, Marco; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we face the definition of a subsoil model aimed at the local seismic response assessment of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy) (e.g., De Rita and Zanetti, 1986; Marra et al., 2014). The pyroclastic succession of Stracciacappa records two main hydromagmatic eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago (e.g., Sottili et al., 2010). The preserved crater, with a diameter of about 1500 meters and a crater floor of about 30-40 m, hosted a lake until it was drained in AD 1834. In the framework of the cooperation between CNR IGAG and Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC funds 2014), a multidisciplinary approach including detailed stratigraphic and geophysical study has been carried out in the Stracciacappa maar and surrounding areas. New geological map and cross sections illustrate the complex geometric relationships between the thick pyroclastic surge succession, showing diffuse sandwave structures, and even meter-sized lava ballistic. A composite interdigitation between lacustrine and epiclastic debris sediments fills the crater floor. A continuous coring borehole was drilled inside the crater, 45 meters deep from the wellhead, with sampling of undisturbed samples. In addition, four MASW and one SCPTU test were carried out, in order to define the velocity profile of the s-waves within the lacustrine deposits. This Vs profile was then extended at higher depths by using the results of four 2D seismic passive arrays. Moreover, in order to define the resonance frequency of sedimentary covers via the HVSR technique, twenty-eight measurements were carried out with digital sensor Tromino® and seven measurements were performed with a Lennartz® Le-3D/5s sensor with Lennartz Marslite® digitizer. Finally, three electrical resistivity tomography tests, with a total length of about 3500 meters, were carried out with the purpose of constraining the subsoil model. Regarding the non linear

  7. Noxa determines localization and stability of MCL-1 and consequently ABT-737 sensitivity in small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, W; Hicks, M A; Tanaka, N; Krystal, G W; Harada, H

    2014-02-13

    The sensitivity to ABT-737, a prototype BH3 mimetic drug, varies in a broad range in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. We have previously shown that the expression of Noxa, a BH3-only pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein, is the critical determinant of ABT-737 sensitivity. We show here that Noxa regulates the localization and stability of MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member, which results in modulating ABT-737 sensitivity. Mutations in Noxa within the BH3 domain, the carboxyl terminus mitochondrial targeting domain, or of ubiquitinated lysines not only change the localization and stability of Noxa itself but also affect the mitochondrial localization and phosphorylation/ubiquitination status of MCL-1 and consequently modulate sensitivity to ABT-737. Results of studies utilizing these mutant proteins indicate that Noxa recruits MCL-1 from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Translocation of MCL-1 initiates its phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination, which triggers proteasome-mediated degradation. The precise regulatory mechanisms of Noxa/MCL-1 expression and stability could provide alternative targets to modulate apoptosis induced by BH3 mimetic drugs or other chemotherapeutic reagents.

  8. Assessing the Ability of the Afghan Ministry of Interior Affairs to Support the Afghan Local Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Pay Process . . . . . . . 59 4.2. Proposed Afghan Local Police Eligibility and Pay Process . . . . . 62 Table 4.1. Tribal/ Ethnic Breakdown Compared...might contribute to a greater understanding of logistics requirements and consumption patterns. In the longer term, they should invest in logistics...involved in helping ALP headquarters resolve local ammunition, food , and water 23 NSOCC-A, 2013e. 24 NSOCC-A official, interview with the authors

  9. Assessment of Cooperative and Heterogeneous Indoor Localization Algorithms with Real Radio Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Noureddine, Hadi; Amiot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of real-life local- ization experiments performed in an unprecedented cooperative and heterogeneous wireless context. The experiments covered measurements of different radio devices packed together on a trolley, emulating a multi-standard Mobile Terminal (MT) along......- centralized message-passing techniques, heterogeneous geometric positioning with hypothesis testing, context-aware localization with e.g., mobility learning or channel-dependent Non Line of Sight (NLoS) mitigation....

  10. Assessment of the Turkish Local e-Governments: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Arslan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we first evaluated the current practices of the Turkish local e-governments. Then, building upon an earlier study of local e-governments in Europe (Key Elements for Electronic Local Authorities’ Networks [KEeLAN], 2002, we compared the Turkish local e-government stages with their European counterparts to give a broader perspective. The basic framework focuses on the evaluation of current practices on the supply side (government, rather than the demand side (citizen. The emphasis of this research is on the evaluation of each web site in terms of nine basic public services (additional sub-services available comprised of policy making, economic development, personal documents, credit and loans/financial support, education, building permits, environment, culture and leisure, and information dissemination. It is assumed that at least four of those services (randomly are supplied in a local context among the Member Countries, including Turkey. We suggest the results might provide a deeper understanding of local e-governments in Turkey and lend support to advances in this under-researched area.

  11. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Bustin, P.M.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports

  12. 45 CFR 79.31 - Determining the amount of penalties and assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... misconduct; (4) The amount of money or the value of the property, services, or benefit falsely claimed; (5... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining the amount of penalties and assessments. 79.31 Section 79.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  13. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Bustin, Paul M. J.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports

  14. The importance of performance assessment in local government decisions to fund health and human services nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Shannon K

    2010-01-01

    In times of fiscal crisis, demand for health and human services increases while revenues shrink, causing funders to focus more intently on identifying the most successful organizations in which to invest scarce resources. This research grew out of interest in enhancing performance assessment of nonprofit organizations expressed by local government managers. A survey of Alliance for Innovation Members explores two primary research questions: 1) what is a successful nonprofit; and 2) what type(s) of performance assessment tools are the most useful. The results strengthen our understanding of what information city and county managers want and why they prefer certain evaluation tools.

  15. 我国地方政府信用评估研究%Credit Assessment Study of Local Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新安

    2015-01-01

    地方政府公信力是衡量政府信用状况和信用程度的重要概念。当前,我国地方政府公信力从总体上来说正在逐步提高,但也有部分地区呈现出弱化趋势。近年来,更是曝出了“华南虎事件”、“毒奶粉事件”等一大批丑闻。对地方政府信用进行评估,既是投资者进行投资决策分析的需要,也是对地区竞争力进行客观分析的需要,同时也是地方政府认识和改进自身信用状况的需要。本文在分析了我国地方政府公信力现状的基础上构建了地方政府公信力评估体系,并以河南省Z市为例,通过对地方政府公信力的评估,为提高我国地方政府公信力提出了相关建议。%Local government credibility is an important concept to measure the government's credit profile and credit degree. At present, the credibility of China's local government is gradually improving from the whole, but some areas show a weakening trend. In recent years, it has exposed the "tiger incident", "milk scandal" and a large number of scandals. Local government credit assessment is the needs of investment decision analysis for investors, but also the needs for the objective analysis of regional competitiveness, at the same time is also the needs of understanding and improving the credit status for local government. On the basis of analyzing the current situation of the local government credibility, this paper builds the assessment system of local government credibility, with the example of Z City of Henan Province, proposes the relevant proposals to enhance the credibility of the local government by assessing the credibility of the local government.

  16. The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Norwana, A.A.B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research process assessing the local economic, social and environmental impacts from feedstock expansion for the growing biofuel sector (see German et al. 2011). Nonetheless, in the Malaysian context, biofuel production volumes are negligible despite government interest in promoting sector expansion. Since Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer in the world, palm oil is slated to become the primary feedstock for biofuel production in the country. Sinc...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  18. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14

  19. The local projection in the density functional theory plus U approach: A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Chao; Chen, Ze-Hua; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-14

    Density-functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) method is widely used in first-principles studies of strongly correlated systems, as it can give qualitatively (and sometimes, semi-quantitatively) correct description of energetic and structural properties of many strongly correlated systems with similar computational cost as local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation. On the other hand, the DFT + U approach is limited both theoretically and practically in several important aspects. In particular, the results of DFT + U often depend on the choice of local orbitals (the local projection) defining the subspace in which the Hubbard U correction is applied. In this work we have systematically investigated the issue of the local projection by considering typical transition metal oxides, β-MnO2 and MnO, and comparing the results obtained from different implementations of DFT + U. We found that the choice of the local projection has significant effects on the DFT + U results, which are more significant for systems with stronger covalent bonding (e.g., MnO2) than those with more ionic bonding (e.g., MnO). These findings can help to clarify some confusion arising from the practical use of DFT + U and may also provide insights for the development of new first-principles approaches beyond DFT + U.

  20. Modeling LCD Displays with Local Backlight Dimming for Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, algorithm-based (objective) image and video quality assessment methods operate with the numerical presentation of the signal, and they do not take the characteristics of the actual output device into account. This is a reasonable approach, when quality assessment is needed for eval...

  1. Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D'Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the α-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1(low) mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1(low) mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1(low) mice were crossed with P-sel(null) mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1(low)P-sel(wt), Gata1(low)P-sel(null) and Gata1(WT)P-sel(null) or Gata1(wt)P-sel(wt) (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1(low) mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1(low) mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1(low) mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1(low) mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic determination of local solvent electric field, solute-solvent electrostatic interaction energy, and their fluctuation amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochan; Lee, Gayeon; Jeon, Jonggu; Cho, Minhaeng

    2012-01-12

    IR probes have been extensively used to monitor local electrostatic and solvation dynamics. Particularly, their vibrational frequencies are highly sensitive to local solvent electric field around an IR probe. Here, we show that the experimentally measured vibrational frequency shifts can be inversely used to determine local electric potential distribution and solute-solvent electrostatic interaction energy. In addition, the upper limits of their fluctuation amplitudes are estimated by using the vibrational bandwidths. Applying this method to fully deuterated N-methylacetamide (NMA) in D(2)O and examining the solvatochromic effects on the amide I' and II' mode frequencies, we found that the solvent electric potential difference between O(═C) and D(-N) atoms of the peptide bond is about 5.4 V, and thus, the approximate solvent electric field produced by surrounding water molecules on the NMA is 172 MV/cm on average if the molecular geometry is taken into account. The solute-solvent electrostatic interaction energy is estimated to be -137 kJ/mol, by considering electric dipole-electric field interaction. Furthermore, their root-mean-square fluctuation amplitudes are as large as 1.6 V, 52 MV/cm, and 41 kJ/mol, respectively. We found that the water electric potential on a peptide bond is spatially nonhomogeneous and that the fluctuation in the electrostatic peptide-water interaction energy is about 10 times larger than the thermal energy at room temperature. This indicates that the peptide-solvent interactions are indeed important for the activation of chemical reactions in aqueous solution.

  3. Local adaptation to soil hypoxia determines the structure of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in roots from natural CO₂ springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maček, Irena; Dumbrell, Alex J; Nelson, Michaela; Fitter, Alastair H; Vodnik, Dominik; Helgason, Thorunn

    2011-07-01

    The processes responsible for producing and maintaining the diversity of natural arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities remain largely unknown. We used natural CO(2) springs (mofettes), which create hypoxic soil environments, to determine whether a long-term, directional, abiotic selection pressure could change AM fungal community structure and drive the selection of particular AM fungal phylotypes. We explored whether those phylotypes that appear exclusively in hypoxic soils are local specialists or widespread generalists able to tolerate a range of soil conditions. AM fungal community composition was characterized by cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, and the sequencing of small subunit rRNA genes from roots of four plant species growing at high (hypoxic) and low (control) geological CO(2) exposure. We found significant levels of AM fungal community turnover (β diversity) between soil types and the numerical dominance of two AM fungal phylotypes in hypoxic soils. Our results strongly suggest that direct environmental selection acting on AM fungi is a major factor regulating AM fungal communities and their phylogeographic patterns. Consequently, some AM fungi are more strongly associated with local variations in the soil environment than with their host plant's distribution.

  4. Determination of Rectification Corrections for Semi Gantry Crane Rail Axes in the Local 3D Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak Daria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.

  5. Assessing the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability: Towards a theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Rio, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, the existing literature has put much emphasis on the environmental benefits (including the reduction of global and local pollutants), while socioeconomic impacts have not received a comparable attention. These include diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. With the exception of the diversification and security of energy supply, these benefits have usually been mentioned, but their analysis has been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and, even more so, the local level, has been lacking. At most, studies provide scattered evidence of some of those regional and local benefits, but without an integrated conceptual framework to analyse them. This paper tries to make a contribution in this regard by developing an integrated theoretical framework which allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of renewable energy on local sustainability and which can be empirically applied to identify these benefits in different territories. (author)

  6. Multimodal presentation of local danger warnings for drivers: A situation-dependent assessment of usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Müller, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses how advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) should communicate with drivers, focusing on the local danger warning function. To achieve high-quality assistance, the communication mode needs to be adaptive to changes in driving situation (driver's state, workload and environment

  7. Comparative Assessment of Mediterranean Gorgonian-Associated Microbial Communities Reveals Conserved Core and Locally Variant Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M

    2016-10-10

    Gorgonians are key habitat-forming species of Mediterranean benthic communities, but their populations have suffered from mass mortality events linked to high summer seawater temperatures and microbial disease. However, our knowledge on the diversity, dynamics and function of gorgonian-associated microbial communities is limited. Here, we analysed the spatial variability of the microbiomes of five sympatric gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa, Leptogorgia sarmentosa and Paramuricea clavata), collected from the Mediterranean Sea over a scale of ∼1100 km, using next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all gorgonian species were generally dominated by members of the genus Endozoicomonas, which were at very low abundance in the surrounding seawater. Although the composition of the core microbiome (operational taxonomic units consistently present in a species) was found to be unique for each host species, significant overlap was observed. These spatially consistent associations between gorgonians and their core bacteria suggest intricate symbiotic relationships and regulation of the microbiome composition by the host. At the same time, local variations in microbiome composition were observed. Functional predictive profiling indicated that these differences could be attributed to seawater pollution. Taken together, our data indicate that gorgonian-associated microbiomes are composed of spatially conserved bacteria (core microbiome members) and locally variant members, and that local pollution may influence these local associations, potentially impacting gorgonian health.

  8. Distant views and local realities: The limits of global assessments to restore the fragmented phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    With more sophisticated data compilation and analytical capabilities, the evolution of “big data” analysis has occurred rapidly. We examine the meta-analysis of “big data” representing phosphorus (P) flows and stocks in global agriculture and address the need to consider local nuances of farm operat...

  9. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.; Leth, H; Lou, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    hyperventilated voluntarily, the vascular reactivity was homogeneously distributed predominantly over the grey matter. The experiments demonstrate that local impairment of vascular CO2 reactivity in the distressed infant brain can be detected by T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI, which is also known as functional...

  10. Assessing the sensitivity of coral reef condition indicators to local and global stressors with Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are highly valued ecosystems that are currently imperiled. Although the value of coral reefs to human societies is only just being investigated and better understood, for many local and global economies coral reefs are important providers of ecosystem services that su...

  11. Assessment of the local SAR Distortion by Major Anatomical Structures in a Cylindrical Neck Phantom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Paulides (Maarten); D.H.M. Wielheesen (Dennis); J. van der Zee (Jill); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this work is to gain insight in the distortions on the local SAR distribution by various major anatomical structures in the neck. High resolution 3D FDTD calculations based on a variable grid are made for a semi-3D generic phantom based on average dimensions obtained fro

  12. Combining close-range and remote sensing for local assessment of biophysical characteristics of arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schut, A.G.T.

    2007-01-01

    For crop management, information on the actual status of the crop is important for taking decisions on nitrogen supply, water supply or harvesting. One would also like to take into account the local spatial variation of the crop. Remote sensing has proved to be a useful technique for estimating and

  13. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  14. Assessing the Impact of Local Agency Traffic Safety Training Using Ethnographic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic crashes are a significant source of loss of life, personal injury and financial expense in the United States. In 2008 there were 37,261 people killed and an estimated 2,346,000 people injured nationwide in motor vehicle traffic crashes. State and federal agencies are beginning to focus traffic safety improvement effort on local agency…

  15. Determination of phenolic compositions and quality characteristic of some local Turkish table grape varieties cultivated in Egirdir/Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargin Seckin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the phenolic substances and antioxidant activities of 11 local grape cultivars (Burdur Dimriti, Siyah Gemre, Ak Gemre, Antep Büzgülü, Şam Büzgülü, Kuş Yüregi, Ak Dimrit, Marzımat, Senirkent Dimriti, Devegözü, Tilki Kuyrugu grown in Egirdir/Isparta province of Turkey by the means of High Performance Liquid Chromatog- raphy (HPLC and also were evaluated for their yield and quality characterics. Burdur Dimriti, Antep Büzgülü, Şam Büzgülü cultivars were evaluated good for yield and table consumption. Ak Gemre, Marzımat, Devegözü, Ak Dimrit, Senirkent Dimriti and Kuş Yüregi varieties were evaluated good for must production. Gallic acid, cafeic acid, p-cumaric acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, kaemferol, myricetin, rutin hydrate, resveratrol, quercetin were determined in berry samples of 11 cultivars. Phenolic substances varied between 0 and 101.466 μg/ml in frozen berry samples varying to grape variety. Some of the cultivars can be evaluated as a good source of resveratrol, gallic acid, quercetin, and catechin. Antep Büzgülü, Burdur Dimriti, Kuş Yüregi, Senirkent Dimriti, Siyah Gemre were evaluated hopeful phenolic sources for further studies. Further detailed studies will be planned about phenolic and antioxidant compositions of these hopeful local varieties according to research results.

  16. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  17. Assessment of locally manufactured small wind turbines as an appropriate technology for the electrification of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an assessment of the challenges facing the use of small locally manufactured wind turbines as a rural electrification solution for the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua. Strongly based on the authors work experience at the non-profit, non-governmental organization blueEnergy, this assessment makes an objective analysis of the technical, social, economic and organizational challenges faced by blueEnergy when using small wind turbines for rural electrification. The article provides detail on the challenges faced and puts forward methodologies and technologies to overcome or to detect and avoid these. Based on the challenges faced, a set of key factors that are essential for the success of small wind turbines in other contexts is proposed, together with two methodologies for a preliminary feasibility assessment.

  18. Determination of Wave Model Uncertainties used for Probabilistic Reliability Assessments of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Wave models used for site assessments are subject to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Considered are four different wave models and validation...... data is collected from published scientific research. The bias, the root-mean-square error as well as the scatter index are considered for the significant wave height as well as the mean zero-crossing wave period. Based on an illustrative generic example it is shown how the estimated uncertainties can...

  19. Determination and Quantification of the Local Environments in Stoichiometric and Defect Jarosite by Solid-State 2H NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Grey, Clare P.; Majzlan, Juraj

    2008-01-01

    The nature and concentrations of the local environments in a series of deuterated jarosite (nominally AFe3(SO4)2(OD)6 with A = K, Na, and D3O) samples with different levels of iron and cation vacancies have been determined by 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy at ambient temperatures. Three different local ...

  20. From Global Climate Model Projections to Local Impacts Assessments: Analyses in Support of Planning for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snover, A. K.; Littell, J. S.; Mantua, N. J.; Salathe, E. P.; Hamlet, A. F.; McGuire Elsner, M.; Tohver, I.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    Assessing and planning for the impacts of climate change require regionally-specific information. Information is required not only about projected changes in climate but also the resultant changes in natural and human systems at the temporal and spatial scales of management and decision making. Therefore, climate impacts assessment typically results in a series of analyses, in which relatively coarse-resolution global climate model projections of changes in regional climate are downscaled to provide appropriate input to local impacts models. This talk will describe recent examples in which coarse-resolution (~150 to 300km) GCM output was “translated” into information requested by decision makers at relatively small (watershed) and large (multi-state) scales using regional climate modeling, statistical downscaling, hydrologic modeling, and sector-specific impacts modeling. Projected changes in local air temperature, precipitation, streamflow, and stream temperature were developed to support Seattle City Light’s assessment of climate change impacts on hydroelectric operations, future electricity load, and resident fish populations. A state-wide assessment of climate impacts on eight sectors (agriculture, coasts, energy, forests, human health, hydrology and water resources, salmon, and urban stormwater infrastructure) was developed for Washington State to aid adaptation planning. Hydro-climate change scenarios for approximately 300 streamflow locations in the Columbia River basin and selected coastal drainages west of the Cascades were developed in partnership with major water management agencies in the Pacific Northwest to allow planners to consider how hydrologic changes may affect management objectives. Treatment of uncertainty in these assessments included: using “bracketing” scenarios to describe a range of impacts, using ensemble averages to characterize the central estimate of future conditions (given an emissions scenario), and explicitly assessing

  1. Prioritizing health: a systematic approach to scoping determinants in health impact assessment

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    Lindsay McCallum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of Health Impact Assessment (HIA, the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted including both primary and grey literature. A total of 10 HIA Scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors such as impact, public concern and data availability to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programmed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool.

