WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing local determinants

  1. Assessing the Determinants of Renewable Electricity Acceptance Integrating Meta-Analysis Regression and a Local Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In dealing with renewable electricity (RE, individuals are involved both as end-consumers on the demand side and as stakeholders (citizens in the local production process on the supply side. Empirical evidence shows that in many countries, consumers are willing to pay a significant amount to facilitate adoption of RE. By contrast, environmental externalities are often the cause of strong opposition to RE adoption if local communities are involved as stakeholders in wind, solar or biomass investment projects. Looking at the literature on willingness to pay and on willingness to accept, we have investigated RE acceptance mechanisms. First, we have used the meta-analysis to assess the major determinants of RE acceptance on both demand and supply sides. Meta-analysis has provided some insights useful for managing field research on an onshore wind farm enlargement project located in the Umbria region. Meta-analysis and survey results confirm that the local community plays a central role in local RE acceptance. Furthermore, people who have previous experience with windmills require less compensation, or are willing to pay more, for RE development. Results suggest that these attributes should be included in future research to improve understanding of determinants of RE acceptance.

  2. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    The development of new creep-resistant and cost effective die casting magnesium alloys, such as AE, MRI, MEZ, ACM, AXJ, AJ, WE, have emerged as an alternative, to fulfil the modern demands in structurally relevant applications, such as engine blocks, gears and converter boxes. However, in most cases, magnesium components are screwed with aluminium and steel bolts, which lead the screwed joints to lose the preload force, due to relaxation. This barrier thereby limits the broad use of magnesium within this segment and should somehow find an adequate solution to help overcome this limitation. Furthermore, together with alloy development and the addition of reinforcement (MMCs), local material engineering processes have been conceived and are considered a method to improve the properties and therefore expand the number of potential applications for magnesium alloys. In this context, Friction Welding (FW) and particularly Friction Hydro Pillar Processing (FHPP), which can be described as a drill and fill process, appear to be an alternative to make the use of magnesium more widespread. For this reason, FHPP is intended to be used, to locally reinforce the mechanically fastened magnesium components. With this approach, regions submitted to the stresses imposed by tightening forces can be compensated by the use of a material with superior properties. It is not required to fabricate the whole structure from an expensive material, thus saving costs and thereby satisfying the economic pressures of an increasingly competitive global market. In the present work, a preliminary experimental matrix was defined and used to determine the optimal welding conditions for each specific material combination selected. Further, elaborate experimental techniques are used to describe the process parameters-microstructure-properties relationships and the consequent mechanisms leading to bonding in FHPP welds in similar and dissimilar configurations. The welds were performed using a hydraulic

  3. State Mandated versus a Locally Determined Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    The advantages and disadvantages of state mandated and locally developed curricula are discussed. State mandates emphasize a measurement philosophy of education in which testing is the name of the game to determine how well students are achieving. One of the advantages of a state mandated curriculum is that the curriculum is aligned with the…

  4. Assessing Locally Focused Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the doctrinal issue, one individual suggested that operational assessment “needs its own book .”11 He envisioned a baseline doctrine (a Joint...unhealthy obsession with “coloring- book assessments” (Upshur, Roginski, and Kilcullen, 2012). This refers to the widely used red- yellow-green stoplight...gas revenue (about 90 percent of its exports are fuel products). Most of the country’s revenue streams into the hands of its ruling elite. Illiteracy

  5. Exploring Local to Global Leadership Education Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    From individual student learning outcomes to full-scale program enhancement, assessment is critical in developing and sustaining leadership education. This chapter will look at assessment techniques and trends spanning from local to global frameworks. International Leadership Association overarching Outcomes and Assessment Guiding Question: "What…

  6. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  7. LOCAL PRODUCTS IMAGE DETERMINANT COMMUNES OF NISKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  8. Creativity in local government: Definition and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyen, P.M.; Genugten, M.L. van

    2017-01-01

    In current thinking about public service improvement, civil servant creativity plays an important role. Using the results of 43 semi-structured interviews, we assessed the degree to which our theoretical knowledge about creativity—based primarily on business research—matches the insights of managers

  9. Determinants Of Housing Satisfaction In Residential Localities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six major dimensions or factors were produced as determinants of housing satisfaction in Uyo. These factors are social infrastructure, housing facilities, consumers goods availability, health and leisure water supply and security service factors. These six factors accounted for 80% of the variation within the data set. These six ...

  10. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION DETERMINANTS AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Florentina GAVRILUŢĂ (VATAMANU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the impact of fiscal decentralization on local (regional development in the EU Member States while controlling for macroeconomic and local autonomy specific factors. Using a panel data approach with dynamic effects, we examined the implications of fiscal decentralization on local development across European Union countries over the 1990-2004 period. The novelty of the study is emphasized by including in the analysis a variable which tests local fiscal discipline, more exactly, Fiscal Rule Strength Index for local level of government. Our findings suggest that prosperity of regions, measured in GDP growth depends on variables such as characteristics of decentralization undertaken by each country or local fiscal discipline, confirming our primary hypothesis. This supports the view that recently implemented reforms aiming to enforce fiscal discipline following-up the Fiscal Compact strengthened the local budgetary framework and restrained, therefore, the local discretionary power to act towards development.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF BANKS’ COMPETITIVENESS IN LOCAL FINANCIAL MARKETS

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    Ryszard Kata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of determinants of banks’ competitiveness in local financial markets, with respect to local (cooperative banks and branches of large commercial banks. The paper also evaluates the competitive position of the banks using the synthetic measure of competitive advantage MPK. The article proves that tere are considerable differences between the analyzed groups of banks, in terms of their competitiveness and its determining factors (which are banks’ assets. The paper also indicates the areas in which particular banks shouldmake changes in their resources and operational strategies in order to improve their competitiveness in local financial markets.

  12. How to Manual: How to Update and Enhance Your Local Source Water Protection Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes opportunities for improving source water assessments performed under the Safe Drinking Water Act 1453. It includes: local delineations, potential contaminant source inventories, and susceptibility determinations of source water assessment.

  13. Assessment Of Professional Tour Guides’ Performances By Local Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atınç Olcay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the help of internet and other social networks, a more conscious tourist profile has gained momentum in this new tourism era. The professional tour guide (PTG services, one of the most important components of the tourism services, have been inspired due to these developments. The PTG contributes tremendously to the success of packaged tours. As such, this research aims to determine the importance levels of the expected PTG's qualifications and assessing the performance of PTG’s from the local tourists’ perspectives. In order to ascertain the aim, survey was conducted with 472 local tourists that visited Gaziantep in 2014 with guided package tours in the months of March and April. The findings indicated that the ratings give PTGs’ performances were lower than that of their qualifications’ importance level. From this point of view, it can be suggested that PTGs’ performance levels stay under local tourists’ expectations within the research framework. The results also indicate statistically significant differences with %5 significance level between local tourists’ assessments on knowledge, abilities/skills and characteristics of PTGs and local tourist’ education levels, genders and package tour participation frequencies

  14. Determination OF Economic Age OF Marketing Local | Ugwuene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the economic age of marketing for local broiler turkeys. The age groups used were 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Three rations; turkey starter, grower and finisher were formulated. Eighty four poults were fed the three rations in the study which lasted 28 weeks. A Completely Randomised ...

  15. Determining the localization of premolar zenith positions according ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... One significant feature of gingival morphology is the gingival line, which is defined as a line. Determining the localization of premolar zenith positions according to the gingival line. İ Duran, B Yilmaz, N Tatar, Ç Ural, AU Güler1. Department of Prosthodontics, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Dentistry, ...

  16. Local constitutive behavior of paper determined by an inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Considine; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Junyong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The macroscopic behavior of paper is governed by small-scale behavior. Intuitively, we know that a small-scale defect with a paper sheet effectively determines the global behavior of the sheet. In this work, we describe a method to evaluate the local constitutive behavior of paper by using an inverse method.

  17. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  18. Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0608 TITLE: Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Vince, David Geoffrey...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0608 5c. PROGRAM... plaques at high risk for initiating a cerebrovascular accident. The core of the current research project is a pilot clinical study to enroll 100 subjects

  19. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  20. Local spin: A treatment beyond single determinant wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Bochicchio, Roberto C.

    2009-02-01

    This Letter describes a partitioning of the expectation value of an N-electron system (molecule, ion, radical, etc.) into one- and two-center contributions. The proposal is valid for both independent and correlated particle models of the wave function. Our procedure provides local spin results which are physically reasonable for closed and open shell systems. Numerical results of the electronic spin population analyses of selected systems in the Hilbert space of atomic orbitals, arising from both single determinant wave functions and multideterminantal ones are analyzed and compared.

  1. Local Pore Size Correlations Determine Flow Distributions in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Karen; Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David A; Brenner, Michael P

    2017-10-06

    The relationship between the microstructure of a porous medium and the observed flow distribution is still a puzzle. We resolve it with an analytical model, where the local correlations between adjacent pores, which determine the distribution of flows propagated from one pore downstream, predict the flow distribution. Numerical simulations of a two-dimensional porous medium verify the model and clearly show the transition of flow distributions from δ-function-like via Gaussians to exponential with increasing disorder. Comparison to experimental data further verifies our numerical approach.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF ROAD DEVELOPMENT IN ABAK LOCAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    well as in the construction of transportation routes. (Egbu and Kalu, 2006). Also significant assessment of the role of transportation in the developed nations has been taking place and has brought an acceptable view that, transportation is simply a mechanism, a catalytic agent in economic development. Road transportation ...

  3. A local factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ce, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy); Giusti, Leonardo [Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Schaefer, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2016-09-15

    We introduce a factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD with Wilson-type fermions that leads to a bosonic action which is local in the block fields. The interaction among gauge fields on distant blocks is mediated by multiboson fields located on the boundaries of the blocks. The resultant multiboson domain-decomposed hybrid Monte Carlo passes extensive numerical tests carried out by measuring standard gluonic observables. The combination of the determinant factorization and of the one of the propagator, that we put forward recently, paves the way for multilevel Monte Carlo integration in the presence of fermions. We test this possibility by computing the disconnected correlator of two flavor-diagonal pseudoscalar densities, and we observe a significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio due to a two-level integration.

  4. Is wave-particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2014-09-26

    Wave-particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions.

  5. Determination of riverbank erosion probability using Locally Weighted Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Elena; Flori, Aikaterini; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Giannakis, Georgios; Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Riverbank erosion is a natural geomorphologic process that affects the fluvial environment. The most important issue concerning riverbank erosion is the identification of the vulnerable locations. An alternative to the usual hydrodynamic models to predict vulnerable locations is to quantify the probability of erosion occurrence. This can be achieved by identifying the underlying relations between riverbank erosion and the geomorphological or hydrological variables that prevent or stimulate erosion. Thus, riverbank erosion can be determined by a regression model using independent variables that are considered to affect the erosion process. The impact of such variables may vary spatially, therefore, a non-stationary regression model is preferred instead of a stationary equivalent. Locally Weighted Regression (LWR) is proposed as a suitable choice. This method can be extended to predict the binary presence or absence of erosion based on a series of independent local variables by using the logistic regression model. It is referred to as Locally Weighted Logistic Regression (LWLR). Logistic regression is a type of regression analysis used for predicting the outcome of a categorical dependent variable (e.g. binary response) based on one or more predictor variables. The method can be combined with LWR to assign weights to local independent variables of the dependent one. LWR allows model parameters to vary over space in order to reflect spatial heterogeneity. The probabilities of the possible outcomes are modelled as a function of the independent variables using a logistic function. Logistic regression measures the relationship between a categorical dependent variable and, usually, one or several continuous independent variables by converting the dependent variable to probability scores. Then, a logistic regression is formed, which predicts success or failure of a given binary variable (e.g. erosion presence or absence) for any value of the independent variables. The

  6. Determining priorities of a remediation plan at urban scale by assessing the risk of metals and POPs for local population: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Qi, Shihua; Qu, Chengkai; Chen, Wei; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the URGE (Urban Geochemistry) project aiming at depicting the environmental conditions of several cities in Europe, the north-eastern sector of the Naples metropolitan area (Italy), namely the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano area (with ~160.000 inhabitants), has undergone a geochemical characterization based on topsoil sampling (145 samples over an area of 90 sqkm). The conurbation includes 6 municipalities (Acerra, Pomigliano D'Arco, Castello di Cisterna, Brusciano, Mariglianella and Marigliano) and considering the total extension of the urbanized areas (18-20 sqkm) the average population density could be corrected to 6-7000 inhabitants/sqkm. Soils of the area are mostly originated by the pedogenenesis of the original pyroclastics produced by the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano on the south-western side of the study area. The area has been selected because of both the presence of an historical industrial settlement on it (mainly devoted to plastic materials and synthetic fibers production) and of an incinerator which came into operation in March 2009. The main objective of the study was 1) to define the local geochemical baselines both for 53 elements (among which the toxic ones) and for some organic compounds, including PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and 2) to assess the environmental risk generated by polluted soils. Furthermore, the study aimed at supporting epidemiological researches and at establishing a record of the environmental status quo ante to evaluate in the future the impact of the incinerator on life quality and on health of local population. Obtained results showed that most of the urbanized areas of the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbations are characterized by concentrations of Pb, Zn and V exceeding the intervention limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006). Agricultural soils, in the surroundings of the urbanized areas, are enriched in Cu, Co, Cd, Be and Ni, and the probable presence of illegal waste disposals

  7. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of Quang Tri in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans...

  8. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans...

  9. Local Knowledge and Community–Based Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    other organizations to assess local and community vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Thus, CRA refers to participatory methods for assessing hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities in support of community-based disaster risk reduction (van Aalst et al., 2007). According to the UNDP (2010), there are two levels of risk ...

  10. Local factors determine plant community structure on closely neighbored islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lu

    Full Text Available Despite the recent popularity of the metacommunity concept, ecologists have not evaluated the applicability of different metacommunity frameworks to insular organisms. We surveyed 50 closely spaced islands in the Thousand-Island Lake of China to examine the role of local (environmental and regional (dispersal factors in structuring woody plant assemblages (tree and shrub species on these islands. By partitioning the variation in plant community structure into local and regional causes, we showed that local environmental conditions, specifically island morphometric characteristics, accounted for the majority of the variation in plant community structure among the studied islands. Spatial variables, representing the potential importance of species dispersal, explained little variation. We conclude that one metacommunity framework-species sorting-best characterizes these plant communities. This result reinforces the idea that the traditional approach of emphasizing the local perspective when studying ecological communities continues to hold its value.

  11. Local factors determine plant community structure on closely neighbored islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Jiang, Lin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Que

    2011-05-10

    Despite the recent popularity of the metacommunity concept, ecologists have not evaluated the applicability of different metacommunity frameworks to insular organisms. We surveyed 50 closely spaced islands in the Thousand-Island Lake of China to examine the role of local (environmental) and regional (dispersal) factors in structuring woody plant assemblages (tree and shrub species) on these islands. By partitioning the variation in plant community structure into local and regional causes, we showed that local environmental conditions, specifically island morphometric characteristics, accounted for the majority of the variation in plant community structure among the studied islands. Spatial variables, representing the potential importance of species dispersal, explained little variation. We conclude that one metacommunity framework-species sorting-best characterizes these plant communities. This result reinforces the idea that the traditional approach of emphasizing the local perspective when studying ecological communities continues to hold its value.

  12. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Local Building Materials used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are not easily accessible. Consequently, it was recommended among others that people should avoid areas with clay soil, torrential flooding or slopes in order to minimize costs for special foundations and damp proofing elements. Key words: Assessment, effectiveness, local building materials and building construction ...

  13. Quality assessment of groundwater from Hadejia Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical and trace metal levels of groundwater (borehole) from Hadejia Local Government Area of Jigawa State used for drinking and other domestic purposes were analyzed to assess its equality. A total of 20 sampling points were selected for the study, the groundwater samples were collected and analyzed ...

  14. Assessment of the hydrolytic performance of locally sourced crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starches from cassava, potato and maize were hydrolysed by locally sourced crude amylases to assess and compare the performance of the enzymes in converting root and cereal starches to glucose syrup. Standard amylases (Sigma USA) served as the reference enzymes. Selected physical and sensory characteristics of ...

  15. Local Knowledge and Community–Based Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contributes to an understanding of local knowledge on environmental change through Community Risk Assessment (CRA) in Ghana. Qualitative methods of data collection, particularly Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods were employed for data collection and complemented with a survey of 200 farmers.

  16. Assessment of locally available reactive materials for use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch tests were carried out on limestone, dolomite, fly ash, concrete and wood chips to find a reactive material and/or reactive mixture, for use in a PRB, which can neutralise acidity, remove metals and is locally abundant. Batch tests involved the leaching of the materials in deionised water to determine the leachable ...

  17. In vitro assessment of cone beam local computed tomography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Sajitha M; Mol, André; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel J

    2007-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of local computed tomography (LCT) and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection and depth assessment. An in vitro model was used consisting of 20 extracted posterior teeth with 18 caries lesions. Local computed tomography slices were reconstructed in axial and parasagittal planes from 100 basis projections. Conventional radiographs were also acquired. Eight observers determined the presence and depth of caries lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and weighted kappa statistics were used. Local computed tomography had a mean A(z) score of 0.82 (SD = 0.07) and conventional radiography of 0.79 (SD = 0.08; analysis of variance: P > .05). Interobserver agreement was moderate. The mean kappa for depth assessment was 0.68 (SD = 0.06) for LCT and 0.47 (SD = 0.08) for conventional radiography (analysis of variance: P proximal caries detection. Local computed tomography was more accurate for assessing caries lesion depth.

  18. 29 CFR 4.51 - Prevailing in the locality determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locality. In the case of information developed from surveys, statistical measurements of central tendency such as a median (a point in a distribution of wage rates where 50 percent of the surveyed workers.... Such information is most frequently derived from area surveys made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U...

  19. Role of turbulence regime on determining the local density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mordijck, S.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L.; Staebler, G. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we show that the local density gradient in the plasma core depends on the calculated mode-frequency of the most unstable linear mode and reaches a maximum when this frequency is close to zero. Previous theoretical and experimental work on AUG has shown that the ratio of electron to ion temperature, and as such the frequency of the dominant linear gyrokinetic mode, affects the local density gradient close to ρ = 0.3 (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007, Angioni et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 023006). On DIII-D we find that by adding electron cyclotron heating, we modify the dominant unstable linear gyrokinetic mode from an ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode to a trapped electron mode (TEM), which means that the frequency of the dominant mode changes sign (from the ion to the electron direction). Local density peaking around mid-radius increases by 50% right around the cross-over between the ITG and TEM regimes. By comparing how the particle flux changes, through the derivative of the electron density, n e , with respect to time, \\partial n_e/\\partial t , we find that the particle flux also exhibits the same trend versus mode frequency. As a result, we find that the changes in local particle transport are inversely proportional to the changes in electron density, indicating that the changes are driven by a change in thermo-diffusive pinch.

  20. 23 CFR 1250.4 - Determining local share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL PROVISIONS POLITICAL SUBDIVISION PARTICIPATION IN STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS § 1250.4... benefits may be credited toward meeting the 40 percent local participation requirement. Where no political... Federal 402 funds be expended by political subdivisions, FHWA and NHTSA will apply the 40 percent...

  1. Formulating Assessment Indices and Strategies for the Transition to Local Industrial Development in Taoyuan City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Local industries are crucial for enhancing urban competitiveness and are closely related to national economic performance. To sustainably develop local industries, a set of assessment indices should be formulated in addition to factors such as geographical environments, cultural history, development processes, and industrial structures for governments to promote development policies while satisfying the goal of sustainable industrial development. This study first adopted the fuzzy Delphi method to construct the indices for assessing local industrial development, referred to the action plans for the six key industries formulated by the Executive Yuan of Taiwan, and subsequently integrated the analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process to determine the order of priority for policies facilitating local industrial development for future reference. The results indicated that infrastructure, innovative research and development, and government policies are crucial bases for local industrial development. Furthermore, this study adopted Taoyuan to verify these indices and compiled expert suggestions to indicate that the government should prioritize the development of the biotechnology, green energy, and medical care industries. When developing local industries in the future, a set of assessment standards and policy analyses should be established for the government to enhance local industrial development and thus increase international competitive advantages by fully ascertaining the factors for industrial success and the characteristics of local advantages.

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk: a comparison of global and local modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisent Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a “one-size-fits-all”, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists’ toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.

  3. Analyse Des Perceptions Locales Et Des Facteurs Determinant L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une Analyse en Composantes Principales a été appliquée à la matrice des données de fréquences des organes utilisés. Une régression logistique binaire a été utilisée pour identifier les facteurs déterminant le souhait des populations à cultiver J. curcas. Les résultats ont montré que les populations locales consentissent ...

  4. Sensors at centrosomes reveal determinants of local separase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Gurkan Agircan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Separase is best known for its function in sister chromatid separation at the metaphase-anaphase transition. It also has a role in centriole disengagement in late mitosis/G1. To gain insight into the activity of separase at centrosomes, we developed two separase activity sensors: mCherry-Scc1(142-467-ΔNLS-eGFP-PACT and mCherry-kendrin(2059-2398-eGFP-PACT. Both localize to the centrosomes and enabled us to monitor local separase activity at the centrosome in real time. Both centrosomal sensors were cleaved by separase before anaphase onset, earlier than the corresponding H2B-mCherry-Scc1(142-467-eGFP sensor at chromosomes. This indicates that substrate cleavage by separase is not synchronous in the cells. Depletion of the proteins astrin or Aki1, which have been described as inhibitors of centrosomal separase, did not led to a significant activation of separase at centrosomes, emphasizing the importance of direct separase activity measurements at the centrosomes. Inhibition of polo-like kinase Plk1, on the other hand, decreased the separase activity towards the Scc1 but not the kendrin reporter. Together these findings indicate that Plk1 regulates separase activity at the level of substrate affinity at centrosomes and may explain in part the role of Plk1 in centriole disengagement.

  5. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  6. Determinants of FDI Localization in China: A County-Level Analysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su; Angelino, Antonio; Yin, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Foreign direct investments (FDIs) have been widely recognized as a crucial feature of the Chinese industrial development process. Over the past decades, China has been attracting huge amounts of inward FDIs as a consequence of both spontaneous market dynamics and place-based preferential policies at the sub-national level. However, the Chinese market exhibits large dissimilarities in terms of FDI localization across territories that are worth investigating at a more disaggregated level. In this regards, our study explores the determinants of attraction of inward FDIs in China, at the county level. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and attempts to assess whether factors related to location advantages, agglomeration dynamics, information cost effects and environmental regulation costs affect foreign firms’ localization choices as well as invested amounts in that location. By means of discrete choice models, our paper confirms the findings of the prevalent literature about the positive effects of location advantages on pharmaceutical FDI attraction. Different from our expectations, a higher proportion of foreign enterprises do not stimulate significant effects on FDI localization, while preferential policies and sectoral agglomeration are positively correlated with the localization of pharmaceutical foreign firms. Finally, our results suggest that investing firms tend to avoid areas with strict environment regulation. PMID:28867815

  7. Determinants of FDI Localization in China: A County-Level Analysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su; Angelino, Antonio; Yin, Haitao; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-08-30

    Foreign direct investments (FDIs) have been widely recognized as a crucial feature of the Chinese industrial development process. Over the past decades, China has been attracting huge amounts of inward FDIs as a consequence of both spontaneous market dynamics and place-based preferential policies at the sub-national level. However, the Chinese market exhibits large dissimilarities in terms of FDI localization across territories that are worth investigating at a more disaggregated level. In this regards, our study explores the determinants of attraction of inward FDIs in China, at the county level. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and attempts to assess whether factors related to location advantages, agglomeration dynamics, information cost effects and environmental regulation costs affect foreign firms' localization choices as well as invested amounts in that location. By means of discrete choice models, our paper confirms the findings of the prevalent literature about the positive effects of location advantages on pharmaceutical FDI attraction. Different from our expectations, a higher proportion of foreign enterprises do not stimulate significant effects on FDI localization, while preferential policies and sectoral agglomeration are positively correlated with the localization of pharmaceutical foreign firms. Finally, our results suggest that investing firms tend to avoid areas with strict environment regulation.

  8. Local breast density assessment using reacquired mammographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Eloy; Diaz, Oliver; Martí, Robert; Diez, Yago; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Sentís, Melcior; Martí, Joan; Oliver, Arnau

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the spatial glandular volumetric tissue distribution as well as the density measures provided by Volpara™ using a dataset composed of repeated pairs of mammograms, where each pair was acquired in a short time frame and in a slightly changed position of the breast. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 pairs of repeatedly acquired full-field digital mammograms from 99 different patients. The commercial software Volpara™ Density Maps (Volpara Solutions, Wellington, New Zealand) is used to estimate both the global and the local glandular tissue distribution in each image. The global measures provided by Volpara™, such as breast volume, volume of glandular tissue, and volumetric breast density are compared between the two acquisitions. The evaluation of the local glandular information is performed using histogram similarity metrics, such as intersection and correlation, and local measures, such as statistics from the difference image and local gradient correlation measures. Global measures showed a high correlation (breast volume R=0.99, volume of glandular tissue R=0.94, and volumetric breast density R=0.96) regardless the anode/filter material. Similarly, histogram intersection and correlation metric showed that, for each pair, the images share a high degree of information. Regarding the local distribution of glandular tissue, small changes in the angle of view do not yield significant differences in the glandular pattern, whilst changes in the breast thickness between both acquisition affect the spatial parenchymal distribution. This study indicates that Volpara™ Density Maps is reliable in estimating the local glandular tissue distribution and can be used for its assessment and follow-up. Volpara™ Density Maps is robust to small variations of the acquisition angle and to the beam energy, although divergences arise due to different breast compression conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Local multiboson factorization of the quark determinant arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Cè, Marco; Schaefer, Stefan

    We discuss the recently proposed multiboson domain-decomposed factorization of the gauge-field dependence of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD. In particular, we focus on the case of a lattice divided in an arbitrary number of thick time slices. As a consequence, multiple space-time regions can be updated independently. This allows to address the exponential degradation of the signal-to-noise ration of correlation functions with multilevel Monte Carlo sampling. We show numerical evidence of the effectiveness of a two-level integration for pseudoscalar propagators with momentum and for vector propagators, in a two active regions setup. These results are relevant to lattice computation of the hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and to heavy meson decay form factors.