  2. Analysis of p53 expression and proliferative assessment using PCNA in localized prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite K.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical specimens from 51 men submitted to radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were examined by immunohistochemistry using proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA monoclonal antibody to evaluate the proliferative index (PI. The relationship between PI, biological variables and p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. PI was low in invasive localized prostate carcinoma (mean, 12.4% and the incidence of PCNA-positive cells was significantly higher in tumors with p53 expression (P = 0.0226. There was no statistical difference in PCNA values when biological parameters such as Gleason score, tumor volume, extraprostatic involvement, seminal vesicle infiltration or lymph node metastasis were considered. We conclude that proliferative activity is usually low in prostate carcinoma but is correlated with p53 immune staining, indicating that p53 is important in cell cycle control in this neoplasm.

  3. Global and Local Sea Level During the Last Interglacial: A Probabilistic Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Robert E; Maloof, Adam C; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG) stage, with polar temperatures likely 3-5 C warmer than today, serves as a partial analogue for low-end future warming scenarios. Based upon a small set of local sea level indicators, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) inferred that LIG global sea level (GSL) was about 4-6 m higher than today. However, because local sea levels differ from GSL, accurately reconstructing past GSL requires an integrated analysis of globally distributed data sets. Here we compile an extensive database of sea level indicators and apply a novel statistical approach that couples Gaussian process regression of sea level to Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of geochronological errors. Our analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that LIG GSL was higher than today, probably peaking at 6-9 m. Our results highlight the sea level hazard associated with even relatively low levels of sustained global warming.

  4. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  5. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

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    Xiao-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles.

  6. New computer simulation technology of WSPEEDI for local and regional environmental assessment during nuclear emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Masamichi; Furuno, Akiko; Terada, Hiroaki; Kitabata, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The increase of nuclear power plants in the Asian region necessitates the capability to predict long-range atmospheric dispersions of radionuclides and radiological impacts due to a nuclear accident. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based emergency response system WSPEEDI. This paper aims to expanding the capability of WSPEEDI so that it can be applied to simultaneous multi-scale predictions of local and regional scales in the Asian region.

  7. Assessment of Local Biodiversity Loss in Uranium Mining-Tales And Its Projections On Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharshenova, D.; Zhamangulova, N.

    2015-12-01

    In Min-Kush, northern Kyrgyzstan there are 8 mining tales with an estimate of 1 961 000 tones of industrial Uranium. Local ecosystem services have declined rapidly. We analyzed a terrestrial assemblage database of Uranium mine-tale to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and environmental changes. In the worst-affected habitats species richness reduced by 95.7%, total abundance by 60.9% and rarefaction-based richness by 72.5%. We estimate that, regional mountain ecosystem affected by this pressure reduced average within-sample richness (by 17.01%), total abundance (16.5%) and rarefaction-based richness (14.5%). Business-as-usual scenarios are the widely practiced in the region and moreover, due to economic constraints country can not afford any mitigation scenarios. We project that biodiversity loss and ecosystem service impairment will spread in the region through ground water, soil, plants, animals and microorganisms at the rate of 1km/year. Entire Tian-Shan mountain chain will be in danger within next 5-10 years. Our preliminary data shows that local people live in this area developed various forms of cancer, and the rate of premature death is as high as 40%. Strong international scientific and socio-economic partnership is needed to develop models and predictions.

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Local Management of Coral Reefs Using Expert Opinion and Spatial Bayesian Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Ban

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors are an increasing concern in the management and conservation of ecosystems, and have been identified as a key gap in research. Coral reefs are one example of an ecosystem where management of local stressors may be a way of mitigating or delaying the effects of climate change. Predicting how multiple stressors interact, particularly in a spatially explicit fashion, is a difficult challenge. Here we use a combination of an expert-elicited Bayesian network (BN and spatial environmental data to examine how hypothetical scenarios of climate change and local management would result in different outcomes for coral reefs on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia. Parameterizing our BN using the mean responses from our experts resulted in predictions of limited efficacy of local management in combating the effects of climate change. However, there was considerable variability in expert responses and uncertainty was high. Many reefs within the central GBR appear to be at risk of further decline based on the pessimistic opinions of our expert pool. Further parameterization of the model as more data and knowledge become available could improve predictive power. Our approach serves as a starting point for subsequent work that can fine-tune parameters and explore uncertainties in predictions of responses to management.

  9. Using Monoclonal Antibody to Determine Lead Ions with a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Fiber-optic Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mon-Fu Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reflection-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR fiber-optic probe has been developed to determine the heavy metal lead ion concentration. Monoclonal antibody as the detecting probe containing massive amino groups to capture Pb(II-chelate complexes was immobilized onto gold nanoparticle-modified optical fiber (NMAuOF. The optimal immobilizing conditions of monoclonal antibody on to the NMAuOF are 189 μg/mL in pH7.4 PBS for 2 h at 25°C. The absorbability of the functionalized NMAuOF sensor increases to 12.2 % upon changing the Pb(II-EDTA level from 10 to 100 ppb with a detection limit of 0.27 ppb. The sensor retains 92.7 % of its original activity and gives reproducible results after storage in 5% D-( -Trehalose dehydrate solution at 4°C for 35 days. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibody-functionalized NMAuOF sensor shows a promising result for determining the concentration of Pb(II with high sensitivity.

  10. Determination of localized trap parameters in organic semiconductors using charge based deep level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Ip, J.; Gaudin, O.; Jackman, R. B.

    2004-07-01

    In organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), localized traps within the band gap of the organic semiconductor play a fundamental role in the light emission process. Trapped charge carriers cannot recombine efficiently and therefore do not contribute to the emission. The determination of the trap parameters in the emitting layer is especially important in the evaluation of the efficiency of such devices. We have investigated the trap parameters in some organic semiconductors using the Charge-Based Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (Q-DLTS) technique. Examples are given in poly(p phenylene vinylene) or PPV and 4, 4'-bis(4-dimethylaminostryryl) or DMASB, for which the trap level, the trap density, and the capture cross section were determined. In addition, it was possible to identify the carrier type (minority and majority) traps in these semiconductors. The results were compared with those obtained in similar materials by other techniques such as conventional DLTS, thermally stimulated currents (TSC), impedance measurements. Q-DLTS appears to be a powerful tool for studying defects in organic semiconductors.

  11. Determining water sensitive urban design project benefits using a multi-criteria assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutiaguer, M; Lloyd, S; Lamshed, S

    2010-01-01

    The integration of urban water cycle management with urban planning and design is referred to as 'Water Sensitive Urban Design' or 'WSUD' in Australia; one of the key elements of WSUD is the management of urban stormwater. In early 2006, the Victorian Government released the Yarra River Action Plan, which allocated $20 million towards tackling urban stormwater pollution. To help ensure this money is allocated in an equitable and transparent manner across all metropolitan local governments a multi-criteria assessment tool has been developed. This paper presents an overview of the multi-criteria assessment tool developed and adopted for selecting WSUD projects that are eligible for funding through Melbourne Water's Stormwater Program. This tool considers three types of indicators: environmental, engagement (engagement with stakeholders and local government capacity building) and financial. Within each category, a series of indicators of different weightings are applied to score a project. Where initial concept designs do not meet the Program criteria, additional work is undertaken to refine and improve the project. The tool and its use are illustrated with a case study.

  12. Localization of rainfall and determination its intensity in the lower layers of the troposphere from the measurements of local RF transmitter characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorský, Dušan; Fabo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article deals with a method of acquiring the temporal and spatial distribution of local precipitation from measurement of performance characteristics of local sources of high frequency electromagnetic radiation in the 1-3GHz frequency range in the lower layers of the troposphere up to 100 m. The method was experimentally proven by monitoring the GSM G2 base stations of cell phone providers in the frequency range of 920-960MHz using methods of frequential and spatial diversity reception. Modification of the SART method for localization of precipitation was also proposed. The achieved results allow us to obtain the timeframe of the intensity of local precipitation in the observed area with a temporal resolution of 10 sec. A spatial accuracy of 100m in localization of precipitation is expected, after a network of receivers is built. The acquired data can be used as one of the inputs for meteorological forecasting models, in agriculture, hydrology as a supplementary method to ombrograph stations and measurements for the weather radar network, in transportation as part of a warning system and in many other areas.

  13. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  14. Assessment of the validity of RTDP application and RAOC operating region determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Rho, Hui Cheon; Phaek, Won Phil; Ha, Sang Joon; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Park, Jae Ook; Kim, Yoon Il; Kim, Soo Hyeong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-15

    The objectives of this work are to assess the validity of the RTDP(Revised Thermal Design Procedure) application in reload thermal design and safety analysis with emphasis on the method of incorporating the DNB(Departure from Nucleate Boiling) degradation problem of the rotated-grid Vantage05H fuel with IFM(V5H/IFM), and to assess the appropriateness of the determination of RAOC(Relaxed Axial Offset Control) operating region, with respect to the fuel reloading of UlChin Units 1 and 2 (UCN 1/2). The scope and contents of this work are summarized as follows : review of the westinghouse' thermal design procedure RTDP, validity assessment of the RTDP application to UCN 1/2 reload design, follow-up of the DNB recovery program for V/5H/IFM, review of the westinghouse' axial offset control method RAOC, validity assessment of the RAOC application to UCN 1/2 operating region determination.

  15. New technologies and surgical innovation: five years of a local health technology assessment program in a surgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Paule; Austen, Lea; Kortbeek, John B; Lafrenière, René

    2012-06-01

    There is pressure for surgical departments to introduce new and innovative health technologies in an evidence-based manner while ensuring that they are safe and effective and can be managed with available resources. A local health technology assessment (HTA) program was developed to systematically integrate research evidence with local operational management information and to make recommendations for subsequent decision by the departmental executive committee about whether and under what conditions the technology will be used. The authors present a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of this program as used by the Department of Surgery & Surgical Services in the Calgary Health Region over a 5-year period from December 2005 to December 2010. Of the 68 technologies requested, 15 applications were incomplete and dropped, 12 were approved, 3 were approved for a single case on an urgent/emergent basis, 21 were approved for "clinical audit" for a restricted number of cases with outcomes review, 14 were approved for research use only, and 3 were referred to additional review bodies. Subsequent outcome reports resulted in at least 5 technologies being dropped for failure to perform. Decisions based on local HTA program recommendations were rarely "yes" or "no." Rather, many technologies were given restricted approval with full approval contingent on satisfying certain conditions such as clinical outcomes review, training protocol development, or funding. Thus, innovation could be supported while ensuring safety and effectiveness. This local HTA program can be adapted to a variety of settings and can help bridge the gap between evidence and practice.

  16. Determining Component Weights in a Communications Assessment Using Judgmental Policy Capturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo M. Harvill, PhD

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Tools are needed for determining appropriate weights for complex performance assessment components in medical education. The feasibility of using judgmental policy capturing (JPC, a procedure to statistically describe the information processing strategies of experts, for this purpose was investigated. Methods: Iterative JPC was used to determine appropriate weighting for the six core communication skill scores from a communications objective structured clinical examination (OSCE for medical students using a panel of four communication skill experts. Results: The mean regression weights from the panel indicated they placed less importance on information management (8.5%, moderate and nearly equal importance on rapport building (15.8%, agenda setting (15.4%, and addressing feelings (14.1%, and greater importance on active listening (20.1% and reaching common ground with the patient (25.5%. Discussion: JPC is an effective procedure for determining appropriate weights for complex clinical assessment components. The derived weights may be very different for those assessment components

  17. Integrity of central nervous function in diabetes mellitus assessed by resting state EEG frequency analysis and source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens B; Graversen, Carina; Brock, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    localization analysis identified sources with reduced activity in the left postcentral gyrus for the gamma band and in right superior parietal lobule for the alpha1 (8-10Hz) band. DM patients with clinical signs of autonomic dysfunction and gastrointestinal symptoms had evidence of altered resting state......Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with structural and functional changes of the central nervous system. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess resting state cortical activity and explored associations to relevant clinical features. Multichannel resting state EEG was recorded in 27...... healthy controls and 24 patients with longstanding DM and signs of autonomic dysfunction. The power distribution based on wavelet analysis was summarized into frequency bands with corresponding topographic mapping. Source localization analysis was applied to explore the electrical cortical sources...

  18. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  19. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-10-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.

  20. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  1. Assessing the Institutional Capacity of External Agencies in Holding Local Government Accountable in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Kakumba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Uganda established external agencies as part of the control mechanisms aimed at promoting accountability in the public sector in general and local governments (LGs in particular. The two cardinal control agencies include the Office of the Auditor General (OAG and the Inspectorate of Government (IG, who are mandated to enhance public service through efficient and effective resource management, ensuring adherence to standards and regulations, and promoting responsiveness to community needs. In spite of these institutional controls, a surge of unbearable events involving abuse of authority and misuse of public resources still exists, suggesting significant managerial and capacity handicaps, not only in the internal mechanisms of LGs, but also in the external control agencies. This paper presents findings of a study conducted to evaluate the institutional capacity of the OAG and the IG in the enhancement of accountability in local governments (LGs in Uganda. The findings demonstrate deficiencies in institutional capacity across the spectrum of financial, human and material resources, as well as the enabling legislation and lack stakeholder support. The scenario is a recipe for encouraging public malfeasance. The paper makes a strong case for strengthening institutional capacity, through improvements in planning, resource facilitation and collaborative relations among the key stakeholders. It is argued that the establishment of a special anti-corruption court could help reduce the delays and provide appropriate corrective measures in support of accountability.

  2. [Transrectal echography in the assessment of anastomosis and local recurrence after prior resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicelli, E; Fusaro, P L; Manganaro, L; Conforti, G; Di Nardo, R; Drudi, F M; Passariello, R

    1993-05-01

    The value of rectal endosonography was investigated in the follow-up of the patients submitted to anterior resection for rectal cancer. Rectal endosonography was performed on 42 patients who had been operated on two months to five years before; all patients were monitored according to a carefully planned follow-up schedule including clinical and instrumental examinations and laboratory tests. Sixteen patients had altered clinical and laboratory data; 26 were completely asymptomatic. In the latter group, no signs of local recurrences were found, while in 4 cases the rectal wall appeared homogeneously thickened and hypoechoic: this pattern was due to postoperative or post-irradiation hyperemic-edematous phenomena. In 14 of 16 symptomatic patients, a mass was detected--in 9 of them inhomogeneous and hypoechoic and developing mainly in the perirectal perianastomotic tissue and in 5 limited to the rectal wall, in the anastomotic area. In the last 2 cases, no lesions were found. Both the manual and the stapler anastomoses were always demonstrated, which exhibited different US patterns. US findings were compared with histologic results or were clinically checked in the subsequent follow-up. To conclude, rectal endosonography proved to be useful in the postoperative follow-up of this kind of patients even though it did not allow the differential diagnosis between fibrosis and local recurrence.

  3. Assessment of frontal sinus dimensions to determine sexual dimorphism among Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Belaldavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex identification of unknown individuals is important in forensic sciences. At times when only skull remains are found and other means of identification fails, radiographs of frontal sinus can be used for identification. Frontal sinus morphology is unique to individual and can be used effectively in person identification; whereas its use in determining sexual dimorphism is limited. Aim: To determine sexual dimorphism among Indians by evaluating frontal sinus pattern using postero-anterior radiograph. Materials and Methods: The right and left areas, maximum height and width of frontal sinus were determined in 300 digital postero-anterior view radiographs obtained from 150 males and 150 females aged between 18-30 years. The measurements were carried out by transferring the image to Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 extended. Comparison of values were done using student′s t-test and accuracy of sex determination was assessed through Logistic regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and forty seven males and 142 females show presence of frontal sinus with seven individuals showing unilateral/bilateral absence of frontal sinuses. The mean values of the frontal sinus height, width and area are greater in males. Right frontal sinus is larger than the left sinus in both the sex. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gives an average concordance index for sex determination of 64.6%. Thus, frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination among Indian population. This may be due to its greater variation in morphology.

  4. Structural durability assessment of welded offshore K-nodes by different local design concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Sonsino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The structural durability design of complex welded structures should not rely only on one single design method but should apply different methods for assuring the reliability of the assessment. In this context the application of the structural stress concept, notch stress concept and crack propagation concept are discussed through the example of K-nodes used in energetic offshore constructions like oil platforms or windpower plants, presenting the state of the art.

  5. Modeling platform for integrated assessment of intervention propolsals in localities : case study, Medellin Metropolitan Area (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive framework for conceptual, methodological and instrumental contribution to urban intervention planning and public policy design. For a Latin American case study, a prospective multi-methodology modeling platform was developed to support the novel proposed approaches for intervention assessment, as well as to establish a knowledge building dynamic for planners using multidisciplinary discussion and, most importantly, paradigm confrontation and change. ...

  6. Localized landslide risk assessment with multi pass L band DInSAR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, HyeWon; Rack Kim, Jung; Lin, Shih-Yuan; Choi, YunSoo

    2014-05-01

    In terms of data availability and error correction, landslide forecasting by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) analysis is not easy task. Especially, the landslides by the anthropogenic construction activities frequently occurred in the localized cutting side of mountainous area. In such circumstances, it is difficult to attain sufficient enough accuracy because of the external factors inducing the error component in electromagnetic wave propagation. For instance, the local climate characteristics such as orographic effect and the proximity to water source can produce the significant anomalies in the water vapor distribution and consequently result in the error components of InSAR phase angle measurements. Moreover the high altitude parts of target area cause the stratified tropospheric delay error in DInSAR measurement. The other obstacle in DInSAR observation over the potential landside site is the vegetation canopy which causes the decorrelation of InSAR phase. Thus rather than C band sensor such as ENVISAT, ERS and RADARSAT, DInSAR analysis with L band ALOS PLASAR is more recommendable. Together with the introduction of L band DInSAR analysis, the improved DInSAR technique to cope all above obstacles is necessary. Thus we employed two approaches i.e. StaMPS/MTI (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers/Multi-Temporal InSAR, Hopper et al., 2007) which was newly developed for extracting the reliable deformation values through time series analysis and two pass DInSAR with the error term compensation based on the external weather information in this study. Since the water vapor observation from spaceborne radiometer is not feasible by the temporal gap in this case, the quantities from weather Research Forecasting (WRF) with 1 km spatial resolution was used to address the atmospheric phase error in two pass DInSAR analysis. Also it was observed that base DEM offset with time dependent perpendicular baselines of InSAR time series produce a significant error

  7. The Geography of Justice: Assessing Local Justice in Colombia’s Post-Conflict Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio García-Villegas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article combines descriptive empirical research with theoretical reflections to offer policy guidelines on what the role of local justice institutions in Colombia’s post-conflict phase should be. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we present empirical evidence to illustrate the ways in which justice operates differently across the territory. In addition to illustrating these disparities, we also demonstrate the connection between these disparities and some phenomena relevant to understanding the Colombian conflict. Based on these findings, the second part of this article defines the state-building challenge confronted by the Colombian State during the post-conflict phase. Following this part, we propose a solution to this state-building challenge: the State must adopt a combination of efficacy and justice, and we provide guidelines on how a post-conflict justice system can operate to achieve that combination.

  8. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  9. Impact assessment and coastal climate change adaptation in a local transdisciplinary perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, N. H.; Knudsen, Per

    , private and public institutions, and the local communities provides: understanding of the immediate and potential future challenges; appreciation of different stakeholder motives, business agendas, legislative constraints etc., and common focus on how to cost-efficiently adapt to and manage impacts...... of climate change. The platform is dynamically updated with additional data and knowledge, e.g. from climate change evidence, or, by provision of updated regional models of future sea level rise. In order to integrate natural hazards and impact development over time, models on hydrology, geology...... to map vulnerability and risk, and strategies for community engagement and capacity-building are included. The initial bias towards the natural sciences, to a large extent dictated by technical stakeholder focus and data availability, is gradually balanced as especially economics and social sciences take...

  10. 42 CFR 423.760 - Determinations regarding the amount of civil money penalties and assessment imposed by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... penalties and assessment imposed by CMS. 423.760 Section 423.760 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... penalties and assessment imposed by CMS. (a) Determining the appropriate amount of any penalty. In determining the amount of penalty imposed under 423.752(c)(1), CMS will consider as appropriate: (1)...

  11. 42 CFR 422.760 - Determinations regarding the amount of civil money penalties and assessment imposed by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... penalties and assessment imposed by CMS. 422.760 Section 422.760 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... assessment imposed by CMS. (a) Determining the appropriate amount of any penalty. In determining the amount of penalty imposed under 422.752(c)(1), CMS will consider as appropriate: (1) The nature of...

  12. Oxygen mass transfer and hydrodynamic behaviour in wastewater: determination of local impact of surfactants by visualization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Mélanie; Dietrich, Nicolas; Grace, John R; Hébrard, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Powerful techniques, based on the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, are deployed to locally visualize and quantify the impact of surfactants in wastewaters on hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer. Bubble diameter, aspect ratio, rise velocity, contamination angle, as well as flux, flux density, liquid side mass transfer and diffusion coefficients of transferred oxygen are determined based on these techniques applied in the wake of rising bubbles of diameter 1 mm and through planar gas/liquid interfaces. The initial experiments were performed in demineralized water containing small amounts of surfactant. Different concentrations of surfactant were added to finally reach the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). Bubbles have classically been found to be more spherical with a reduced rise velocity in the presence of surfactants up to the CMC. Above the CMC, these hydrodynamic characteristics were found to be almost constant, although the oxygen mass transfer decreased due to the presence of surfactants. Experimental results were markedly lower than predicted by the well-known Frössling equation with rigid surfaces. This is believed to be caused by a barrier of surfactants hindering the oxygen mass transfer at the interface. Similar hindrance of oxygen mass transfer applies to waters from sewage plants (filtered raw water and treated water), making accurate design of aeration tanks difficult.

  13. Separating Hazardous Aerosols from Ambient Aerosols: Role of Fluorescence-Spectral Determination, Aerodynamic Deflector and Pulse Aerodynamic Localizer (PAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Cobler, Patrick J.; Rhodes, Scott A.; Halverson, Justin; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-08-22

    An aerosol deflection technique based on the single-shot UV-laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from a flowing particle is presented as a possible front-end bio-aerosol/hazardous-aerosol sensor/identifier. Cued by the fluorescence spectra, individual flowing bio-aerosol particles (1-10 {micro}m in diameter) have been successfully deflected from a stream of ambient aerosols. The electronics needed to compare the fluorescence spectrum of a particular particle with that of a pre-determined fluorescence spectrum are presented in some detail. The deflected particles, with and without going through a funnel for pulse aerodynamic localization (PAL), were collected onto a substrate for further analyses. To demonstrate how hazardous materials can be deflected, TbCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O (a simulant material for some chemical forms of Uranium Oxide) aerosol particles (2 {micro}m in diameter) mixed with Arizona road dust was separated and deflected with our system.

  14. Local structure of Ca(2+) induced hydrogels of alginate-oligoguluronate blends determined by small-angle-X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ami; Padoł, Anna Maria; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2016-11-01

    Short oligoguluronates, oligoG's, are reported to affect the ionotropic gelation of alginates both with respect to altered gelation kinetics and elastic properties of the resulting gels. The local structure of Ca(2+) induced changes in oligoguluronates and blends of oligoguluronates and alginates was determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calcium was introduced in the aqueous polysaccharide solutions by in situ release of Ca(2+) from Ca-EGTA. The scattering profiles of the Ca(2+)-induced structures in the alginate-oligoG blends were accounted for by a two-component broken rod-like model, also with an additional term representing structural inhomogeneity by a Debye-Bueche term. Adding oligoG to the alginate yields an increase in the largest cross-sectional radius in the region of fractional Ca(2+) saturation of α-l-GulA units from 0.5 to 1. The time-lapse characterization during the Ca-induced changes in the alginate-oligoG blends shows that oligoG delays the emergence of the more extensive laterally aggregated junction zones.

  15. Analysis of wastewater as a new approach to determine the amount of drugs intake by local communities. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Boroń

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis of wastewater in terms of the amount of illegal drugs and their metabolites is a modern method of research, which is considered to be an objective and effective way to determine the amount of substances taken and excreted by humans. The results obtained in a real time allow for a quick identification of the quantitative and qualitative changes of the drugs intake. Such approach allows to estimate the daily intake of the drug by the local communities in terms of cities, countries and even the continent. Most often the estimation refers to the intake of the following drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis. The wastewater`s monitoring provides information on the dynamics of the drug level changes depending on the weekday, and the general trend in a year. Retrospective estimation of drug intake carries errors, dependent from sampling, sewer system tightness, the stability of the analytes and mixtures of the wastewater itself but remains objective by providing very valuable information for the institutions struggling with drug crime.

  16. Generalized Fragility Relationships with Local Site Conditions for Probabilistic Performance-based Seismic Risk Assessment of Bridge Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivathayalan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of detailed seismic risk assessment cannot be easily applied to all the bridges in a large transportation networks due to limited resources. This paper presents a new approach for seismic risk assessment of large bridge inventories in a city or national bridge network based on the framework of probabilistic performance based seismic risk assessment. To account for the influences of local site effects, a procedure to generate site-specific hazard curves that includes seismic hazard microzonation information has been developed for seismic risk assessment of bridge inventories. Simulated ground motions compatible with the site specific seismic hazard are used as input excitations in nonlinear time history analysis of representative bridges for calibration. A normalizing procedure to obtain generalized fragility relationships in terms of structural characteristic parameters of bridge span and size and longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios is presented. The seismic risk of bridges in a large inventory can then be easily evaluated using the normalized fragility relationships without the requirement of carrying out detailed nonlinear time history analysis.

  17. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization.

  18. Preparation of Cells for Assessing Ultrastructural Localization of Nanoparticles with Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    300 mesh (EM Sciences, cat. no. FCF300-Cu)  crItIcal It is important to have a supporting film on grids for thin cell sections that are delicate...support film such as formvar/carbon), being careful to avoid the cutting edge of the knife. 39| Transfer sections by capillary action with a loop by... dopamine depletion. J. Tox. Sci. 92, 456–463 (2006). 8. Skebo, J.E., Grabinski, C.M., Schrand, A.M., Schlager, J.J. & Hussain, S.M. Assessment of metal

  19. Determination of the Support Level of Local Organizations in a Model Forest Initiative: Do Local Stakeholders Have Willingness to Be Involved in the Model Forest Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the theme of this study. Within this scope, the views of the stakeholders comprising local government units (LGUs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, village councils (VCs, professional organizations (POs and forest products enterprises (FPEs located in the district of Bucak were collected by utilizing a survey technique. The data were analysed by using non-parametric statistical analyses due to the absence of a normal distribution. The results show that the information provided about the Model Forest concept to the stakeholders located in the district on the Bucak Model Forest initiative was identified as a factor impacting the support level. Moreover, it was also observed that the stakeholders were more willing to provide advisory support rather than financial support. NGOs and VCs were identified as stakeholders who could not provide financial support due to their restricted budgets. We discuss the benefits for a Model Forest initiative of establishing international cooperation to strengthen the local and regional sustainable development process.

  20. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  1. Reduced-Reference Quality Assessment Based on the Entropy of DWT Coefficients of Locally Weighted Gradient Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestaneh, S Alireza; Karam, Lina

    2016-08-24

    Perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) attempts to use computational models to estimate the image quality in accordance with subjective evaluations. Reduced-reference (RR) image quality assessment (IQA) methods make use of partial information or features extracted from the reference image for estimating the quality of distorted images. Finding a balance between the number of RR features and accuracy of the estimated image quality is essential and important in IQA. In this paper we propose a training-free low-cost RRIQA method that requires a very small number of RR features (6 RR features). The proposed RRIQA algorithm is based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of locally weighted gradient magnitudes.We apply human visual system's contrast sensitivity and neighborhood gradient information to weight the gradient magnitudes in a locally adaptive manner. The RR features are computed by measuring the entropy of each DWT subband, for each scale, and pooling the subband entropies along all orientations, resulting in L RR features (one average entropy per scale) for an L-level DWT. Extensive experiments performed on seven large-scale benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed RRIQA method delivers highly competitive performance as compared to the state-of-the-art RRIQA models as well as full reference ones for both natural and texture images. The MATLAB source code of REDLOG and the evaluation results are publicly available online at https://http://lab.engineering.asu.edu/ivulab/software/redlog/.

  2. Development of a locally advanced orthotopic prostate tumor model in rats for assessment of combined modality therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Vasu; Mathur, Sanjeev; Song, Kwang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Zhao, Dawen; Takahashi, Masaya; Dobin, Timothy; Gandee, Leah; Solberg, Timothy D; Habib, Amyn A; Saha, Debabrata

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an aggressive locally advanced orthotopic prostate cancer model for assessing high-dose image-guided radiation therapy combined with biological agents. For this study, we used a modified human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line, PC3, in which we knocked down a tumor suppressor protein, DAB2IP (PC3‑KD). These prostate cancer cells were implanted into the prostate of nude or Copenhagen rats using either open surgical implantation or a minimally invasive procedure under ultrasound guidance. We report that: i) these DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells form a single focus of locally advanced aggressive tumors in both nude and Copenhagen rats; ii) the resulting tumors are highly aggressive and are poorly controlled after treatment with radiation alone; iii) ultrasound-guided tumor cell implantation can be used successfully for tumor development in the rat prostate; iv) precise measurement of the tumor volume and the treatment planning for radiation therapy can be obtained from ultrasound and MRI, respectively; and v) the use of a fiducial marker for enhanced radiotherapy localization in the rat orthotopic tumor. This model recapitulates radiation-resistant prostate cancers which can be used to demonstrate and quantify therapeutic response to combined modality treatments.

  3. An artifacts removal post-processing for epiphyseal region-of-interest (EROI localization in automated bone age assessment (BAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Sh-Hussain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmentation is the most crucial part in the computer-aided bone age assessment. A well-known type of segmentation performed in the system is adaptive segmentation. While providing better result than global thresholding method, the adaptive segmentation produces a lot of unwanted noise that could affect the latter process of epiphysis extraction. Methods A proposed method with anisotropic diffusion as pre-processing and a novel Bounded Area Elimination (BAE post-processing algorithm to improve the algorithm of ossification site localization technique are designed with the intent of improving the adaptive segmentation result and the region-of interest (ROI localization accuracy. Results The results are then evaluated by quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis using texture feature evaluation. The result indicates that the image homogeneity after anisotropic diffusion has improved averagely on each age group for 17.59%. Results of experiments showed that the smoothness has been improved averagely 35% after BAE algorithm and the improvement of ROI localization has improved for averagely 8.19%. The MSSIM has improved averagely 10.49% after performing the BAE algorithm on the adaptive segmented hand radiograph. Conclusions The result indicated that hand radiographs which have undergone anisotropic diffusion have greatly reduced the noise in the segmented image and the result as well indicated that the BAE algorithm proposed is capable of removing the artifacts generated in adaptive segmentation.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HYDROLOGICAL MODELS IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sojka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibility of application of the hydrological model HEC-HMS in the development of a strategic environmental assessment of local spatial development plans on surface water. The practical possibility of using simulation models of catchment response to high intensity precipitation is shown on the example of the Różany Potok watercourse catchment which is subject to rapid urbanization process. The area of Różany Potok catchment is 8.1 km2 and a stream length is 5.57 km. In the years 1992–2012 there was a significant increase in impervious areas in the catchment of about 5.2 to 16%. In addition, new local spatial development plans are prepared within the catchment area. The implementation of their records may contribute to the increase in the proportion of impervious areas to over 20%. The increase in the share of impervious areas in the catchment area and traditional approach of precipitation water management can lead to doubling flood flows and increase the risk of local flooding.

  5. Glutamine transaminase K intranephron localization in rats determined by urinary excretion after treatment with segment-specific nephrotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, A.; Fanelli, G.; Bicciato, F.; Stocco, E. [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Univ. of Padova (Italy); Cristofori, P. [Medicine Safety Evaluation, Pathology Department, GlaxoWellcome S.p.A., Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamine transaminase K(GTK) excretion assessed in urine and by kidney histology was evaluated in rats after single treatment with 1.0 mg/kg i.p. of mercuric chloride, 100 mg/kg i.p. of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (both S{sub 3}, pars recta, segment-specific nephrotoxicants) and 25 mg/kg s.c. of potassium dichromate (S{sub 1}-S{sub 2}, pars convoluta, segment-specific nephrotoxicant). The aim was to correlate segment-specific injury and enzyme excretion in order to assess, using non-vasive methods, localization of GTK along the proximal tubule. Mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene produced early focal damage in the pars recta (focal necrosis was shown 10 h after treatment, and diffuse necrosis appeared later at 34 and 24 h after treatment). Changes of the pars convoluta were occasional and delayed (72 h after treatment for both substances). On the contrary, potassium dichromate induced damage of the pars convoluta (vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis were evident 24 h and 48 h after treatment, respectively), whereas the pars recta was affected later (focal vacuolar degeneration was observed 72 h after treatment). Increase urinary GTK excretion was early after treatment with mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (significant increase was observed within 10 h), with a peak for both substances 24 h after treatment, in agreement with the necrosis of the pars recta. Potassium dichromate induced a significant increase of enzyme excretion in urine also 24 h after injection, according to histological features showing vacuolar degeneration of the pars convoluta; the peak of excretion was reached 48 h after treatment (delay was due, probably, to s.c. administration). The results show that GTK increased in urine after treatment with S{sub 3}and S {sub 1}-S {sub 2} specific nephrotoxicants; the combination of histological examination and urinary enzyme supports the evidence that the enzyme is distributed along the whole of the proximal tubule. (orig

  6. Prognostic assessment of stable coronary artery disease as determined by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene H; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the 3.5 year prognosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in real-world clinical practice, overall and within subgroups of patients according to age, sex, and comorbidity. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cohort study i......, and comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease determined by CCTA in real-world practice predicts the 3.5 year composite risk of late revascularization, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death across different groups of age, sex, or comorbidity burden.......AIMS: To examine the 3.5 year prognosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in real-world clinical practice, overall and within subgroups of patients according to age, sex, and comorbidity. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cohort study...

  7. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  8. Seismic risk assessment at local level taking into account possible technological accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Seismic safety of population and urban territories is one of the most complicated problems of seismology and earthquake engineering worldwide. It is especially vital for the earthquake prone regions with high level of seismicity and high density of population. The paper contains the results of the recent study that was done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Extreme Situations Research Center and "Rosstrojizyskaniya" Ltd aimed at verification of engineering geological conditions, updating of previous map of seismic microzonation and seismic risk assessment for the Sochi City territory. The City is located in the Krasnodar area, which is characterized by a high density population and a rather high level of seismic hazard. According to maps of review seismic zoning of the Russian Federation territory, earthquakes with intensities I = 6-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur here. The City territory is located along the Black Sea shore and characterized by different level potential of landslides, mudflow, erosion and other geological hazardous processes. The Imeretinskaya valley, where future Olympic Games' facilities are under construction, are located within the marine terrace composed predominantly by gravel-pebble deposits with sand and clay with thickness more than 30 m; the bedrock at the depth of about 70 -90 m, the groundwater level encountered at depths of 0.2-4 m from the surface. According to recent seismic risk assessment at regional level for more that 60% of the Krasnodar area territory, the values of seismic risk computed taking into account the secondary technological accidents exceed the value of 1.0×10-5 1/year. Regional estimation of risk obtained for the Sochi City is equal to 35.0×10-5; contribution of technological risk to seismic one is about 5.0×10-5. The work is under way within the Russian Federal Program "Development of the Sochi City as a mountain resort in 2006 - 2014". The paper will present the results

  9. Integration of remote sensing datasets for local scale assessment and prediction of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet E; Abbas, Sawaid

    2015-02-01

    Recent attempts to integrate remote sensing-based drought indices with precipitation data seem promising, and can compensate for potential uncertainties from image-based parameters alone, which may be unrelated to meteorological drought. However most remote sensing-based studies have been at regional or global scale and have not considered differences between different land cover types. This study examines a drought-prone region in Central Yunnan Province of China over a four-year period including a notable severe drought event in 2010. The study investigates the phase relationships between meteorological drought from image-based rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), and imaged drought from a remote sensing drought index, the Normalised Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI) for different land cover types at local scale. The land cover types derived from MODIS and Landsat images were resampled to 250 m to match all datasets used. Significant differences between cover types are observed, with cropland and shrubland most highly correlated with 64 days' earlier rainfall and evergreen forest most responsive to rainfall 90 days earlier, indicating a need to consider detailed land cover information for accurate integrated drought indices. The finding that concurrent rainfall is only weakly correlated with observed drought, suggests that existing drought indices, which compute lowest weightings for the most distant lag period would be unrepresentative.

  10. Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by the resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with collocated sources of variable slip on the Hikurangi subduction interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay in New Zealand and investigated the tsunami effects on the cities of Napier and Gisborne. Rupture complexity was found to have a first-order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for local tsunami sources. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface in tsunami models can underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an Mw 8.7 to Mw 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area that could potentially be inundated by equivalent nonuniform slip events of Mw 8.4. Deaggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose two predictors for inundation severity based on the offshore tsunami wavefield using the linear wave equations in an attempt to keep costly simulations of full inundation to a minimum.

  11. An Assessment on the Production of Abrasive Sandpaper from Locally Sourced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Obot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of abrasive sandpaper made from two locally sourced and easily available materials, periwinkle and palm kernel shells was carried out to evaluate their viability as replacements for foreign imported abrasives sandpaper. Composites of crushed shells with polyester resin bond were developed separately for the periwinkle and palm kernel shell samples using mould compression, and the sandpaper prototype was produced using hand-spray method. A study on the physico-mechanical properties of the produced composite carried out was found that at 12 wt.% content of resin, periwinkle shell (PWS/resin composites had higher physico-mechanical properties such as density with 77.74 % difference, hardness with 17.13 % difference and compressive strength with 182.42 % difference over the palm kernel shell-resin composites. Water absorption for palm kernel (PKS shell/resin composite was a 186.59 % difference over the PWS/resin composite. Surface morphology using SEM revealed PWS/resin composite to have less distortional effects on the grains from compressive force of 15.7 N/mm2 applied compared to the palm kernel shell grains, and also shows PWS grains held together in close packing by the resin bond. The concentration used for sandpaper production was 87 wt.% of periwinkle shell grains to 12 wt.% of resin. The obtained physical and mechanical properties were compared to garnet sandpaper and found to be close to acceptable standards.

  12. Assessment of PIV-based unsteady load determination of an airfoil with actuated flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterenborg, J. J. H. M.; Lindeboom, R. C. J.; Simão Ferreira, C. J.; van Zuijlen, A. H.; Bijl, H.

    2014-02-01

    For complex experimental setups involving movable structures it is not trivial to directly measure unsteady loads. An alternative is to deduce unsteady loads indirectly from measured velocity fields using Noca's method. The ultimate aim is to use this method in future work to determine unsteady loads for fluid-structure interaction problems. The focus in this paper is first on the application and assessment of Noca's method for an airfoil with an oscillating trailing edge flap. To our best knowledge Noca's method has not been applied yet to airfoils with moving control surfaces or fluid-structure interaction problems. In addition, wind tunnel corrections for this type of unsteady flow problem are considered.

  13. Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rençber, Seda; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Yılmaz, Fethiye Ferda; Eraç, Bayri; Nenni, Merve; Özbal, Seda; Pekçetin, Çetin; Gurer-Orhan, Hande; Hoşgör-Limoncu, Mine; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP) formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS), polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Besides, evaluation of the antifungal effect of the optimum formulation was evaluated using agar diffusion method, fungicidal activity-related in vitro release study, and time-dependent fungicidal activity. The effect of the optimum NP formulation on the healing of oral candidiasis was investigated in an animal model, which was employed for the first time in this study. The zeta potential, mucoadhesion, and in vitro drug release studies of various NP formulations revealed that chitosan-coated NP formulation containing EUDRAGIT(®) RS 2.5% had superior properties than other formulations. Concerning the stability study of the selected formulation, the formulation was found to be stable for 6 months. During the ex vivo drug diffusion study, no drug was found in receptor phase, and this is an indication of local effect. The in vitro antifungal activity studies showed the in vitro efficacy of the NP against Candida albicans for an extended period. Also, the formulation had no cytotoxic effect at the tested concentration. For the in vivo experiments, infected rabbits were successfully treated with local administration of the optimum NP formulation once a day. This study has shown that the mucoadhesive NP formulation containing fluconazole is a promising candidate with once-a-day application for the local treatment of oral candidiasis.