  10. Determinants of heroin retail prices in metropolitan France: Discounts, purity and local markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Emmanuel; Janssen, Eric; Cadet-Taïrou, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Field studies have indicated a recent increase in heroin availability and use in France, and yet very little is known about the mechanisms underlying heroin retail prices. This paper offers a first attempt at identifying the determinants of heroin pricing, to measure quantity discounts and assess the influence of purity on street prices, while controlling for a geographical effect. Data on heroin samples were collected during 2011 in seven urban areas of metropolitan France. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the associations between price, quantity, purity and other independent variables. Quantity remains the most influential variable on heroin pricing. We estimate that a 10% increase in the size of a transaction leads to a 2.3% decrease in the unit price. Assessed purity proved to be significant, although in modest proportion. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, users' experience and relationships with dealers, proved to be insignificant. Heroin retail prices vary according to a geographical gradient related to the routes of entry and distribution. As a credence good, heroin retail prices in France are affected by more than simply the traditional supply and demand relationship. The results of this study also underline the limitations of a quantitative framework and should be complemented by further ethnographic research to obtain an in-depth understanding of local markets. Policies should be designed to better take local disparities into account.[Lahaie E, Janssen E, Cadet-Taïrou A. Determinants of heroin retail prices in metropolitan France:Discounts, purity and local markets. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:597-604]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Maine Exhibitions Assessment Project, September 2002-June 2004. Technical Criteria for Including Exhibition Assessments in Comprehensive Local Assessment Systems. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the Maine Department of Education began organizing an Exhibition Assessment Advisory Committee whose purpose it was to consider meaningful ways to include exhibition assessments in comprehensive local assessment systems. School administrators were invited to participate and/or nominate practitioners in their districts to become…

  12. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  13. Assessing local resources and culture before instituting quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C Matthew

    2014-12-01

    The planning phases of quality improvement projects are commonly overlooked. Disorganized planning and implementation can escalate chaos, intensify resistance to change, and increase the likelihood of failure. Two important steps in the planning phase are (1) assessing local resources available to aid in the quality improvement project and (2) evaluating the culture in which the desired change is to be implemented. Assessing local resources includes identifying and engaging key stakeholders and evaluating if appropriate expertise is available for the scope of the project. This process also involves engaging informaticists and gathering available IT tools to plan and automate (to the extent possible) the data-gathering, analysis, and feedback steps. Culture in a department is influenced by the ability and willingness to manage resistance to change, build consensus, span boundaries between stakeholders, and become a learning organization. Allotting appropriate time to perform these preparatory steps will increase the odds of successfully performing a quality improvement project and implementing change. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Local to global: a collaborative approach to volcanic risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Eliza; Loughlin, Sue; Barsotti, Sara; Bonadonna, Costanza; Jenkins, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    -economic conditions tending to influence longer term well-being and recovery. The volcanological community includes almost 100 Volcano Observatories worldwide, the official institutions responsible for monitoring volcanoes. They may be dedicated institutions, or operate from national institutions (geological surveys, universities, met agencies). They have a key role in early warning, forecasting and long term hazard assessment (often in the form of volcanic hazards maps). The complexity of volcanic systems means that once unrest begins there are multiple potential eruptive outcomes and short term forecasts can change rapidly. This local knowledge of individual volcanoes underpins hazard and risk assessments developed at national, regional and global scales. Combining this local expertise with the knowledge of the international research community (including interdisciplinary perspectives) creates a powerful partnership. A collaborative approach is therefore needed to develop effective volcanic risk assessments at regional to global scale. The World Organisation of Volcano Observatories is a Commission of IAVCEI, alongside other Commissions such as 'Hazard and Risk' (with an active working group on volcanic hazards maps) and the 'Cities and Volcanoes' Commission. The Global Volcano Model network is a collaborative initiative developing hazards and risk information at national to global scales, underpinned by local expertise. Partners include IAVCEI, Smithsonian Institution, International Volcanic Health Hazard Network, VHub and other initiatives and institutions.

  15. Quantum Locality, Rings a Bell?: Bell's Inequality Meets Local Reality and True Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Kuntz, Natalia; Nahmad-Achar, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    By assuming a deterministic evolution of quantum systems and taking realism into account, we carefully build a hidden variable theory for Quantum Mechanics (QM) based on the notion of ontological states proposed by 't Hooft (The cellular automaton interpretation of quantum mechanics, arXiv:1405.1548v3, 2015; Springer Open 185, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41285-6, 2016). We view these ontological states as the ones embedded with realism and compare them to the (usual) quantum states that represent superpositions, viewing the latter as mere information of the system they describe. Such a deterministic model puts forward conditions for the applicability of Bell's inequality: the usual inequality cannot be applied to the usual experiments. We build a Bell-like inequality that can be applied to the EPR scenario and show that this inequality is always satisfied by QM. In this way we show that QM can indeed have a local interpretation, and thus meet with the causal structure imposed by the Theory of Special Relativity in a satisfying way.

  16. Quantum Locality, Rings a Bell?: Bell's Inequality Meets Local Reality and True Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Leo, Laura S.; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Creegan, Edward; Blomquist, Byron W.; Christman, Adam J.; Hocut, Christopher M.

    2017-11-01

    By assuming a deterministic evolution of quantum systems and taking realism into account, we carefully build a hidden variable theory for Quantum Mechanics (QM) based on the notion of ontological states proposed by 't Hooft (The cellular automaton interpretation of quantum mechanics, arXiv:1405.1548v3, 2015; Springer Open 185, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41285-6, 2016). We view these ontological states as the ones embedded with realism and compare them to the (usual) quantum states that represent superpositions, viewing the latter as mere information of the system they describe. Such a deterministic model puts forward conditions for the applicability of Bell's inequality: the usual inequality cannot be applied to the usual experiments. We build a Bell-like inequality that can be applied to the EPR scenario and show that this inequality is always satisfied by QM. In this way we show that QM can indeed have a local interpretation, and thus meet with the causal structure imposed by the Theory of Special Relativity in a satisfying way.

  17. Local dose assessment for a contaminated wound; Rvaluation de la dose locale pour une blessure contaminee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechowski, J. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France); Chaptinel, Y. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dir. de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire (PMR/DPSN/SSR), 92 (France)

    2004-09-01

    Contaminated wounds present a great variability concerning the type of lesion. Assessment of the local dose is one amongst other factors for a decision as to the surgical operation. A simple model has been used to calculate the doses in a representative volume, that of a phalanx for instance. The dose rates are given for current radionuclides. The method of calculation is enough simple in order to allow the practitioners to use it in situations involving other radionuclides. Committed dose depends on the biological half-life which can be estimated from the local measurements. Some examples of calculation of committed dose are given considering half-lives characteristic of the compound. Transposition of the dose to the local risk is easy for the non-stochastic risk. Conversely, this is not the case for the risk of chronic inflammation or cancer. The latter question could only be solved by a feedback based on the analysis of real till now observed cases, nevertheless taking into account the fact that the available data are generally not so easy to make use for establishing an unquestionable dose - effect relation. A critical issue remains open as to the use of these doses for their comparison to the regulatory limits and for the subsequent decisions in case of exceeding the limits. The actual impact of an irradiation, especially by alpha particles, is not linked to the calculated dose in a simple and direct way. This question needs further consideration and perhaps a practical guide concerning this topic would be useful. The anatomical (surgical side effects), psychological and professional consequences should have a large weight relatively to the doses, obviously except for the cases, involving actually large contamination. (authors)

  18. A rural local health department-hospital collaborative for a countywide community health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Gretchen; Miner Gearin, Kim J; Boe, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the Polk County Health Department initiated a community health needs assessment process with the 3 medical centers serving this rural Wisconsin county of 45 000 residents. The collaborative process drew on primary and secondary data, including clinical data pooled from health care organizations, to assess population health. Community health assessment ultimately engaged more than 1800 county residents through coordinated surveys and community forums. Although the Polk County Health Department has a long history of collaboration with the local health care community, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, coupled with meaningful use requirements for health care providers, sharply increased engagement, contributed to shared priorities, and brought this relationship to a new level. Partners have now convened community-based workgroups around the top 3 health focus areas selected from the assessment process. Community health assessment emphasized the social determinants of health as a step toward a more "upstream" orientation to population health goals.

  19. Determining sample size when assessing mean equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Arne; Solem, Kristine B; Mikkelsen, Gustav

    2014-11-01

    When we want to assess whether two analytical methods are equivalent, we could test if the difference between the mean results is within the specification limits of 0 ± an acceptance criterion. Testing the null hypothesis of zero difference is less interesting, and so is the sample size estimation based on testing that hypothesis. Power function curves for equivalence testing experiments are not widely available. In this paper we present power function curves to help decide on the number of measurements when testing equivalence between the means of two analytical methods. Computer simulation was used to calculate the probability that the 90% confidence interval for the difference between the means of two analytical methods would exceed the specification limits of 0 ± 1, 0 ± 2 or 0 ± 3 analytical standard deviations (SDa), respectively. The probability of getting a nonequivalence alarm increases with increasing difference between the means when the difference is well within the specification limits. The probability increases with decreasing sample size and with smaller acceptance criteria. We may need at least 40-50 measurements with each analytical method when the specification limits are 0 ± 1 SDa, and 10-15 and 5-10 when the specification limits are 0 ± 2 and 0 ± 3 SDa, respectively. The power function curves provide information of the probability of false alarm, so that we can decide on the sample size under less uncertainty.

  20. Mechanical assessment of local thinned pipings; Justification mecanique des tuyauteries en sous-epaisseur locale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, E. [EDF - SEPTEN - 12-14 Avenue dutrievoz - 69628 Villeurbanne cedex - (France)

    2007-07-01

    Local wall thinning is likely to be found in some piping systems of nuclear power plant under, for example, Flow Accelerated Corrosion in raw water systems or by loss of metal during the grinding of the weld seam. To assess the mechanical integrity in such situations, EDF/SEPTEN has developed calculation methods for the RSE-M (In Service Inspection Rules for the Mechanical components of PWR nuclear power islands) code. This paper focuses on the methodology used for internal pressure resistance evaluation based on limit load calculations. Beyond the Nuclear Safety classification and requirements given by the RSE-M code, this problem is general for Power Piping and the associated in service rules. (author) [French] Les epaisseurs des tuyauteries de certains circuits des centrales nucleaires peuvent etre reduites localement du fait, par exemple, de la corrosion acceleree par l'ecoulement pour les circuits en eau brute ou par enlevement de matiere par meulage des cordons de soudure. Pour la justification mecanique de telles sous-epaisseurs, EDF/SEPTEN a developpe des methodes destinees a etre codifiees dans le code RSE-M (Regles de Surveillance en Exploitation des materiels Mecaniques des ilots nucleaires). Cet article presente plus particulierement la demarche retenue pour la tenue a la pression qui est basee sur des calculs de charge limite. Au-dela des specificites des exigences de surete nucleaire pour lesquelles le code RSE-M s'applique, cette problematique se retrouve plus generalement pour les tuyauteries des appareils a pression avec la necessite de codifier a ce niveau. (auteur)

  1. Factors Determining Bank Competitive Strategy: An Empirical Study on Local Development Banks (LDBS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad IRFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been investigating determinants of the company's competitive strategy. Nevertheless, there have insufficient studies conducted to investigate the determinants of competitive strategy on banking industry, particularly on Local development banks (LDBS. This study is aimed at filling in the literature. This study surveyed top executives of twenty-six local development banks in Indonesia and employed PLS approach to answer the research questions. The result shows that three groups of variables, i.e., innovation management, company resource management, and adoption of technology influence the development of competitive strategy in local development banks.

  2. The Size of Local Government Administration at a Municipal Level as a Determinant of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusłan Harasym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This artcle’s aim is to examine a dependency between local government administraton at a municipal level and the level of local entrepreneurship. This paper atempts to answer the queston of whether the size of the local government administraton has features of stmulant or de-stmulant in the process of setng up a business. In other words, does the size of public administraton at a local level (municipal level have a positve or negatve impact on creatng new business enttes? This is important due to at least a couple of reasons. First of all, the current research achievements are not extensive, when it comes to the publicatons that link entrepreneurship and the size of local government administraton. Secondly, the problem of entrepreneurship determinants consttutes stll topical and not fully investgated (or explained aspects of local economy development. Thirdly and fnally, the authors of this artcle have proposed and copyrighted an approach to the quantfcaton of the size of local government administraton, modifying commonly used measures of local public administraton. Thus, this artcle fts not only into the explanaton of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its determinants, but also contributes to the development of knowledge about dependencies between the size of local selfgovernment and the entrepreneurship level. It expands the knowledge resource on analyzed dependencies and re-orients current approaches to similar research.

  3. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Vulnerability Assessment and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kessel, Adam; Goodwin, Shane

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of wireless computer equipment and Local Area Networks (LANs) create an increasingly common and growing threat to Marine Corps Network infrastructure and communication security (COMSEC...

  4. Efficacy assessment of local doxycycline treatment in periodontal patients using multivariate chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovska, Liljana; Poceva Panovska, Ana; Nakov, Natalija; Zafirova, Marija; Popovska, Mirjana; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Petkovska, Rumenka

    2016-08-25

    The aim of our study was application of chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis in efficacy assessment of the local periodontal treatment with doxycycline (DOX). Treatment efficacy was evaluated by monitoring inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples and clinical indices before and after the local treatment as well as by determination of DOX concentration in GCF after the local treatment. The experimental values from these determinations were submitted to several chemometric algorithms: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The data structure and the mutual relations of the selected variables were thoroughly investigated by PCA. The PLS-DA model identified variables responsible for discrimination of classes of data, before and after DOX treatment. The OPLS-DA model compared the efficacy of the two commonly used medications in periodontal treatment, chlorhexidine (CHX) and DOX, at the same time providing insight in their mechanism of action. The obtained results indicate that application of multivariate chemometric algorithms can be used as a valuable approach for assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Workshop on Measurement Needs for Local-Structure Determination in Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Igor; Vanderah, Terrell

    2008-01-01

    The functional responses (e.g., dielectric, magnetic, catalytic, etc.) of many industrially-relevant materials are controlled by their local structure-a term that refers to the atomic arrangements on a scale ranging from atomic (sub-nanometer) to several nanometers. Thus, accurate knowledge of local structure is central to understanding the properties of nanostructured materials, thereby placing the problem of determining atomic positions on the nanoscale-the so-called "nanostructure problem"-at the center of modern materials development. Today, multiple experimental techniques exist for probing local atomic arrangements; nonetheless, finding accurate comprehensive, and robust structural solutions for the nanostructured materials still remains a formidable challenge because any one of these methods yields only a partial view of the local structure. The primary goal of this 2-day NIST-sponsored workshop was to bring together experts in the key experimental and theoretical areas relevant to local-structure determination to devise a strategy for the collaborative effort required to develop a comprehensive measurement solution on the local scale. The participants unanimously agreed that solving the nanostructure problem-an ultimate frontier in materials characterization-necessitates a coordinated interdisciplinary effort that transcends the existing capabilities of any single institution, including national laboratories, centers, and user facilities. The discussions converged on an institute dedicated to local structure determination as the most viable organizational platform for successfully addressing the nanostructure problem. The proposed "institute" would provide an intellectual infrastructure for local structure determination by (1) developing and maintaining relevant computer software integrated in an open-source global optimization framework (Fig. 2), (2) connecting industrial and academic users with experts in measurement techniques, (3) developing and

  6. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  7. Assessment Of Local Tropical Plants For Phytoremediation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum) and Water Leaf (Talinum triangulare) local plants under normal environmental conditions in remediating soil contaminated with a Nigerian crude oil sample. Composite soil sample obtained by mixing equal weight in ...

  8. Localized Fire Protection Assessment for Vehicle Compressed Hydrogen Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Industry has identified localized flame impingement on high pressure composite storage cylinders as an area requiring research due to several catastrophic failures in recent years involving compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. Current standards and...

  9. METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPETITION’S LEVEL AMONG FITNESS CLUBS ON THE LOCAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Krasnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the author’s method of assessment of the level of competition among tness clubs on the local market in conditions of limited information about the economic performance of competitors. Reveals the mechanism of dening the boundaries of the local market of the tness club and determine its capacity and structure. Shows the author’s view of possible variants of structure of tness clubs’ market. Presents the coefcients for calculation the limit value of customers of tness clubs for different price market segments. The possibility of applying the proposed methodology is illustrated by the example of the tness club. Demonstrates the necessity of the described methodology for developing the ways of increasing the competitiveness of tness clubs based on price and non-price methods.

  10. Clinical Perspective Youth violence risk assessment: gaps in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a lack of research on violence risk assessment in South Africa, particularly on the assessment of risk for violence in children and adolescents. ... to assess youth violence risk exist, many primarily focus on identifying psychopathic tendencies in young people, which has stimulated much debate amongst scholars.

  11. Assessment of local GNSS baselines at co-location sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Pinzón, Iván; Rothacher, Markus

    2018-01-01

    As one of the major contributors to the realisation of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are prone to suffer from irregularities and discontinuities in time series. While often associated with hardware/software changes and the influence of the local environment, these discrepancies constitute a major threat for ITRS realisations. Co-located GNSS at fundamental sites, with two or more available instruments, provide the opportunity to mitigate their influence while improving the accuracy of estimated positions by examining data breaks, local biases, deformations, time-dependent variations and the comparison of GNSS baselines with existing local tie measurements. With the use of co-located GNSS data from a subset sites of the International GNSS Service network, this paper discusses a global multi-year analysis with the aim of delivering homogeneous time series of coordinates to analyse system-specific error sources in the local baselines. Results based on the comparison of different GNSS-based solutions with the local survey ties show discrepancies of up to 10 mm despite GNSS coordinate repeatabilities at the sub-mm level. The discrepancies are especially large for the solutions using the ionosphere-free linear combination and estimating tropospheric zenith delays, thus corresponding to the processing strategy used for global solutions. Snow on the antennas causes further problems and seasonal variations of the station coordinates. These demonstrate the need for a permanent high-quality monitoring of the effects present in the short GNSS baselines at fundamental sites.

  12. 10 CFR 51.31 - Determinations based on environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations based on environmental assessment. 51.31 Section 51.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... appropriate NRC staff director will determine whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a...

  13. Assessing the Local Environmental Performance in Western Moldavia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Alexandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental performance is a result of measurable characteristics emerging from the functionality of integrated environmental management systems based on various sustainable development policies at different administrative levels. This paper aims to quantify some dimensions of environmental performance in terms of outcomes and administrative efficiency for Western Moldavia region, using the latest available data. The obtained results demonstrate the territorial heterogeneity of environmental state, pressure and spatial resilience by highlighting the importance of ecosystems viability (forest cover, land degradation, sustainable local governance (environmental expenditure, energy, water quality, sanitation and environmental health (sanitation services, access to water and sewage, use of renewable energy. If completed in future by integrating other local environmental performance indicators the outcome of this research could become a viable tool for local and regional system of government in establishing policies in order to effectively preserve the environment.

  14. Twist angle determination in liquid crystal displays by location of local adiabatic points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Bennis, Noureddine; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ferreira, Carlos

    1998-12-01

    In this work we present a method for the determination of the twist angle of an arbitrary twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The method is based on the location of local adiabatic points, i.e., situations in which the liquid crystal SLM acts only as a rotation device. For these cases, the rotation induced on the polarization of the incident beam is equal to the twist angle. Consequently, the twist angle can be determined with high precision. We show that local adiabatic regime may be achieved in two ways, either by changing the incident beam wavelength, or by applying a voltage to the electrodes of the display. However, the simple model that describes the SLM in the off-state, may break down when a voltage is applied to the display, and it may affect the local adiabatic behaviour. We present theoretical and experimental results.

  15. Identification and determination of elements in Taraxacum officinale plant from different Bratislava localities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, E.; Bumbalova, A.; Jombik, J.; Harangozo, M. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta)

    1983-01-01

    Elements Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb and Sr were determined by the method of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis with semiconductor detection in samples of Taraxacum officinale from various localities of Bratislava. The dependence of their content on the source and the degree of the air pollution was found out.

  16. Mucosal/submucosal blood flow in the gut wall determined by local washout of 133Xenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Olsen, J; Bülow, J

    1991-01-01

    A 133Xe washout technique for measuring the blood flow in the intestinal mucosa is introduced and evaluated. In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal blood flow rate in the intestine of the pig was determined by a local epimucosal application of 133Xe. In both the colon...

  17. Multilevel assessment of determinants of dental caries experience in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco Aurélio; de Campos Mello, Tatiana Ribeiro; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2006-04-01

    To examine contextual and individual determinants of dental caries experience, documenting levels of the disease in Brazil. The dental status of 34 550 12-year-old schoolchildren was informed by a country-wide survey of oral health comprising 250 towns and performed in 2002-2003. Indices assessing dental caries experience were compared by sociodemographic characteristics of examined children (gender, ethnic group, localization and type of school), and geographic characteristics of participating towns [the human development index (HDI), and access to fluoridated tap water]. A multilevel model fitted the adjustment of untreated caries to individual and contextual covariates. Better-off Brazilian regions presented an improved profile of dental health, besides having a less unequal distribution of restorative dental treatments between blacks and whites, rural and urban areas, and public and private schools. Girls [odds ratio (OR)=1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.1], blacks (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.5-1.7), and children studying in rural areas (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.0) and public schools (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.6-1.9) presented higher odds of having untreated decayed teeth. The multilevel model identified the fluoride status of tap water (beta=-0.3), the proportion of households linked to the water network (beta=-0.3), and the HDI (beta=-0.2), as town-level variables associated with caries levels. Dental caries experience is prone to sociodemographic and geographic inequalities. The monitoring of contrasts in dental health outcomes is relevant for programming socially appropriate interventions aimed both at overall improvements and at the targeting of resources for groups of population presenting higher levels of needs.

  18. Assessing Africa-wide Pangolin exploitation by scaling local data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Daniel J.; Coad, Lauren; Abernethy, Katharine A.

    2017-01-01

    Overexploitation is one of the main pressures driving wildlife closer to extinction, yet broad-scale data to evaluate species’ declines are limited. Using African pangolins (Family: Pholidota) as a case study, we demonstrate that collating local-scale data can provide crucial information on regio...

  19. Determination of the Local Thermal Conductivity of Functionally Graded Materials by a Laser Flash Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Determination of thermal conductivity of construction materials is essential to estimate their insulation capabilities. In most cases, homogenous materials are used and well developed methods exist for measurements of their thermal conductivity. The task becomes more challenging when dealing...... by scanning them point by point and determining the thermal conductivity as a function of the spatial dimensions. The method proves to be repeatable and of reasonable accuracy and can be used to determine the local thermal properties on a scale of millimeters. In this study, the method was successfully...... applied to create a map of thermal conductivity of a functionally graded material sample....

  20. Analysis of the Determinant Factors Development of Maintenance Culture in Malaysian Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani S.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.

  1. 2001 GPS and Classical Survey at Medicina Observatory: Local Tie and VLBI Antenna's Reference Point Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittuari, Luca; Sarti, Pierguido; Tomasi, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    During a 6 days campaign in June 2001, we have performed a local survey at Medicina Observatory using classical geodesy and GPS techniques in order to determine the effects of an undergone track repair. We have determined the position of the reference point P within a local and ITRF2000 (epoch 1997.0) reference frames using trilateration and triangulation: Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{ITRF2000}^{1997.0}=(4461369.982pm0.001,919596.818pm0.001,4449559.207pm0.001) Kinematic GPS has also given interesting results:Medicina in ITRF2000 the agreement is striking especially for the classical technique. A complete tie between the 3-D forced centered local ground control network (materialised in May 2000) and the widely used older network (which is now experiencing some problems due to the disgregation of the concrete where bolts are situated) has also been realised. This will allow inter-comparison of results obtained by the different campaigns that have been carried out in the last decade. Finally, the position of the ASI-GPS permanent station has been estimated within the local ground control network. Thus, using classical methodology, a precise determination of the VLBI-GPS ex-centre vector has been possible.

  2. Cost-assessment Analysis of Local Vehicle Scrapping Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Lukasz; Gliniak, Maciej; Polek, Daria; Gruca, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the paper was to analyse the costs of recycling vehicles at local vehicle scrapping facility. The article contains regulations concerning vehicle decommissioning, describes the types of recovery, vehicles recycling networks, analyses the structure of a disassembly station, as well as the financial and institutional system in charge of dealing with the recycling of vehicles in Poland. The authors present the number of scrapped vehicles at local recycling company and the level of achieved recovery and recycling. The research presented in the article shows financial situation of the vehicle scrapping industry. In addition, it has been observed that the number of subsidies are directly proportional to the number of scrapped vehicles, and achieved levels of recycling and recovery depends on the percentage of incomplete vehicles.

  3. A screening survey to assess local public health performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C. A.; Moore, K S; Richards, T B; McKaig, C

    1994-01-01

    Current studies are attempting to develop a national surveillance system to measure the extent that populations are served by local departments carrying out the core functions of public health. Early phases of the study featured observations on 14 health departments that have been subjects of a longitudinal study. These departments were surveyed using a protocol with 81 different indicators. The results permitted distinctions to be made among the departments on levels of performance according...

  4. Assessment of genetic diversity of local varieties of cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RÉSUMÉ Vingt quatre variétés locales de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) étaient arbitrairement sélectionnées dans la collection de germe plasme de la station de recherché d'Ikiriguru-Kibahade en Tanzanie. Elles étaient analysées par deux techniques de molécules marqueuses différentes. La distance génétique sur ...

  5. Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eGoffaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated.Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts (i.e., inducing robust IFP or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context, (i.e., engaging local processing. Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area (OFA, the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, and early visual cortex (EVC, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local

  6. Local and Regional Determinants of an Uncommon Functional Group in Freshwater Lakes and Ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James McCann

    Full Text Available A combination of local and regional factors and stochastic forces is expected to determine the occurrence of species and the structure of communities. However, in most cases, our understanding is incomplete, with large amounts of unexplained variation. Using functional groups rather than individual species may help explain the relationship between community composition and conditions. In this study, I used survey data from freshwater lakes and ponds to understand factors that determine the presence of the floating plant functional group in the northeast United States. Of the 176 water bodies surveyed, 104 (59.1% did not contain any floating plant species. The occurrence of this functional group was largely determined by local abiotic conditions, which were spatially autocorrelated across the region. A model predicting the presence of the floating plant functional group performed similarly to the best species-specific models. Using a permutation test, I also found that the observed prevalence of floating plants is no different than expected by random assembly from a species pool of its size. These results suggest that the size of the species pool interacts with local conditions in determining the presence of a functional group. Nevertheless, a large amount of unexplained variation remains, attributable to either stochastic species occurrence or incomplete predictive models. The simple permutation approach in this study can be extended to test alternative models of community assembly.

  7. Assessing Local Turbulence Strength from a Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Humi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the possible link between “local turbulence strength” in a flow which is represented by a finite time series and a “chaotic invariant”, namely, the leading Lyaponuv exponent that characterizes this series. To validate a conjecture about this link, we analyze several time series of measurements taken by a plane flying at constant height in the upper troposphere. For each of these time series we estimate the leading Lyaponuv exponent which we then correlate with the structure constants for the temperature. In addition, we introduce a quantitative technique to educe the scale contents of the flow and a methodology to validate its spectrum.

  8. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  9. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. The differences were examined via two-factor ANOVA analysis of variance. The obtained results indicate that there are differences between age groups, in the level of education, monthly income and countries that foreign tourists come from, whereas there is no difference between genders in relation to the perception of local gastronomy. At the same time, the findings indicate that there are no differences in the perception of local gastronomy between the cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade. The results confirm previous studies and point out the significance of socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in their perception of local gastronomy and adapting it to the visitors, regardless of the city they visited.

  10. Chemical and bacteriological assessment of Kindirmo (local yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and bacterial analysis of 120 Kindirmo samples collected from the three senatorial zones of Niger state were carried out with the aim of assessing their chemical and bacterial qualities. Bacteria species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...

  11. Defect localization, characterization and reliability assessment in emerging photovoltaic devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haase, Gad S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tangyunyong, Paiboon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Colr, Edward Isaac [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielson, Gregory N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Microsystems-enabled photovoltaics (MEPV) can potentially meet increasing demands for light-weight, portable, photovoltaic solutions with high power density and efficiency. The study in this report examines failure analysis techniques to perform defect localization and evaluate MEPV modules. CMOS failure analysis techniques, including electroluminescence, light-induced voltage alteration, thermally-induced voltage alteration, optical beam induced current, and Seabeck effect imaging were successfully adapted to characterize MEPV modules. The relative advantages of each approach are reported. In addition, the effects of exposure to reverse bias and light stress are explored. MEPV was found to have good resistance to both kinds of stressors. The results form a basis for further development of failure analysis techniques for MEPVs of different materials systems or multijunction MEPVs. The incorporation of additional stress factors could be used to develop a reliability model to generate lifetime predictions for MEPVs as well as uncover opportunities for future design improvements.

  12. Assessment of veterinary drug use and determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to assess veterinary drug usage by broiler chicken farmers and to determine antimicrobial residues in broiler meat in Urban district, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fifty five smallholder farmers were interviewed on types of antimicrobials, reasons for use, ...

  13. Stroke bricks - spatial brain regions to assess ischemic stroke localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Jóźwiak, Rafał; Sobieszczuk, Ewa; Przelaskowski, Artur; Skadorwa, Tymon

    2017-03-29

    Computer-aided analysis of non-contrast CT (NCCT) images for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke is based on the augmented visualization of evolving ischemic lesions. Computerized support of NCCT often leads to overinterpretation of ischemic areas, thus it is of great interest to provide neurologically verified regions in order to improve accuracy of subsequent radiological assessment. We propose Stroke Bricks (StBr) as an arbitrary spatial division of brain tissue into the regions associated with specific clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke. Neurological stroke deficit is formally translated into respective areas of possible ischemic lesions. StBr were designed according to formalized mapping of neurological symptoms and were attributed to the uniquely defined areas of impaired blood supply. StBr concept may be useful for an integrated radiological CT-based assessment of suspected stroke cases or can be included into computer-aided tools to optimize the evaluation of stroke site and its extent. These data in turn are appropriable for further diagnosis, predicting the therapeutic outcome as well as for patients' qualification for an appropriate form of reperfusion therapy. The usefulness of Stroke Bricks was illustrated in the case studies.

  14. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  15. Lipophilicity but not stereospecificity is a major determinant of local anaesthetic-induced cytotoxicity in human T-lymphoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Fazeli, Sepideh; Hermanns, Henning; Hollmann, Markus W.; Bauer, Inge; Stevens, Markus F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Local neurotoxicity of local anaesthetics is a well known phenomenon which is determined by lipophilicity. Recent reports have indicated the relevance of local anaesthetic-induced cytotoxicity also in nonneuronal tissues. This study re-evaluates the role of lipophilicity in

  16. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    , all exhibiting some already mapped cycles, that are indispensable for the study of underlying mechanisms. A variety of cognitive, neurobehavioral and neuropsychological as well as cardiovascular functions will need to be investigated to more precisely map their chronomes in space and time, in order to understand chronoastrobiology, based on both the system times and time horizons yielded by chronomes assessed in communities worldwide. Thus, we critically introduce a preventive health care, while keeping the flow of data for the assessment of space weather and its consequences in the evolution thus far of terrestrial life.

  17. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  18. asunder is required for dynein localization and dorsal fate determination during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaram, Poojitha; Merkle, Julie A; Lee, Ethan; Lee, Laura A

    2014-02-01

    We previously showed that asunder (asun) is a critical regulator of dynein localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Because the expression of asun is much higher in Drosophila ovaries and early embryos than in testes, we herein sought to determine whether ASUN plays roles in oogenesis and/or embryogenesis. We characterized the female germline phenotypes of flies homozygous for a null allele of asun (asun(d93)). We find that asun(d93) females lay very few eggs and contain smaller ovaries with a highly disorganized arrangement of ovarioles in comparison to wild-type females. asun(d93) ovaries also contain a significant number of egg chambers with structural defects. A majority of the eggs laid by asun(d93) females are ventralized to varying degrees, from mild to severe; this ventralization phenotype may be secondary to defective localization of gurken transcripts, a dynein-regulated step, within asun(d93) oocytes. We find that dynein localization is aberrant in asun(d93) oocytes, indicating that ASUN is required for this process in both male and female germ cells. In addition to the loss of gurken mRNA localization, asun(d93) ovaries exhibit defects in other dynein-mediated processes such as migration of nurse cell centrosomes into the oocyte during the early mitotic divisions, maintenance of the oocyte nucleus in the anterior-dorsal region of the oocyte in late-stage egg chambers, and coupling between the oocyte nucleus and centrosomes. Taken together, our data indicate that asun is a critical regulator of dynein localization and dynein-mediated processes during Drosophila oogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The position of localized soil compaction determines root and subsequent shoot growth responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P; Atwell, B J

    2001-11-01

    Plants growing in soils typically experience a mixture of loose and compact soil. The hypothesis that the proportion of a root system exposed to compact soil and/or the timing at which this exposure occurs determines shoot growth responses was tested. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Greenbelt) seedlings were grown in pot experiments with compact, loose and localized soil compaction created by either horizontal (compact subsoils 75 or 150 mm below loose topsoil) or vertical (adjacent compact and loose columns of soil) configurations of loose (1.2 Mg m(-3)) and compact (1.8 Mg m(-3)) soil. Entirely compact soil reduced leaf area by up to 54%, relative to loose soil. When compaction was localized, only the vertical columns of compact and loose soil reduced leaf area (by 30%). Neither the proportion of roots in compact soil nor the timing of exposure could explain the differing shoot growth responses to localized soil compaction. Instead, the strong relationship between total root length and leaf area (r(2)=0.92) indicated that localized soil compaction reduced shoot growth only when it suppressed total root length. This occurred when isolated root axes of the same plant were exposed to vertical columns of compact and loose soil. When a single root axis grew through loose soil into either a shallow or deep compact subsoil, compensatory root growth in the loose soil maintained total root length and thus shoot growth was unaffected. These contrasting root systems responses to localized soil compaction may explain the variable shoot growth responses observed under heterogeneous conditions.

  20. An analysis of local government health policy against state priorities and a social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Geoffrey R; Davern, Melanie T; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-04-01

    Victorian local governments are required to develop Municipal Public Health and Wellbeing Plans that incorporate state-level health planning priorities and address the social determinants of health. This paper describes a novel method for evaluating councils' performance against these requirements. Deductive content analysis was used to categorise all actions in 14 local government MPHWPs against Victorian state priorities as well as against social determinants of health policy areas. More than 1,000 actions were identified. However, fewer than half directly addressed a state priority, with many actions addressing policy areas known to be broader determinants of health. In particular, there was a marked focus on leisure and culture, and on building social cohesion through changes to living and working conditions. Councils are working beyond state priorities and there was a clear emphasis on addressing the diverse upstream 'causes of the causes' of health, rather than health promotion behaviour change programs. The approach for data analysis and presentation provides a useful method for rapid appraisal of health and wellbeing actions relative to councils', and the State's, responsibility and efficacy in public health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Assessment of Thiel-Embalmed Cadavers as a Teaching Tool for Oral Anatomy and Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Mutahira; McKenna, Joseph P; Balta, Joy Y; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Cryan, John F; Downer, Eric J; Toulouse, André

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Thiel-embalmed cadavers would provide a useful anatomy teaching tool for topics that cannot be approached using formalin-fixed cadavers such as oral cavity examination and maxillary anesthesia. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed bodies for performing oral examinations was assessed by asking first-year dental and dental hygiene students at a dental school in Ireland to identify oral structures on a classmate and on a Thiel-embalmed body. The study was conducted in 2016. The ease of location was compared in the two settings, and their quality was assessed on the cadavers. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach maxillary anesthesia was assessed by students' performing mock injections at five adjacent sites daily for five consecutive days, followed by inspection of the gingival surface by experienced anatomists and dentists. Data were obtained from 57 students, but only the 54 forms that were fully completed were analyzed, for an overall response rate of 85.7%. The results showed that most oral structures were more difficult to locate on cadavers. The texture and appearance of features in the cadavers were rated at a midpoint between realistic and unrealistic. The relative inexperience of the participants, the accumulation of fixative in the oral cavity, and discoloration were mentioned as potential confounding factors. Visual analysis of images obtained following repeated injections revealed no deterioration of the tissue. Importantly, the puncture marks appeared to reduce over time, suggesting that the gingival tissue maintains some elasticity following Thiel fixation. These findings suggest that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may be a useful tool to provide students more time to localize and study aspects of the oral cavity. Likewise, the recoiling capacity of gingival tissue suggests that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may provide an ideal tool for teaching injection technique of local anesthetics.

  2. The utility of comparative models and the local model quality for protein crystal structure determination by Molecular Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlowski Marcin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational models of protein structures were proved to be useful as search models in Molecular Replacement (MR, a common method to solve the phase problem faced by macromolecular crystallography. The success of MR depends on the accuracy of a search model. Unfortunately, this parameter remains unknown until the final structure of the target protein is determined. During the last few years, several Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs that predict the local accuracy of theoretical models have been developed. In this article, we analyze whether the application of MQAPs improves the utility of theoretical models in MR. Results For our dataset of 615 search models, the real local accuracy of a model increases the MR success ratio by 101% compared to corresponding polyalanine templates. On the contrary, when local model quality is not utilized in MR, the computational models solved only 4.5% more MR searches than polyalanine templates. For the same dataset of the 615 models, a workflow combining MR with predicted local accuracy of a model found 45% more correct solution than polyalanine templates. To predict such accuracy MetaMQAPclust, a “clustering MQAP” was used. Conclusions Using comparative models only marginally increases the MR success ratio in comparison to polyalanine structures of templates. However, the situation changes dramatically once comparative models are used together with their predicted local accuracy. A new functionality was added to the GeneSilico Fold Prediction Metaserver in order to build models that are more useful for MR searches. Additionally, we have developed a simple method, AmIgoMR (Am I good for MR?, to predict if an MR search with a template-based model for a given template is likely to find the correct solution.

  3. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  4. LOCAL AREA NETWORK MANAGEMENT (Case Study at Assessment and Development Information Technology Units Brawijaya University Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiwijaya, Mohammad Firman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the management local area network at Assessment and Development Information Technology units, furthermore this study focusing on network management functions that applied by Assessment and Development Information Technology Units. This study will explain about the implementation of network management functions in the local area network management. The research method employ in this research is by using descriptive qualitative method by study case approach...

  5. Detection of Local Cancer Recurrence After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Physician Performance Versus Radiomic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattonen, Sarah A. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Johnson, Carol [Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V. [Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Landis, Mark [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Rodrigues, George [Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Chan, Ian; Etemad-Rezai, Roya [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Yeung, Timothy P.C. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Baines Imaging Research Laboratory, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is a guideline-specified treatment option for early-stage lung cancer. However, significant posttreatment fibrosis can occur and obfuscate the detection of local recurrence. The goal of this study was to assess physician ability to detect timely local recurrence and to compare physician performance with a radiomics tool. Methods and Materials: Posttreatment computed tomography (CT) scans (n=182) from 45 patients treated with SABR (15 with local recurrence matched to 30 with no local recurrence) were used to measure physician and radiomic performance in assessing response. Scans were individually scored by 3 thoracic radiation oncologists and 3 thoracic radiologists, all of whom were blinded to clinical outcomes. Radiomic features were extracted from the same images. Performances of the physician assessors and the radiomics signature were compared. Results: When taking into account all CT scans during the whole follow-up period, median sensitivity for physician assessment of local recurrence was 83% (range, 67%-100%), and specificity was 75% (range, 67%-87%), with only moderate interobserver agreement (κ = 0.54) and a median time to detection of recurrence of 15.5 months. When determining the early prediction of recurrence within <6 months after SABR, physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury/no recurrence, with a mean error of 35%, false positive rate (FPR) of 1%, and false negative rate (FNR) of 99%. At the same time point, a radiomic signature consisting of 5 image-appearance features demonstrated excellent discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85, classification error of 24%, FPR of 24%, and FNR of 23%. Conclusions: These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence that are not typically considered by physicians. This decision support system could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of

  6. Improving public health preparedness capacity measurement: development of the local health department preparedness capacities assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary V; Mays, Glen P; Bellamy, James; Bevc, Christine A; Marti, Cammie

    2013-12-01

    To address limitations in measuring the preparedness capacities of health departments, we developed and tested the Local Health Department Preparedness Capacities Assessment Survey (PCAS). Preexisting instruments and a modified 4-cycle Delphi panel process were used to select instrument items. Pilot test data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Kappa statistics were calculated to examine rater agreement within items. The final instrument was fielded with 85 North Carolina health departments and a national matched comparison group of 248 health departments. Factor analysis identified 8 initial domains: communications, surveillance and investigation, plans and protocols, workforce and volunteers, legal infrastructure, incident command, exercises and events, and corrective action. Kappa statistics and z scores indicated substantial to moderate agreement among respondents in 7 domains. Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.605 for legal infrastructure to 0.929 for corrective action. Mean scores and standard deviations were also calculated for each domain and ranged from 0.41 to 0.72, indicating sufficient variation in the sample to detect changes over time. The PCAS is a useful tool to determine how well health departments are performing on preparedness measures and identify opportunities for future preparedness improvements. Future survey implementation will incorporate recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning.

  7. The proof's in the partnerships: Are Affordable Care Act and Local Health Department accreditation practices influencing collaborative partnerships in community health assessment and improvement planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Barbara; Shah, Gulzar; Leep, Carolyn J; Elligers, Julia Joh; Kumar, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    The strengthened requirement for nonprofit hospitals to complete a community health needs assessment and implementation plan in the Affordable Care Act, concurrent with a new voluntary accreditation process for local health departments that requires collaborative community health assessments and community health improvement plans, have led to a resurgence of interest in assessment and improvement planning. This study provides baseline data that will help determine whether the Affordable Care Act and public health accreditation will result in more collaborative community assessment and community health improvement activity by describing trends in collaborative community health assessment and community health improvement plan activities. Data sources include the National Profile of Local Health Departments studies and a database of community health assessment, community health needs assessment, community health improvement plan, and other implementation planning reports from across the country. The study finds that collaborative community assessment activity is positively associated with population size, governance type, and local health department and coalition-led efforts.

  8. A set of enhanced green fluorescent protein concatemers for quantitative determination of nuclear localization signal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Jennifer; Thavaraja, Ramya; Giehler, Susanne; Nalaskowski, Marcus M

    2017-09-15

    Regulated transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm is an important process in the eukaryotic cell. In most cases, active nucleo-cytoplasmic protein transport is mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS) and/or nuclear export signal (NES) motifs. In this study, we developed a set of vectors expressing enhanced GFP (EGFP) concatemers ranging from 2 to 12 subunits (2xEGFP to 12xEGFP) for analysis of NLS strength. As shown by in gel GFP fluorescence analysis and αGFP Western blotting, EGFP concatemers are expressed as fluorescent full-length proteins in eukaryotic cells. As expected, nuclear localization of concatemeric EGFPs decreases with increasing molecular weight. By oligonucleotide ligation this set of EGFP concatemers can be easily fused to NLS motifs. After determination of intracellular localization of EGFP concatemers alone and fused to different NLS motifs we calculated the size of a hypothetic EGFP concatemer showing a defined distribution of EGFP fluorescence between nucleus and cytoplasm (n/c ratio = 2). Clear differences of the size of the hypothetic EGFP concatemer depending on the fused NLS motif were observed. Therefore, we propose to use the size of this hypothetic concatemer as quantitative indicator for comparing strength of different NLS motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Kate; McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H

    2016-01-01

    To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. 324 local health departments. Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as "super users" for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to successfully engage in informatics. Local health departments also face important

  10. Locally Developed Performance Assessments: One State's Decision to Supplant Standardized Tests with Alternative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Amy Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to develop a descriptive account of one large Virginia school district's plan for implementation of alternative, locally developed assessments designed to supplant standardized measures. As policy reform with alternative assessments has been under-researched for the past 30 years, there is a need for studies…

  11. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of the Guandong Province in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes...

  12. Values of Local Wisdom: A Potential to Develop an Assessment and Remedial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharudin, Uus; Kurniawan, Iwan Setia

    2017-01-01

    Development assessment and remedial needs to be done because it is an important part of a learning process. This study aimed to describe the ability of student teachers of biology in developing assessment and remedial based on local wisdom. using a quasi-experimental research methods with quantitative descriptive analysis techniques. The research…

  13. Local environment rather than past climate determines community composition of mountain stream macroinvertebrates across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múrria, Cesc; Bonada, Núria; Vellend, Mark; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Sainz-Cantero, Carmen Elisa; Garrido, Josefina; Acosta, Raul; El Alami, Majida; Barquín, Jose; Derka, Tomáš; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Sáinz-Bariain, Marta; Filipe, Ana F; Vogler, Alfried P

    2017-11-01

    Community assembly is determined by a combination of historical events and contemporary processes that are difficult to disentangle, but eco-evolutionary mechanisms may be uncovered by the joint analysis of species and genetic diversity across multiple sites. Mountain streams across Europe harbour highly diverse macroinvertebrate communities whose composition and turnover (replacement of taxa) among sites and regions remain poorly known. We studied whole-community biodiversity within and among six mountain regions along a latitudinal transect from Morocco to Scandinavia at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy: genus, species and haplotypes. Using DNA barcoding of four insect families (>3100 individuals, 118 species) across 62 streams, we found that measures of local and regional diversity and intraregional turnover generally declined slightly towards northern latitudes. However, at all hierarchical levels we found complete (haplotype) or high (species, genus) turnover among regions (and even among sites within regions), which counters the expectations of Pleistocene postglacial northward expansion from southern refugia. Species distributions were mostly correlated with environmental conditions, suggesting a strong role of lineage- or species-specific traits in determining local and latitudinal community composition, lineage diversification and phylogenetic community structure (e.g., loss of Coleoptera, but not Ephemeroptera, at northern sites). High intraspecific genetic structure within regions, even in northernmost sites, reflects species-specific dispersal and demographic histories and indicates postglacial migration from geographically scattered refugia, rather than from only southern areas. Overall, patterns were not strongly concordant across hierarchical levels, but consistent with the overriding influence of environmental factors determining community composition at the species and genus levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  15. Seismic risk assessment of architectural heritages in Gyeongju considering local site effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cultural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea's ancient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Buddhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site response analyses were carried out at each historical site and the amplification characteristics, site period, and response spectrum of the site were determined for the earthquake levels of 2400 yr and 1000 yr return periods based on the Korean seismic hazard map. Response spectrum and corresponding site coefficients obtained from site response analyses considering geologic conditions differ significantly from the current Korean seismic code. This study confirms the importance of site-specific ground response analyses considering local geological conditions. Results are given in the form of the spatial distribution of bedrock depth, site period, and site amplification coefficients, which are particularly valuable in the context of a seismic vulnerability study. This study presents the potential amplification of hazard maps and provides primary data on the seismic risk assessment of each cultural heritage.

  16. Mining local climate data to assess spatiotemporal dengue fever epidemic patterns in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand, Claude; Fabregue, Mickael; Bringay, Sandra; Ardillon, Vanessa; Quénel, Philippe; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2014-10-01

    To identify local meteorological drivers of dengue fever in French Guiana, we applied an original data mining method to the available epidemiological and climatic data. Through this work, we also assessed the contribution of the data mining method to the understanding of factors associated with the dissemination of infectious diseases and their spatiotemporal spread. We applied contextual sequential pattern extraction techniques to epidemiological and meteorological data to identify the most significant climatic factors for dengue fever, and we investigated the relevance of the extracted patterns for the early warning of dengue outbreaks in French Guiana. The maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, global brilliance, and cumulative rainfall were identified as determinants of dengue outbreaks, and the precise intervals of their values and variations were quantified according to the epidemiologic context. The strongest significant correlations were observed between dengue incidence and meteorological drivers after a 4-6-week lag. We demonstrated the use of contextual sequential patterns to better understand the determinants of the spatiotemporal spread of dengue fever in French Guiana. Future work should integrate additional variables and explore the notion of neighborhood for extracting sequential patterns. Dengue fever remains a major public health issue in French Guiana. The development of new methods to identify such specific characteristics becomes crucial in order to better understand and control spatiotemporal transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Local and Landscape Factors Determining Occurrence of Phyllostomid Bats in Tropical Secondary Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Quesada, Mauricio; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late). We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity) and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches). Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in anthropogenic

  18. Local and landscape factors determining occurrence of phyllostomid bats in tropical secondary forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late. We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches. Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in

  19. Determination of genetic polymorphism in Guney Karaman local Turkish sheep breed by using STR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karslı, Taki; Balcıoǧlu, Murat Soner

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity of Güney Karaman Turkish local sheep breed. A total of 29 samples were genotyped by using 14 STR markers. All markers were polymorphic. The number of alleles in Güney Karaman sheep breed ranged from 3 to 11 per locus, with a mean of 7.42. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.659 and 0.794, respectively. Mean inbreeding coefficient (Fis) value was found 0.175. The PIC values ranged from 0.569 to 0.860 with a mean of 0.743. The findings of this research demonstrate at moderate level gene diversity and heterozygosity with lower inbreeding in Güney Karaman sheep breed.