  14. Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rençber, Seda; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Yılmaz, Fethiye Ferda; Eraç, Bayri; Nenni, Merve; Özbal, Seda; Pekçetin, Çetin; Gurer-Orhan, Hande; Hoşgör-Limoncu, Mine; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP) formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS), polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Besides, evaluation of the antifungal effect of the optimum formulation was evaluated using agar diffusion method, fungicidal activity-related in vitro release study, and time-dependent fungicidal activity. The effect of the optimum NP formulation on the healing of oral candidiasis was investigated in an animal model, which was employed for the first time in this study. The zeta potential, mucoadhesion, and in vitro drug release studies of various NP formulations revealed that chitosan-coated NP formulation containing EUDRAGIT® RS 2.5% had superior properties than other formulations. Concerning the stability study of the selected formulation, the formulation was found to be stable for 6 months. During the ex vivo drug diffusion study, no drug was found in receptor phase, and this is an indication of local effect. The in vitro antifungal activity studies showed the in vitro efficacy of the NP against Candida albicans for an extended period. Also, the formulation had no cytotoxic effect at the tested concentration. For the in vivo experiments, infected rabbits were successfully treated with local administration of the optimum NP formulation once a day. This study has shown that the mucoadhesive NP formulation containing fluconazole is a promising candidate with once-a-day application for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27358561

  15. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  16. An Assessment of Records Management Practice in Selected Local Government Councils in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare, Abdullahi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What government does/fails to do is conveyed to the public largely by records and information of various types in the public service, without which there will be no government. When records are poorly managed, much time is involved in sorting and locating needed information from large volumes of records. The rate of records misplaced or lost from which useful information for decision making is usually obtained makes it difficult to provide concise and up-to-date records of both past and present operations, raising the challenge of effective record-keeping. Thus this study examined records management practices in selected local government councils in Ogun State, Nigeria, adopting the descriptive survey research method using questionnaires for data collection. Its population comprised 415 records of personnel in the selected councils, of which 208 were sampled using simple random technique. From the 208 copies of the questionnaire administered on the registry personnel, 150 copies were useable, with a 72.12% response rate. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. The results indicated a prevalence of paper as the dominant medium for recording/conveying information in the councils with most of these being either in active state, semi-active, and vital and were kept and maintained in the registry, while in-active records were kept in the records store. Storage facilities for record-keeping were insufficient. Security measures against unauthorized access to records were by restrictions and subject users to managerial clearance. The study concluded that council records were in chaos and recommended the formulation of coherent records management policy, adequate budgetary provision, and adequate finance.

  17. An integrated system for the determination of the local, regional and long-transport contributions to Particulate Matter concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Daresta, B. E.; de Gennaro, G.; di Gilio, A.; Ielpo, P.,; Placentino, C. M.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M.

    2010-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the negative effects of air pollution on human health, which range from respiratory and cardiovascular disease to neurotoxic effects, and cancer. Most recent investigations have been focused on health toxicological features of Particulate Matter (PM) and its interactions with other pollutants: it was found that fine particles (PM2.5) could be an effective media to transport these pollutants deeply into the lung and to cause many kind of reactions which include oxidative stress, local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses (Künzli and Perez, 2009). Based on these implications on public health, many countries have developed plans to suggest effective control strategies which involve the identification of Particulate Matter sources, the quantitative estimation of the emission rates of the pollutants, the understanding of PM transport, mixing and transformation processes and the identification of main factors influencing PM concentrations. In this field, receptor models can be useful tools to estimate sources contributions to PM collected in an area under investigations. Different approaches to receptor model analysis can be distinguished on basis of whether chemical characteristics of emission sources are required to be known before the source apportionment. The multivariate approach could be preferred when a lack of information concerning sources profiles occurred (Hopke, 2003). In this work, the results obtained by applying an integrated approach in the monitoring of PM using several typologies of instrumentations will be shown. A prototype for the determination of the contributions of a single source (‘fugitive emission') on the fine PM concentrations has been developed: it consists of a Swam dual-channel sampler, an OPC Monitor, a sonic anemometer and a PBL Mixing monitor. The investigated site chosen for the application of prototype will be the iron and steel pole of Taranto (Apulia Region, South of Italy

  18. Gender Differences in Musculoskeletal Lipid Metabolism as Assessed by Localized Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendhil Velan; Department of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in lipid metabolism are poorly understood and difficult to study using conventional approaches. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS permits non-invasive investigation of lipid metabolism. We employed novel two- dimensional MRS techniques to quantify intramyocellular (IMCL and extramyocellular (EMCL lipid compartments and their degree of unsaturation in normal weight adult male and female subjects. Using muscle creatine (Cr for normalization, a statistically significant (p 0.05 increase in IMCL/Cr (7.8 ± 1.6 and EMCL/Cr (22.5 ± 3.6 for female subjects was observed (n = 8, as compared to IMCL/Cr (5.9 ± 1.7 and EMCL/Cr (18.4 ± 2.64 for male subjects. The degree of unsaturation within IMCL and EMCL was lower in female subjects, 1.3 ± 0.075 and 1.04 ± 0.06, respectively, as compared to that observed in males (n = 8, 1.5 ± 0.08 and 1.12 ± 0.03, respectively (p 0.05 male vs female for both comparisons. We conclude that certain salient gender differences in lipid metabolism can be assessed noninvasively by advanced MRS approaches.

  19. Marketing prospect and assessment for local manufacture of wind converters in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakpahan, S.; Utami, N.S.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Indonesia provide opportunities to improve the delivery of electricity consumption for small and medium scale applications particularly for rural and remote areas and will be developed as the part of national rural electrification programs. By proper selection of design, this kind of energy source has shown to be a technically proven and affordable means of providing electricity at those areas. The promotion of WECS technology have been initiated in Indonesia by establishing some pilot projects at selected areas while in commercialization efforts, several private companies are now being involved. Dissemination of WECS technology should be based on proper selection of WECS types including economic consideration and marketing programs; for obtaining this, manufacturing of some WECS components / parts have been initiating using available materials and components; while other components that`s still not producible in Indonesia will be produced by cooperation with industry. In addition, wind resource assessments will be extended sustainably in order to identify more potential areas and locations. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  20. An assessment of the impact of local processes on dust lifting in martian climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, David P.; Spiga, Aymeric; Listowski, Constantino; Read, Peter L.

    2015-05-01

    Simulation of the lifting of dust from the planetary surface is of substantially greater importance on Mars than on Earth, due to the fundamental role that atmospheric dust plays in the former's climate, yet the dust emission parameterisations used to date in martian global climate models (MGCMs) lag, understandably, behind their terrestrial counterparts in terms of sophistication. Recent developments in estimating surface roughness length over all martian terrains and in modelling atmospheric circulations at regional to local scales (less than O(100 km)) presents an opportunity to formulate an improved wind stress lifting parameterisation. We have upgraded the conventional scheme by including the spatially varying roughness length in the lifting parameterisation in a fully consistent manner (thereby correcting a possible underestimation of the true threshold level for wind stress lifting), and used a modification to account for deviations from neutral stability in the surface layer. Following these improvements, it is found that wind speeds at typical MGCM resolution never reach the lifting threshold at most gridpoints: winds fall particularly short in the southern midlatitudes, where mean roughness is large. Sub-grid scale variability, manifested in both the near-surface wind field and the surface roughness, is then considered, and is found to be a crucial means of bridging the gap between model winds and thresholds. Both forms of small-scale variability contribute to the formation of dust emission 'hotspots': areas within the model gridbox with particularly favourable conditions for lifting, namely a smooth surface combined with strong near-surface gusts. Such small-scale emission could in fact be particularly influential on Mars, due both to the intense positive radiative feedbacks that can drive storm growth and a strong hysteresis effect on saltation. By modelling this variability, dust lifting is predicted at the locations at which dust storms are frequently

  1. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  2. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada); Redekop, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: dredekop@tesla.cc.uottawa.ca

    2005-03-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading.

  3. Mucosal/submucosal blood flow in the small intestine in pigs determined by local washout of 133Xe and microsphere techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Olsen, J; Sejrsen, P

    1990-01-01

    In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal and submucosal blood flow rate in the small intestine of the pig was determined by a local application of 133Xe and by 6.5-microns radioactive microspheres. The 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed a multiexp......In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal and submucosal blood flow rate in the small intestine of the pig was determined by a local application of 133Xe and by 6.5-microns radioactive microspheres. The 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed...

  4. Development of the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process for Determining Environmental Flows for New Jersey Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Henriksen, James A.; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The natural flow regime paradigm and parallel stream ecological concepts and theories have established the benefits of maintaining or restoring the full range of natural hydrologic variation for physiochemical processes, biodiversity, and the evolutionary potential of aquatic and riparian communities. A synthesis of recent advances in hydroecological research coupled with stream classification has resulted in a new process to determine environmental flows and assess hydrologic alteration. This process has national and international applicability. It allows classification of streams into hydrologic stream classes and identification of a set of non-redundant and ecologically relevant hydrologic indices for 10 critical sub-components of flow. Three computer programs have been developed for implementing the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process (HIP): (1) the Hydrologic Indices Tool (HIT), which calculates 171 ecologically relevant hydrologic indices on the basis of daily-flow and peak-flow stream-gage data; (2) the New Jersey Hydrologic Assessment Tool (NJHAT), which can be used to establish a hydrologic baseline period, provide options for setting baseline environmental-flow standards, and compare past and proposed streamflow alterations; and (3) the New Jersey Stream Classification Tool (NJSCT), designed for placing unclassified streams into pre-defined stream classes. Biological and multivariate response models including principal-component, cluster, and discriminant-function analyses aided in the development of software and implementation of the HIP for New Jersey. A pilot effort is currently underway by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in which the HIP is being used to evaluate the effects of past and proposed surface-water use, ground-water extraction, and land-use changes on stream ecosystems while determining the most effective way to integrate the process into ongoing regulatory programs. Ultimately, this scientifically defensible

  5. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    extirpation for a local population may rapidly increase with only minimal increases in wind mortality. Conservation biologists and wildlife managers may need to consider this mortality pattern when issuing take permits and developing monitoring protocols for wind facilities. We also describe how our branching process models may be generalized across a wider range of species for a larger assessment project and then describe how our methods may be applied to other stressors in addition to wind.

  6. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I’ (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I’ (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database. PMID:26816459

  7. External quality assessment for the determination of diphtheria antitoxin in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovine, Paolo; Pinto, Antonella; Olander, Rose-Marie; Sesardic, Dorothea; Stickings, Paul; Berbers, Guy; Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla; Paberza, Ruta; Dauksiene, Snieguole; Bujko, Marina; Detcheva, Antoaneta; Joks, Unna; Levent, Belkis; von Hunolstein, Christina

    2010-08-01

    Accurate determination of diphtheria toxin antibodies is of value in determining the rates of immunity within broad populations or the immune status of individuals who may be at risk of infection, by assessing responses to vaccination and immunization schedule efficacy. Here we report the results of an external quality assessment (EQA) study for diphtheria serology, performed within the dedicated surveillance network DIPNET. Twelve national laboratories from 11 European countries participated by testing a standard panel of 150 sera using their current routine method: Vero cell neutralization test (NT), double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; DAE), dual double-antigen time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (dDA-DELFIA), passive hemagglutination assay (PHA), toxin binding inhibition assay (ToBI), and in-house or commercial ELISAs. The objective of the study was not to identify the best assay, as the advantages and drawbacks of methods used were known, but to verify if laboratories using their routine method would have categorized (as negative, equivocal, or positive) a serum sample in the same way. The performance of each laboratory was determined by comparing its results on a quantitative and qualitative basis to NT results from a single reference laboratory, as this test is considered the in vitro "gold standard." The performance of laboratories using NT was generally very good, while the laboratories' performance using other in vitro methods was variable. Laboratories using ELISA and PHA performed less well than those using DAE, dDA-DELFIA, or ToBI. EQA is important for both laboratories that use in vitro nonstandardized methods and those that use commercial ELISA kits.

  8. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils.

  9. Establishing the Basis for a Multi-Purpose Local Labor Market Information System: Assessment of User Need and Data Availability. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, George; Meredith, Dwight

    To develop a coordinated interagency effort to improve North Carolina citizen access to employment opportunities, a statewide assessment was conducted of the availability and need for local labor market information in 1977-1978. Need and availability was assessed across five state agencies--Vocational Education, Community Colleges, CETA…

  10. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  11. Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Paul; Thuens, Sabine; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs.

  12. Assessing the Quality of a Local Authority Conference and Hospitality Venue Using the ServQual Model

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    Donnelly Mike

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The close attention paid to service quality by successful private companies has become part of the environment within which most public service organizations now operate. The ServQual model has been used with success to help companies quantify customers' expectations and perceptions of their service and to use this analysis as the basis for improvement. More recently, the ServQual approach has been applied in public service contexts with mixed reliability and validity. This paper reports on the application of the ServQual model to a conference and hospitality venue operated by a Scottish local authority. The study investigates five distinct customer segments: conferences, meetings, receptions, performances, and weddings. The expectations-perceptions gaps are assessed for each of these segments using the ServQual model and the size and antecedents of ServQual Gap 1 is also examined.

  13. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH): an inter-voxel diffusion MRI metric for assessing inter-subject white matter variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gaolang

    2013-01-01

    Many diffusion parameters and indices (e.g., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) have been derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. These parameters have been extensively applied as imaging markers for localizing white matter (WM) changes under various conditions (e.g., development, degeneration and disease). However, the vast majority of the existing parameters is derived from intra-voxel analyses and represents the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Other types of parameters that characterize inter-voxel relationships have been largely overlooked. In the present study, we propose a novel inter-voxel metric referred to as the local diffusion homogeneity (LDH). This metric quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. It can serve as an additional marker for evaluating the WM microstructural properties of the brain. To assess the distinguishing features between LDH and FA/MD, the metrics were systematically compared across space and subjects. As an example, both the LDH and FA/MD metrics were applied to measure age-related WM changes. The results indicate that LDH reveals unique inter-subject variability in specific WM regions (e.g., cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and splenium). Furthermore, there are regions in which measurements of age-related WM alterations with the LDH and FA/MD metrics yield discrepant results. These findings suggest that LDH and FA/MD have different sensitivities to specific WM microstructural properties. Taken together, the present study shows that LDH is complementary to the conventional diffusion-MRI markers and may provide additional insights into inter-subject WM variability. Further studies, however, are needed to uncover the neuronal mechanisms underlying the LDH.

  14. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH: an inter-voxel diffusion MRI metric for assessing inter-subject white matter variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaolang Gong

    Full Text Available Many diffusion parameters and indices (e.g., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] have been derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. These parameters have been extensively applied as imaging markers for localizing white matter (WM changes under various conditions (e.g., development, degeneration and disease. However, the vast majority of the existing parameters is derived from intra-voxel analyses and represents the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Other types of parameters that characterize inter-voxel relationships have been largely overlooked. In the present study, we propose a novel inter-voxel metric referred to as the local diffusion homogeneity (LDH. This metric quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. It can serve as an additional marker for evaluating the WM microstructural properties of the brain. To assess the distinguishing features between LDH and FA/MD, the metrics were systematically compared across space and subjects. As an example, both the LDH and FA/MD metrics were applied to measure age-related WM changes. The results indicate that LDH reveals unique inter-subject variability in specific WM regions (e.g., cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and splenium. Furthermore, there are regions in which measurements of age-related WM alterations with the LDH and FA/MD metrics yield discrepant results. These findings suggest that LDH and FA/MD have different sensitivities to specific WM microstructural properties. Taken together, the present study shows that LDH is complementary to the conventional diffusion-MRI markers and may provide additional insights into inter-subject WM variability. Further studies, however, are needed to uncover the neuronal mechanisms underlying the LDH.

  15. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

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    E. Zea Escamilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI. All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount into mass (kg units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road and international (freight ship, which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5

  16. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5].

  17. Environmental Assessment for Small- and Medium-Scale Road Projects Implemented in Local Authority Areas: A Case Study from Thailand

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    Suparb Trethanya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Thailand, an Environmental Assessment (EA is conducted only for projects prescribed by environmental legislation. Numerous projects, especially those that are small- and medium-scale in size and scope, are implemented in areas by a local authority without any type of EA. Based on a comparative analysis of the environmental status of large-, medium- and small-scale road development projects implemented by a local authority in Thailand, this paper attempts to justify the enforcement of EAs for medium- and small-scale projects. The justification is mainly based on theperceptions of people affected by these projects. Environmental impact scores, computed on the basis of people’s perceptions, reveal that, irrespective of the size of a project, the impacts caused by different sized projects are perceived as similar. Since every development project is implemented for the purpose of human development, this paper proposes to integrate environmental screening and initial EAs into the existing development control measures enforced by urban planning regulations and laws.

  18. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  19. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

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    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  20. The assessment of genetic variability and taxonomic affi nity of local pummelo accessions from Yogyakarta, Indonesia based on RAPD

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    Ratna Susandarini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pummelo (Citrus maxima is one of three biotypes considered as true species within the genus Citrus.A major issue of pummelo taxonomy in Indonesia is the high number of cultivars showing variability inphenotypic characters but of unknown genetic diversity. In this study, the assessment of genetic variabilityand taxonomic affi nity of local accessions of C. maxima from Yogyakarta was examined based on RAPDfi ngerprinting. The availability of universal primers and technical simplicity makes RAPD as a molecular toolof choice for the assessment of genetic variability at various taxonomic levels. In this study, 13 accessions of C.maxima collected from Yogyakarta were observed for their genetic variability. An additional three registeredcultivars were included for comparative purpose. Two decamer primers used for the amplifi cation of DNAproduced 222 bands with 174 of them were polymorphic. The data was subjected to cluster analysis to observethe grouping of accessions and taxonomic affi nity. Results indicated high genetic variability among accessions.The dendrogram constructed using UPGMA method based on simple matching coeffi cient showed twomain clusters were which was in line to morphological characters. The grouping of accessions showed cleardifferentiation between accessions bearing white and those with reddish fruit fl esh, and thus demonstratestaxonomic value of this study in recognizing important agronomic character for this tropical fruit crop.

  1. Assessing landscape constraints on species abundance: does the neighborhood limit species response to local habitat conservation programs?

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    Christopher F Jorgensen

    Full Text Available Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants.

  2. Assessment of social psychological determinants of satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective

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    Bracke Piet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fulfilment of expectations, labour pain, personal control and self-efficacy determine the postpartum evaluation of birth. However, researchers have seldom considered the multiple determinants in one analysis. To explore to what extent the results can be generalised between countries, we analyse data of Belgian and Dutch women. Although Belgium and the Netherlands share the same language, geography and political system and have a common history, their health care systems diverge. The Belgian maternity care system corresponds to the ideal type of the medical model, whereas the Dutch system approaches the midwifery model. In this paper we examine multiple determinants, the fulfilment of expectations, labour pain, personal control and self-efficacy, for their association with satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective. Methods Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first 2 weeks after childbirth either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 560 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004–2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept. Labour pain was rated retrospectively using Visual Analogue Scales. Personal control was assessed with the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire and Pearlin and Schooler's mastery scale. A hierarchical linear analysis was performed. Results Satisfaction with childbirth benefited most consistently from the fulfilment of expectations. In addition, the experience of personal control buffered the lowering impact of labour pain. Women with high self-efficacy showed more satisfaction with self-, midwife- and physician-related aspects of the birth experience. Conclusion Our

  3. Reliability assessment to determine the optimal forced outage rate of components

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    Habib Daryabad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal forced outage rate (FOR ofcomponents can lead to reducing the operational and maintenance costs inelectric power systems. FOR is closely associated with two factors: number ofoutages and duration of outages. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the FORthrough decreasing the number of outages or reducing the duration ofoutages. Decreasing number of outages is usually carried out throughreinforcement of the network and reducing the duration of outages is mainlyperformed through increasing the repair and maintenance groups. Both of theproposed methods to decrease the FOR possess the costs. Therefore, it is verysuitable to find the optimal rate of FOR and avoiding unnecessary costs. Thispaper presents a new methodology to find the optimal rate of FOR. In thisregard, the system reliability is assessed and evaluated from view of FOR andthe optimal rate of FOR is denoted for all components.