  20. Determination of fracture mechanics parameters on a base of local displacement measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Matvienko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New experimental technique for a determination of the stress intensity factor (SIF and T-stress values is developed and verified. The approach assumes combining the crack compliance method and optical interferometric measurements of local deformation response on small crack length increment. Initial experimental information has a form of in-plane displacement component values, which are measured by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry at some specific points located near a crack tip. Required values of fracture mechanics parameters follow from the first four coefficients of Williams’ series. A determination of initial experimental data at the nearest vicinity of notch tip is the main feature of the developed approach. That is why it is not necessary to involve complex numerical models, which include global geometrical parameters, loading and boundary conditions of the object under study, in a stage of experimental data interpretation. An availability of high-quality interference fringe patterns, which are free from rigid-body motions, serves as a reliable indicator of real stress state around a crack tip. A verification of the technique is performed by comparing experimental results with analogous data of FEM modelling. Experimentally determined mode I SIF for DCB specimen with end crack is in 5 per cent agreement with the numerically simulated case. Proposed approach is capable of estimating an influence of the notch radius on fracture mechanics parameters. Comparing SIF and T-stress obtained for U notches of different radius both in actual and residual stress field confirms this statement.

  1. The Arabidopsis MTP8 transporter determines the localization of manganese and iron in seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Heng-Hsuan; Car, Suzana; Socha, Amanda L.; Hindt, Maria N.; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2017-09-08

    Understanding how seeds obtain and store nutrients is key to developing crops with higher agronomic and nutritional value. We have uncovered unique patterns of micronutrient localization in seeds using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Although all four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana Mn-CDF family can transport Mn, here we show that only mtp8-2 has an altered Mn distribution pattern in seeds. In an mtp8-2 mutant, Mn no longer accumulates in hypocotyl cortex cells and sub-epidermal cells of the embryonic cotyledons, but rather accumulates with Fe in the cells surrounding the vasculature, a pattern previously shown to be determined by the vacuolar transporter VIT1. We also show that MTP8, unlike the other three Mn-CDF family members, can transport Fe and is responsible for localization of Fe to the same cells that store Mn. When both the VIT1 and MTP8 transporters are non-functional, there is no accumulation of Fe or Mn in specific cell types; rather these elements are distributed amongst all cell types in the seed. Disruption of the putative Fe binding sites in MTP8 resulted in loss of ability to transport Fe but did not affect the ability to transport Mn.

  2. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  3. Determining the Localization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Within Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Richard; Inglis, G Douglas; Mosimann, Steven C; Uwiera, Richard R E; Abbott, D Wade

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the subcellular location of secreted proteins is valuable for illuminating their biological function. Although several bioinformatics programs currently exist to predict the destination of a trafficked protein using its signal peptide sequence, these programs have limited accuracy and often require experimental validation. Here, we present a systematic method to fractionate gram-negative cells and characterize the subcellular localization of secreted carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). This method involves four parallel approaches that reveal the relative abundance of protein within the cytoplasm, periplasm, outer membrane, and extracellular environment. Cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins are fractionated by lysis and osmotic shock, respectively. Outer membrane bound proteins are determined by comparing cells before and after exoproteolytic digestion. Extracellularly secreted proteins are collected from the media and concentrated. These four different fractionations can then be probed for the presence and quantity of target proteins using immunochemical methods such as Western blots and ELISAs, or enzyme activity assays.

  4. Determination of Expert Group Preferences in the Multi-Criteria Model for the Analysis of Local Economic Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jelena Stanković; Žarko Popović; Sanja Kostevski

    2016-01-01

    .... Assessment of local economic environment often falls within the scope of group decision-making, as it is usually performed on the basis of an analysis of preferences of economic subjects or relevant...

  5. Determining local and contextual features describing appearance of difficult to identify mitotic figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Mitotic count is helpful in determining the aggressiveness of breast cancer. In previous studies, it was shown that the agreement among pathologists for grading mitotic index is fairly modest, as mitoses have a large variety of appearances and they could be mistaken for other similar objects. In this study, we determined local and contextual features that differ significantly between easily identifiable mitoses and challenging ones. The images were obtained from the Mitosis-Atypia 2014 challenge. In total, the dataset contained 453 mitotic figures. Two pathologists annotated each mitotic figure. In case of disagreement, an opinion from a third pathologist was requested. The mitoses were grouped into three categories, those recognized as "a true mitosis" by both pathologists ,those labelled as "a true mitosis" by only one of the first two readers and also the third pathologist, and those annotated as "probably a mitosis" by all readers or the majority of them. After color unmixing, the mitoses were segmented from H channel. Shape-based features along with intensity-based and textural features were extracted from H-channel, blue ratio channel and five different color spaces. Holistic features describing each image were also considered. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to identify significantly different features. Multiple comparisons were done using the rank-based version of Tukey-Kramer test. The results indicated that there are local and global features which differ significantly among different groups. In addition, variations between mitoses in different groups were captured in the features from HSL and LCH color space more than other ones.

  6. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  7. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Modeling the leakage of LCD displays with local backlight for quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.

    2014-01-01

    The recent technique of local backlight dimming has a significant impact on the quality of images displayed with a LCD screen with LED local dimming. Therefore it represents a necessary step in the quality assessment chain, independently from the other processes applied to images. This paper...... on videos displayed on LCD TV with local backlight dimming viewed from a 0° and 15° angles. The subjective results are then compared objective data using different leakage models: constant over the whole display or horizontally varying and three leakage factor (no leakage, measured at 0° and 15...

  9. The Impact Of Changing Determinations Of A Local Spatial Development Plan On The Cadastral Value Of Real Estate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolina Szmatloch

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns changes of the cadastral value of real estate connected with changes in the land use determinations of the local spatial development plan in a given area over the analyzed period of time...

  10. Quantum efficiency of self-assembled quantum dots determined by a modified optical local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, I.S.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics....

  11. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of waste management siting and routing activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, H.W.; Lipman, D.S.; Owens, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    There is a rich mixture of formal and informal approaches being used in our sister nuclear democracies in their attempts to deal with the difficulties of obtaining local acceptance for siting of waste management facilities and activities. Some of these are meeting with a degree of success not yet achieved in the US. Although this survey documents and assesses many of these approaches, time did not permit addressing in any detail their relevance to common problems in the US. It would appear the US could benefit from a periodic review of the successes and failures of these efforts, including analysis of their applicability to the US system. Of those countries (Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, and the US) who are working to a time table for the preparation of a high-level waste (HLW) repository, Germany is the only country to have gained local siting acceptance for theirs. With this (the most difficult of siting problems) behind them they appear to be in the best overall condition relative to waste management progress and plans. This has been achieved without a particularly favorable political structure, made up for by determination on the part of the political leadership. Of the remaining three countries studied (France, UK and Canada) France, with its AVM production facility, is clearly the world leader in the HLW immobilization aspect of waste management. France, Belgium and the UK appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions. US, Switzerland and Canada appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions.

  12. Prolaris Cell Cycle Progression Test for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaink, Alexis; Li, Chunmei; Wells, David; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is very common and many localized tumours are non-aggressive. Determining which cancers are aggressive is important for choosing the most appropriate treatment (e.g., surgery, radiation, active surveillance). Current clinical risk stratification is reliable in forecasting the prognosis of groups of men with similar clinical and pathologic characteristics, but there is residual uncertainty at the individual level. The Prolaris cell cycle progression (CCP) test, a genomic test that estimates how fast tumour cells are proliferating, could potentially be used to improve the accuracy of individual risk assessment. This health technology assessment sought to determine the clinical utility, economic impact, and patients' perceptions of the value of the CCP test in low- and intermediate-risk localized prostate cancer. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the clinical and economic evidence of the CCP test in low-and intermediate-risk, localized prostate cancer. Medical and health economic databases were searched from 2010 to June or July 2016. The critical appraisal of the clinical evidence included risk of bias and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. We also analyzed the potential budget impact of adding the CCP test into current practice, from the perspective the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Finally, we conducted qualitative interviews with men with prostate cancer, on the factors that influenced their treatment decision-making. Results For the review of clinical effectiveness, we screened 3,021 citations, and two before–after studies met our inclusion criteria. In one study, the results of the CCP test appeared to change the treatment plan (from initial to final plan) in 64.9% of cases overall (GRADE rating of the quality of evidence: Very low). In the other study, the CCP test changed the treatment received in nearly half of cases overall, compared

  13. Determining the torus covering factors for a sample of type 1 AGN in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhikode, Savithri H.; Gandhi, Poshak; Done, Chris; Ward, Martin; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Misra, Ranjeev; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth

    2017-12-01

    In the unified scheme of active galactic nuclei, a dusty torus absorbs and then reprocesses a fraction of the intrinsic luminosity which is emitted at longer wavelengths. Thus, subject to radiative transfer corrections, the fraction of the sky covered by the torus as seen from the central source (known as the covering factor $f_c$) can be estimated from the ratio of the infrared to the bolometric luminosities of the source as $f_c=L_{\\rm torus}/L_{\\rm Bol}$. However, the uncertainty in determining $L_{\\rm Bol}$ has made the estimation of covering factors by this technique difficult, especially for AGN in the local Universe where the peak of the observed SEDs lies in the UV (ultraviolet). Here, we determine the covering factors of an X-ray/optically selected sample of 51 type~1 AGN. The bolometric luminosities of these sources are derived using a self-consistent, energy-conserving model that estimates the contribution in the unobservable far-UV region, using multi-frequency data obtained from SDSS, \\textit{XMM-Newton}, \\textit{WISE}, 2MASS and UKIDSS. We derive a mean value of $f_c\\sim$0.30 with a dispersion of 0.17. Sample correlations, combined with simulations, show that $f_c$ is more strongly anti-correlated with $\\lambda_{\\rm Edd}$ than with $L_{\\rm Bol}$. This points to large-scale torus geometry changes associated with the Eddington-dependent accretion flow, rather than a receding torus, with its inner sublimation radius determined solely by heating from the central source. Furthermore, we do not see any significant change in the distribution of $f_c$ for sub-samples of radio-loud sources or Narrow Line Seyfert~1 galaxies (NLS1s), though these sub-samples are small.

  14. Determination of residual stresses by local annealing to laser speckle pattern interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechersky, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Vikram, C.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    One of the most common methods of experimentally determining residual stresses is Blind Hole Drilling (BHD). A new method which is a thermo-optical analog to BHD is being developed. This method uses local heating to anneal a tiny spot and uses laser speckle interferometry to measure the strain that results. This strain is used to determine the state of stress prior to heating. The peak temperatures are on the order of 200 Celsius so that for most metals, there will be no changes in phase or other material properties except for a slight reduction in yield stress. Preliminary experiments with type 304 stainless steel were performed using resistance heating. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with finite element model predictions of the process. Subsequently, the resistance heating was replaced with laser heating. The heat input (22.5 Watt peak) from a small sealed radio frequency excited Carbon Dioxide laser was used. In order to both control the heating temperature and efficiently couple the infrared photons from the laser into the test specimen, a substance known as Liquid Temperature Indicating Paint was used. Without this substance the laser power would be so large as to make this approach impractical. Furthermore the measurement and control for the heat input would be very complicated. Using this laser heating approach was successful in obtaining similar results to those obtained in other work. Since this laser based technique is a thermo-optical analog to blind hole drilling a simple stress model is required to interpret the measured results. This simple stress model is presented. As in BHD, the simple model must be modified by empirical coefficients to be useful. These empirical coefficients are determined by experimentation and/or numerical analysis

  15. Determinants of eating at local and western fast-food venues in an urban Asian population: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Nasheen; van Dam, Rob M; Ng, Sheryl; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chen, Shiqi; Lim, Jia Yi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; Rebello, Salome A

    2017-05-25

    Like several Southeast Asian countries, Singapore has a complex eating-out environment and a rising eating-out prevalence. However the determinants and drivers of eating-out in urban Asian environments are poorly understood. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics of persons who frequently ate away from home in local eateries called hawker centres and Western fast-food restaurants, using data from 1647 Singaporean adults participating in the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2010. We also assessed the underlying drivers of eating out and evaluated if these were different for eating at local eateries compared to Western fast-food restaurants using 18 focus group discussions of women (130 women). Participants reported a high eating-out frequency with 77.3% usually eating either breakfast, lunch or dinner at eateries. Main venues for eating-out included hawker centres (61.1% usually ate at least 1 of 3 daily meals at this venue) and school/workplace canteens (20.4%). A minority of participants (1.9%) reported usually eating at Western fast-food restaurants. Younger participants and those of Chinese and Malay ethnicity compared to Indians were more likely to eat at Western fast-food restaurants. Chinese and employed persons were more likely to eat at hawker centres. The ready availability of a large variety of affordable and appealing foods appeared to be a primary driver of eating out, particularly at hawker centres. Our findings highlight the growing importance of eating-out in an urban Asian population where local eating venues play a more dominant role compared with Western fast-food chains. Interventions focusing on improving the food quality at venues for eating out are important to improve the diet of urban Asian populations.

  16. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, aswell as their possible drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diversity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii......-scale topography. Apart fromgamma diversity, the factormost strongly related to regional alpha diversity was precipitation seasonality, while gamma diversity itself was strongly linked to long-termhabitat stability. These results imply that plant species richness is contingent on both contemporary and historical...... factors with a strong link between local species richness and the regional species pool....

  17. Identification of an intrinsic determinant critical for maspin subcellular localization and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijana H Dzinic

    Full Text Available Maspin, a multifaceted tumor suppressor, belongs to the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, but only inhibits serine protease-like enzymes such as histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1. Maspin is specifically expressed in epithelial cells and it is differentially regulated during tumor progression. A new emerging consensus suggests that a shift in maspin subcellular localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm stratifies with poor cancer prognosis. In the current study, we employed a rational mutagenesis approach and showed that maspin reactive center loop (RCL and its neighboring sequence are critical for maspin stability. Further, when expressed in multiple tumor cell lines, single point mutation of Aspartate(346 (D(346 to Glutamate (E(346, maspin(D346E, was predominantly nuclear, whereas wild type maspin (maspin(WT was both cytoplasmic and nuclear. Evidence from cellular fractionation followed by immunological and proteomic protein identification, combined with the evidence from fluorescent imaging of endogenous proteins, fluorescent protein fusion constructs, as well as bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC showed that the increased nuclear enrichment of maspin(D346E was, at least in part, due to its increased affinity to HDAC1. Maspin(D346E was also more potent than maspin(WT as an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, our evidence demonstrates that D(346 is a critical cis-element in maspin sequence that determines the molecular context and subcellular localization of maspin. A mechanistic model derived from our evidence suggests a new window of opportunity for the development of maspin-based biologically competent HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment.

  18. shot regulates the microtubule reorganization required for localization of axis-determining mRNAs during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Sujung; Chen, Cheng; Shim, Hyeran; Kim-Ha, Jeongsil

    2016-02-01

    The Drosophila mid-oogenesis stages are notable as the time when most maternal mRNAs become localized at discrete regions of the oocyte. Microtubule rearrangement occurs during this period and is critical for the localization of axis-determining maternal mRNAs. We have identified shot as a key player in establishing the cytoskeletal arrangement required for the spatial localization of axis-determining maternal mRNAs. We also found that the spatial distribution of the Shot protein is regulated by its mRNA localization. Our results suggest that the RNA localization mechanism is used not only for restricted accumulation of patterning molecules but also for the microtubule organization that leads to the initial development of oocyte polarity. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. 75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of United Auto Workers Local... petition filed on behalf of workers at United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was based...

  20. The reproducibility of ultrasonographic assessment of local cross-sectional dimensions of masseter muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To determine if ultrasonography is a reliable technique to assess masseter muscle sites within intra- and inter-observer and the scanning level and / or the muscle condition affect local cross-sectional dimension (LCSD) measurements of masseter muscle. 10 subjects without sign and symptom of temporomandibular disorders and missing posterior teeth were examined by ultrasonography. Bilateral ultrasonographic examinations were performed with a linear (B-scan) 7.5 MHz small-part transducer to register LCSDs of the masseter muscle on three different levels. Scans were made on relaxed and clenching condition. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists measured at two sessions with a time interval of at least 5 minutes. Variables such as 'condition' and 'level' had a significant effect on muscle measurements (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between 'sessions' (p>0.05) and 'observers' (p>0.05). LCSDs on lower scan level were significantly thinner than those on upper and middle level. Those on clenching condition were significantly thicker than those on relaxed condition (p<0.05). The scanning level with the highest reproducibility was middle with clenching condition (ICC=0.90, MSE=0.55%). The data suggested that ultrasonography was a reliable method for measuring LSCD of masseter muscle in intra- and inter-observer and middle scan level showed the most reliable data.

  1. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise; Determination de l'ebullition locale dans les reacteurs a eau legere par correlation du bruit neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)

  2. Fine Needle Elastography (FNE) device for biomechanically determining local variations of tissue mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Dayan; Wilkinson, Paul; Rao, JianYu; Ragavendra, Nagesh; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James K

    2015-01-02

    Diseased tissues exhibit changes in mechanical properties and thus possess clinical diagnostic significance. We report the design and development of a Fine Needle Elastography (FNE) prototype device integrated with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) needle that allows for quantitative and sensitive assessment of tissues and materials based on local variations in elastic, friction, and cutting forces on needle insertion. A piezoelectric force-sensor at the base of FNA needle measures the forces opposing needle penetration with micrometer scale resolution. Measurement precision (±5 μm) and axial resolution (~20 μm) of FNE device was tested using control mm size gelatin matrices and unripe pear in assessing needle penetration resistance, force heterogeneity and optimization of needle penetration velocity. Further, we demonstrated the usefulness of FNE in quantitative, biomechanical differentiation of simulated thyroid tumor nodules in an ultrasound neck phantom. Fluid or solid nodules were probed in the phantom study coupled with ultrasound guidance. Our data shows significantly higher force variations (1-D force heterogeneity; HF,a=6.5 mN, HF,q=8.25 mN and stiffness heterogeneity; HS,a=0.0274 kN/m, HS,q=0.0395 kN/m) in solid nodules compared either to fluid nodules or to regions corresponding to healthy thyroid tissue within the ultrasound phantom. The results suggest future applications of in vivo FNE biopsies based on force heterogeneity to diagnose thyroid tumors in areas where ultrasound instrumentation or access to a qualified pathologist for FNAC are unavailable, as well as an ancillary diagnostic tool in thyroid cancer management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments of Sabah, east Malaysia: accounting for local earthquake activity near Ranau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Amin E.; Abir, Ismail A.; Ginsos, Hanteh; Abdel Hafiez, Hesham E.; Khan, Sohail

    2018-02-01

    Sabah state in eastern Malaysia, unlike most of the other Malaysian states, is characterized by common seismological activity; generally an earthquake of moderate magnitude is experienced at an interval of roughly every 20 years, originating mainly from two major sources, either a local source (e.g. Ranau and Lahad Dato) or a regional source (e.g. Kalimantan and South Philippines subductions). The seismicity map of Sabah shows the presence of two zones of distinctive seismicity, these zones are near Ranau (near Kota Kinabalu) and Lahad Datu in the southeast of Sabah. The seismicity record of Ranau begins in 1991, according to the international seismicity bulletins (e.g. United States Geological Survey and the International Seismological Center), and this short record is not sufficient for seismic source characterization. Fortunately, active Quaternary fault systems are delineated in the area. Henceforth, the seismicity of the area is thus determined as line sources referring to these faults. Two main fault systems are believed to be the source of such activities; namely, the Mensaban fault zone and the Crocker fault zone in addition to some other faults in their vicinity. Seismic hazard assessments became a very important and needed study for the extensive developing projects in Sabah especially with the presence of earthquake activities. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are adopted for the present work since it can provide the probability of various ground motion levels during expected from future large earthquakes. The output results are presented in terms of spectral acceleration curves and uniform hazard curves for periods of 500, 1000 and 2500 years. Since this is the first time that a complete hazard study has been done for the area, the output will be a base and standard for any future strategic plans in the area.

  4. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.

    2017-11-01

    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  5. Mercury(II) determination in commercial cosmetics and local Thai traditional medicines by flow injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertboonyai, K; Liawraungrath, B; Pojanakaroon, T; Liawraungrath, S

    2016-02-01

    The proposed method was developed for the enhancement of sensitivity for Hg(II) determination using dithizone by adding SDS in the presence of ascorbic acid in sulphuric acid medium. The method was based on the reaction between Hg(II) and 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone), in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant (to avoid solvent extraction) and ascorbic acid in a slightly acidic medium resulting in a soluble orange coloured Hg(II)-dithizone complex which gave the maximum absorption at 490 nm. No extraction system was required in this method. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained over the concentration range of 0.05-1.50 μg mL(-1). The method was characterized by a limit of detection (LOD, defined as 3σ) and limit of quantification (LOQ, defined as 10σ) of 0.03 and 0.14 μg mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations for replicate injection were 1.32 and 0.78% (n = 11) for 0.05 and 0.20 μg mL(-1) of Hg(II) standard solutions, respectively. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for Hg(II) determination in commercial cosmetics and local Thai traditional medicines. Results obtained by the proposed method are compared favourably with those analysed by ICP-MS. Enhancement of sensitivity and rapidity for Hg(II) assay by FIA could be achieved by adding SDS in ascorbic acid. The method would be useful for routine analysis of Hg(II) in real samples. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Quality assessment of images displayed on LCD screen with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a subjective experiment collecting quality assessment of images displayed on a LCD with local backlight dimming using two methodologies: absolute category ratings and paired-comparison. Some well-known objective quality metrics are then applied to the stimuli...... and their respective performance are analyzed. The HDR-VDP metric seems to achieve good performance on every source image....

  7. Conducting Environmental Assessment Of Your Local Community. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Files Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Tom

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for use by junior high school social studies students. Emphasis of the unit is on planning and conducting an environmental assessment of your local community. The unit contains ten lessons as well as supplementary printed…

  8. Local Assessment: Using Genre Analysis to Validate Directed Self-Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Anne Ruggles; Aull, Laura; Escudero, Moises Damian Perales; Lancaster, Zak; Lei, Elizabeth Vander

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in the principle that writing assessment should be locally developed and controlled, this article describes a study that contextualizes and validates the decisions that students make in the modified Directed Self-Placement (DSP) process used at the University of Michigan. The authors present results of a detailed text analysis of…

  9. Direct Determination of Spatial Localization of Carriers in CdSe-CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (QDs have gained significant attention due to their tunable band gap, simple solution processability, ease of scale-up, and low cost. By carefully choosing the materials, core-shell heterostructure QDs (HQDs can be further synthesized with a controlled spatial spread of wave functions of the excited electrons and holes for various applications. Many investigations have been done to understand the exciton dynamics by optical characterizations. However, these spectroscopic data demonstrate that the spatial separation of the excitons cannot distinguish the distribution of excited electrons and holes. In this work, we report a simple and direct method to determine the localized holes and delocalized electrons in HQDs. The quasi-type-II CdSe-CdS core-shell QDs were synthesized via a thermolysis method. Poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT nanofiber and ZnO nanorods were selected as hole and electron conductor materials, respectively, and were combined with HQDs to form two different nanocomposites. Photoelectrical properties were evaluated under different environments via a quick and facile characterization method, confirming that the electrons in the HQDs were freely accessible at the surface of the nanocrystal, while the holes were confined within the CdSe core.

  10. The relative roles of local climate adaptation and phylogeny in determining leaf-out timing of temperate tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desnoues, Elsa; Ferreira de Carvalho, Julie; Zohner, Constantin M.; Crowther, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Leaf out times of temperate forest trees are a prominent determinant of global carbon dynamics throughout the year. Abiotic cues of leaf emergence are well studied but investigation of the relative roles of shared evolutionary history (phylogeny) and local adaptation to climate in determining the

  11. Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, algorithm-based (objective) image and video quality assessment methods operate with the numerical presentation of the signal, and they do not take the characteristics of the actual output device into account. This is a reasonable approach, when quality assessment is needed for evaluating the signal quality distortion related directly to digital signal processing, such as compression. However, the physical characteristics of the display device also pose a significant impact on the overall perception. In order to facilitate image quality assessment on modern liquid crystaldisplays (LCD) using light emitting diode (LED) backlight with local dimming, we present the essential considerations and guidelines for modeling the characteristics of displays with high dynamic range (HDR) and locally adjustable backlight segments. The representation of the image generated by the model can be assessed using the traditional objective metrics, and therefore the proposed approach is useful for assessing the performance of different backlight dimming algorithms in terms of resulting quality and power consumption in a simulated environment. We have implemented the proposed model in C++ and compared the visual results produced by the model against respective images displayed on a real display with locally controlled backlight units.

  12. Modeling LCD Displays with Local Backlight Dimming for Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    for evaluating the signal quality distortion related directly to digital signal processing, such as compression. However, the physical characteristics of the display device also pose a significant impact on the overall perception. In order to facilitate image quality assessment on modern liquid crystaldisplays......Traditionally, algorithm-based (objective) image and video quality assessment methods operate with the numerical presentation of the signal, and they do not take the characteristics of the actual output device into account. This is a reasonable approach, when quality assessment is needed...... (LCD) using light emitting diode (LED) backlight with local dimming, we present the essential considerations and guidelines for modeling the characteristics of displays with high dynamic range (HDR) and locally adjustable backlight segments. The representation of the image generated by the model can...

  13. Assessment of local thin areas in a marine pipeline by using the FITNET FFS corrosion module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, S. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y de los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, ETS. Ingenieros de Caminos, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); INESCO Ingenieros SL, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad de Cantabria, Fase A, Mod. 2003, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)], E-mail: ciceros@unican.es; Lacalle, R.; Cicero, R.; Ferreno, D. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y de los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, ETS. Ingenieros de Caminos, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); INESCO Ingenieros SL, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad de Cantabria, Fase A, Mod. 2003, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This paper analyses the structural integrity of the marine stretch of a pipeline which is placed over a natural bay. The pipeline is part of a 30-year-old installation used for the provision of petrochemical products to a nearby chemical plant. Although there have been no relevant leaks in the past, both the visual inspections performed (revealing numerous local thin areas) and the fact that it is located in a highly sensitive place with high ecological and tourist value recommend the assessment of the pipeline in order to ensure that it is working in safe conditions and that there are no risks for the environment or the people living in the surrounding area. The assessment has been performed using the newly developed FITNET FFS procedure, whose local thin areas assessment methodology is also explained and compared to the analyses proposed by other well known procedures.

  14. Methodology for Computer-aided, Interactive Rapid Assessment of Local or Regional Stress Fields on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S. L.; Ferrill, D. A.; Sims, D. W.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Franklin, N. M.

    2003-03-01

    We present a method for rapid assessment of stress fields on Mars: (i) mapping geologic structures, (ii) calculating stress fields, and (iii) determining resolved stresses on faults. Preliminary results are presented for northern Utopia Planitia.

  15. [What determines the market shares of the health funds in Israeli localities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Amir; Engelcin-Nissan, Esti

    2011-08-01

    Four health funds operate nationally in Israel, but their local market shares vary dramatically across localities. To identify the main localities' characteristics which affect the size of the market shares of the various health funds. A total of 60 Localities with more than 20,000 inhabitants were chosen. The following Localities' characteristics were retrieved for the year 2004: the market shares of the four health funds, average income, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), periphery index, the age structure, the distance from the nearest general hospital, the share of Arab population, and size. Four market share equations were estimated using SURE (seemingly unrelated regressions estimation), allowing for inter-equation correlations. The results show that the market shares of the different health funds are affected by different factors. Clalit Health Services' (CHS) share increases with the distance from Tel Aviv and SMR, and decreases with the level of mean income and the distance from the nearest CHS hospital. Leumit's market share increases only with the distance from a CHS's hospital. The market share of Maccabi Healthcare Services is higher in central localities, Jewish localities, small cities and further away from a non-CHS hospital. Meuhedet's market share is higher in big cities, rich and healthy localities, and in Localities which are further away from CHS's hospitals. These findings indicate that the presence of the health funds in different Localities varies according to the Localities' characteristics. There appears to be a market segmentation and "specialization" of certain health funds in specific populations, and of the other health funds in the rest of the population.

  16. Teachers' Assessment-Related Local Adaptations of a Problem-Based Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susan; Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Williams, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' implementation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program was examined to determine both how they assessed student learning and their reasons for these assessment practices. Ten 6th grade science teachers used Alien Rescue, a computer-based PBL module, with their students for approximately three weeks. Interviews, observations, and…

  17. DETERMINANTS OF ADAPTATION TO DEFORESTATION AMONG FARMERS IN MADAGALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Mustapha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (chi-square test statistics. The result indicated that majority (84% of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age representing 58.50%. The study also showed that most (45% of the respondents had attained post primary education with majority (80% having 6 and above years of farming experience. The respondents perceived fuel wood extraction as the major (42% cause of deforestation in the study area. The result showed that the most (30.50% frequently employed adaptation strategy against deforestation was reducing quantity of fire wood consumption. The study further showed that the factors which significantly influenced adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were age, farming experience and educational status with X2=9.216, 8.697 and 11.238 at P<0.05 respectively. While those factors which did not influence adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were gender, access to agricultural credit and access to extension services with X2=1.286, 7.923 and 5.862 at P<0.05 respectively. The major constraints faced by respondents in adaptation to deforestation were lack of capital and lack of accessible alternative energy. The study recommends that awareness campaign should be mounted to increase the level of knowledge of respondents on the significance of adaptation to deforestation. Respondents should also be encouraged towards establishment of adaptation cooperative societies in order to take advantage of some government policies and programmes.

  18. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  19. Earth Observation and Indicators Pertaining to Determinants of Health- An Approach to Support Local Scale Characterization of Environmental Determinants of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchi, Serge Olivier; Brazeau, Stephanie; Ludwig, Antoinette; Aube, Guy; Berthiaume, Pilippe

    2016-08-01

    Environmental determinants (EVDs) were identified as key determinant of health (DoH) for the emergence and re-emergence of several vector-borne diseases. Maintaining ongoing acquisition of data related to EVDs at local scale and for large regions constitutes a significant challenge. Earth observation (EO) satellites offer a framework to overcome this challenge. However, EO image analysis methods commonly used to estimate EVDs are time and resource consuming. Moreover, variations of microclimatic conditions combined with high landscape heterogeneity limit the effectiveness of climatic variables derived from EO. In this study, we present what are DoH and EVDs, the impacts of EVDs on vector-borne diseases in the context of global environmental change, the need to characterize EVDs of vector-borne diseases at local scale and its challenges, and finally we propose an approach based on EO images to estimate at local scale indicators pertaining to EVDs of vector-borne diseases.

  20. Extending the Reach of National Assessments: Addressing Local and Regional Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K.; Carter, T.

    2016-12-01

    While climate change is global in scope, many impacts of greatest societal concern (and accompanying response decisions) occur on local to regional scales. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is tasked with conducting quadrennial national climate assessments, and efforts for the fourth such assessment (NCA4) are underway. Recognizing that there is a growing appetite for climate information on more local scales, however, USGCRP is actively pursuing higher-resolution scientific information, while also seeking engagement with local and regional entities to ensure that NCA4 is well-positioned to address users' needs across geospatial scales. Effectively meeting user needs at regional scales requires robust observations and projections at sub-national scales, as well as a widespread network of agencies and organizations. We discuss our efforts to leverage existing relationships to identify potential users and their needs early in the assessment process. We also discuss plans for future mechanisms to engage additional regional stakeholders from resource managers to policy makers and scientists not only for quadrennial assessment but as part of a sustained process.

  1. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  2. Assessment of existing local houses condition as analysis tools for shore housing improvement program in Weriagar district, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, F.; Fernando, A.; Allo, I. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    The housing assessment is a part of the pre-feasibility study inThe Shore Housing Improvement Program in Weriagar District, West Papua. The housing assessment was conducted to identify the physical condition of existing houses. The parameters of assessment formulated from local references, practices and also national building regulation that covers each building system components, such as building structure/frame, building floor, building cover, and building roof. This study aims to explains lessons from local practices and references, used as the formula to generate assessment parameter, elaborate with Indonesia building regulation. The result of housing assessment were used as a basis to develop the house improvement strategy, the design alternative for housing improvement and further planning recommendations. The local knowledges involved in housing improvement program expected that the local-based approach could respect to the local build culture, respect the local environment, and the most important can offer best suitable solutions for functional utility and livability.

  3. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Chiedza Ngonidzashe; Muboko, Never; Gandiwa, Edson

    2017-01-01

    With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs), the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities’ viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, ‘What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?’ Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities’ and PA staff’s views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation. PMID:28542185

  4. An assessment of rate-pegging in New South Wales local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Dollery

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rate-pegging has been in place in NSW for more than thirty years with broad support from all sides of politics. However, in late 2008 the NSW Government commissioned IPART to report on the adequacy of rate-pegging. IPART produced a Draft Report and then a Final Report, which has not yet been released by the NSW Government. Nevertheless, the NSW Government has made some changes to local government finance by way of capping developer charges, allowing IPART to make annual rate-pegging determinations, and enabling IPART to consider special variations in rate-pegging. Against this background, this paper considers the principles and practice of rate-pegging in NSW, the rationale for rate-pegging and counter-arguments on its desirability, as well as its economic effects on NSW local government finance relative to other Australian local government jurisdictions.

  5. Does social insurance enrollment improve citizen assessment of local government performance? Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Gao, Qin

    2018-02-01

    Although many studies claim that social policies are "carrots" that authoritarian leaders use to garner public support, the assumption that social benefits can boost public support of government has been rarely tested empirically, especially at the local levels. This article investigates the effects of social insurance enrollment on citizens' assessment of local government performance using data from the 2010 China Family Panel Study. We use propensity score matching to reduce selection bias and ordered probit regressions with fixed effects to examine these possible effects. We find that social insurance enrollment had a significant positive effect on rural citizens' assessment of government performance, but this effect did not exist for their urban and migrant peers. This discrepancy could be largely due to the groups' different expectations for government redistribution and their distinct experiences of China's social welfare reform. We conclude that the Chinese authoritarian government has achieved partial success in its attempt to use social policies to maintain popular support. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AS DETERMINANTS OF DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION OF LOCAL GASTRONOMY 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikola Vuksanović; Dragan Tešanović; Bojana Kalenjuk; Milijanko Portić; Marija Knežević

    2017-01-01

    .... The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product...

  7. Characterization of RanBPM Molecular Determinants that Control Its Subcellular Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Louisa M.; Loureiro, Sandra O.; Schild-Poulter, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    RanBPM/RanBP9 is a ubiquitous, nucleocytoplasmic protein that is part of an evolutionary conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase complex whose function and targets in mammals are still unknown. RanBPM itself has been implicated in various cellular processes that involve both nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. However, to date, little is known about how RanBPM subcellular localization is regulated. We have conducted a systematic analysis of RanBPM regions that control its subcellular localization using RanBPM shRNA cells to examine ectopic RanBPM mutant subcellular localization without interference from the endogenously expressed protein. We show that several domains and motifs regulate RanBPM nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, RanBPM comprises two motifs that can confer nuclear localization, one proline/glutamine-rich motif in the extreme N-terminus which has a dominant effect on RanBPM localization, and a second motif in the C-terminus which minimally contributes to RanBPM nuclear targeting. We also identified a nuclear export signal (NES) which mutation prevented RanBPM accumulation in the cytoplasm. Likewise, deletion of the central RanBPM conserved domains (SPRY and LisH/CTLH) resulted in the relocalization of RanBPM to the nucleus, suggesting that RanBPM cytoplasmic localization is also conferred by protein-protein interactions that promote its cytoplasmic retention. Indeed we found that in the cytoplasm, RanBPM partially colocalizes with microtubules and associates with α-tubulin. Finally, in the nucleus, a significant fraction of RanBPM is associated with chromatin. Altogether, these analyses reveal that RanBPM subcellular localization results from the combined effects of several elements that either confer direct transport through the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery or regulate it indirectly, likely through interactions with other proteins and by intramolecular folding. PMID:25659156

  8. Assessment of Public Health Infrastructure to Determine Public Health Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    eight-year-old James Phipps with Cow Pox. When the boy later proved to be immune to Small Pox humanity was on its way to taming the microbe. Between...33 Anjum Hajat, Carol K. Brown and Michael R. Frazer , Local Public Health Agency Infrastructure : A Chartbook., 2001 ed...Care, Housing & Human Services and 42 George W. Bush, Homeland Security Presidential Directive

  9. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sánchez, Itzell E.; Maruri-López, Israel; Ferrando, Alejandro; Carbonell, Juan; Graether, Steffen P.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine-rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization. PMID:26442018

  10. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzell Euridice Hernández-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization.

  11. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physio...

  12. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  13. Views from the Frontline: A critical assessment of local risk governance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doret Botha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction introduced the ‘Hyogo Framework for Action’ (HFA aimed at mainstreaming disaster risk reduction. Subsequently, the ‘Global Network for Disaster Reduction’ (GNDR was formed to support the implementation of the HFA. The GNDR initiated a country-based, international research project called ‘Views from the Frontline’ (VFL in order to measure progress at local level in terms of compliance with the HFA. The VFL 2011 project focused on local risk governance, which is critical for effective implementation of policy and provision of resources at grassroots level. This article provides insight into the findings for South Africa. The project made use of quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was gathered by means of a survey and/or questionnaire consisting of 20 questions on ‘indicators’ which assessed progress toward the goals of the HFA. The surveys also provided for qualitative commentary. The target population for this research consisted of local government officials and community representatives. Based on the quantitative scores for all the different indicators, the research showed that South Africa could still improve significantly in terms of compliance with the HFA. More attention must be given to operationalise the HFA at local level, a culture of safety must be fostered, local actors and communities must be involved directly and consulted, indigenous knowledge must be recognised, and significant capacity development for disaster risk reduction is necessary.

  14. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  15. A Framework for Spatial Assessment of Local Level Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.; Harlan, S.; Ruddell, D.; Komatsu, K.; England, B.; Uejio, C.

    2008-12-01

    Changing climate is predicted to increase the intensity and impacts of heat waves prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability. Central to understanding societal vulnerability, is adaptive capacity, the potential of a system or population to modify its features/behaviors so as to better cope with existing and anticipated stresses and fluctuations. Adaptive capacity influences adaptation, the actual adjustments made to cope with the impacts from current and future hazardous heat events. Understanding societal risks, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with the stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability. This project presents a framework for an interdisciplinary approach and a case study that explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local level vulnerability and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events in Phoenix, Arizona. In this talk, we will present a methodological framework for conducting collaborative research on societal vulnerability and adaptive capacity on a local level that includes integration of household surveys into a quantitative spatial assessment of societal vulnerability. We highlight a collaborative partnership among researchers, community leaders and public health officials. Linkages between assessment of local adaptive capacity and development of regional climate change adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  16. Strategic environmental assessment for local transport plans; Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Vera

    2008-08-15

    The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) makes new demands for plans and programs also in the transport sector. Particularly on local level transport is one of the biggest causers of negative environmental effects. But there exists no SEA obligation for local transport plans, however many factors suggest to make such an examination in this sector. At the latest in the urban land use planning transport effects are a component for the SEA. Synergies can be exhausted and the individual planning steps are appropriately co-ordinated by the meaningful integration of transport and urban development planning. Additional synergies can gained in connection with further local and/or regional planning like e.g. the clean air planning or noise reduction planning. The aim of the doctoral thesis is to draft recommendations how to integrate the SEA into local transport planning process. For that purpose it is necessary to deduce the requirements demanded by the SEA and to demonstrate the current state of the local transport planning. The doctoral thesis is based on partial results of the research project FE 73.0237 ''Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklungsplanung'' in behalf of the German Ministry of Transport (Bundesministerium fuer Verkehr, Bauen und Stadtentwicklung) and mentored by the Federal Office of civil engineering (Bundesamt fuer Bauwesen und Raumordnung). The author of this thesis was instrumental in acquiring those results. The thesis contains a detailed literature research. The SEA's requirements are also described as well as the current state of the local transport planning. The state of the SEA on the different planning levels in the German transport sector is presented. Another part is a survey of 13 municipalities concerning their previous practice of the local transport and environmental planning as well as their experience with the SEA on local level and the analyse of local data. Furthermore three

  17. Validity of portfolio assessment: which qualities determine ratings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, E.W.; Overeem, K.; Tartwijk, J. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The portfolio is becoming increasingly accepted as a valuable tool for learning and assessment. The validity of portfolio assessment, however, may suffer from bias due to irrelevant qualities, such as lay-out and writing style. We examined the possible effects of such qualities in a portfolio

  18. N-terminal acetylation by NatC is not a general determinant for substrate subcellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Aksnes

    Full Text Available N-terminal acetylation has been suggested to play a role in the subcellular targeting of proteins, in particular those acetylated by the N-terminal acetyltransferase complex NatC. Based on previous positional proteomics data revealing N-terminal acetylation status and the predicted NAT substrate classes, we selected 13 suitable NatC substrates for subcellular localization studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of GFP-tagged candidates in the presence or absence of the NatC catalytic subunit Naa30 (Mak3 revealed unaltered localization patterns for all 13 candidates, thus arguing against a general role for the N-terminal acetyl group as a localization determinant. Furthermore, all organelle-localized substrates indicated undisrupted structures, thus suggesting that absence of NatC acetylation does not have a vast effect on organelle morphology in yeast.

  19. Cortical depth and differential transport of vegetally localized dorsal and germ line determinants in the zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Elaine; Pelegri, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In zebrafish embryos, factors involved in both axis induction and primordial germ cell (PGC) development are localized to the vegetal pole of the egg. However, upon egg activation axis induction factors experience an asymmetric off-center shift whereas PGC factors undergo symmetric animally-directed movement. We examined the spatial relationship between the proposed dorsal genes wnt8a and grip2a and the PGC factor dazl at the vegetal cortex. We find that RNAs for these genes localize to different cortical depths, with the RNA for the PGC factor dazl at a deeper cortical level than those for axis-inducing factors. In addition, and in contrast to the role of microtubules in the long-range transport of dorsal determinants, we find that germ line determinant transport depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Our results support a model in which vegetal cortex differential RNA transport behavior is facilitated by RNA localization along cortical depth and differential coupling to cortical transport.

  20. An Assessment of the Determinants of the Nigerian Banking Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prominent studies abroad which focused on the determinants of bank's interest margin and profitability have focused on whether banks in a particular country or panel have tended to exhibit different profit determinants and deposit behaviours. One question that these studies have not yet addressed is the actual ...

  1. Assessing Health Workers Knowledge on the Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However when ranking the magnitude of the contribution of the various determinants of health the majority (37.9%) considered a good health care system the most important contributory factor to determining health of a community while social environment (14.9%) was the least. Conclusion: The ranking of good healthcare ...

  2. Feasibility of quantitative determination of local optical absorbances in tissue-mimicking phantoms using acousto-optic sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratchenia, A.; Molenaar, Robert; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the application of ultrasound modulation of coherent light for quantitative determination of local absorbances in tissue-mimicking phantoms. An Intralipid-based phantom model, which mimics a blood vessel in human tissue, was used. The detection technique was based on homodyne

  3. Overall Charge and Local Charge Density of Pectin Determines the Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Complexation with beta-Lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, Bram L. H. M.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Schols, Henk A.; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Norde, Willem

    2010-01-01

    The complex formation between beta-lactoglobulin and pectins of varying overall charge and local charge density were investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments were carried out to determine the enthalpic contribution to the complex formation at pH 4.25 and various ionic strengths.

  4. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using local binary pattern in infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xulong; Hong, Wenxue; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhenying

    2013-02-01

    Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0.86 and 0.89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0.657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis.

  5. Beyond Vulnerability Assessment: Impact of Developments toward Local Adaptive Capacity in Kemijen City Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanimitta, M. E.; Puspasari, D. A.; Widyahantari, R.; Kristina, D.; Ratnaningtyas, T.; Setionurjaya, A.; Anindita, Y. A.

    2018-02-01

    Vulnerability Assessment is usually used for assessing the ability of an area on facing disaster. In previous studies, the study of Vulnerability Assessment applied only quantitative method to show the vulnerability level. Therefore, this study attempts to add information reviews using qualitative method. Kemijen City Village is one of the administrative areas in the northern part of Semarang City affected by climate change. The residents have to adapt it by renovating and elevating their houses and other infrastructures to avoid floods. There are some development programs held by government, NGOs, and corporations such as Banger Polder Development, PLPBK, etc. It is interesting to know how big the vulnerability level of Kemijen on facing flood disasters, then how the projects can affect local adaptive capacity. To answer it, this research uses mixed-method approach. Vulnerability Assessment uses quantitative method by scoring indicators of Exposure, Sensitivity, and Adaptive Capacity, while the development impact uses qualitative method. The data were collected through interviews and FGD conducted in Joint Studio Course between Diponegoro University and University of Hawaii in October 2016. Non-physical programs such as community empowerment have more positive impacts on local adaptive capacity in Kemijen. Community participation is important for environmental sustainability that can not be done in a short time to educate the people.

  6. Validity of portfolio assessment: which qualities determine ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Erik W; Overeem, Karlijn; van Tartwijk, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Muijtjens, Arno M M

    2006-09-01

    The portfolio is becoming increasingly accepted as a valuable tool for learning and assessment. The validity of portfolio assessment, however, may suffer from bias due to irrelevant qualities, such as lay-out and writing style. We examined the possible effects of such qualities in a portfolio programme aimed at stimulating Year 1 medical students to reflect on their professional and personal development. In later curricular years, this portfolio is also used to judge clinical competence. We developed an instrument, the Portfolio Analysis Scoring Inventory, to examine the impact of form and content aspects on portfolio assessment. The Inventory consists of 15 items derived from interviews with experienced mentors, the literature, and the criteria for reflective competence used in the regular portfolio assessment procedure. Forty portfolios, selected from 231 portfolios for which ratings from the regular assessment procedure were available, were rated by 2 researchers, independently, using the Inventory. Regression analysis was used to estimate the correlation between the ratings from the regular assessment and those resulting from the Inventory items. Inter-rater agreement ranged from 0.46 to 0.87. The strongest predictor of the variance in the regular ratings was 'quality of reflection' (R 0.80; R2 66%). No further items accounted for a significant proportion of variance. Irrelevant items, such as writing style and lay-out, had negligible effects. The absence of an impact of irrelevant criteria appears to support the validity of the portfolio assessment procedure. Further studies should examine the portfolio's validity for the assessment of clinical competence.

  7. Local texture descriptors for the assessment of differences in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Felix Sebastian Leo; Delrieux, Claudio Augusto; de Luis-García, Rodrigo

    2017-03-01

    Descriptors extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain can be employed to locate and characterize a wide range of pathologies. Scalar measures are typically derived within a single-voxel unit, but neighborhood-based texture measures can also be applied. In this work, we propose a new set of descriptors to compute local texture characteristics from scalar measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), such as mean and radial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy. We employ weighted rotational invariant local operators, namely standard deviation, inter-quartile range, coefficient of variation, quartile coefficient of variation and skewness. Sensitivity and specificity of those texture descriptors were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics of the white matter on a diffusion MRI group study of elderly healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, robustness against noise has been assessed with a realistic diffusion-weighted imaging phantom and the contamination of the local neighborhood with gray matter has been measured. The new texture operators showed an increased ability for finding formerly undetected differences between groups compared to conventional DTI methods. In particular, the coefficient of variation, quartile coefficient of variation, standard deviation and inter-quartile range of the mean and radial diffusivity detected significant differences even between previously not significantly discernible groups, such as MCI versus moderate AD and mild versus moderate AD. The analysis provided evidence of low contamination of the local neighborhood with gray matter and high robustness against noise. The local operators applied here enhance the identification and localization of areas of the brain where cognitive impairment takes place and thus indicate them as promising extensions in diffusion MRI group studies.

  8. Classification of windfields: a diagnostic tool for real-time determination of local air pollution dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, W.K.; Buerki, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In the framework of the project `WINDBANK unteres Aaretal` local winds over complex terrain were measured over a 4 month period and a cluster analysis is used to identify 13 different typical wind fields. A subset of representative stations is established to identify the classes for future applications in emergency planning. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  10. Food System Sustainability across Scales: A Proposed Local-To-Global Approach to Community Planning and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Carlsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in food systems sustainability is growing, but progress toward them is slow. This research focuses on three interrelated challenges that hinder progress. First, prevailing visions lack a concrete definition of sustainability. Second, global level conceptions fail to guide responses at the local level. Third, these deficiencies may lead to conflicting initiatives for addressing sustainable food systems at the community level that slow collective progress. The purpose of this article is to (1 describe the development of a framework for assessing food system sustainability which accommodates local-level measurement in the context of broader national and global scale measures; and (2 to propose a process that supports community determinacy over localized progress toward sustainable food systems. Using a modified Delphi Inquiry process, we engaged a diverse, global panel of experts in describing “success” with respect to sustainable food systems, today’s reality, and identifying key indicators for tracking progress towards success. They were asked to consider scale during the process in order to explore locally relevant themes. Data were analyzed using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD to facilitate a comprehensive and systematic exploration of key themes and indicators. Key results include a framework of indicator themes that are anchored in a concrete definition of sustainability, stable at national and global scales while remaining flexible at the local scale to accommodate contextual needs. We also propose a process for facilitating community-level planning for food system sustainability that utilizes this indicator framework. The proposed process is based on insights from the research results, as well as from previous research and experience applying the FSSD at a community level; it bears promise for future work to support communities to determine their own pathways, while contributing to a more

  11. Assessment of the results of the strategic orientation on regional and local products in food retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pícha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess if there is a difference in food choice behaviour between regular customers of stores of the retail chain Terno and other consumers. Consequently, the paper aims to discover, if the strategy formulated by the consumer co-operative Jednota České Budějovice was a good strategy. The core of this strategy is the orientation on the region, local and regional food and food products and the co-operation with local small and medium suppliers. Another part of this strategy is also the permanent control of quality of these products and creation of the special private label – Quality food from our region. The consumer co-operative co-operates also with the regional grouping under another label – Tastes great. Southbohemian. The assessment is done by means of the analysis of a questionnaire survey that was done among consumers in the South Bohemia in 2011. The strongest factor differentiating customers of the retail chain TERNO from other consumer is the orientation on regional or local products, which explains about 41% of variability. Other differentiating factors are environment-friendly production and selling and quality of food. All these three factors explain in total 66.5% of variability of the data set.