  4. Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis

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    Rençber S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seda Rençber,1 Sinem Yaprak Karavana,1 Fethiye Ferda Yilmaz,2 Bayri Eraç,2 Merve Nenni,3 Seda Özbal,4 Çetin Pekçetin,4 Hande Gurer-Orhan,3 Mine Hoşgör Limoncu,2 Pelin Güneri,5 Gökhan Ertan11Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Ege University, Bornova, Turkey; 4Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Inciralti, Turkey; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Ege University, Bornova, TurkeyAbstract: This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS, polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Besides, evaluation of the antifungal effect of the optimum formulation was evaluated using agar diffusion method, fungicidal activity-related in vitro release study, and time-dependent fungicidal activity. The effect of the optimum NP formulation on the healing of oral candidiasis was investigated in an animal model, which was employed for the first time in this study. The zeta potential, mucoadhesion, and in vitro drug release studies of various NP formulations revealed that chitosan-coated NP formulation containing EUDRAGIT® RS 2.5% had superior properties than other formulations. Concerning the stability study of the selected formulation, the formulation was found to be stable for 6 months. During the ex vivo drug diffusion study, no drug was found in receptor phase, and this is an indication of local effect. The in vitro antifungal

  5. Mechanical assessment of local bone quality to predict failure of locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röderer, Götz; Brianza, Stefano; Schiuma, Damiano; Schwyn, Ronald; Scola, Alexander; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Gebhard, Florian; Tami, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The importance of osteoporosis in proximal humerus fractures is well recognized. However, the local distribution of bone quality in the humeral head may also have a significant effect because it remains unclear in what quality of bone screws of standard implants purchase. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the failure of proximal humerus locked plating can be predicted by the DensiProbe (ARI, Davos, Switzerland). A 2-part fracture with metaphyseal impaction was simulated in 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric humeri. Using the DensiProbe, local bone quality was determined in the humeral head in the course of 6 proximal screws of a standard locking plate (Philos; Synthes GmbH, Solothurn, Switzerland). Cyclic mechanical testing with increasing axial loading until failure was performed. Bone mineral density (BMD) significantly correlated with cycles until failure. Head migration significantly increased between 1000 and 2000 loading cycles and significantly correlated with BMD after 3000 cycles. DensiProbe peak torque in all screw positions and their respective mean torque correlated significantly with the BMD values. In 3 positions, the peak torque significantly correlated with cycles to failure; here BMD significantly influenced mechanical stability. The validity of the DensiProbe was proven by the correlation between its peak torque measurements and BMD. The correlation between the peak torque and cycles to failure revealed the potential of the DensiProbe to predict the failure of locked plating in vitro. This method provides information about local bone quality, potentially making it suitable for intraoperative use by allowing the surgeon to take measures to improve stability.

  6. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pareas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  7. Differences in water depth determine leaf-litter decomposition in streams: implications on impact assessment reliability

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    Martínez A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter decomposition is a widespread functional indicator to assess the stream ecosystem status. However, the spatial location of leaf-bags could distort the impact assessment since intrinsic features of a given site have an important role in the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates, which could affect decomposition rate. A source of variability that can be easily controlled is the water depth at which bags are incubated in stream bed. Therefore, we tested if water depth within a same mesohabitat (riffles can determine decomposition rates. Due to the seasonal variability of macroinvertebrate assemblages in temperate regions, the study was performed in autumn-winter and spring to test the consistency of the findings. In three streams from North of Spain 15 mesh bags with alder leaves were placed in riffles covering a gradient of depths. Depth had a positive effect on decomposition rates and biomass of associated total invertebrates and shredders in autumn-winter, fauna variables helping to explain the differences in rates. In spring, depth affected negatively rates, the observed variability being weakly explained by invertebrates, which did not show differences along depth. Despite the opposite trend between seasons, water depth influences the decomposition rates, which may reduce or increase differences among systems if the water depth distribution is greatly biased. Our study highlights the importance of covering a similar range of water depths in the different systems being compared.

  8. Determining the optimal size for posture categories used in video-based posture assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Paula M; Weir, Patricia L; Andrews, David M; Fiedler, Krysia M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2009-08-01

    Currently, there are no standards for the development of posture classification systems used in observation-based ergonomic posture assessment methods. This study was conducted to determine if an optimal posture category size for different body segments and posture views could be established by examining the trade-off between magnitude of error and the number of posture category misclassification errors made. Three groups (trunk flexion/extension and lateral bend; shoulder flexion/extension and adduction/abduction; elbow flexion/extension) of 30 participants each selected postures they perceived to correctly represent the video image shown on a computer screen. For each view, 10 images were presented for five different posture category sizes, three times each. The optimal posture category sizes established were 30 degrees for trunk, shoulder and elbow flexion/extension, 30 degrees for shoulder adduction/abduction and 15 degrees for trunk lateral bend, suggesting that posture category size should be based on the body segment and view of the image being assessed. Across all conditions, the posture category sizes were comparable to those used in published ergonomic tools.

  9. A comparative assessment of alternatives to the full-leg radiograph for determining knee joint alignment

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    Navali Amir M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of alternative measures of frontal plane knee alignment, namely the radiographic anatomic axis and two clinical measures in patients complaining of knee malalignment as compared with the mechanical axis on full-length radiograph of lower limbs. Methods The knee-alignment angle was measured in 100 knees of 50 subjects with the chief complaint of frontal knee malalignment according to the following methods: lower-limb mechanical axis on radiograph, lower-limb anatomic axis on radiograph, distance between medial femoral condyles or medial malleoli using a calliper and lower-limb alignment using a goniometer. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. Results The anatomic axis best correlated with the mechanical axis (r = 0.93, P Conclusions The anatomic axis on radiograph, the calliper method and to a lesser extent the goniometer measurement appear to be valid alternatives to the mechanical axis on full-leg radiograph for determining frontal plane knee alignment. These alternative measures have the potential to provide useful information regarding knee alignment and may increase the assessment of this parameter by clinicians and researchers.

  10. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, L.; Grive, M.; Cera, E.; Gaona, X.; Domenech, C.; Bruno, J. [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    This report presents the results for solubility limit calculations for the SR-Can assessment. It has been organized into five chapters that constitute the core of the report, supported by several appendices containing additional and supporting information. The updated thermodynamic database used to conduct the solubility calculations has been issued as a separate report. The near field system for which the concentration limits of the radionuclides are assessed and the scenarios selected by SKB to calculate the solubility limits are thoroughly described. Several sources of information have been used to support the calculated solubility limits. In particular results from selected spent fuel dissolution experiments and natural analogue data are discussed to introduce the proper perspective to the results from the thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the main conceptual and numerical uncertainties associated to the assessment of the concentration limits of each element are numerically evaluated and discussed. Equilibrium calculations have been conducted to select the solubility limiting solid phase for each element. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of parameters of interest for each element is presented and the impact of the uncertainties identified on the solubility of each element quantified. The results are presented in a series of tables containing the calculated solubility for each radionuclide under the reference conditions. Finally concentration limits that are recommended result from the expert judgement built-up around the various sources of information together with the quantification of radionuclide solubility data and their associated uncertainties. The results are compared to previous solubility limits determination performed by SKB in SR 97, as well as the recommended values from other HLNW management organisations.

  11. Assessment Practices of Multi-Disciplinary School Team Members in Determining Special Education Services for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Garrett; O'Neill, Rob; Bermingham, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team members were surveyed to identify the frequency with which they use recommended assessment practices, how they interpret assessment information, and their confidence working with English Language Learners (ELLs) for the purpose of determining possible eligibility to receive special education services. Results of this study…

  12. The Mental Disability Military Assessment Tool : A Reliable Tool for Determining Disability in Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Andrea S.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Popping, Roel; Stewart, Roy E.; van de Ven, Lex; Brouwer, Sandra; Tuinstra, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose An assessment tool was developed to assess disability in veterans who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to a military mission. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability, intra-rater and inter-rater variation of the Mental Disability Military (MDM) asses

  13. DETERMINING UNDISTURBED GROUND TEMPERATURE AS PART OF SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

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    Tomislav Kurevija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The undisturbed ground temperature is one of the key thermogeological parameters for the assessment and utilization of shallow geothermal resources. Geothermal energy is the type of energy which is stored in the ground where solar radiation has no effect. The depth at which the undisturbed ground temperature occurs, independent of seasonal changes in the surface air temperature, is functionally determined by climate parameters and thermogeological properties. In deeper layers, the increase of ground temperature depends solely on geothermal gradient. Determining accurate values of undisturbed ground temperature and depth of occurrence is crucial for the correct sizing of a borehole heat exchanger as part of the ground-source heat pump system, which is considered the most efficient technology for utilising shallow geothermal resources. The purpose of this paper is to define three specific temperature regions, based on the measured ground temperature data collected from the main meteorological stations in Croatia. The three regions are: Northern Croatia, Adriatic region, and the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.

  14. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  15. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  16. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, G.D.; Gur, N.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Pines, O.; Vardimon, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS

  17. Determinants of "Community Participation": The Tradition of Local Initiatives and the Institutionalisation of School Management Committees in Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2014-01-01

    A School Management Committee (SMC) is an administrative tool adopted in many developing countries to decentralise administrative and financial responsibilities at school level, while involving local people in decision-making and making education more responsive to demands. I question the assumption linking administrative decentralisation and…

  18. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge,; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  19. Determination of the local tie vector between the VLBI and GNSS reference points at Onsala using GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, T.; Haas, R.; Elgered, G.

    2015-07-01

    Two gimbal-mounted GNSS antennas were installed on each side of the radome-enclosed 20 m VLBI radio telescope at the Onsala Space Observatory. GPS data with a 1 Hz sampling rate were recorded for five semi-kinematic and four kinematic observing campaigns. These GPS data were analysed together with data from the IGS station ONSA with an in-house Matlab-based GPS software package, using the double-difference analysis strategy. The coordinates of the GNSS antennas on the telescope were estimated for different observation angles of the telescope, at specific epochs, and used to calculate the geodetic reference point of the telescope. The local tie vector between the VLBI and the ONSA GNSS reference points in a geocentric reference frame was hence obtained. The two different types of observing campaigns gave consistent results of the estimated local tie vector and the axis offset of the telescope. The estimated local tie vector obtained from all nine campaigns gave standard deviations of 1.5, 1.0, and 2.9 mm for the geocentric X, Y, and Z components, respectively. The result of the estimated axis offset of the VLBI telescope shows a difference of 0.3 mm, with a standard deviation of 1.9 mm, with respect to a reference value obtained by two local surveys carried out in 2002 and 2008. Our results show that the presented method can be used as a complement to the more accurate but more labour intensive classical geodetic surveys to continuously monitor the local tie at co-location stations with an accuracy of a few millimetres.

  20. Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory (HUSCO): A concept to assess the impact of moisture and energy fluxes of urban soils on local climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, S.; Ament, F.; Kutzbach, L.; Eschenbach, A.

    2010-09-01

    Soil as a storage and transmitter for water and thermal energy is able to influence and modify the local climate. The aim of this research project is a more precise understanding of the interactions between pedosphere and atmosphere in urban environments. HUSCO focuses on the impact of the modified soil hydrology by different typical urban structural units. The local effect of groundwater and soil properties on meteorological variables in the urban environment will be assessed by integrated flux measurements over urban districts with different groundwater table depth and urban land-uses. The results should open up opportunities to make more tangible predictions about the impacts of climate change in urban areas and to develop adaptation strategies to climate change for urban planning. Long-term measurements will start in early summer 2010 in the city of Hamburg, Germany. To quantify the climate-controlling processes, like fluxes of energy and water, two stationary and one temporary and mobile Eddy covariance system will be used, and various soil measurement stations will be mounted to analyze seasonal variations in soil water balance, ground water table and soil thermal properties. To detect the resulting climate effects, namely the heterogeneity of temperature and humidity in urban areas, coupled "Meteo-stations" will be set up to analyze core atmospheric parameters. In addition, data of the weather mast of Hamburg will be used to evaluate the greater meteorological conditions. The measurement sites were selected with regard to the local groundwater table, the type of housing estate, and size and vegetation of the green space. Two measurement sites - i.e. two urban districts - with different groundwater table depths were chosen: a low groundwater table depth of 5 m. Each site features two measurement stations, one located in a housing estate and one in a green space. Another two stations will be located inside a sealed courtyard, and in a perimeter block

  1. Local approaches for the fracture assessment of notched components: the research work developed by Professor Paolo Lazzarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brittle failure of components weakened by cracks or sharp and blunt V-notches is a topic of active and continuous research. It is attractive for all researchers who face the problem of fracture of materials under different loading conditions and deals with a large number of applications in different engineering fields, not only with the mechanical one. This topic is significant in all the cases where intrinsic defects of the material or geometrical discontinuities give rise to localized stress concentration which, in brittle materials, may generate a crack leading to catastrophic failure or to a shortening of the assessed structural life. Whereas cracks are viewed as unpleasant entities in most engineering materials, U- and V-notches of different acuities are sometimes deliberately introduced in design and manufacturing of structural components. Dealing with brittle failure of notched components and summarising some recent experimental results reported in the literature, the main aim of the present contribution is to present a review of the research work developed by Professor Paolo Lazzarin. The approach based on the volume strain energy density (SED, which has been recently applied to assess the brittle failure of a large number of materials. The main features of the SED approach are outlined in the paper and its peculiarities and advantages accurately underlined. Some examples of applications are reported, as well. The present contribution is based on the author’s experience over about 15 years and the contents of his personal library. This work is in honor and memory of Prof. Paolo Lazzarin who suddenly passed away in September 2014.

  2. Assessment of the Role of Metabolic Determinants on the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Jose E.; Gómez, Carmen; Mizgier, Maria L.; Gutierrez, Juan; Santos, Jose L.; Olmos, Pablo; Mari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion correlates inversely with insulin sensitivity, which may suggest the existence of a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such interaction might be mediated through glucose oxidation that may drive the release of circulating factors with action on insulin secretion. Aim To evaluate the association between whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and circulating factors with insulin secretion to consecutive oral glucose loading in non-diabetic individuals. Methods Carbohydrate oxidation was measured after an overnight fast and for 6 hours after two 3-h apart 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in 53 participants (24/29 males/females; 34±9 y; 27±4 kg/m2). Insulin secretion was estimated by deconvolution of serum C-peptide concentration, β cell function by mathematical modelling and insulin sensitivity from an OGTT. Circulating lactate, free-fatty acids (FFA) and candidate chemokines were assessed before and after OGTT. The effect of recombinant RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and IL8 (interleukin 8) on insulin secretion from isolated mice islets was also measured. Results Carbohydrate oxidation assessed over the 6-h period did not relate with insulin secretion (r = -0.11; p = 0.45) or β cell function indexes. Circulating lactate and FFA showed no association with 6-h insulin secretion. Circulating chemokines concentration increased upon oral glucose stimulation. Insulin secretion associated with plasma IL6 (r = 0.35; p<0.05), RANTES (r = 0.30; p<0.05) and IL8 (r = 0.41; p<0.05) determined at 60 min OGTT. IL8 was independently associated with in vivo insulin secretion; however, it did not affect in vitro insulin secretion. Conclusion Whole-body carbohydrate oxidation appears to have no influence on insulin secretion or putative circulating mediators. IL8 may be a potential factor influencing insulin secretion. PMID:28002466

  3. Local products image determinant communes of Nisko Znaczenie produktów lokalnych w budowaniu wizerunku gmin powiatu Nisko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  4. Sexual size dimorphism and sex determination by morphometric measurements in locally adapted muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI), sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI) and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological trai...

  5. Local Structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, N.; Jiang, Y.; Anderson, I. E.; Belanger, D. P.; Booth, C. H.; Bridges, F.; Mitchell, J. F.; Proffen, Th.; Zheng, H.

    2009-01-26

    The combined local structure techniques, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function analysis, have been used for temperatures 4<= T<= 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of the Co-O bond in La1?xSrxCoO3 for a significant fraction of Co sites (x<= 0.35), indicating few, if any, JT-active, singly occupied eg Co sites exist.

  6. Do we really need large spectral libraries for the assessment of soil organic carbon at local scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, César; Wetterlind, Johanna; Stenberg, Bo; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.; Zornoza, Raúl; Maestre, Fernando T.; Mouazen, Abdul M.; Kuang, Boyan; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.

    2014-05-01

    Spiking is an approach to improve the accuracy of large-scale spectroscopic models when they are used to predict at local scale. But, if models are to be spiked, do we really need large-sized spectral libraries? Different calibrations relating the SOC and NIR spectra were obtained using PLS as regression method: i) model #1: local-scale model (n=40); ii) model #2: local-scale model (n=88); iii) model #3: provincial-scale model (n=147); iv) model #4: provincial-scale model, constructed with 50% of samples used in model #3 (n=73); v) model #5: provincial-scale model, constructed with 25% of samples used in model #3 (n=36); vi) model #6: national-scale model (n=1096); vii) model #7: national-scale model, constructed with 33% of samples used in model #6 (n=362). Each of these models was used to predict the SOC contents in target site samples. In this work, nine target sites were evaluated. Each target site is a relatively small area (from several hectares to a few square kilometers), where a dense sampling was made. The coefficient of the determination (R2), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), bias, standard error of prediction (SEP) and the ratio of performance to deviance (RPD) were calculated pooling the predictions of the nine target sites. In overall, more than 900 local samples were predicted. The highest R2 values were obtained with the national-scale models (R2 >0.85), and the lowest R2 values were obtained with the models of small size. In general, the RMSEP tended to decrease with the increase of the models size. However, the predictions obtained with the large-sized models were clearly biased, and despite the high R2 values, the RPD values were below 1.2. We also obtained predictions when these models were spiked with eight local samples (i.e., from the target site). After spiking, the predictions obtained with the small-sized models were substantially improved. As example of the changes due to spiking, the predictions obtained with the smallest

  7. A common sequence motif determines the Cajal body-specific localization of box H/ACA scaRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patricia; Darzacq, Xavier; Bertrand, Edouard; Jády, Beáta E; Verheggen, Céline; Kiss, Tamás

    2003-08-15

    Post-transcriptional synthesis of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides and pseudouridines in Sm spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs takes place in the nucleoplasmic Cajal bodies and it is directed by guide RNAs (scaRNAs) that are structurally and functionally indistinguishable from small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) directing rRNA modification in the nucleolus. The scaRNAs are synthesized in the nucleoplasm and specifically targeted to Cajal bodies. Here, mutational analysis of the human U85 box C/D-H/ACA scaRNA, followed by in situ localization, demonstrates that box H/ACA scaRNAs share a common Cajal body-specific localization signal, the CAB box. Two copies of the evolutionarily conserved CAB consensus (UGAG) are located in the terminal loops of the 5' and 3' hairpins of the box H/ACA domains of mammalian, Drosophila and plant scaRNAs. Upon alteration of the CAB boxes, mutant scaRNAs accumulate in the nucleolus. In turn, authentic snoRNAs can be targeted into Cajal bodies by addition of exogenous CAB box motifs. Our results indicate that scaRNAs represent an ancient group of small nuclear RNAs which are localized to Cajal bodies by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.

  8. Fertility exposure analysis: A new method for assessing the contribution of proximate determinants to fertility differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Little, R J

    1984-03-01

    Summary Several recent papers have dealt with the problem of assessing the impact of the proximate determinants on fertility. All these approaches rely on combining a series of separately estimated aggregate level indicators. This paper proposes an approach which uses individual-level data and thus permits regression analyses as well as analyses for sub-groups. In the course of development it became clear that there are several deficiencies and inconsistencies in the measurement and formation of indices proposed elsewhere, which are overcome. We illustrate our approach with data from the Dominican Republic. The approach used involves attributing exposure to one or more of several states, including pregnancy, lactational and non-lactational components of post-partum amenorrhoea, absence of sexual relations and contraception. Key elements are efficacies of contraception and components of post-partum infecundity and the treatment of overlaps through an explicit hierarchy. We treat both unconditional (or additive) and conditional analyses. Intriguing findings on the age-specific pattern of fertility control emerge. Major advantages of regression analysis, such as simultaneous treatment of several variables and estimation of sampling variation are stressed.