  12. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and paleoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; Bøcher, P. K.; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Hao, Z. Q.; Gong, H. D.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-03-01

    The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional (as represented by variation in maximum canopy height) and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest's woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while paleoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  13. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; Bøcher, P. K.; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Hao, Z. Q.; Gong, H. D.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-09-01

    The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  14. Development of a localized surface plasmon resonance-based gold nanobiosensor for the determination of prolactin hormone in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridli, Zahra; Mahani, Mohamad; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Fasihi, Javad

    2016-02-15

    A localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay has been developed to determine prolactin hormone in human serum samples. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized, and the probe was prepared by electrostatic adsorption of antibody on the surfaces of gold nanoparticles. The pH and the antibody-to-gold nanoparticle ratio, as the factors affecting the probe functions, were optimized. The constructed nanobiosensor was characterized by dynamic light scattering. The sensor was applied for the determination of prolactin antigen concentration based on the amount of localized surface plasmon resonance peak shift. A linear dynamic range of 1-40 ng ml(-1), a detection limit of 0.8 ng ml(-1), and sensitivity of 10 pg ml(-1) were obtained. Finally, the nanobiosensor was applied for the determination of prolactin in human control serum sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Data mining for assessing the credit risk of local government units in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, data mining techniques, especially artificial neural networks, have been used for modelling many real-world problems. This paper aims to test the performance of three methods: (1 an artificial neural network (ANN, (2 a hybrid artificial neural network and genetic algorithm approach (ANN-GA, and (2 the Tobit regression approach in determining the credit risk of local government units in Croatia. The evaluation of credit risk and prediction of debtor bankruptcy have long been regarded as an important topic in accounting and finance literature. In this research, credit risk is modelled under a regression approach unlike typical credit risk analysis, which is generally viewed as a classification problem. Namely, a standard evaluation of credit risk is not possible due to a lack of bankruptcy data. Thus, the credit risk of a local unit is approximated using the ratio of outstanding liabilities maturing in a given year to total expenditure of the local unit in the same period. The results indicate that the ANN-GA hybrid approach performs significantly better than the Tobit model by providing a significantly smaller average mean squared error. This work is beneficial to researchers and the government in evaluating a local government unit’s credit score.

  16. Coupled Ground- and Space-Based Assessment of Regional Inundation Dynamics to Assess Impact of Local and Upstream Changes on Evaporation in Tropical Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schwerdtfeger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of human land use and climate change are known to be a threat for the health and proper functioning of tropical wetlands. They interfere with the seasonal flood pulse, which is seen as the most important driver for biodiversity and directly controls evaporation. In order to investigate the impact of local and upstream changes on wetlands, a regional assessment of evaporation is crucial but challenging in such often remote and poorly gauged ecosystems. Evaporation is the major water balance component of these wetlands and links the flood pulse with the ecosystem. It can therefore be seen as a proxy for their functioning. In the last decades, information from space became an important data source to assess remote wetland areas. Here, we developed a new approach to quantify regional evaporation driven by inundation dynamics as its dominant control. We used three water and vegetation indices (mNDWI (modified Normalized Difference Water Index, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance products to assess regional inundation dynamics between the dry and wet seasons. Two years of continual in situ water level measurements at different locations in our study area, the Pantanal wetland of South America, provided the reference to evaluate our method. With process-based modeling that used the inundation dynamics to determine the water available for evaporation, we were able to estimate actual evaporation (AET on a regional scale. Relating AET to changes in discharge due to upstream flow modifications and on local precipitation over the last 13 years, we found that the Pantanal is more vulnerable to alternated inundation dynamics than to changes in local precipitation. We concluded that coupling ground- and space-based information in this remote wetland area is a valuable first step to investigate the status of the Pantanal

  17. STUDY TO ASSESS THE DISINFECTION OF DENTAL PROSTHESES TO CLEAR LOCALLY PREVALENT MICROBIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of four disinfectant solutions (Sodium hypochlorite 1%, chlorhexidine gluconate 2%, 100% vinegar and sodium perborate 3.8% in making acrylic resin specimens free of locally prevalent strains of three different micro-organisms. The organisms tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The study was conducted following a request by the Prosthodontics Department in the college, as part of the annual quality appraisal. One hundred and fifty samples of the standardized acrylic resin specimens were participated in the study, of which, 30 specimens were run as controls. It was concluded that 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 100% vinegar and 3.8% sodium perborate are all useful as disinfectants of acrylic resin, to make it free from local strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

  18. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  19. A Simple Approach for Local Contact Angle Determination on a Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2011-05-17

    We report a simple approach for measuring the local contact angle of liquids on a heterogeneous surface consisting of intersected hydrophobic and hydrophilic patch arrays, specifically by employing confocal microscopy and the addition of a very low concentration of Rhodamine-B (RB) (2 × 10 -7 mol/L). Interestingly, RB at that concentration was found to be aggregated at the air-liquid and solid (hydrophobic patch only)-liquid interfaces, which helps us to distinguish the liquid and solid interfaces as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic patches by their corresponding fluorescent intensities. From the measured local contact angles, the line tension can be easily derived and the value is found to be (-2.06-1.53) × 10-6 J/m. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Determination of Local Empirical Covariance Functions from Residual Terrain Reduced Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    quantities are estimated from a set of observations. The method of least squares collocation ( Moritz , 1980), is widely used for this purpose. The...residual observations and the local empirical covariance function. This procedure corresponds to the stepwise collocation ( Moritz , 1980), where the...blocir number) FIELD GROUP SUE-GROUP geodesy; gravity; least-squares collocation 19. ABSTRACT (Conrinue on reverse if neceeay and identify by block number

  1. In Vitro Determination of Bicarbonate Dosage to Alkalinize Local Anesthetics to Physiologic pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    extradural caesarean section . British Journal of Anesthesia 67,699-703. Galindo, A. (1983). pH Adjusted local anesthetics: clinical experience. Regional...converse is true for sodium. At rest, the membrane’s semipermeable nature to potassium only, allows for a slow, continual intracellular to extracellular... naturally has a rapid onset and the benefits of alkalinization may not be clinically apparent. Bupivacaine in all concentrations studied, both with and

  2. Robot-assisted assessment of vibration perception and localization on the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2013-03-01

    Sensory perception is crucial for motor learning and the control of fine manipulations. However, therapy after stroke still strongly focuses on the training of motor skills. Sensory assessments are often left out or provide only very subjective data from poorly controlled stimuli. This paper presents a vibration detection/localization test with the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a device that focuses entirely on the assessment and training of sensory function of the hand, with the aim of gaining insights into the prevalence and severity of sensory deficits after stroke, and to provide semiobjective data on absolute and difference perception thresholds in patients. An initial feasibility study investigated localization performance and reaction time during the discrimination of vibration stimuli presented in four locations on the dominant and nondominant hands of 13 healthy volunteers. High correct detection rates were observed (mean ± SD of 99.6% ± 0.6%), touch screen PC Robotic Sensory Trainer which were found to be significantly different between stimulus locations on the dominant hand. Average correct detection rates were not statistically different between dominant and nondominant hand. These data will serve as baseline for future measurements on elderly and stroke subjects, and suggest that data from the nonimpaired hand could be used to identify and assess sensory deficits in the affected hand of stroke patients.

  3. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Azucena; Maza, María Teresa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack of availability in the market is an aspect limiting its consumption. The most important factors explaining the intention to purchase for consumers who would purchase this meat if it were not available in their usual store are the importance attached to the animal breed and their social embeddedness with the local area. An appropriate food policy would be to inform consumers about the importance of the animal breed in the quality of the meat and the local origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. assessment of factors determining parents' preference for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UMOINYANG

    This paper explored the underlying factors determining parents' choice of sending their children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural communities as a case study. Sixty (60) private secondary institutions in the state were selected through stratified sampling technique. A total of 720 respondents ...

  5. Assessing Health Workers Knowledge on the Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Different social economic and personal factors have been touted as determining a person's health. This encompasses a person's living environment, economic status, genetic makeup, physical attributes and not just access to health services. It is important that health workers recognize that a person's ...

  6. Determining sample size for assessing species composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species composition is measured in grasslands for a variety of reasons. Commonly, observations are made using the wheel-point apparatus, but the problem of determining optimum sample size has not yet been satisfactorily resolved. In this study the wheel-point apparatus was used to record 2 000 observations in each of ...

  7. Determinants of physicians' communication behaviour in disability assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, H.J.; Schellart, A.J.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge about the determinants of communication behaviour of physicians during face-to-face consultations with patients might increase our understanding of communication behaviour, and provide insight into how training might be able to change their communication behaviour. For physicians

  8. Assessment of Factors Determining Parents' Preference for Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explored the underlying factors determining parents' choice of sending their children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural ... The study found out that private secondary schools in the area were highly patronized by parents who were influenced by pride of school ownership, effective ...

  9. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  10. Sexual size dimorphism and sex determination by morphometric measurements in locally adapted muscovy duck (Cairina moschata in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Olusegun OGUNTUNJI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI, sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological traits; body weight, body girth, body length, wing length, shank length, shank circumference, thigh length, total leg length, bill length and bill width were taken from 1,020 extensively managed adult Muscovy ducks comprising 287 males and 733 females. These birds were randomly sampled from Rain Forest, Derived Savanna and Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Sex significantly (P < 0.001 affected all morphometric measurements in favour of males. Assessment of relative contribution of morphological traits to SSD through SDI and SSDI revealed that body weight followed by skeletal frame-related variables (body length and wing length were the most dimorphic traits. Three Principal Components were generated for each sex; accounting for 62.70 % and 54.24 % of the total variance explained of male and female ducks, respectively. In tandem with the SDI and SSDI results, Stepwise Discriminant analysis indicated body weight as the best predictor of sex of adult Muscovy ducks followed by wing length and body length; correctly classifying 98.5 % of ducks and are reliable for sex determination in the field. The established SSD in this study could be employed for description, utilization, selection and planning of improvement programs of male and female Muscovy ducks.

  11. The assessment of local response using magnetic resonance imaging at 3- and 6-month post chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Rohit [The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Renehan, Andrew G. [The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Surgery, Manchester (United Kingdom); Mullan, Damian; Carrington, Bernadette M. [The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chakrabarty, Bipasha [The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Saunders, Mark P. [The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Clinical Oncology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the use of MRI-determined tumour regression grading (TRG) in local response assessment and detection of salvageable early local relapse after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). From a prospective database of patients with ASCC managed through a centralised multidisciplinary team, 74 patients who completed routine post-CRT 3- and 6-month MRIs (2009-2012) were reviewed. Two radiologists blinded to the outcomes consensus read and retrospectively assigned TRG scores [1 (complete response) to 5 (no response)] and related these to early local relapse (within 12 months) and disease-free survival (DFS). Seven patients had early local relapse. TRG 1/2 scores at 3 and 6 months had a 100 % negative predictive value; TRG 4/5 scores at 6 months had a 100 % positive predictive value. All seven patients underwent salvage R0 resections. We identified a novel 'tram-track' sign on MRI in over half of patients, with an NPV for early local relapse of 83 % at 6 months. No imaging characteristic or TRG score independently prognosticated for late relapse or 3-year DFS. Post-CRT 3- and 6-month MRI-determined TRG scores predicted salvageable R0 early local relapses in patients with ASCC, challenging current clinical guidelines. (orig.)

  12. A Randomized Prospective Comparison of Patient-Assessed Satisfaction and Clinical Outcomes with Radioactive Seed Localization versus Wire Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Erica V; Ajkay, Nicolas; Patil, Sujata; Collett, Abigail E; Frazier, Thomas G; Barrio, Andrea V

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive seed localization (RSL) has emerged as an alternative to wire localization (WL) in patients with nonpalpable breast cancer. Few studies have prospectively evaluated patient satisfaction and outcomes with RSL. We report the results of a randomized trial comparing RSL to WL in our community hospital. We prospectively enrolled 135 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer between 2011 and 2014. Patients were randomized to RSL or WL. Patients rated the pain and the convenience of the localization on a 5-point Likert scale. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. Of 135 patients enrolled, 10 were excluded (benign pathology, palpable cancer, mastectomy, and previous ipsilateral cancer) resulting in 125 patients. Seventy patients (56%) were randomized to RSL and 55 (44%) to WL. Fewer patients in the RSL group reported moderate to severe pain during the localization procedure compared to the WL group (12% versus 26%, respectively, p = 0.058). The overall convenience of the procedure was rated as very good to excellent in 85% of RSL patients compared to 44% of WL patients (p patient satisfaction with RSL provides another incentive for surgeons to strongly consider RSL as an alternative to WL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ASSESSING FDI DETERMINANTS IN CEE COUNTRIES DURING AND AFTER TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI OANA CRISTINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify if the drivers of inward foreign direct investments’ stocks in Central and Eastern European countries changed in the last 20 years, given two substantial economic evolutions encountered in this period: the transition process and the adhesion at the European Union. We are interested if foreign investors are attracted by the quality of institutions, the labour market or by the telecommunications infrastructure, expressed by 10 variables, in the 11 newest EU member states. Therefore, we use a fixed effects panel data approach during 1994-2013 which we apply in two stages. In the first stage, we find the variables that strongly influence FDI in each of the three groups of determinants. In the second stage, the panel data analysis is applied only for the variables previously find as significant for FDI, to which we add traditional FDI determinants, such as trade openness and GDP per capita. Also, the mentioned years are divided into two sub periods, the first representing the transition period (from 1994 until 2003 and the second one the years comprising the EU adhesion process (from 2004 until 2013. The results confirm that there are changes in FDI determinants in these countries. During 1994 to 2003, investors were mostly interested in the quality of institutions, the openness of the economies and the environments capable of growth, where the products can be sold. For the period starting with 2004, the analyzed countries are attractive mainly through their capacity of providing labour force with low costs and created resources, such as the development of the mobile networks. The results obtained are of particular importance for the public policy decision makers, as the changes in FDI determinants require the adaptation of public policies in the CEE countries in order to remain attractive for foreign investors.

  14. Deltoid Tuberosity Index: A Simple Radiographic Tool to Assess Local Bone Quality in Proximal Humerus Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Christian; Kaestle, Nicola; Benninger, Emanuel; Fornaro, Jürgen; Erhardt, Johannes; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Jost, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis may complicate surgical fixation and healing of proximal humerus fractures and should be assessed preoperatively. Peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) and the Tingart measurement are helpful methods, but both have limitations in clinical use because of limited availability (pQCT) or fracture lines crossing the area of interest (Tingart measurement). The aim of our study was to introduce and validate a simple cortical index to assess the quality of bone in proximal humerus fractures using AP radiographs. We asked: (1) How do the deltoid tuberosity index and Tingart measurement correlate with each other, with patient age, and local bone mineral density (BMD) of the humeral head, measured by pQCT? (2) Which threshold values for the deltoid tuberosity index and Tingart measurement optimally discriminate poor local bone quality of the proximal humerus? (3) Are the deltoid tuberosity index and Tingart measurement clinically applicable and reproducible in patients with proximal humerus fractures? The deltoid tuberosity index was measured immediately above the upper end of the deltoid tuberosity. At this position, where the outer cortical borders become parallel, the deltoid tuberosity index equals the ratio between the outer cortical and inner endosteal diameter. In the first part of our study, we retrospectively measured the deltoid tuberosity index on 31 patients (16 women, 15 men; mean age, 65 years; range, 22-83 years) who were scheduled for elective surgery other than fracture repair. Inclusion criteria were available native pQCT scans, AP shoulder radiographs taken in internal rotation, and no previous shoulder surgery. The deltoid tuberosity index and the Tingart measurement were measured on the preoperative internal rotation AP radiograph. The second part of our study was performed by reviewing 40 radiographs of patients with proximal humerus fractures (31 women, nine men; median age, 65 years; range, 22-88 years). Interrater (two surgeons) and

  15. Category Structure Determines the Relative Attractiveness of Global Versus Local Averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Carr, Evan W; Davis, Tyler; Winkielman, Piotr

    2017-09-21

    Stimuli that capture the central tendency of presented exemplars are often preferred-a phenomenon also known as the classic beauty-in-averageness effect. However, recent studies have shown that this effect can reverse under certain conditions. We propose that a key variable for such ugliness-in-averageness effects is the category structure of the presented exemplars. When exemplars cluster into multiple subcategories, the global average should no longer reflect the underlying stimulus distributions, and will thereby become unattractive. In contrast, the subcategory averages (i.e., local averages) should better reflect the stimulus distributions, and become more attractive. In 3 studies, we presented participants with dot patterns belonging to 2 different subcategories. Importantly, across studies, we also manipulated the distinctiveness of the subcategories. We found that participants preferred the local averages over the global average when they first learned to classify the patterns into 2 different subcategories in a contrastive categorization paradigm (Experiment 1). Moreover, participants still preferred local averages when first classifying patterns into a single category (Experiment 2) or when not classifying patterns at all during incidental learning (Experiment 3), as long as the subcategories were sufficiently distinct. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, we mapped our empirical results onto predictions generated by a well-known computational model of category learning (the Generalized Context Model [GCM]). Overall, our findings emphasize the key role of categorization for understanding the nature of preferences, including any effects that emerge from stimulus averaging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Local strain distributions in partially recrystallized copper determined by in situ tensile investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang; Ubhi, H.S.; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    A partially recrystallized copper sample produced by cold-rolling and annealing was deformed in situ by uniaxial tension in a scanning electron microscope, and electron backscatter diffraction data were collected before and after deformation to certain strains. The local strain distributions...... are quantified using digital image correlation. Distributions of the normal strain along the tensile direction (εxx) are shown in this paper. The recrystallized grains are found to deform more than the remaining unrecrystallized matrix. When εxx is averaged along lines perpendicular to the tensile direction...

  17. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Royo, Azucena; Maza Rubio, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack ...

  18. A novel method to determine lean body water using localized skin biopsies: correlation between lean skin water and lean body water in an overhydration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S E; Ostrowski, R; Hoarau, C; Durr, N; Debreczeny, M P

    2006-11-01

    To determine the relationship between total body water (TBW) fraction and local water content measured in the skin (SW) this study assessed eight anesthetized piglets in an overhydration model. TBW was assessed by deuterium oxide dilution and body mass measurements taken throughout the experiments, and by whole body carcass analysis at the end of each experiment. Additionally, extracellular water and plasma volume were assessed using bromide dilution and Evan's blue dilution, respectively. SW was assessed by tissue biopsies taken at 60-min intervals throughout the experiment. Lean body water (LBW) fraction and lean skin water (LSW) fraction were assessed by extracting the fat from the carcass and biopsy samples. A correlation does exist between TBW fraction and SW fraction with r2=0.58 (P<0.05); however, the strongest correlation occurred between the LBW fraction and LSW fraction with r2=0.87 (P<0.05) and an SE of prediction of 0.77%. These data demonstrate that LSW gives an accurate and precise estimate of LBW and could therefore be used to determine the hydration index in appropriate research settings.

  19. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    of bioremediation scenarios (86-98 % of the human toxicity impacts at Site 1). The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental assessment of remediation alternatives gives a more complete basis for comparison of technologies with substantially different timeframes and efficiencies........ Although two different remediation methods reach the same remedial target with time, their timeframes can be substantially different and lead to a difference in the local toxic impacts over time. By including primary impacts in the LCA of remediation this quality difference is accounted for. Primary...... impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...

  20. Linking carbon sequestration science with local sustainability: an integrated assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Xu, W; Zhou, S

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces an integrated assessment (IA) approach for a Canada-China joint research project that linked forest carbon sequestration, forest resource management, and local sustainability enhancement. The purpose of the IA was to improve the measurement of carbon in different land uses and vegetation covers, as well as to direct decision makers to those land uses or options as an CO(2) emission reduction strategy while supporting rural sustainable development. In this connection, three questions are addressed in this paper: 1) How will forestry carbon sequestration land use policies affect regional sustainability prospects in rural China? 2) How could carbon sequestration land use plans be better integrated into sustainable development strategies? and 3) How can the IA approach assist Chinese government agencies in design effective forestry land use policies? The IA approach was applied in three rural sites of western China. These case studies are described in detail by following articles in this volume. The project improved the capacity of local resource managers in identifying the economic, social and environmental impacts of rural land use decisions that might increase carbon sequestration and enhance local livelihood.

  1. Local Dynamic Stability Assessment of Motion Impaired Elderly Using Electronic Textile Pants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Jones, Mark; Martin, Tom

    2008-10-01

    A clear association has been demonstrated between gait stability and falls in the elderly. Integration of wearable computing and human dynamic stability measures into home automation systems may help differentiate fall-prone individuals in a residential environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the capability of a pair of electronic textile (e-textile) pants system to assess local dynamic stability and to differentiate motion-impaired elderly from their healthy counterparts. A pair of e-textile pants comprised of numerous e-TAGs at locations corresponding to lower extremity joints was developed to collect acceleration, angular velocity and piezoelectric data. Four motion-impaired elderly together with nine healthy individuals (both young and old) participated in treadmill walking with a motion capture system simultaneously collecting kinematic data. Local dynamic stability, characterized by maximum Lyapunov exponent, was computed based on vertical acceleration and angular velocity at lower extremity joints for the measurements from both e-textile and motion capture systems. Results indicated that the motion-impaired elderly had significantly higher maximum Lyapunov exponents (computed from vertical acceleration data) than healthy individuals at the right ankle and hip joints. In addition, maximum Lyapunov exponents assessed by the motion capture system were found to be significantly higher than those assessed by the e-textile system. Despite the difference between these measurement techniques, attaching accelerometers at the ankle and hip joints was shown to be an effective sensor configuration. It was concluded that the e-textile pants system, via dynamic stability assessment, has the potential to identify motion-impaired elderly.

  2. Local Dynamic Stability Assessment of Motion Impaired Elderly Using Electronic Textile Pants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Jones, Mark; Martin, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A clear association has been demonstrated between gait stability and falls in the elderly. Integration of wearable computing and human dynamic stability measures into home automation systems may help differentiate fall-prone individuals in a residential environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the capability of a pair of electronic textile (e-textile) pants system to assess local dynamic stability and to differentiate motion-impaired elderly from their healthy counterparts. A pair of e-textile pants comprised of numerous e-TAGs at locations corresponding to lower extremity joints was developed to collect acceleration, angular velocity and piezoelectric data. Four motion-impaired elderly together with nine healthy individuals (both young and old) participated in treadmill walking with a motion capture system simultaneously collecting kinematic data. Local dynamic stability, characterized by maximum Lyapunov exponent, was computed based on vertical acceleration and angular velocity at lower extremity joints for the measurements from both e-textile and motion capture systems. Results indicated that the motion-impaired elderly had significantly higher maximum Lyapunov exponents (computed from vertical acceleration data) than healthy individuals at the right ankle and hip joints. In addition, maximum Lyapunov exponents assessed by the motion capture system were found to be significantly higher than those assessed by the e-textile system. Despite the difference between these measurement techniques, attaching accelerometers at the ankle and hip joints was shown to be an effective sensor configuration. It was concluded that the e-textile pants system, via dynamic stability assessment, has the potential to identify motion-impaired elderly. PMID:20953265

  3. Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Paul R; Shaw, Darren J; Savill, Nicholas J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2008-10-03

    Models of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) transmission have assumed a homogeneous landscape across which Euclidean distance is a suitable measure of the spatial dependency of transmission. This paper investigated features of the landscape and their impact on transmission during the period of predominantly local spread which followed the implementation of the national movement ban during the 2001 UK FMD epidemic. In this study 113 farms diagnosed with FMD which had a known source of infection within 3 km (cases) were matched to 188 control farms which were either uninfected or infected at a later timepoint. Cases were matched to controls by Euclidean distance to the source of infection and farm size. Intervening geographical features and connectivity between the source of infection and case and controls were compared. Road distance between holdings, access to holdings, presence of forest, elevation change between holdings and the presence of intervening roads had no impact on the risk of local FMD transmission (p > 0.2). However the presence of linear features in the form of rivers and railways acted as barriers to FMD transmission (odds ratio = 0.507, 95% CIs = 0.297,0.887, p = 0.018). This paper demonstrated that although FMD spread can generally be modelled using Euclidean distance and numbers of animals on susceptible holdings, the presence of rivers and railways has an additional protective effect reducing the probability of transmission between holdings.

  4. Local sharing as a predominant determinant of synaptic matrix molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Tsuriel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that central nervous system synapses can persist for weeks, months, perhaps lifetimes, yet little is known as to how synapses maintain their structural and functional characteristics for so long. As a step toward a better understanding of synaptic maintenance we examined the loss, redistribution, reincorporation, and replenishment dynamics of Synapsin I and ProSAP2/Shank3, prominent presynaptic and postsynaptic matrix molecules, respectively. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and photoactivation experiments revealed that both molecules are continuously lost from, redistributed among, and reincorporated into synaptic structures at time-scales of minutes to hours. Exchange rates were not affected by inhibiting protein synthesis or proteasome-mediated protein degradation, were accelerated by stimulation, and greatly exceeded rates of replenishment from somatic sources. These findings indicate that the dynamics of key synaptic matrix molecules may be dominated by local protein exchange and redistribution, whereas protein synthesis and degradation serve to maintain and regulate the sizes of local, shared pools of these proteins.