  9. Assessment of provitamin A determination by open column chromatography/visible absorption spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B; Kimura, M; Godoy, H T; Arima, H K

    1988-12-01

    Determination of provitamin A content by open column chromatography/visible absorption spectrophotometry is assessed using food samples of varying carotenoid composition. A general method consisting of extraction with acetone, transfer to petroleum ether, saponification (optional), concentration, separation on activated MgO:Hyflo Supercel column developed with 1 to 15% acetone in petroleum ether, and quantitation of individual provitamins spectrophotometrically demonstrates repeatability comparable with that of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods. Overnight saponification (10% methanolic KOH, ambient temperature) does not degrade the provitamins and is unnecessary for kale, tomato, and squash; however, it is required for good separation of papaya carotenoids due to the presence of carotenol esters. The current Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method is found to be inappropriate because (1) the volume of extracting solvent is not adjusted to the type of sample; (2) the less active alpha- and gamma-carotene, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, and 5,6-monoepoxy-beta-cryptoxanthin (50% active) are quantified as beta-carotene (100% active); (3) inactive carotenoids such as xi-carotene and zeinoxanthin are also quantified as beta-carotene.

  10. Socioeconomic assessment guidance report: Determining the effects of amenity characteristics on business location decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.

    1993-02-01

    Evaluating perception-based impacts of hazardous waste facilities has become an increasingly important part of socioeconomic impact assessments in recent years. One area of discussion has been the potential effect of risk perceptions on business location decision making. This report evaluates the importance of environmental amenities (broadly defined to include natural, cultural, and recreational features; environmental quality; and other indexes of quality of life) with respect to decisions on locating both manufacturing and business service activities. It discusses the major theoretical and empirical issues that arise in attempting to determine the effects of environmental amenities on the location choices for businesses and business activities. This discussion is followed by a survey of major findings from the academic literature and a review of research by the state of Nevada. A number of recommendations for further research are also provided to help the US Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management better understand the importance of perception-based impacts in business location decision making and estimate the scale of socioeconomic impacts that would result from siting a high-level waste repository in Nevada.

  11. A systems-based conceptual framework for assessing the determinants of a social license to operate in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted-complex adaptive systems and resilience-and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  12. A Systems-Based Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Determinants of a Social License to Operate in the Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted—complex adaptive systems and resilience—and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  13. The assessment of knowledge as determinant of learning process in year 5 social studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtačnik, Danica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of schooling is to acquire high quality knowledge. To achieve this objective, an important role is played by careful teacher planning and prudent action of carrying out all stages of the learning process, from introduction of the topic to assessment and grading. Assessment is present in every learning stage. Aware of the fact that assessment is the key linking process as well as the indicator of the learning process, the basic subject of the master thesis is assessment as indicator of...

  14. Determinants of extinction-colonization dynamics in Mediterranean butterflies: the role of landscape, climate and local habitat features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Chacón, Albert; Stefanescu, Constantí; Genovart, Meritxell; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Páramo, Ferran; Turco, Marco; Oro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many species are found today in the form of fragmented populations occupying patches of remnant habitat in human-altered landscapes. The persistence of these population networks requires a balance between extinction and colonization events assumed to be primarily related to patch area and isolation, but the contribution of factors such as the characteristics of patch and matrix habitats, the species' traits (habitat specialization and dispersal capabilities) and variation in climatic conditions have seldom been evaluated simultaneously. The identification of environmental variables associated with patch occupancy and turnover may be especially useful to enhance the persistence of multiple species under current global change. However, for robust inference on occupancy and related parameters, we must account for detection errors, a commonly overlooked problem that leads to biased estimates and misleading conclusions about population dynamics. Here, we provide direct empirical evidence of the effects of different environmental variables on the extinction and colonization rates of a rich butterfly community in the western Mediterranean. The analysis was based on a 17-year data set containing detection/nondetection data on 73 butterfly species for 26 sites in north-eastern Spain. Using multiseason occupancy models, which take into account species' detectability, we were able to obtain robust estimates of local extinction and colonization probabilities for each species and test the potential effects of site covariates such as the area of suitable habitat, topographic variability, landscape permeability around the site and climatic variability in aridity conditions. Results revealed a general pattern across species with local habitat composition and landscape features as stronger predictors of occupancy dynamics compared with topography and local aridity. Increasing area of suitable habitat in a site strongly decreased local extinction risks and, for a number of species

  15. A Framework for Determining the Authenticity of Assessment Tasks: Applied to an Example in Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Authentic assessment tasks enhance engagement, retention and the aspirations of students. This paper explores the discipline-generic features of authentic assessment, which reflect what students need to achieve in the real world. Some assessment tasks are more authentic than others and this paper designs a proposed framework supported by the…

  16. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  17. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sinang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

  18. Determination of local optical response functions of nanostructures with increasing complexity by using single and coupled Lorentzian oscillator models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Brixner, Tobias; Fischer, Alexander; Hensen, Matthias; Huber, Bernhard; Kilbane, Deirdre; Kramer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Walter; Piecuch, Martin; Thielen, Philip

    2016-07-01

    We reconstruct the optical response of nanostructures of increasing complexity by fitting interferometric time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) data from an ultrashort (21 fs) laser excitation source with different harmonic oscillator-based models. Due to its high spatial resolution of ~40 nm, PEEM is a true near-field imaging system and enables in normal incidence mode a mapping of plasmon polaritons and an intuitive interpretation of the plasmonic behaviour. Using an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we record two-pulse correlation signals with 50 as time resolution that contain information about the temporal plasmon polariton evolution. Spectral amplitude and phase of excited plasmon polaritons are extracted from the recorded phase-resolved interferometric two-pulse correlation traces. We show that the optical response of a plasmon polariton generated at a gold nanoparticle can be reconstructed from the interferometric two-pulse correlation signal using a single harmonic oscillator model. In contrast, for a corrugated silver surface, a system with increased plasmonic complexity, in general an unambiguous reconstruction of the local optical response based on coupled and uncoupled harmonic oscillators, fails. Whereas for certain local responses different models can be discriminated, this is impossible for other positions. Multidimensional spectroscopy offers a possibility to overcome this limitation.

  19. International Management Skills for Success in Asia: A Needs-Based Determination of Skills for Foreign Managers and Local Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Kent E.; Baughn, C. Cristopher; Dao, Thi Thanh Lam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies skills necessary in order to succeed in Vietnam and proposes a training program to develop such skills. Design/methodology/approach: To determine necessary skills, 74 managers were interviewed using critical incident methodology to identify training needs. Critical incident approach asks respondents to describe the…

  20. Local Marine Geoid Variations and Jason-2 Bias Determination using the Gavdos Permanent Cal/Val Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, S. P.; Daskalakis, A.; Tziavos, I. N.;

    2012-01-01

    , but others are related to under-sampling of the Earth's gravity field due to the resolution of the geoid model. New reference surfaces for calibration have thus emerged. Finally, new updated values for the Jason-2 altimeter bias have been determined as 191.81 ± 2.80 mm with the geoid model and as 181.51 ± 2...

  1. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks.

  2. Genotype 1 hepatitis C virus envelope features that determine antiviral response assessed through optimal covariance networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Murray

    Full Text Available The poor response to the combined antiviral therapy of pegylated alfa-interferon and ribavarin for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection may be linked to mutations in the viral envelope gene E1E2 (env, which can result in escape from the immune response and higher efficacy of viral entry. Mutations that result in failure of therapy most likely require compensatory mutations to achieve sufficient change in envelope structure and function. Compensatory mutations were investigated by determining positions in the E1E2 gene where amino acids (aa covaried across groups of individuals. We assessed networks of covarying positions in E1E2 sequences that differentiated sustained virological response (SVR from non-response (NR in 43 genotype 1a (17 SVR, and 49 genotype 1b (25 SVR chronically HCV-infected individuals. Binary integer programming over covariance networks was used to extract aa combinations that differed between response groups. Genotype 1a E1E2 sequences exhibited higher degrees of covariance and clustered into 3 main groups while 1b sequences exhibited no clustering. Between 5 and 9 aa pairs were required to separate SVR from NR in each genotype. aa in hypervariable region 1 were 6 times more likely than chance to occur in the optimal networks. The pair 531-626 (EI appeared frequently in the optimal networks and was present in 6 of 9 NR in one of the 1a clusters. The most frequent pairs representing SVR were 431-481 (EE, 500-522 (QA in 1a, and 407-434 (AQ in 1b. Optimal networks based on covarying aa pairs in HCV envelope can indicate features that are associated with failure or success to antiviral therapy.

  3. Inter-laboratory assessment of a prototype multiplex kit for determination of recent HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Curtis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate and reliable laboratory-based assays are needed for estimating HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional samples. We recently described the development of a customized, HIV-1-specific Bio-Plex assay that allows for the measurement of HIV-specific antibody levels and avidity to multiple analytes for improved HIV-1 incidence estimates. METHODS: To assess intra- and inter-laboratory assay performance, prototype multiplex kits were developed and evaluated by three distinct laboratories. Longitudinal seroconversion specimens were tested in parallel by each laboratory and kit performance was compared to that of an in-house assay. Additionally, the ability of the kit to distinguish recent from long-term HIV-1 infection, as compared to the in-house assay, was determined by comparing the reactivity of known recent (infected 12 months drug naïve specimens. RESULTS: Although the range of reactivity for each analyte varied between the prototype kit and in-house assay, a measurable distinction in reactivity between recent and long-term specimens was observed with both assays in all three laboratories. Additionally, kit performance was consistent between all three laboratories. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV, between sample replicates for all laboratories, ranged from 0.5% to 6.1%. The inter-laboratory CVs ranged from 8.5% to 21.3% for gp160-avidity index (a and gp120-normalized mean fluorescent intensity (MFI value (n, respectively. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the feasibility of producing a multiplex kit for measuring HIV antibody levels and avidity, with the potential for improved incidence estimates based on multi-analyte algorithms. The availability of a commercial kit will facilitate the transfer of technology among diverse laboratories for widespread assay use.

  4. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Deniz, E-mail: deniz.sari@tubitak.gov.tr [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model.

  5. Determination of Local Experimental Heat-Transfer Coefficients on Combustion Side of an Ammonia-Oxygen Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Ehlers, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    Local experimental heat-transfer coefficients were measured in the chamber and throat of a 2400-pound-thrust ammonia-oxygen rocket engine with a nominal chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. Three injector configurations were used. The rocket engine was run over a range of oxidant-fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The injector that achieved the best performance also produced the highest rates of heat flux at design conditions. The heat-transfer data from the best-performing injector agreed well with the simplified equation developed by Bartz at the throat region. A large spread of data was observed for the chamber. This spread was attributed generally to the variations of combustion processes. The spread was least evident, however, with the best-performing injector.

  6. Public Hearing or `Hearing Public'? An Evaluation of the Participation of Local Stakeholders in Environmental Impact Assessment of Ghana's Jubilee Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.

  7. Public hearing or 'hearing public'? an evaluation of the participation of local stakeholders in environmental impact assessment of Ghana's Jubilee oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.

  8. Geochemical Proxies as an Effective Tool for Determining Depositional Environments for Burgess Shale-Type Fossil Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, W.; Handle, K.

    2012-04-01

    A variety of models have been presented to account for the arrest of decay processes in Burgess Shale-type (BST) fossil beds. These models include sustained anoxia, fluctuating oxyclines, and hypersaline brines. Despite being questioned in the published literature, patterns in redox-sensitive metals may differentiate between these chemical environments of deposition. Accordingly, the redox indices V versus Al, V/Sc, Ni/Al, Ni/Co, and Mo were applied to two well-documented North American BST localities: 1) the Wheeler Formation (Utah, USA) with palaeontological characteristics indicating deposition within a fluctuating oxycline; and 2) the Burgess Shale (British Columbia, Canada) with field evidence indicating an association of fossil deposits with hypersaline brine pools. In addition, the chemical characteristics of the Kinzers Formation (Pennsylvania, USA), a BST fossil locality in which details of depositional environment are unclear due to limited outcrop exposure, were compared to those of the Wheeler and Burgess Shale formations. A set of eighty-four Wheeler Shale samples yielded a range of Ni/Co values from 0.6 to 10.5, and V/Sc values up to 27.9. Barren shales cluster along the line that defines the lithogenic maximum for V, whereas fossiliferous samples yielded a scattered distribution of V versus Al values above the lithogenic maximum. Molybdenum content was Shale samples. These data are consistent with deposition under a range of redox conditions, with fossils (both BST and trilobites) correlating with low-oxygen environments. In contrast, a set of 53 samples from the Burgess Shale and associated units yielded a restricted range of both Ni/Co (Burgess Shale strata beneath an oxygenated water column. Geochemical palaeo-redox proxies are consistent with field relationships and palaeontological data. This demonstrates that geochemical proxies can be applied effectively to BST fossil-bearing strata. Two units within the Kinzers Formation were studied: 1) the

  9. Presynaptically localized cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase 1 is a key determinant of spinal synaptic potentiation and pain hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceng Luo

    Full Text Available Synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal neurons directly communicating pain-specific inputs from the periphery to the brain has been proposed to serve as a trigger for pain hypersensitivity in pathological states. Previous studies have functionally implicated the NMDA receptor-NO pathway and the downstream second messenger, cGMP, in these processes. Because cGMP can broadly influence diverse ion-channels, kinases, and phosphodiesterases, pre- as well as post-synaptically, the precise identity of cGMP targets mediating spinal LTP, their mechanisms of action, and their locus in the spinal circuitry are still unclear. Here, we found that Protein Kinase G1 (PKG-I localized presynaptically in nociceptor terminals plays an essential role in the expression of spinal LTP. Using the Cre-lox P system, we generated nociceptor-specific knockout mice lacking PKG-I specifically in presynaptic terminals of nociceptors in the spinal cord, but not in post-synaptic neurons or elsewhere (SNS-PKG-I(-/- mice. Patch clamp recordings showed that activity-induced LTP at identified synapses between nociceptors and spinal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal grey (PAG was completely abolished in SNS-PKG-I(-/- mice, although basal synaptic transmission was not affected. Analyses of synaptic failure rates and paired-pulse ratios indicated a role for presynaptic PKG-I in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 and myosin light chain kinase were recruited as key phosphorylation targets of presynaptic PKG-I in nociceptive neurons. Finally, behavioural analyses in vivo showed marked defects in SNS-PKG-I(-/- mice in several models of activity-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity, and pharmacological studies identified a clear contribution of PKG-I expressed in spinal terminals of nociceptors. Our results thus indicate that presynaptic mechanisms involving an increase in release probability from nociceptors are

  10. Observer reliability in assessment of mitotic activity and MIB-1-determined proliferation rate in pediatric sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W M; Plaat, B E; Berends, E R; te Meerman, G J

    2000-01-01

    In hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of 20 pediatric sarcomas the mitotic index was assessed by four experienced pathologists and four less-experienced observers without prior instructions. In adjacent sections immunolabeled for MIB-1, the proliferation index was assessed as the estimated percentag

  11. Equitable Classroom Assessment: Promoting Self-Development and Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deirdre M.; Brandes, Gabriella Minnes

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of students' learning in school is deeply implicated in teaching for social justice. Yet classroom assessment is neglected relative to other aspects of curriculum and pedagogy in the literature on teaching for social justice. Some books have a relatively clear theory of anti-oppression education at their core but do not provide details…

  12. Local stress determination in chromia-former thanks to micro-Raman spectroscopy: A way to investigate spontaneous delamination processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerain, M.; Goudeau, P.; Panicaud, B.; Grosseau-Poussard, J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous delamination process for α-Cr2O3 thermal oxide films growing on NiCr-30 alloys is studied thanks to micro Raman spectroscopy. In particular, stress maps are performed through and around buckles developed on chromia films. Depending on the cooling rate at the end of the oxidation process, different buckle types appear which are investigated. Associated residual stress distribution clearly evidences the stress release field. In addition, geometrical features are determined for the different buckle types, and from comparison with modelling describing buckle formation and propagation, it is possible to get the interface toughness distribution.

  13. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  14. 49 CFR 1515.5 - Appeal of Initial Determination of Threat Assessment based on criminal conviction, immigration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Assessment based on criminal conviction, immigration status, or mental capacity. 1515.5 Section 1515.5... criminal conviction, immigration status, or mental capacity. (a) Scope. This section applies to applicants... the immigration status requirements as described in 49 CFR 1572.105. (3) TSA has determined that...

  15. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Niessen (Maurice); E.L. Laan (Eva); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); N. Peek (Niels); R.A. Kraaijenhagen (Roderik); C.K. van Kalken (Coen); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. Objective: To analyze whether individual characterist

  16. Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening....

  17. The application of the fluorescence procedure for the determination of local lubricant film thicknesses; Die Anwendung des Fluoreszenzverfahrens zur Bestimmung lokaler Schmierfilmdicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H.; Hildebrand, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallformung

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the friction and lubrication during the deformation of metals requires the determination of local lubricant film thicknesses. For this purpose the fluorescence procedure was used by the excitation with lasers. The aspired high local resolution could not be realized due to photolysis of the dye. A measuring spot of a minimum size of 1.5 x 1.5 mm was reached for the measurement of lubricant film thicknesses up to 5 {mu}m with a luminescence scanner. (orig.) [German] Die Analyse der Reibung und Schmierung in der Umformung von Metallen erfordert die Bestimmung lokaler Schmierfilmdicken. Dazu wurde das Fluoreszenzverfahren mit Anregung durch Laser angewendet. Die angestrebte hohe oertliche Aufloesung konnte infolge Fotolyse des Farbstoffes nicht realisiert werden. Mit einem Lumineszenztaster konnte ein Messfleck mit einer minimalen Groesse von 1,5 x 1,5 mm bei Schmierfilmdicken bis zu 5 {mu}m erreicht werden. (orig.)

  18. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  19. A non-parametric method for automatic determination of P-wave and S-wave arrival times: application to local micro earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawles, Christopher; Thurber, Clifford

    2015-08-01

    We present a simple, fast, and robust method for automatic detection of P- and S-wave arrivals using a nearest neighbours-based approach. The nearest neighbour algorithm is one of the most popular time-series classification methods in the data mining community and has been applied to time-series problems in many different domains. Specifically, our method is based on the non-parametric time-series classification method developed by Nikolov. Instead of building a model by estimating parameters from the data, the method uses the data itself to define the model. Potential phase arrivals are identified based on their similarity to a set of reference data consisting of positive and negative sets, where the positive set contains examples of analyst identified P- or S-wave onsets and the negative set contains examples that do not contain P waves or S waves. Similarity is defined as the square of the Euclidean distance between vectors representing the scaled absolute values of the amplitudes of the observed signal and a given reference example in time windows of the same length. For both P waves and S waves, a single pass is done through the bandpassed data, producing a score function defined as the ratio of the sum of similarity to positive examples over the sum of similarity to negative examples for each window. A phase arrival is chosen as the centre position of the window that maximizes the score function. The method is tested on two local earthquake data sets, consisting of 98 known events from the Parkfield region in central California and 32 known events from the Alpine Fault region on the South Island of New Zealand. For P-wave picks, using a reference set containing two picks from the Parkfield data set, 98 per cent of Parkfield and 94 per cent of Alpine Fault picks are determined within 0.1 s of the analyst pick. For S-wave picks, 94 per cent and 91 per cent of picks are determined within 0.2 s of the analyst picks for the Parkfield and Alpine Fault data set

  20. Assessment of the dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period series during atrial fibrillation: effects of isoproterenol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantica Massimo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autonomic nervous system (ANS plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF, but quantification of its electrophysiologic effects is extremely complex and difficult. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of linear and non-linear indexes to capture the fine changing dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period (LAP series during adrenergic activation induced by isoproterenol (a sympathomimetic drug infusion. Methods Nine patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF (aged 60 ± 6 underwent electrophysiological study in which isoproterenol was administered to patients. Atrial electrograms were acquired during i sinus rhythm (SR; ii sinus rhythm during isoproterenol (SRISO administration; iii atrial fibrillation (AF and iv atrial fibrillation during isoproterenol (AFISO administration. The level of organization between two electrograms was assessed by the synchronization index (S, whereas the degree of recurrence of a pattern in a signal was defined by the regularity index (R. In addition, the level of predictability (LP and regularity of LAP series were computed. Results LAP series analysis shows a reduction of both LP and R index during isoproterenol infusion in SR and AF (RSR = 0.75 ± 0.07 RSRISO = 0.69 ± 0.10, p AF = 0.31 ± 0.08 RAFISO = 0.26 ± 0.09, p SR = 99.99 ± 0.001 LPSRISO = 99.97 ± 0.03, p AF = 69.46 ± 21.55 LPAFISO = 55 ± 24.75; p SR = 0.49 ± 0.08 RSRISO = 0.46 ± 0.09 p AF = 0.29 ± 0.09 RAFISO = 0.28 ± 0.08 n.s.. Conclusions The proposed parameters succeeded in discriminating the subtle changes due to isoproterenol infusion during both the rhythms especially when considering LAP series analysis. The reduced value of analyzed parameters after isoproterenol administration could reflect an important pro-arrhythmic influence of adrenergic activation on favoring maintenance of AF.

  1. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  2. A Needs Assessment of ODL Educators to Determine Their Effective Use of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria has joined the global race of teaching and learning in a changing educational environment by adopting open and distance learning (ODL). Although it is a global trend, ODL poses some challenges at local levels, one of which is the untimely production of teaching materials currently affecting instructional delivery in Nigeria. The modern…

  3. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Roser-Renouf

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources.We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011-2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%, and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%.Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed.

  4. Determining the Source Parameters of the Jambi Earthquake (1 October 2009, Mw =6.4 Using Three-Component Local Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlazim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to estimate the source parameters of a mainshock earthquake (Mw=6.4 that occurred on 1 October 2009 in the Dikit major segment of theSumatran Fault Zone (SFZ. The source parameters were analyzed by the inversion of three-component local waveformsrecorded by the GEOFON broadband IA network. Moment tensorof the event was determined using the Discrete Wave number method to calculate the Green function and the iterative deconvolution method to invert the moment tensors. From the analysis, we obtained the fault parameters of the mainshock, which are strike=324°, dip= 80° and rake= -173°.

  5. A 490 GHz planar circuit balanced Nb-Al$_\\mathbf{2}$O$_{\\mathbf{3}}$-Nb quasiparticle mixer for radio astronomy: Application to quantitative local oscillator noise determination

    CERN Document Server

    Westig, M P; Jacobs, K; Stutzki, J; Schultz, M; Schomacker, F; Honingh, C E

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a heterodyne experiment which uses a 380-520 GHz planar circuit balanced Nb-$\\mathrm{Al_2O_3}$-Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer with 4-8 GHz instantaneous intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth to quantitatively determine local oscillator (LO) noise. A balanced mixer is a unique tool to separate noise at the mixer's LO port from other noise sources. This is not possible in single-ended mixers. The antisymmetric IV characteristic of a SIS mixer further helps to simplify the measurements. The double-sideband receiver sensitivity of the balanced mixer is 2-4 times the quantum noise limit $h\

  6. Development and Implementation of a Simplified System for Assessing the Condition of Irish Regional and Local Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Mulry, Brian; Feighan, Kieran; McCarthy, John

    2015-01-01

    The surface condition of road pavements is a vital element in pavement management to prioritize projects, select appropriate treatments and make the best use of available resources. In Ireland, the overall road network of 99,008 kilometres includes 5,415 kilometres of National Roads and 93,593 kilometres of Regional and Local Roads. To evaluate the condition of the Regional and Local Roads, a simplified pavement inspection methodology, the Pavement Surface Condition Index (PSCI) rating system...

  7. Parent Assessments of Self-Determination Importance and Performance for Students with Autism or Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Fostering student self-determination is now considered an essential element of special education and transition services for children and youth with intellectual disability and/or autism. Yet, little is known about the pivotal role parents might play beyond the school campus in fostering self-determination among their children with developmental…

  8. Assessing the Parameters for Determining Mission Accomplishment of the Philippine Marine Corps in Internal Security Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the MILF attacked innocent civilian communities in Lanao del Norte , North Cotabato, and Sarangani in August 2008 to protest of the non-signing of...Abu Sayyaf spokesman Abu Sabaya and his group aboard local watercraft off Barangay Panganuran, Sibuco, Zamboanga Del Norte in June 21, 2002.46 As the...Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, "Filipino Defense Chief: Communist Remain Biggest Threat to National Security," The Philippine Star, October 5,2007

  9. Local-scale climate scenarios for impact studies and risk assessments: integration of early 21st century ENSEMBLES projections into the ELPIS database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanca, Pierluigi; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2013-08-01

    We present the integration of early 21st century climate projections for Europe based on simulations carried out within the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project with the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator. The aim was to upgrade ELPIS, a repository of local-scale climate scenarios for use in impact studies and risk assessments that already included global projections from the CMIP3 ensemble and regional scenarios for Japan. To obtain a more reliable simulation of daily rainfall and extremes, changes in wet and dry series derived from daily ENSEMBLES outputs were taken into account. Kernel average smoothers were used to reduce noise arising from sampling artefacts. Examples of risk analyses based on 25-km climate projections from the ENSEMBLES ensemble of regional climate models illustrate the possibilities offered by the updated version of ELPIS. The results stress the importance of tailored information for local-scale impact assessments at the European level.

  10. Assessment of craniometric traits in South Indian dry skulls for sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Balakrishnan; Pai, Mangala M; Prabhu, Latha V; Muralimanju, B V; Rai, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton plays an important role in sex determination in forensic anthropology. The skull bone is considered as the second best after the pelvic bone in sex determination due to its better retention of morphological features. Different populations have varying skeletal characteristics, making population specific analysis for sex determination essential. Hence the objective of this investigation is to obtain the accuracy of sex determination using cranial parameters of adult skulls to the highest percentage in South Indian population and to provide a baseline data for sex determination in South India. Seventy adult preserved human skulls were taken and based on the morphological traits were classified into 43 male skulls and 27 female skulls. A total of 26 craniometric parameters were studied. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS discriminant function. The analysis of stepwise, multivariate, and univariate discriminant function gave an accuracy of 77.1%, 85.7%, and 72.9% respectively. Multivariate direct discriminant function analysis classified skull bones into male and female with highest levels of accuracy. Using stepwise discriminant function analysis, the most dimorphic variable to determine sex of the skull, was biauricular breadth followed by weight. Subjecting the best dimorphic variables to univariate discriminant analysis, high levels of accuracy of sexual dimorphism was obtained. Percentage classification of high accuracies were obtained in this study indicating high level of sexual dimorphism in the crania, setting specific discriminant equations for the gender determination in South Indian people.

  11. Assessment of local public health workers' willingness to respond to pandemic influenza through application of the extended parallel process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Barnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local public health agencies play a central role in response to an influenza pandemic, and understanding the willingness of their employees to report to work is therefore a critically relevant concern for pandemic influenza planning efforts. Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM has been found useful for understanding adaptive behavior in the face of unknown risk, and thus offers a framework for examining scenario-specific willingness to respond among local public health workers. We thus aim to use the EPPM as a lens for examining the influences of perceived threat and efficacy on local public health workers' response willingness to pandemic influenza. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We administered an online, EPPM-based survey about attitudes/beliefs toward emergency response (Johns Hopkins approximately Public Health Infrastructure Response Survey Tool, to local public health employees in three states between November 2006-December 2007. A total of 1835 responses were collected for an overall response rate of 83%. With some regional variation, overall 16% of the workers in 2006-7 were not willing to "respond to a pandemic flu emergency regardless of its severity". Local health department employees with a perception of high threat and high efficacy--i.e., those fitting a 'concerned and confident' profile in the EPPM analysis--had the highest declared rates of willingness to respond to an influenza pandemic if required by their agency, which was 31.7 times higher than those fitting a 'low threat/low efficacy' EPPM profile. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of pandemic influenza planning, the EPPM provides a useful framework to inform nuanced understanding of baseline levels of--and gaps in--local public health workers' response willingness. Within local health departments, 'concerned and confident' employees are most likely to be willing to respond. This finding may allow public health agencies to design, implement

  12. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  13. Multi-level governance and social cohesion in the European Union: the assessment of local agents, a study case inside Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica López-Viso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementing multi-level governance has been a key priority in EU cohesion policy. This study assesses the perceived achievements and shortcomings in implementing European Social Fund by analyzing the deficits and weaknesses as well as the poor participation of local agents who are in direct contact with the beneficiaries in order to design and implement this fund, which is the main financial instrument of EU social policy.

  14. Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa : Recommendations for Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Lotta; Wilk, Julie; Graham, Phil; Warburton, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council). The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the ...

  15. Assessment of swift-ion damage by RBS/C: Determination of the amorphization threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CNM-CSIC, Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos (Spain); Olivares, J. [Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Crespillo, M.L. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Laboratory of Synchrotron Light, CELLS, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bianconi, M. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, UAM, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-01

    A theoretical strategy is developed to quantitatively assess the ion-beam damage as measured by Rutherford-backscattering spectrometry under channeling conditions (RBS/C) in LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. The approach is based on a recent exciton decay model to calculate the concentration of defects generated by the incoming ions as a function of their stopping power. To describe the channeled RBS yield the model takes into account the amorphous (core) as well as the defective halo contributions to the defect tracks caused by the ion impacts. It is concluded that the halo may significantly influence the assessed damage.

  16. Ultra-Trace Determination of Methyl Carbamate and Ethyl Carbamate in Local Wines by GC-FID Following Pre concentration with C18-SPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sarawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is described for ultra-trace determination of methyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate in locally produced fruit wines. The quantitative analysis involves with dichloromethane extraction followed by 30-fold preconcentration using C18 SPE prior to measurement by capillary GC-FID. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of their calibration curves was obtained in the range of 0.1-50.0 mg/L with r2 > 0.994. LOD and LOQ were 3.3-16.7 µg/L and 11.1-55.6 µg/L, respectively. The averaged recovery of these carbamates was ranged of 82.2-95.2% with RSD < 8.76%. The procedure was applied to determine both carbamate residues in various local wine samples. It was found that the concentration range of methyl carbamate (6.9-24.1 µg/L was rather fluctuated and higher than that of ethyl carbamate (2.6-4.3 µg/L, suggesting that is a certain residual background contamination naturally occurring in the wine fermentation.

  17. Assessing the importance of factors determining decision-making by actors involved in innovation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Innovations can be seen as chains of non-routine decisions. With each decision, the innovator has to assess how important the various decision attributes are. Because the decisions are non-routine, innovators cannot fall back on judgements of past importance. Most decision support methods elicit imp

  18. Regulatory Mechanism of Self-Determination Involvement in Higher Education: Assessing Chinese Students' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhe; Liu, Jinlan; Chi, Xianglan

    2014-01-01

    Investment in higher education facilities in terms of both hardware and software has witnessed significant growth on a yearly basis since the reintroduction of the college entrance examination known as the NMT in 1977. However, a social assessment of graduates' qualities seems to indicate that the improvement in skill levels and graduates' general…

  19. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  20. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can. Supplement to TR-06-32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-15

    This document complements and updates the report TR-06-32, Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can, in which the solubility limits of different radionuclides in the near field system and under the different scenarios selected by SKB were assessed. Since 2006, several important changes in different fields affecting solubility assessment calculations have been reported. These changes basically concern some of the thermodynamic data used in the calculations and the groundwater compositions for scenarios of interest defined by SKB. In this document we update the thermodynamic data corresponding to Ni, Zr, Th and U and we describe the thermodynamic database selected for Pb. This document also reports the update of the assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can, which has been done considering the recent thermodynamic database updates and the new groundwater compositions of interest supplied by SKB. Finally, we also present the Simple Functions spreadsheet tool, born from the need of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits of some radionuclides under determined conditions in an agile and relatively fast manner

  1. Determination of the bioaccessibility of chromium in Glasgow soil and the implications for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, Andrew; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna; Fordyce, Fiona M; Bewley, Richard J F; Graham, Margaret C; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Farmer, John G

    2010-12-15

    The Unified Bioaccessibility Method (UBM), which simulates the fluids of the human gastrointestinal tract, was used to assess the oral bioaccessibility of Cr in 27 Glasgow soils. These included several contaminated with Cr(VI), the most toxic form of Cr, from the past disposal of chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The extraction was employed in conjunction with the subsequent determination of the bioaccessible Cr by ICP-OES and Cr(VI) by the diphenylcarbazide complexation colorimetric procedure. In addition, Cr(III)-containing species were determined by (i) HPLC-ICP-MS and (ii) ICP-OES analysis of gel electrophoretically separated components of colloidal and dissolved fractions from centrifugal ultrafiltration of extracts. Similar analytical procedures were applied to the determination of Cr and its species in extracts of the complexes. Insertion of oral bioaccessible fraction data into the SNIFFER human health risk assessment model identified site-specific assessment criteria (for residential land without plant uptake) that were exceeded by the soil total Cr (3680 mg kg(-1)) and Cr(VI) (1485 mg kg(-1)) concentration at only the most COPR-Cr(VI)-contaminated location. However, the presence of measurable Cr(VI) in the <10 μm fraction of the two most highly Cr(VI)-contaminated soils demonstrated that inhalation of Cr(VI)-containing dust remains the most potentially harmful exposure route.

  2. 利用局部相位量化实现图像质量评价的方法%REALISING IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT WITH LOCAL PHASE QUANTISATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彦

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an image quality assessment method using local phase quantisation (LPQ). The LPQ codes of reference image are first computed, and then the histogram of LPQ in the image is counted. For images to be assessed, the same operation will be processed. Finally, the chi-square distance is used to metric the quality difference between the reference image and the image to be assessed. Experiments show that the presented method is effective in assessing image quality.%提出一种利用局部相位量化LPQ(Local Phase Quantisation)来评价图像质量的方法.首先计算参考图像的LPQ编码,然后统计LPQ编码在该图像中的直方图.对需要评价的图像做相同操作.最后用Chi-square距离来度量参考图像和待评价图像质量的差别.实验表明提出的方法能够有效评价图像质量.

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  4. Curriculum-Based Measurement as a Predictor of Performance on a State Assessment: Diagnostic Efficiency of Local Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg Patton, Karen L.; Reschly, Amy L.; Appleton, James

    2014-01-01

    With the concurrent emphasis on accountability, prevention, and early intervention, curriculum-based measurement of reading (R-CBM) is playing an increasingly important role in the educational process. This study investigated the differences in diagnostic accuracy and utility between commercial norms and local norms when making high-stakes, local…

  5. Assessing the Role of Brewer Spectrophotometer in Determining Aerosol Optical Properties in the UK and Tropics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumharn, Wilawan

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol effects are one of the major uncertainties in assessing global climate change, ecosystem processes and human health. This is because they critically change the balance between the radiation entering and leaving the atmosphere, as well as influencing cloud formation and having direct effects on biological systems e.g. through the respiratory system. It is the direct radiative effects of aerosol that are the focus of this work. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is a measure of the extinc...

  6. Determining nurses\\' clinical competence in hospitals of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences by self assessment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood mahreini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses’ self awareness of their own level of clinical competence is essential in maintaining high standards of care and identifying areas of educational need and professional development. Self-assessment is a method for measuring clinical competence, and encourages nurses to use reflective thinking and take an active part in the learning process. Although nurse competence may vary between hospitals, very few studies have been done on this subject. Methods: In this cross sectional study, we analyzed clinical competency of 190 registered nurses working in different hospitals in Bushehr by self assessment method. The instrument for data collection was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 73 items from seven categories which were devised from Benner's “from Novice to Expert” framework. The level of competence was assessed on a scale of 0-100 and the frequency of using the competencies was assessed on a Likert scale. Results: the nurses reported their overall level of competence as “good” (51-75. They felt more competent in the categories of “managing situations” and “helping role” (with maximum score of 79.54 and least competent in “teaching – coaching” and “ensuring quality” categories (with minimum score of 61.15. The frequency of practicing competencies had a positive correlation with the level of nursing clinical competence. Conclusion: The level of nursing competence and frequency of using competencies varied in different hospitals. Although the nurses reported their overall level of competence as good, we should be concerned about 24% of competencies which are not used by the nurses, especially in "teaching – coaching" and "ensuring quality" categories.

  7. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  8. Assessing the Determinants and Implications of Teacher Layoffs. Working Paper 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy

    2010-01-01

    Over 2000 teachers in the state of Washington received reduction-in-force (RIF) notices in the past two years. The authors link data on these RIF notices to a unique dataset that includes student, teacher, school, and district variables to determine the factors that predict the likelihood of a teacher receiving a RIF notice. They find a teacher's…

  9. 41 CFR 105-70.031 - Determining the amount of penalties and assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 70-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining the...

  10. Specifying the Determinants of Neighborhood Satisfaction: A Robust Assessment in 24 Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of households nested in census tracts in 24 metropolitan areas over four time points, this study provides a robust test of the determinants of neighborhood satisfaction, taking into account the census tract context. Consistent with social disorganization theory, the presence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity and single-parent…

  11. Utilizing Building Usage Assessment: Determining Deployment of Student Workers in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    Generating, collecting, and analyzing building usage statistics can greatly increase the ability of an access services unit to meet the changing dynamic of patron needs in an academic library. By analyzing three different data points, the Access Services Unit in Malpass Library at Western Illinois University was able to determine the most…

  12. 29 CFR 579.5 - Determining the amount of the penalty and assessing the penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR VIOLATIONS-CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES § 579.5 Determining the amount... to child labor or of any regulation issued under that section, will be based on the available... (2) Whether the evidence shows that the person so charged had no previous history of child...

  13. Assessment of Local Control after Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Contribution of FDG-PET in Patients with Clinical Suspicion of Progressive Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, T.; Steffen, I.; Hildebrandt, B.; Ruehl, R.; Streitparth, F.; Lehmk uhl, L.; Langrehr, J.; Ricke, J.; Amthauer, H.; Lopez Haenninen, E. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Bereiche Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie Onkologie, and Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral-, und T ransplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizi n Berlin, (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Management of patients after locally ablative treatment of liver metastases requires exact information about local control and systemic disease status. To fulfill these requirements, whole-body imaging using positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising alternative to morphologic imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To evaluate FDG-PET for the assessment of local control and systemic disease in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of colorectal liver metastases. Material and Methods: In 21 patients with suspicion of progressive disease after LITT, whole-body FDG-PET was performed. The presence of viable tumor within treated lesions, new liver metastases, and extrahepatic disease was evaluated visually and semi quantitatively (maximal standard uptake value [SUVmax], tumor-to-normal ratio [T/N]). The standard of reference was histopathology (n = 25 lesions) and/or clinical follow-up (>12 months) including contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver. Results: Among 54 metastases treated with LITT, 29 had residual tumor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of SUVmax (area under the curve (AUC) 0.990) and T/N (AUC 0.968) showed a significant discrimination level of negative or positive lesion status with an equal accuracy of 94% (51/54). The overall accuracy of visual FDG-PET was 96% (52/54), with one false-negative lesion among six examined within 3 days after LITT, and one false-positive lesion examined 54 days after LITT. In the detection of new intra- and extrahepatic lesions, FDG-PET resulted in correct alteration of treatment strategy in 43% of patients (P = 0.007). Conclusion: FDG-PET is a promising tool for the assessment of local control and whole-body restaging in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after locally ablative treatment of colorectal liver metastases with

  14. Database assessment of CMIP5 and hydrological models to determine flood risk areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limlahapun, Ponthip; Fukui, Hiromichi

    2016-11-01

    Solutions for water-related disasters may not be solved with a single scientific method. Based on this premise, we involved logic conceptions, associate sequential result amongst models, and database applications attempting to analyse historical and future scenarios in the context of flooding. The three main models used in this study are (1) the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to derive precipitation; (2) the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) to extract amount of discharge; and (3) the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) model to generate inundated areas. This research notably focused on integrating data regardless of system-design complexity, and database approaches are significantly flexible, manageable, and well-supported for system data transfer, which makes them suitable for monitoring a flood. The outcome of flood map together with real-time stream data can help local communities identify areas at-risk of flooding in advance.

  15. The Araucaria Project. A Distance Determination to the Local Group Spiral M33 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; Konorski, P; Suchomska, K; Graczyk, D; Pilecki, B; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Karczmarek, P; Gallenne, A; Calderon, P; Geisler, D

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by an amazing range of reported distances to the nearby Local Group spiral galaxy M33, we have obtained deep near-infrared photometry for 26 long-period Cepheids in this galaxy with the ESO VLT. From the data we constructed period-luminosity relations in the J and K bands which together with previous optical VI photometry for the Cepheids by Macri et al. were used to determine the true distance modulus of M33, and the mean reddening affecting the Cepheid sample with the multiwavelength fit method developed in the Araucaria Project. We find a true distance modulus of 24.62 for M33, with a total uncertainty of +- 0.07 mag which is dominated by the uncertainty on the photometric zero points in our photometry. The reddening is determined as E(B-V)=0.19 +- 0.02, in agreement with the value used by the HST Key Project of Freedman et al. but in some discrepancy with other recent determinations based on blue supergiant spectroscopy and an O-type eclipsing binary which yielded lower reddening values. Our der...