  5. The Determinants of Local Government Readiness in North Sumatera for the Implementation of Accrual-Based Governmental Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Maksum, Azhar; Nazwar, Chairul; Muda, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    Azhar Maksum The purpose of this study was to analyze the determinants of North Sumatra Government readiness for the Application Acceleration of Accrual-Based Governmental Accounting Standards. This study was conducted by surveying and field identification directly on some districts selected by purposive sampling. The variables used were the experience factor, Human Resources, supporting infrastructure and government knowledge of the Local Finance Office. The dependent variable was the eff...

  6. Strategies for assessing mental health in Haiti: local instrument development and transcultural translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Keys, Hunter M; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

    2013-08-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate mental health assessment instruments is a major barrier to screening and evaluating efficacy of interventions. Simple translation of questionnaires produces misleading and inaccurate conclusions. Multiple alternate approaches have been proposed, and this study compared two approaches tested in rural Haiti. First, an established transcultural translation process was used to develop Haitian Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). This entailed focus group discussions evaluating comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, and completeness. Second, qualitative data collection was employed to develop new instruments: the Kreyòl Distress Idioms (KDI) and Kreyòl Function Assessment (KFA) scales. For the BDI and BAI, some items were found to be nonequivalent due to lack of specificity, interpersonal interpretation, or conceptual nonequivalence. For all screening tools, items were adjusted if they were difficult to endorse or severely stigmatizing, represented somatic experiences of physical illness, or were difficult to understand. After the qualitative development phases, the BDI and BAI were piloted with 31 and 27 adults, respectively, and achieved good reliability. Without these efforts to develop appropriate tools, attempts at screening would have captured a combination of atypical suffering, everyday phenomena, and potential psychotic symptoms. Ultimately, a combination of transculturally adapted and locally developed instruments appropriately identified those in need of care through accounting for locally salient symptoms of distress and their negative sequelae.

  7. An Integrated Framework of Drivetrain Degradation Assessment and Fault Localization for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As wind energy proliferates in onshore and offshore applications, it has become significantly important to predict wind turbine downtime and maintain operation uptime to ensure maximal yield. Two types of data systems have been widely adopted for monitoring turbine health condition: supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA and condition monitoring system (CMS. Provided that research and development have focused on advancing analytical techniques based on these systems independently, an intelligent model that associates information from both systems is necessary and beneficial. In this paper, a systematic framework is designed to integrate CMS and SCADA data and assess drivetrain degradation over its lifecycle. Information reference and advanced feature extraction techniques are employed to procure heterogeneous health indicators. A pattern recognition algorithm is used to model baseline behavior and measure deviation of current behavior, where a Self-organizing Map (SOM and minimum quantization error (MQE method is selected to achieve degradation assessment. Eventually, the computation and ranking of component contribution to the detected degradation offers component-level fault localization. When validated and automated by various applications, the approach is able to incorporate diverse data resources and output actionable information to advise predictive maintenance with precise fault information. The approach is validated on a 3 MW offshore turbine, where an incipient fault is detected well before existing system shuts down the unit. A radar chart is used to illustrate the fault localization result.

  8. Bearing performance degradation assessment using locality preserving projections and Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2011-10-01

    The sensitivity of various features that are characteristics of machine performance may vary significantly under different working conditions. Thus it is critical to devise a systematic feature extraction (FE) approach that provides a useful and automatic guidance on using the most effective features for machine performance prediction without human intervention. This paper proposes a locality preserving projections (LPP)-based FE approach. Different from principal component analysis (PCA) that aims to discover the global structure of the Euclidean space, LPP is capable to discover local structure of the data manifold. This may enable LPP to find more meaningful low-dimensional information hidden in the high-dimensional observations compared with PCA. The effectiveness of the proposed approach for bearing defect and severity classification is evaluated experimentally on bearing test-beds. Furthermore, a novel health assessment indication, Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based negative log likelihood probability (NLLP) is developed to provide a comprehensible indication for quantifying bearing performance degradation. The proposed approach has shown to provide better performance than using regular features (e.g., root mean square (RMS)). The experimental results indicate potential applications of LPP-based FE and GMM as effective tools for bearing performance degradation assessment.

  9. Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes. PMID:22312589

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  11. Comparison of central and local serial CT assessments of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients in a clinical phase IIB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsch, Moritz; Zaim, Souhil; Dicken, Volker; Lehmacher, Walter; Scheuring, Urban J

    2017-02-01

    Background Clinical oncological studies attempt to improve precision of data by central radiological assessments. However, it is unclear, to which extent local and central assessments diverge. Purpose To quantify inter-reader variability and the deviation of local from central radiological assessments of computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods This was a sub-study of a randomized clinical phase IIb trial in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), comparing first-line sorafenib with interferon-alpha-2a (IFN-α-2a). It analyzed agreements of local with central RECIST CT assessments by Cohen's kappa (κ), symmetry tests, deviations in waterfall plots, Bland-Altman plots, and parametric survival analyses. Results The concordance between local and central radiologic review was quantified by κ = 0.53. While local assessment yielded progressive disease (PD) in 18.6%, central assessment classified 22.5% of patient time points as PD exhibiting only a partial overlap with the 18.6% The tumor shrinkage rates in waterfall plots were 68.1% in local and 55.8% in central review (57.8% and 59% by Reader 1 and Reader 2). Bland-Altman plots identified a systematic shift of tumor change rates by -7.5% in local compared to central assessments, that may reflect a systematic tendency of more favorable results in local assessments. The discordance between local and central review was reflected by a time to progression (TTP) hazard ratio (HR) of 1.73 ( P = 0.0003). Conclusion These data suggest that central radiologic review may reduce technical measurement variability in clinical trials, which should be scrutinized in future studies compared to a volumetric reference.

  12. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  13. Novel determinants of H-Ras plasma membrane localization and transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Cox, A D; Solski, P A

    1996-01-01

    cysteine did not abolish palmitoylation. However, despite continued lipid modification the mutant proteins failed to bind to plasma membranes and instead accumulated on internal membranes and, importantly, were not transforming. Addition of an N-terminal myristoylation signal to these defective mutants......, or to proteins entirely lacking the C-terminal 25 residues restored both plasma membrane association and transforming activity. Thus, H-Ras does not absolutely require prenylation or palmitoylation nor indeed its hypervariable domain in order to interact with effectors that ultimately cause transformation....... However, in this native state, the C-terminus appears to provide a combination of lipids and a previously unrecognized signal for specific plasma membrane targeting that are essential for the correct localization and biological function of H-Ras....

  14. The Anachronism of the Local Public Accountancy Determinate by the Accrual European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing the European accrual model upon cash accountancy model,presently used in Romania, at the level of the local communities, makespossible that the anachronism of the model to manifest itself on the discussion’sconcentration at the nominalization about the model’s inclusion in everydaypublic practice. The basis of the accrual model were first defined in the lawregarding the commercial societies adopted in Great Britain in 1985, when theydetermined that all income and taxes referring to the financial year “will betaken into consideration without any boundary to the reception or paymentdate.”1 The accrual model in accountancy needs the recording of the non-casheffects in transactions or financial events for their appearance periods and not inany generated cash, received or paid. The business development was the basisfor “sophistication” of the recordings of the transactions and financial events,being prerequisite for recording the debtors’ or creditors’ sums.

  15. Maximizing benefits from riparian revegetation efforts: local- and landscape-level determinants of avian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardali, Thomas; Holmes, Aaron L

    2011-07-01

    With limited financial resources available for habitat restoration, information that ensures and/or accelerates success is needed to economize effort and maximize benefit. In the Central Valley of California USA, riparian habitat has been lost or degraded, contributing to the decline of riparian-associated birds and other wildlife. Active restoration of riparian plant communities in this region has been demonstrated to increase local population sizes and species diversity of landbirds. To evaluate factors related to variation in the rate at which bird abundance increased after restoration, we examined bird abundance as a function of local (restoration design elements) and landscape (proportion of riparian vegetation in the landscape and riparian patch density) metrics at 17 restoration projects within five project areas along the Sacramento River. We developed a priori model sets for seven species of birds and used an information theoretic approach to identify factors associated with the rate at which bird abundance increased after restoration. For six of seven species investigated, the model with the most support contained a variable for the amount of riparian forest in the surrounding landscape. Three of seven bird species were positively correlated with the number of tree species planted and three of seven were positively correlated with the planting densities of particular tree species. Our results indicate that restoration success can be enhanced by selecting sites near existing riparian habitat and planting multiple tree species. Hence, given limited resources, efforts to restore riparian habitat for birds should focus on landscape-scale site selection in areas with high proportions of existing riparian vegetation.

  16. Local wound healing biomarkers for real-time assessment of periodontal regeneration: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, G; Rasperini, G; Pagni, G; Giannobile, W V; Milani, S; Musto, F; Dellavia, C

    2017-06-01

    Within the same surgical procedure, a great variability on achievement of clinical outcomes exists and may be associated to different molecular factors related to tissue healing. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of clinical success separately in regenerative therapy (REG) and open flap debridement (OFD) to evaluate if factors related with healing of epithelium, connective tissue and bone may be associated to the clinical outcome within each surgical procedure. Sixteen patients underwent periodontal REG and nine patients underwent OFD. Periodontal wound fluid was collected at baseline, 3-5, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery, and expression of wound healing proteins was assessed. Pocket depth and clinical attachment level were taken at baseline and at 6 mo of follow-up. Percentage pocket depth reduction and percentage clinical attachment level gain were computed. Patients were regarded as better or worse responders depending on their percentage pocket depth reduction or percentage clinical attachment level gain. Higher percentage of better responders was observed in the REG group (68.7%) compared to the OFD group (22.2%). At 21 d, no difference in the profile of most of the proteins emerged, with two exceptions, both regarding REG treatment. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 tended to increase in better responders and to decrease in worse responders. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 increased in worse responders and remained substantially unchanged in better responders. Local expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 during wound healing is associated with the clinical performance of periodontal regenerative surgery. The use of local biomarkers offers the potential for real-time assessment of the periodontal healing process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Making assessment locally relevant: measuring functioning for maternal depression in Khayelitsha, Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Emily; Davies, Thandi; Bass, Judith; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We developed a locally relevant functioning assessment instrument (FAI) for pregnant women and mothers of young babies to complement a widely validated instrument—the World Health Organization’s Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 12-item version. The FAI is an outcome measure in a randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of a lay counsellor administered intervention for distressed pregnant women in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Methods Nine items most commonly reported by 40 pregnant women or mothers with young babies in qualitative interviews were selected for the instrument, with a 10th item ‘Other’. The FAI was validated with 142 pregnant women and mothers in Khayelitsha. Analysis was conducted to assess internal reliability, exploratory factor analysis and convergent validity. Results The FAI had good internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.77) and the explanatory factor analysis showed a clear 3-factor solution, relating to domestic, childcare and social activities. The FAI scores showed floor effects, but were positively correlated with the two measures of functioning (WHODAS 2.0 and Washington Group Short Set). The FAI scores also correlated with the measure of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale—EPDS), reflecting increased functional limitations associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusion The results show that the FAI has good internal reliability, and good convergent and construct validity as a measure of functioning for this context. This paper reports on the process of developing an instrument and highlights the importance of using instruments that are locally relevant to ensure accurate measurement of functional status. PMID:25567235

  18. [Determination of total phthalates in perfume and their exposure assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihan; Wang, Zhengmeng; Deng, Hongxia; Duan, Jiahui; Wang, Jinyi; Liu, Shuhui

    2017-12-08

    A novel method for rapid screening of phthalates (PAEs) in perfumes was developed. The PAEs were hydrolyzed to phthalic acid (PA), and the PA in the acidified solution was extracted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) which was detected by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Meanwhile exposure dose to PAEs was estimated by the percentage of a topically applied dose that permeates the skin. The parameters such as the concentration and volume of KOH, the volume of ethanol, hydrolysis time and temperature were employed to evaluate the hydrolysis efficiency of PAEs. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were 10 mL of 4 mol/L KOH, and 1 mL of ethanol at 80℃ for 20 min. The linear range of phthalic acid was 3-240 μmol/L with a good correlation coefficient ( R 2 =0.9991). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 4.6 μmol/kg and 5.9 μmol/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied from 83.4% to 92.7% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 6.8%( n =5). A total of 35 perfume samples were determined, and the contents of total PAEs were found in the range of perfumes. The method is simple and reliable, and has a wide range of applicability. It can be used as a new choice for the detection of PAEs in perfume.

  19. An evaluation of several methods of determining the local angle of attack on wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of determining the angles of attack (AOAs) on wind turbine blades are discussed in this paper. A brief survey of the methods that have been used in the past are presented, and the advantages of each method are discussed relative to their application in the BEM theory. Data from....... The aim of this work is to analyse the reliability of some of the simpler methods of estimating the 3D effective AOA compared some of the more rigorous CFD based methods....

  20. Implementation of fuzzy logic to determining selling price of products in a local corporate chain store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, S. P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Corporate chain store is one type of retail industries companies that are developing growing rapidly in Indonesia. The competition between retail companies is very tight, so retailer companies should evaluate its performance continuously in order to survive. The selling price of products is one of the essential attributes and gets attention of many consumers where it’s used to evaluate the performance of the industry. This research aimed to determine optimal selling price of product with considering cost factors, namely purchase price of the product from supplier, holding costs, and transportation costs. Fuzzy logic approach is used in data processing with MATLAB software. Fuzzy logic is selected to solve the problem because this method can consider complexities factors. The result is a model of determination of the optimal selling price by considering three cost factors as inputs in the model. Calculating MAPE and model prediction ability for some products are used as validation and verification where the average value is 0.0525 for MAPE and 94.75% for prediction ability. The conclusion is this model can predict the selling price of up to 94.75%, so it can be used as tools for the corporate chain store in particular to determine the optimal selling price for its products.

  1. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  2. Assessment of Four Passive Hearing Protection Devices for Continuous Noise Attenuation, Impulsive Noise Insertion Loss, and Auditory Localization Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    devices. Localization testing – free field localization test The localization testing was completed in the anechoic chamber located in the...participant from determining the location of the loudspeaker visually, the test was performed with no lights turned on in the anechoic chamber ...VI Acoustics Trident software. For each threshold measurement, the participant was seated in the sound chamber , and given a thumb switch. One

  3. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras claves: Almacenes, soterrado, humedad, conservación, coeficientes._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the mechanisms of humidity transport are explained. These mechanisms have place in underground warehousesaccording to the climatic and geohydrological characteristics of Cuba. An analogy with the Fick´s law is stated and it intends atheoretical model that describes this mechanism of transport toward the cavities. It was determined the local coefficients oftransport of humidity experimentally for different recover types in walls and different geometric forms of the warehouses.Key words: Store, buried, humidity, conservation, and coefficients.

  4. Direct local building inundation depth determination in 3-D point clouds generated from user-generated flood images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbaum, Luisa; Marx, Sabrina; Höfle, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the number of people affected by flooding caused by extreme weather events has increased considerably. In order to provide support in disaster recovery or to develop mitigation plans, accurate flood information is necessary. Particularly pluvial urban floods, characterized by high temporal and spatial variations, are not well documented. This study proposes a new, low-cost approach to determining local flood elevation and inundation depth of buildings based on user-generated flood images. It first applies close-range digital photogrammetry to generate a geo-referenced 3-D point cloud. Second, based on estimated camera orientation parameters, the flood level captured in a single flood image is mapped to the previously derived point cloud. The local flood elevation and the building inundation depth can then be derived automatically from the point cloud. The proposed method is carried out once for each of 66 different flood images showing the same building façade. An overall accuracy of 0.05 m with an uncertainty of ±0.13 m for the derived flood elevation within the area of interest as well as an accuracy of 0.13 m ± 0.10 m for the determined building inundation depth is achieved. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide reliable flood information on a local scale using user-generated flood images as input. The approach can thus allow inundation depth maps to be derived even in complex urban environments with relatively high accuracies.

  5. Comparison of local sine wave modeling with harmonic phase analysis for the assessment of myocardial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A; Borg, Alex; Clark, David; Steadman, Christopher D; McCann, Gerry P; Clarysse, Patrick; Croisille, Pierre; Schmitt, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    To compare local sine-wave modeling (SinMod) with harmonic phase analysis (HARP), for assessment of left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (εcc) from tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance images. Mid-ventricular spatial modulation of magnetization was performed in 60 participants (15 each with hypertrophic, dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy and 15 healthy controls) at 1.5 Tesla. Global and segmental peak transmural εcc were measured using HARP and SinMod. Repeated measurements were performed on 25% of examinations to assess observer variability. Effect of contrast was assessed in 10 additional patients. SinMod showed a high level of agreement with HARP for global εcc (mean difference -0.02, 95% limits of agreement -6.46 to 6.43%). Agreement was much lower for segmental εcc. Both methods showed excellent observer agreement for global εcc (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75). Observer agreement for segmental εcc was also excellent with SinMod, but was significantly lower with HARP. Analysis time was significantly shorter using SinMod. Pre- and postcontrast εcc measurements were not significantly different using either technique, although postcontrast measurements showed greater variability with HARP. SinMod and HARP-based measurements of global εcc have a high level of agreement, but segmental agreement is substantially lower. SinMod has generally lower observer variability, is faster and is less affected by contrast, but requires further validation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  7. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-11-01

    The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities. We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy), for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate. Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%. The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss). This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  8. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instea......-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies.......We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead......, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA...

  9. Automatic Threshold Determination for a Local Approach of Change Detection in Long-Term Signal Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hewson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CUSUM (cumulative sum is a well-known method that can be used to detect changes in a signal when the parameters of this signal are known. This paper presents an adaptation of the CUSUM-based change detection algorithms to long-term signal recordings where the various hypotheses contained in the signal are unknown. The starting point of the work was the dynamic cumulative sum (DCS algorithm, previously developed for application to long-term electromyography (EMG recordings. DCS has been improved in two ways. The first was a new procedure to estimate the distribution parameters to ensure the respect of the detectability property. The second was the definition of two separate, automatically determined thresholds. One of them (lower threshold acted to stop the estimation process, the other one (upper threshold was applied to the detection function. The automatic determination of the thresholds was based on the Kullback-Leibler distance which gives information about the distance between the detected segments (events. Tests on simulated data demonstrated the efficiency of these improvements of the DCS algorithm.

  10. Comparisons of Rigid Proctoscopy, Flexible Colonoscopy, and Digital Rectal Examination for Determining the Localization of Rectal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akira; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kazutake; Saito, Gota

    2018-02-01

    Rigid proctoscopy is considered essential for rectal tumor localization, although the current gold standard for detection of colorectal cancers is colonoscopy. The European Society for Medical Oncology Guidelines indicate that rigid and flexible endoscopies afford essentially identical results, although little evidence is yet available to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of colonoscopy in identifying the location of rectal cancer and to compare the results with those of rigid proctoscopy and digital rectal examination. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective database. The study was conducted at a single tertiary colorectal surgery referral center. A total of 173 patients scheduled for curative surgery for histologically verified rectal adenocarcinoma between December 2009 and February 2015 were entered into the study, after having given informed consent. The main study measure was the mean difference and limits of agreement in assessment of the height of the distal edge of rectal cancer from the anal verge, using the Bland and Altman method. The mean difference between rigid proctoscopy and flexible colonoscopy was -0.2 cm (95% CI, -2.0 to 1.6 cm). The mean difference between rigid proctoscopy and digital rectal examination was 0.3 cm (95% CI, 1.9 to 2.4 cm). Intermethod variability larger than the 95% CI between rigid and flexible endoscopes was correlated to the tumor height (OR, 4.27 (95% CI, 1.84-3.10); p = 0.021). This study was conducted in a single center. The limits of agreement (-2.0 and 1.6 cm) in identifying the height of rectal cancers from the anal verge are sufficiently small to support the view that flexible colonoscopy provides similar tumor locations to those measured by rigid proctoscopy, although the discrepancy occasionally exceeded 2 cm for tumors >5 cm above the anal verge. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A405.

  11. Proposal for a probabilistic local level landslide hazard assessment model: The case of Suluktu, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Fornes, Petter; Cepeda, Jose Mauricio; Ekseth, Kristine Helene; Eidsvig, Unni; Ormukov, Cholponbek

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are a significant threat to human life and the built environment in many parts of Central Asia. To improve understanding of the magnitude of the threat and propose appropriate risk mitigation measures, landslide hazard mapping is needed both at regional and local level. Many different approaches for landslide hazard mapping exist depending on the scale and purpose of the analysis and what input data are available. This paper presents a probabilistic local scale landslide hazard mapping methodology for rainfall triggered landslides, adapted to the relatively dry climate found in South-Western Kyrgyzstan. The GIS based approach makes use of data on topography, geology, land use and soil characteristics to assess landslide susceptibility. Together with a selected rainfall scenario, these data are inserted into a triggering model based on an infinite slope formulation considering pore pressure and suction effects for unsaturated soils. A statistical model based on local landslide data has been developed to estimate landslide run-out. The model links the spatial extension of the landslide to land use and geological features. The model is tested and validated for the town of Suluktu in the Ferghana Valley in South-West Kyrgyzstan. Landslide hazard is estimated for the urban area and the surrounding hillsides. The case makes use of a range of data from different sources, both remote sensing data and in-situ data. Public global data sources are mixed with case specific data obtained from field work. The different data and models have various degrees of uncertainty. To account for this, the hazard model has been inserted into a Monte Carlo simulation framework to produce a probabilistic landslide hazard map identifying areas with high landslide exposure. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013], under grant agreement n° 312972 "Framework to integrate Space-based and in

  12. Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Monetti, R.; Bauer, J.; Sidorenko, I.; Müller, D.; Matsuura, M.; Lochmüller, E.-M.; Zysset, P.; Eckstein, F.

    2008-12-01

    The visualization and subsequent assessment of the inner human bone structures play an important role for better understanding the disease- or drug-induced changes of bone in the context of osteoporosis giving prospect for better predictions of bone strength and thus of the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients. In this work, we show how the complex trabecular bone structure can be visualized using μCT imaging techniques at an isotropic resolution of 26 μm. We quantify these structures by calculating global and local topological and morphological measures, namely Minkowski functionals (MFs) and utilizing the (an-)isotropic scaling index method (SIM) and by deriving suitable texture measures based on MF and SIM. Using a sample of 151 specimens taken from human vertebrae in vitro, we correlate the texture measures with the mechanically measured maximum compressive strength (MCS), which quantifies the strength of the bone probe, by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The structure parameters derived from the local measures yield good correlations with the bone strength as measured in mechanical tests. We investigate whether the performance of the texture measures depends on the MCS value by selecting different subsamples according to MCS. Considering the whole sample the results for the newly defined parameters are better than those obtained for the standard global histomorphometric parameters except for bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). If a subsample consisting only of weak bones is analysed, the local structural analysis leads to similar and even better correlations with MCS as compared to BV/TV. Thus, the MF and SIM yield additional information about the stability of the bone especially in the case of weak bones, which corroborates the hypothesis that the bone structure (and not only its mineral mass) constitutes an important component of bone stability.

  13. Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeth, C; Monetti, R; Bauer, J; Sidorenko, I [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mueller, D [Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Matsuura, M [Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Pettenkoferstrasse 11, 80336 Muenchen (Germany); Lochmueller, E-M [Department of Gynaecology I, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Maistrasse 11, 80337 Muenchen (Germany); Zysset, P [Institute for Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology (TU-Wien), Gusshausstrasse 27-29, 1040 Wien (Austria); Eckstein, F [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: cwr@mpe.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    The visualization and subsequent assessment of the inner human bone structures play an important role for better understanding the disease- or drug-induced changes of bone in the context of osteoporosis giving prospect for better predictions of bone strength and thus of the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients. In this work, we show how the complex trabecular bone structure can be visualized using {mu}CT imaging techniques at an isotropic resolution of 26 {mu}m. We quantify these structures by calculating global and local topological and morphological measures, namely Minkowski functionals (MFs) and utilizing the (an-)isotropic scaling index method (SIM) and by deriving suitable texture measures based on MF and SIM. Using a sample of 151 specimens taken from human vertebrae in vitro, we correlate the texture measures with the mechanically measured maximum compressive strength (MCS), which quantifies the strength of the bone probe, by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The structure parameters derived from the local measures yield good correlations with the bone strength as measured in mechanical tests. We investigate whether the performance of the texture measures depends on the MCS value by selecting different subsamples according to MCS. Considering the whole sample the results for the newly defined parameters are better than those obtained for the standard global histomorphometric parameters except for bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). If a subsample consisting only of weak bones is analysed, the local structural analysis leads to similar and even better correlations with MCS as compared to BV/TV. Thus, the MF and SIM yield additional information about the stability of the bone especially in the case of weak bones, which corroborates the hypothesis that the bone structure (and not only its mineral mass) constitutes an important component of bone stability.

  14. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.

  15. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study...... their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition...... importance for the geographic patterns of the functional (as represented by variation in maximum canopy height) and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest's woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while paleoclimate has left a strong...

  16. A mini slug test method for determination of a local hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Andersen, Lars J.

    1992-01-01

    A new and efficient mini slug test method for the determination of local hydraulic conductivities in unconfined sandy aquifers is developed. The slug test is performed in a small-diameter (1 inch) driven well with a 0.25 m screen just above the drive point. The screened drive point can be driven...... from level to level and thereby establish vertical profiles of the hydraulic conductivity. The head data from the test well are recorded with a 10 mm pressure transducer, and the initial head difference required is established by a small vacuum pump. The method described has provided 274 spatially...... distributed measurements of a local hydraulic conductivity at a tracer test site at Vejen, Denmark. The mini slug test results calculated by a modified Dax slug test analysing method, applying the elastic storativity in the Dax equations instead of the specific yield, are in good accordance with the results...