  16. Assessment of climate change vulnerability at the local level: a case study on the Dniester River Basin (Moldova).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corobov, Roman; Sîrodoev, Igor; Koeppel, Sonja; Denisov, Nickolai; Sîrodoev, Ghennadi

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability to climate change of the Moldavian part of the Dniester river was assessed as the function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of its basin's natural and socioeconomic systems. As a spatial "scale" of the assessment, Moldova's administrative-territorial units (ATUs) were selected. The exposure assessment was based on the climatic analysis of baseline (1971-2000) temperature and precipitation and projections of their changes in 2021-2050, separately for cold and warm periods. The sensitivity assessment included physiographical and socioeconomic characteristics, described by a set of specific indicators. The adaptive capacity was expressed by general economic and agricultural indicators, taking into consideration the medical provision and housing conditions. Through a ranking approach, the relative vulnerability of each ATU was calculated by summing its sensitivity and adaptive capacity ranks; the latter were obtained as combinations of their primary indicator ranks, arranged in an increasing and decreasing order, respectively. Due to lack of sound knowledge on these components' importance in overall assessment of vulnerability, their weights were taken as conventionally equal. Mapping of vulnerability revealed that ATUs neighboring to municipalities are the most vulnerable and need special attention in climate change adaptation. The basin's "hotspots" were discussed with public participation.

  17. Assessing the impact of atmospheric stability on locally and remotely sourced aerosols at Richmond, Australia, using Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jagoda; Chambers, Scott; Cohen, David; Williams, Alastair; Griffiths, Alan; Stelcer, Eduard

    2016-02-01

    A flexible radon-based scheme for the classification of nocturnal stability regimes was used for the interpretation of daily-integrated PM2.5 aerosol observations collected at Richmond, Australia, between 2007 and 2011. Source fingerprint concentrations for the dominant locally and remotely sourced aerosols were analysed by nocturnal radon stability category to characterise the influences of day-to-day changes in daily integrated atmospheric mixing. The fingerprints analysed included: smoke, vehicle exhaust, secondary sulfate and aged industrial sulfur. The largest and most consistent stability influences were observed on the locally sourced pollutants. Based on a 5-year composite, daily integrated concentrations of smoke were almost a factor of 7 higher when nocturnal conditions were classed as "stable" than when they were "near neutral". For vehicle emissions a factor of 4 was seen. However, when the winter months were considered in isolation, it was found that these factors increased to 11.5 (smoke) and 5.5 (vehicle emissions) for daily average concentrations. The changes in concentration of the remotely sourced pollutants with atmospheric stability were comparatively small and less consistent, probably as a result of the nocturnal inversion frequently isolating near-surface observations from non-local sources at night. A similar classification was performed using the commonly-adopted Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability typing technique based on meteorological parameters. While concentrations of fingerprints associated with locally-sourced pollutants were also shown to be positively correlated with atmospheric stability using the PG classification, this technique was found to underestimate peak pollutant concentrations under stable atmospheric conditions by almost a factor of 2.

  18. WETSYS, a dynamic system model to assess trade-off between wetland ecosystem services at local level

    OpenAIRE

    Morardet, S.; Masiyandima, M.; Vasilishina, O.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an integrated dynamic simulation model that represents wetland functioning. The model can be used for analysing trade-offs between the provision of ecosystem services and ecosystem integrity and resulting land use changes in the Ga-Mampa wetland in the Limpopo basin in South Africa. The purpose of the analysis is to generate knowledge that can assist decision-makers and local communities in managing wetland ecosystems in a sustainable manner. The model was developed using...

  19. Influence of local molecular motions on the determination of 1H-1H internuclear distances measured by 2D 1H spin-exchange experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, J; Petrícková, H; Dybal, J

    2003-06-01

    Analysis of spin-exchange build-up curves obtained by measurement of 2D 1H CRAMPS spectra of alpha-glycine was performed to evaluate the rate of 1H-1H spin-exchange process with respect to the influence of variation in internal molecular motion. Differences in local motions significantly affect spin-exchange constants even in highly rigid organic solids with virtually uniform motion behavior. The polarization transfer between nonequivalent alpha-protons is described by the spin-exchange constant D=0.77 nm(2)ms(-1), while the polarization transfer involving spin exchange between alphaH and NH(3)(+) protons is characterized by D=0.24-0.21 nm(2)ms(-1). This significant decrease corresponds to rotation of hydrogen-bonded amino groups. Neglecting this variation in local spin-exchange constants the resulting calculated 1H-1H distance can be overestimated by up to 100%. Complications following from relayed and back polarization transfer involving the nearest spins within one functional group (e.g., CH(2) and/or NH(3)(+)) and intermolecular spin exchange are discussed. It was shown that 2H quadrupolar splitting determined for selected sites directly correlates with the experimentally observed differences in spin-exchange coefficients. It is also demonstrated that a medium level quantum chemical calculation of molecular dynamics provides relevant data that can be used to estimate differences in molecular motions.

  20. Methodological approach to determine minor, considerable, and major treatment effects in the early benefit assessment of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipka, Guido; Wieseler, Beate; Kaiser, Thomas; Thomas, Stefanie; Bender, Ralf; Windeler, Jürgen; Lange, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of 2011, the early benefit assessment of new drugs was introduced in Germany with the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG). The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) generally commissions the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) with this type of assessment, which examines whether a new drug shows an added benefit (a positive patient-relevant treatment effect) over the current standard therapy. IQWiG is required to assess the extent of added benefit on the basis of a dossier submitted by the pharmaceutical company responsible. In this context, IQWiG was faced with the task of developing a transparent and plausible approach for operationalizing how to determine the extent of added benefit. In the case of an added benefit, the law specifies three main extent categories (minor, considerable, major). To restrict value judgements to a minimum in the first stage of the assessment process, an explicit and abstract operationalization was needed. The present paper is limited to the situation of binary data (analysis of 2 × 2 tables), using the relative risk as an effect measure. For the treatment effect to be classified as a minor, considerable, or major added benefit, the methodological approach stipulates that the (two-sided) 95% confidence interval of the effect must exceed a specified distance to the zero effect. In summary, we assume that our approach provides a robust, transparent, and thus predictable foundation to determine minor, considerable, and major treatment effects on binary outcomes in the early benefit assessment of new drugs in Germany. After a decision on the added benefit of a new drug by G-BA, the classification of added benefit is used to inform pricing negotiations between the umbrella organization of statutory health insurance and the pharmaceutical companies.

  1. THE ROLE OF GENETIC DETERMINANTS AND DISORDERS IN SYSTEMIC AND LOCAL IMMUNITY IN THE ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF HERPETIC ECZEMA (KAPOSI'S ECZEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Stadnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an analysis of the literature data on the etiology and pathogenesis  of Herpetic Eczema (Kaposi's Eczema. Modern views on the complex genetic and phenotypic determinants of disease, reflecting the complex interactions between the skin and the immune system. Along with the general regularities characteristic of Herpetic Eczema in sufficient detail the reasons of infringements of functioning of the epidermal skin barrier, which contribute to an easier penetration of the Herpes Simplex  Virus in the skin and its binding  to cellular receptors in the implementation of the infectious process. The effect of systemic and local immunity, namely, changes in T-cell and interferon system in the development of the pathological process.

  2. Design and Testing of an Automated System using Thermochromatic Liquid Crystals to Determine Local Heat Transfer Coefficients for an Impinging Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Using thermochromatic liquid crystal to measure surface temperature, an automated transient method with time-varying free-stream temperature is developed to determine local heat transfer coefficients. By allowing the free-stream temperature to vary with time, the need for complicated mechanical components to achieve a step temperature change is eliminated, and by using the thermochromatic liquid crystals as temperature indicators, the labor intensive task of installing many thermocouples is omitted. Bias associated with human perception of the transition of the thermochromatic liquid crystal is eliminated by using a high speed digital camera and a computer. The method is validated by comparisons with results obtained by the steady-state method for a circular Jet impinging on a flat plate. Several factors affecting the accuracy of the method are evaluated.

  3. The tool for the automatic analysis of text cohesion (TAACO): Automatic assessment of local, global, and text cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S

    2016-12-01

    This study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Cohesion (TAACO), a freely available text analysis tool that is easy to use, works on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux), is housed on a user's hard drive (rather than having an Internet interface), allows for the batch processing of text files, and incorporates over 150 classic and recently developed indices related to text cohesion. The study validates TAACO by investigating how its indices related to local, global, and overall text cohesion can predict expert judgments of text coherence and essay quality. The findings of this study provide predictive validation of TAACO and support the notion that expert judgments of text coherence and quality are either negatively correlated or not predicted by local and overall text cohesion indices, but are positively predicted by global indices of cohesion. Combined, these findings provide supporting evidence that coherence for expert raters is a property of global cohesion and not of local cohesion, and that expert ratings of text quality are positively related to global cohesion.

  4. Nutritional status of patients treated with radiotherapy as determined by subjective global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koom, Woong Sub; Keum, Ki Chang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this prospective multi-institutional study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal cancer. A total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in this study at seven different hospitals in Seoul, Korea between October 2009 and May 2010. The nutritional status of patients after receiving 3 weeks of RT was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The nutritional status of each patient was rated as well nourished (A), moderately malnourished (B), or severely malnourished (C). The mean age of patients in this study was 59.4 {+-} 11.9 years, and the male to female ratio was 7:3. According to the SGA results, 60.8%, 34.5%, and 4.7% of patients were classified as A, B, or C, respectively. The following criteria were significantly associated with malnutrition (SGA B or C; p < 0.001): loss of subcutaneous fat or muscle wasting (odds ratio [OR], 11.473); increased metabolic demand/stress (OR, 8.688); ankle, sacral edema, or ascites (OR, 3.234); and weight loss 5% (OR, 2.299). SGA was applied successfully to assess the nutritional status of most patients. The prevalence of malnutrition in a radiation oncology department was 39.2%. The results of this study serve as a basis for implementation of nutrition intervention to patients being treated at radiation oncology departments.

  5. Nanotoxicity and Life Cycle Assessment: First attempt towards the determination of characterization factors for carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Zimmermann, Benedikt; Weil, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Carbon materials, whether at macro, micro or at nanoscale, play an important role in the battery industry, as they can be used as electrodes, electrode enhancers, bipolar separators, or current collectors. When conducting a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of novel batteries manufacturing processes, we also need to consider the fate of potentially emitted carbon based nanomaterials. However, the knowledge generated in the last decade regarding the behavior of such materials in the environment and its toxicological effects has yet to be included in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies. Conventional databases of chemical products (e.g. ECHA, ECOTOX) offer little information regarding engineered nanomaterials (ENM). It is thus necessary to go one step further and compile physicochemical and toxicological data directly from scientific literature. Such studies do not only differ in their results, but also in their methodologies, and several calls have been made towards a more consistent approach that would allow us model the fate of ENM in the environment as well as their potentially harmful effects. Trying to overcome these limitations we have developed a tool based on Microsoft Excel® combining several methods for the estimation of physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT). The information generated with this tool is combined with degradation rates and toxicological data consistent with the methods followed by the USEtox methodology. Thus, it is possible to calculate the characterization factors of CNTs and integrate them as a first proxy in future LCA of products including these ENM.

  6. Evaluation of global sequence comparison and one-to-one FASTA local alignment in regulatory allergenicity assessment of transgenic proteins in food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Herman, Rod A; Kumpatla, Siva

    2014-09-01

    To address the high false positive rate using >35% identity over 80 amino acids in the regulatory assessment of transgenic proteins for potential allergenicity and the change of E-value with database size, the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment and a one-to-one (1:1) local FASTA search (one protein in the target database at a time) using FASTA were evaluated by comparing proteins randomly selected from Arabidopsis, rice, corn, and soybean with known allergens in a peer-reviewed allergen database (http://www.allergenonline.org/). Compared with the approach of searching >35%/80aa+, the false positive rate measured by specificity rate for identification of true allergens was reduced by a 1:1 global sequence alignment with a cut-off threshold of ≧30% identity and a 1:1 FASTA local alignment with a cut-off E-value of ≦1.0E-09 while maintaining the same sensitivity. Hence, a 1:1 sequence comparison, especially using the FASTA local alignment tool with a biological relevant E-value of 1.0E-09 as a threshold, is recommended for the regulatory assessment of sequence identities between transgenic proteins in food crops and known allergens.

  7. Assessment of Raman spectroscopy as a fast and non-invasive method for total stratum corneum thickness determination of pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, Denise-Silvia; Nagelreiter, Corinna; Gehrig, Sebastian; Geyer, Antonia; Ogris, Manfred; Kwizda, Kristina; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-11-10

    Determination of total stratum corneum (SC) thickness is necessary to construct accurate SC drug concentration depth profiles that are used to evaluate the skin absorption of locally acting active components. Currently, different established methods such as the microscopic or gravimetric approach, estimation via transepidermal water loss or NIR densitometry are used. However, some of them represent time consuming strategies. In the present study, Raman spectroscopy was assessed as a non-invasive and fast method for total SC thickness estimation. All techniques employed in this study yielded comparable results with SC values of 11.15 ± 1.52 μm derived from Raman experiments, 10.22 ± 2.64 μm from NIR densitometry measurements and 10.91 ± 2.03 μm from light microscopy studies suggesting Raman spectroscopy as an appropriate and rapid method for total SC thickness determination. As a further objective of the study, the storage conditions of the skin samples during Raman measurements and the impact of keeping the skin on the cartilage during NIR densitometry measurements were investigated. Skin samples can be stored dry during Raman measurements, if immediate measurement is not feasible. Furthermore, skin samples for NIR densitometry studies should be kept on the cartilage during the stripping procedure to avoid SC thickness underestimation.

  8. Identifying Determinants of Oncomelania hupensis Habitats and Assessing the Effects of Environmental Control Strategies in the Plain Regions with the Waterway Network of China at the Microscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Qiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD, paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention.

  9. Experimental re-determination and thermodynamic assessment of the erbium-zirconium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J. [CEA, DEN (Nuclear Energy Division), DMN/SRMA/LA2M, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS, Universite Paris-Est, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Toffolon-Masclet, C. [CEA, DEN (Nuclear Energy Division), DMN/SRMA/LA2M, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Joubert, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.joubert@icmpe.cnrs.f [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS, Universite Paris-Est, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2010-07-31

    The erbium-zirconium (Er-Zr) system has been completely reinvestigated experimentally. Particular attention was paid to the high purity of the raw materials, to the absence of oxygen contamination and to the control of the high vapor pressure of erbium. Several experimental techniques have been used to measure the solubility limits at different temperatures, the invariant points and the solidus and liquidus temperatures which were generally found to disagree with what was reported in the literature. As a result, the phase diagram presently obtained differs significantly from the accepted one and we propose a complete revision of the system. A thermodynamic assessment using the Calphad approach has been conducted. A set of parameters has been obtained allowing to describe well the experimental measurements.

  10. Syndromal versus contextualized personality assessment: differentiating environmental and dispositional determinants of boys' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J C; Lindgren, K P; Zakriski, A L

    2001-12-01

    Two studies examined how "syndromal" approaches to assessment confound differences between individuals in the person and situation variables that contribute to their behavior. In a field study, a widely used instrument was found to be sensitive to the base rates of boys' aggression but, as expected, did not discriminate between boys who were similar in their behavior base rates but different in their social environments and how they responded to them. A laboratory experiment replicated this finding and demonstrated that social observers discriminated between targets on the basis of their functional properties even though syndrome scores did not. The results clarify how syndromal methods can obscure situational factors, conflict with people's social knowledge, and reinforce the view that syndromes exist "in the individual" rather than in person-environment interactions. Implications for developing more contextually sensitive instruments are discussed.

  11. Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Al Tamimi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

  12. Critical assessment of suitable methods used for determination of antibacterial properties at photocatalytic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysa, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Krysa@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Musilova, Eva [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Zita, Jiri [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Inorganic Technology, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Methods for antibacterial activity of irradiated TiO{sub 2} films were critically assessed. {yields} As test bacteria gram negative E. coli and gram positive E. faecalis were employed. {yields} The ISO glass adhesion method is more appropriate than method with bacteria suspension. {yields} Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested. - Abstract: This work describes the development of methods necessary for antibacterial effect evaluation on irradiated TiO{sub 2} layers. Two methods using bacteria suspensions and the glass adhesion method (based on ISO 27447:2009(E)) were critically assessed and compared. As test bacteria gram negative Escherichia coli and gram positive Enterococcus faecalis were employed. The method using 50 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension is convenient for testing layers with strong antibacterial effect (prepared from powder photocatalysts). For the evaluation of the antibacterial effect of sol gel layers, the glass adhesion method based on the ISO is more appropriate than the method with 3 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension. The reason is that the later does not allow a distinction between the inhibition effect of TiO{sub 2} and UV light itself. Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested, namely the use of gelatinous pills (CCM) of bacteria, using saline solution instead of nutrient broth for bacteria suspension preparation and the application of selective media for bacteria cultivation. Decreasing the light intensity from 0.6 mW cm{sup -2} to 0.2 mW cm{sup -2} (fulfilling the requirements of the ISO) results in almost negligible effect of UV light itself, thus enabling proper testing of the antibacterial properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  13. Development and evaluation of a dynamic multimedia model (ECORAME) for local scale assessment of aquatic ecological exposure to chemicals originating from sources in environmental media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ja Eun; Kim, Yoon Kwan; Song, Jee Hey; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-12-01

    Use of multimedia models (MMMs) has been limited in exposure assessment for aquatic ecosystems at local scale typically due to their coarse spatial resolution and inability to predict the individual concentrations of multiple streams within a watershed cell. An MMM named ECORAME is presented which overcomes the limitations by treating each water segment as an independent cell rather than a compartment within a watershed cell. This offers two advantages for exposure assessment, i.e., i) the spatial resolution for water is readily adjustable and ii) multiple water streams within one watershed cell could be handled individually. Model evaluation with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) demonstrated that ECORAME's prediction of relative concentration agreed with measured values within a factor of five or less. A case study of PAHs using ECORAME shows that the concentration can change by more than 10 fold over the 40km main stream stretch of the Han River in Seoul, Korea. The concentration difference among multiple streams in the same watershed cell could be substantial (greater than 100 fold). Besides a need of finer spatial resolutons than those typically used in MMMs, the results strongly suggest that exposure prediction capability for individual streams in the same watershed is necessary for local scale assessment. As demostrated with ECORAME, the need can be effectively met by handling the water segments as individual cells in future MMMs.

  14. Empirical assessment of the determinants of road energy demand in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polemis, Michael L. [Athens Univ., Dept. of Economics, Athens (Greece)

    2006-05-15

    This paper attempts to cast light on the determinants of road energy demand in Greece. For this purpose, we used cointegration techniques and vector autoregression (VAR) analysis in order to capture short-run and long-run dynamics for gasoline and diesel demand, respectively. From the empirical analysis that covers the period 1978-2003, we find that in the long-run gasoline energy demand appears to be price and income inelastic while diesel demand appears to be price inelastic and income elastic. We also found that the absence of close substitutes in the road sector denotes the low level of energy switching in Greece. (Author)

  15. Assessing Awareness Level about Warning Signs of Cancer and its Determinants in an Iranian General Population

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. M...

  16. Assessment of local changes of cerebral perfusion and blood concentration by ultrasound harmonic B-mode contrast measurement in piglet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M.C. van; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Hopman, J.C.W.; Liem, K.D.; Thijssen, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the blood concentration, and possibly in the perfusion, of different areas in the brain can be assessed by the use of ultrasound contrast agent (CA) and (linear) echo densitometry. The experiments were performed with piglets (n=3) under general anesth

  17. Simple Linear Regression and Reflectance Sensitivity Analysis Used to Determine the Optimum Wavelength for Nondestructive Assessment of Chlorophyll in Fresh Leaves Using Spectral Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accuracy of nondestructive optical methods for chlorophyll (Chl) assessment based on leaf spectral characteristics depends on the wavelengths used for Chl assessment. Using spectroscopy, the optimum wavelengths for Chl assessment (OWChl) were determined for almond, poplar, and apple trees grown ...

  18. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Dialysis Pa