  17. Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-07-01

    DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

  18. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Jonathan [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Institute for Transport Studies; Hubacek, Klaus [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment, Sustainability Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information. (author)

  19. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jonas N.; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in a mega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies.

  20. Local seismic hazard assessment in explosive volcanic settings by 3D numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzano, Roberto; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Marcini, Marco; Polpetta, Federica; Simionato, Maurizio; Sirianni, Pietro; Sottili, Gianluca; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Piscitelli, Sabatino

    2017-04-01

    This work deals with the assessment of local seismic response in the explosive volcanic settings by reconstructing the subsoil model of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy), whose pyroclastic succession records eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago. Heterogeneous characteristics of the Stracciacappa maar (stratification, structural setting, lithotypes, and thickness variation of depositional units) make it an ideal case history for understanding mechanisms and processes leading to modifications of amplitude-frequency-duration of seismic waves generated at earthquake sources and propagating through volcanic settings. New geological map and cross sections, constrained with recently acquired geotechnical and geophysical data, illustrate the complex geometric relationships among different depositional units forming the maar. A composite interfingering between internal lacustrine sediments and epiclastic debris, sourced from the rim, fills the crater floor; a 45 meters thick continuous coring borehole was drilled in the maar with sampling of undisturbed samples. Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys and 2D passive seismic arrays were also carried out for constraining the geological model and the velocity profile of the S-waves, respectively. Single station noise measurements were collected in order to define natural amplification frequencies. Finally, the nonlinear cyclic soil behaviour was investigated through simple shear tests on the undisturbed samples. The collected dataset was used to define the subsoil model for 3D finite difference site response numerical analyses by using FLAC 3D software (ITASCA). Moreover, 1D and 2D numerical analyses were carried out for comparison purposes. Two different scenarios were selected as input motions: a moderate magnitude (volcanic event) and a high magnitude (tectonic event). Both earthquake scenarios revealed significant ground motion amplification (up to 15 in terms of spectral acceleration

  1. The 8p23 inversion polymorphism determines local recombination heterogeneity across human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joao M; Chikhi, Lounès; Amorim, António; Lopes, Alexandra M

    2014-04-01

    For decades, chromosomal inversions have been regarded as fascinating evolutionary elements as they are expected to suppress recombination between chromosomes with opposite orientations, leading to the accumulation of genetic differences between the two configurations over time. Here, making use of publicly available population genotype data for the largest polymorphic inversion in the human genome (8p23-inv), we assessed whether this inhibitory effect of inversion rearrangements led to significant differences in the recombination landscape of two homologous DNA segments, with opposite orientation. Our analysis revealed that the accumulation of genetic differentiation is positively correlated with the variation in recombination profiles. The observed recombination dissimilarity between inversion types is consistent across all populations analyzed and surpasses the effects of geographic structure, suggesting that both structures (orientations) have been evolving independently over an extended period of time, despite being subjected to the very same demographic history. Aside this mainly independent evolution, we also identified a short segment (350 kb, inversion) in the central region of the inversion where the genetic divergence between the two structural haplotypes is diminished. Although it is difficult to demonstrate it, this could be due to gene flow (possibly via double-crossing over events), which is consistent with the higher recombination rates surrounding this segment. This study demonstrates for the first time that chromosomal inversions influence the recombination landscape at a fine-scale and highlights the role of these rearrangements as drivers of genome evolution.

  2. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkash-Amar, Shlomit; David, Yaara; Polten, Andreas; Hezroni, Hadas; Eldar, Yonina C; Meshorer, Eran; Yakhini, Zohar; Simon, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR). Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs) in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs) in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR). Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization), uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are associated with

  3. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    Full Text Available DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR. Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR. Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization, uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are

  4. Assessment of local carotid stiffness in seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Şirin Özcan, Ayşe Nur; Erten, Şükran; Alsancak, Yakup; Durmaz, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent predictor of CV events. This study aimed to analyse local carotid AS parameters in seronegative and seropositive RA patients. Of 347 consecutive RA patients, we selected specifically those who were free of established CV diseases and risk factors. As a result, 140 patients (126 women, 52.2 ± 10 years) and 140 healthy controls (122 women, 52.7 ± 8.0 years) were enrolled into this study. The common carotid AS was evaluated using radio frequency echo-tracking system to determine the local carotid pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Based on rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity, RA patients were categorized into seronegative and seropositive subgroups. Carotid PWV was determined to be significantly higher in all patients and subgroups than controls (p < .001 for all). Although cIMT was similar between the patients, controls and seropositive subgroup, seronegative patients had significantly higher cIMT compared to controls (p = .035) and seropositive group (p = .010). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between cPWV and age (r: 0.603, p < .001), ESR (r: 0.297, p = .004), ACPA (r: 0.346, p = .001) and cIMT (r: 0.290, p = .005) in seropositive patients. RA per se is sufficient to cause arteriosclerosis in the absence of classical CV risk factors. However, arterial hypertrophy is only increased in seronegative patients but not in seropositive group.

  5. Local Productive Arrangements for Biodiesel Production in Brazil – Environmental Assessment of Small-holder’s Integrated Oleaginous Crops Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments were carried out in small-holders’ farms in four territories where productive arrangements have been organized for production of minor oleaginous crops under the Brazilian biodiesel program. The study aimed at checking local impacts of the biodiesel productive chains at the rural establishment scale, and promoting the environmental performance of the selected farms, henceforth proposed as sustainable management demonstration units. Assessments were carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, which integrates 62 objective and quantitative indicators related to five sustainability dimensions: i Landscape Ecology, ii Environmental Quality (Atmosphere, Water and Soil, iii Socio-cultural Values, iv Economic Values and v Management and Administration. The main results point out that, in general, the ecological dimensions of sustainability, that is, the Landscape Ecology and Atmosphere, Water, and Soil quality indicators, show adequate field conditions, seemingly not yet negatively affected by increases in chemical inputs and natural resources use predicted as important potential impacts of the agro-energy sector. The Economic Values indicators have been favorably influenced in the studied farms, due to a steadier demand and improved prices for the oleaginous crops. On the other hand, valuable positive consequences expected for favoring farmers’ market insertion, such as improved Socio-cultural Values and Management & Administration indicators, are still opportunities to be materialized. The Environmental Management Reports issued to the farmers, based on the presented sustainability assessment procedures, offer valuable documentation and communication means for consolidating the organizational influence of the local productive arrangements studied. These productive arrangements were shown to be determinant for the selection of crop associations and diversification, as well as for the provision of technical assistance

  6. Evaluation of the effects of health impact assessment practice at the local level in Monteregie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Kareen; Dutilly-Simard, Sarah; Brousselle, Astrid; Smits, Pernelle; Buregeya, Jean-Marie; Loslier, Julie; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-27

    In Quebec (Canada), the Monteregie Regional Public Health Department has chosen to use health impact assessment (HIA) to support municipalities through a knowledge exchange and collaborative process in order to positively influence decision-making regarding local policies and projects. The value of HIA is becoming increasingly recognized by municipalities interested in planning and managing their cities with an eco-systemic perspective. However, the knowledge and tools which support the use of the HIA at regional and local levels are still missing. The general objective is to evaluate the impact the collaborative HIA process used in Monteregie has had on the formulation, adoption and implementation of policies and projects favourable to health. The methodology is based on Mayne's CA design, which allows the identification of factors which contribute to a change process. It is described as one of the best approaches to reduce uncertainty regarding the observed results and the contribution of a program. All of the HIA processes realised between January 2013 and January 2016 in Monteregie will be studied following a case study strategy. Study populations include regional and local public health professionals, municipal officers and community members implicated in these HIAs. Various qualitative and quantitative methods will be used, including examination of documentation, observations on the city grounds, and individual or group interviews. A model of change will be constructed for each HIA process and will present the logical pathway which leads to the observed results, alternative explanations and hypothesises as to why these results were obtained, and contextual factors that could have influenced them. This model will allow the production of a refined contribution story for each HIA. A convergence and divergence analysis will be completed in order to identify differences or similitudes between the different HIAs studied. In addition to contributing to the

  7. Detritus Quality and Locality Determines Survival and Mass, but Not Export, of Wood Frogs at Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Milanovich

    Full Text Available Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries.

  8. Detritus Quality and Locality Determines Survival and Mass, but Not Export, of Wood Frogs at Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovich, Joseph R; Barrett, Kyle; Crawford, John A

    2016-01-01

    Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife) negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries.

  9. Microdialysis as a tool to determine the local tissue concentration of dicloxacillin in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Kraft; Nielsen, Flemming; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Jørgensen, Uffe; Skov, Ole; Rasmussen, Lasse E

    2018-03-01

    The most common pathogen to cause postoperative infections in Denmark is Staphylococcus aureus. Despite using prophylactic antibiotics, infections are still seen. Whether the tissue concentration is above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the pathogen is unknown. Thus, the concentration of dicloxacillin in muscle and adipose tissue was measured after intravenous administration, in healthy men. MIC for dicloxacillin against S. aureus was determined using the broth macrodilution method. A microdialysis (MD) catheter was placed in the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and in the lateral vastus muscle of the thigh of six healthy male volunteers. They were given 2 g dicloxacillin intravenously. Samples from blood and MD fluid were collected. The unbound dicloxacillin was isolated from plasma. Samples were analysed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum concentration was reached in muscle tissue after 0.5 h and in adipose tissue after 0.8 h. AUC 0-6h for the dicloxacillin concentration in adipose tissue was significantly lower when compared to the unbound dicloxacillin concentration in plasma. The dicloxacillin concentration was above the MIC for sensitive S. aureus for a minimum of 2.3 h and a median of 4.1 h in muscle tissue and a minimum of 1.8 h and a median of 3.2 h in adipose tissue. The unbound dicloxacillin concentration in adipose and muscle tissue remained above the MIC for sensitive S. aureus, for a period sufficient for many orthopaedic procedures. Whether this is true in patients with compromised circulation remains to be investigated. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Using Borehole Vertical Array Data to Determine Local Attenuation and Velocity Structure: A Combined Global-Local Optimization Algorithm for Plane Wave Seismogram Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimaki, D.; Tsuda, K.; Oakes, J.; Steidl, J.

    2004-12-01

    A seismic waveform inversion algorithm is demonstrated for the estimation of elastic soil properties from one-dimensional downhole array recordings. For a given bedrock motion, scarcity of near-surface geotechnical information, error propagation and limited resolution of the continuum usually result in predictions of surface ground motion that poorly compare with low amplitude observations. This discrepancy is further aggravated for strong ground motion, associated with hysteretic, nonlinear, and potentially irreversible material deformations. Seismogram inversion is a nonlinear multi-parameter optimization problem. Traditional search techniques that use characteristics of the problem to determine the next sampling point (e.g. gradients, Hessians, linearity and continuity) are computationally efficient, yet limited to convex regular functions. As a result, they fail to identify the best fit solution in seismogram inversion problems, when the starting model is too far from the global optimal solution. On the other hand, stochastic search techniques (e.g. genetic algorithms, simulated annealing) have been shown to efficiently identify promising regions in the search space, but perform very poorly in a localized search. The proposed inversion technique is a two-step process, namely a genetic algorithm in the wavelet domain in series with a nonlinear least-square fit in the frequency domain; we thus improve the computational efficiency of the former, while avoiding the pitfalls of using local linearization techniques such as the latter for the optimization of multi-modal, discontinuous and non-differentiable functions. The parameters to be estimated are stepwise variations of the shear modulus, attenuation and density with depth, for horizontally layered media with refined near-surface discretization. Equality constrains are imposed on the vector of unknowns to bound the search space, based on the available soil investigation. For the genetic algorithm, the objective

  11. Assessing local and regional economic impacts of climatic extremes and feasibility of adaptation measures in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.; Andree, B.P.J.; Koomen, E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method that combines local productivity factors, economic factors, crop-specific sensitivity to climatic extremes, and future climate change scenarios, to assess potential impacts of extreme weather events on agricultural production systems. Our assessment is spatially explicit and uses

  12. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELBET, R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.

  13. Carbon footprint assessment for a local branded pure milk product: a lifecycle based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui ZHAO

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a simplified life cycle based assessment for a local branded pure milk product, to measure its related carbon footprint, including production of raw milk, dairy processing, transportation of milk product and disposal of packaging waste. The results show that the total carbon footprint of the pure milk is 1120g CO2/L. The production of raw milk is identified as the major contributor to the carbon footprint. This contribution has amounted to 843 g of CO2 per liter of pure milk, accounted for 75.27% of the total carbon footprint. The carbon footprint of product transportation is 38 g of CO2 per liter, which accounts for 3.39% of the total. The carbon footprint related to the dairy processing and disposal of waste packaging is 173 g of CO2 per liter and 66 g of CO2 per liter, accounting for 15.45% and 5.89% of the total, respectively. The carbon footprint assessment intends to help dairy enterprises identify the intensive sectors of carbon emissions, and provides insight into improvement of product environmental performances.

  14. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the

  16. Determination of local material properties of laser beam welded aluminium-steel and aluminium-titanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunkel, M.; Hehl, A. von [IWT Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik Bremen (Germany); Barr, A.

    2012-04-15

    The combination of different metallic materials, such as aluminium and steel or aluminium and titanium, by firmly bonding via laser beam welding enables the production of customised hybrid lightweight designs with enhanced properties. Both weld geometry and local material behaviour, which are responsible for the final load characteristics of the compound, are influenced by the process parameters during welding. A novel approach of coupling process, microstructure and mechanical simulation, considering the development of weld geometry and local material conditions is intended to deliver a fast and reliable method for evaluating the quasi-static strength of laser beam welded hybrid compounds. Besides the objective to promote a reduction of expensive welding experiments, the developed method can enhance the performance of hybrid structures as well as their lightweight potential for automotive and aircraft applications. The experimental determination of the local mechanical properties as the basis for the regarded simulation approach is an essential part of a running research project. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  18. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  19. Local strain energy density for the fracture assessment of polyurethane specimens weakened by notches of different shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on local stress fields in proximity of crack and notch tips have shown that Strain Energy Density (SED, averaged in a circular control volume surrounding the point of stress singularities, represents a reliable engineering approach for assessing the brittle fracture of several brittle materials. It is worthy of notice that the application of SED criterion and the reliability of its results are strictly related to the proper determination of fracture parameters, i.e. the critical value of deformation energy Wc and the radius Rc of the control volume. This work presents an experimental methodology for their determination by means of notched specimens for different polyurethane densities, ranging from 100 to 651 kg/m3. Then, once obtained these critical parameters, the failure load in different types of notches and cracked specimens under mode I have been predicted. Moreover, for cracked specimens under mixed mode and mode II, the authors propose a personal approach that confirms PUR foams can be treated as brittle materials

  20. Determination of Arsenic and Health Risk Assessment in the Ground Water of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULFIQAR ALIBHATTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As (Arsenic is one of the lethal element present at the various locations of the world, putting human beings in danger by polluting the water. Arsenic Kit and atomic absorption spectrometer were used to determine As in ground water of Sindh province, Pakistan. Twenty-Four (24 districts both on the left and right bank of RI (River Indus were analyzed. It was observed from the results that highest As concentration 200 ppb (parts per billion i.e. above the WHO (World Health Organization limit (10 ppb was observed in Sakrand, district Shaheed Benazirabad followed by Hala, Matairi, TMK (Tando Mohammad Khan and Nasarpur regions. It was further found that ground water of regions on the left bank of RIwas more contaminated than the right bank. Contour map was created using OriginPro and coordinate systems to highlight the elevated arsenic in the studied area. HRA (Health Risk Assessment of these areas was carried out to calculate EDI (Estimated Daily Intake, TQH (Target Hazard Quotient and CR (Cancer Risk. 45% of the total ground water samples analyzed were above the permissible limit for As in water and mostly these are located on the left bank of RI. The local wells in Sindh have never been tested for metal concentration former to use. These results provide baselines for researchers, NGO's (Non-Governmental Organizations and government to apply arsenic treatment technologies in those areas

  1. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  2. Citrus tristeza virus p23: determinants for nucleolar localization and their influence on suppression of RNA silencing and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro; Flores, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) encodes a singular protein (p23, 209 amino acids) with multiple functions, including RNA silencing suppression (RSS). Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-p23 agroexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed its accumulation in the nucleolus, Cajal bodies, and plasmodesmata. To dissect the nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) typically associated with basic motifs, seven truncated and 10 point-mutated versions of p23 were assayed. Deletion mutants showed that regions 50 to 86 and 100 to 157 (excluding fragment 106 to 114), both with basic motifs and the first with a zinc-finger, contain the (bipartite) NoLS. Alanine substitutions delimited this signal to three cysteines of the Zn-finger and some basic amino acids. RSS activity of p23 in N. benthamiana was abolished by essentially all mutants, indicating that it involves most p23 regions. The necrotic-inducing ability of p23 when launched in N. benthamiana from Potato virus X was only retained by deletion mutant 158-209 and one substitution mutant, showing that the Zn-finger and flanking basic motifs form part of the pathogenic determinant. Ectopic expression of p23 and some deletion mutants in transgenic Mexican lime demarcated a similar determinant, suggesting that p23 affects related pathways in citrus and N. benthamiana. Both RSS activity and pathogenicity of p23 appear related to its nucleolar localization.

  3. Direct local building inundation depth determination in 3-D point clouds generated from user-generated flood images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Griesbaum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of people affected by flooding caused by extreme weather events has increased considerably. In order to provide support in disaster recovery or to develop mitigation plans, accurate flood information is necessary. Particularly pluvial urban floods, characterized by high temporal and spatial variations, are not well documented. This study proposes a new, low-cost approach to determining local flood elevation and inundation depth of buildings based on user-generated flood images. It first applies close-range digital photogrammetry to generate a geo-referenced 3-D point cloud. Second, based on estimated camera orientation parameters, the flood level captured in a single flood image is mapped to the previously derived point cloud. The local flood elevation and the building inundation depth can then be derived automatically from the point cloud. The proposed method is carried out once for each of 66 different flood images showing the same building façade. An overall accuracy of 0.05 m with an uncertainty of ±0.13 m for the derived flood elevation within the area of interest as well as an accuracy of 0.13 m ± 0.10 m for the determined building inundation depth is achieved. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide reliable flood information on a local scale using user-generated flood images as input. The approach can thus allow inundation depth maps to be derived even in complex urban environments with relatively high accuracies.

  4. Design, Implementation & Assessment of Local Exhaust Ventilation System and dust collectors for crushing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani shahna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Industrial ventilation systems and dust collectors are effective solutions to reduce particulate emissions in the workplace and environmental in mineral processes. In this study, Local Exhaust Ventilation System and dust collectors for control of emitted silica, coke, silicon carbide dusts from crushing unit was designed and evaluated. Methods: : Local Exhaust ventilation system based on standards and guides was designed and implemented after field study of the processes and sources of air pollutants. A set comprised of the four parallel cyclones (Stairmand model and a new design of the scrubber had been used for dust control. After set-up of systems, its effectiveness in reducing the exposure of workers in the workshops and dust collecting were assessed. Results: Test results were significant differences between the concentration of particles in both on and off the ventilation system revealed (P <0.05. The system has been implemented as means of personal exposure to pollutants and environmental emissions were reduced 93.01% and 64.64%, respectively. Also, alone and integrated collection efficiency of cyclone and scrubber, were 94.2%, 59.05% and 97.4%, respectively. The results show good agreement with the values of the parameters ventilation system was designed. Conclusion: Implementation of integrated dust collectors is a good option in industries that have the financial and technical constraints to improve change processes and devices. This method with attainment to health and environmental standards not only can be resolve of the pollution problems, but also will be economically justified of such projects with reduction of depreciation expense and dust recycling.

  5. Sensitivity Assessment. Localization of Road Transport Infrastructures in the Province of Lucca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Santini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The work, result of a research carried out in collaboration with the Chamber of Commerce of Lucca, aims to implement a tool for the evaluation of positive and negative effects arising by the “widening” or “new construction” of road transport infrastructures in the territory. In particular, with respect to the impacts generated by the project actions relating to the construction or widening of roads, the research has produced several sensitivity maps of the studied area and a graphical interface, accessible on the Internet and user friendly, allowing the synthetic evaluation of the impacts and the comparison of different scenarios The implemented methodology, through the use of advanced tools for data management and processing and for impacts quantification and assessment, has allowed us to define a very detailed database related to all components of study area, both natural and anthropic, and to build a "synthetic sensitivity index", obtained from the combination of thematic information about each component and from the relationships that involve each others. It’s therefore to consider an indispensable support tool for planners and evaluators (eg. SEA procedures, but also for others users (eg organizations representing businesses, consumer associations, etc.. In fact it allows to acquire a deep knowledge of the area (environmental and economic resources, to verify the sensitivity of each part of the area with respect to a series of project actions concerning both the construction of new roads that the widening of the existing ones and finally to evaluate different localization scenarios for the same type of project or different impact scenarios for the same localization.

  6. Assessing water resources in Azerbaijan using a local distributed model forced and constrained with global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Hegnauer, Mark; Schellekens, Jaap; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; ten Velden, Corine

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, data is scarce, incomplete and often not easily shared. In these cases, global satellite and reanalysis data provide an alternative to assess water resources. To assess water resources in Azerbaijan, a completely distributed and physically based hydrological wflow-sbm model was set-up for the entire Kura basin. We used SRTM elevation data, a locally available river map and one from OpenStreetMap to derive the drainage direction network at the model resolution of approximately 1x1 km. OpenStreetMap data was also used to derive the fraction of paved area per cell to account for the reduced infiltration capacity (c.f. Schellekens et al. 2014). We used the results of a global study to derive root zone capacity based on climate data (Wang-Erlandsson et al., 2016). To account for the variation in vegetation cover over the year, monthly averages of Leaf Area Index, based on MODIS data, were used. For the soil-related parameters, we used global estimates as provided by Dai et al. (2013). This enabled the rapid derivation of a first estimate of parameter values for our hydrological model. Digitized local meteorological observations were scarce and available only for limited time period. Therefore several sources of global meteorological data were evaluated: (1) EU-WATCH global precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1958-2001 (Harding et al., 2011), (2) WFDEI precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1979-2014 (by Weedon et al., 2014), (3) MSWEP precipitation (Beck et al., 2016) and (4) local precipitation data from more than 200 stations in the Kura basin were available from the NOAA website for a period up to 1991. The latter, together with data archives from Azerbaijan, were used as a benchmark to evaluate the global precipitation datasets for the overlapping period 1958-1991. By comparing the datasets, we found that monthly mean precipitation of EU-WATCH and WFDEI coincided well

  7. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  8. Determination of the duty cycle of WLAN for realistic radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Pareit, Daan; Vermeeren, Günter; Naudts, Dries; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are commonly deployed in various environments. The WLAN data packets are not transmitted continuously but often worst-case exposure of WLAN is assessed, assuming 100% activity and leading to huge overestimations. Actual duty cycles of WLAN are thus of importance for time-averaging of exposure when checking compliance with international guidelines on limiting adverse health effects. In this paper, duty cycles of WLAN using Wi-Fi technology are determined for exposure assessment on large scale at 179 locations for different environments and activities (file transfer, video streaming, audio, surfing on the internet, etc.). The median duty cycle equals 1.4% and the 95th percentile is 10.4% (standard deviation SD = 6.4%). Largest duty cycles are observed in urban and industrial environments. For actual applications, the theoretical upper limit for the WLAN duty cycle is 69.8% and 94.7% for maximum and minimum physical data rate, respectively. For lower data rates, higher duty cycles will occur. Although counterintuitive at first sight, poor WLAN connections result in higher possible exposures. File transfer at maximum data rate results in median duty cycles of 47.6% (SD = 16%), while it results in median values of 91.5% (SD = 18%) at minimum data rate. Surfing and audio streaming are less intensively using the wireless medium and therefore have median duty cycles lower than 3.2% (SD = 0.5-7.5%). For a specific example, overestimations up to a factor 8 for electric fields occur, when considering 100% activity compared to realistic duty cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An assessment of the economic impact of Local Boards of Health on West Virginia's economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutsohn, Phil; Kent, Cal

    2010-01-01

    West Virginia, as is true for the nation as a whole, spends far less on public health interventions than on curative care. In 2008 the United States spent approximately $2.4 trillion on healthcare, of which approximately $72 billion was allocated for public health activities-obviously a very small percentage (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services 2010). In West Virginia the 2006 per capita budget allocation for Local Boards of Health (LBH) for Basic Public Health Services was about $6.91, and total public health funding was between $63 and $91 per capita depending on the definition of public health. At the same time, Medicaid expenditures by the State are approximately $269 per capita with total Medicaid expenditures around $995 per capita. The difference in funding for Medicaid is almost 10 times the amount allocated to public health. The funding differences between curative care and preventive care may not be the result of the public's lack of understanding of the benefits of prevention, but rather its focus on short term rather than long term economic benefits. For a state like West Virginia, in which per capita income is below the national average, Medicaid is good business for the State's economy. Far too often public health funding is viewed as a drain from a state's budget not as an economic contributor to the state's economy. As a result, the funding of LBHs is almost always insufficient. The authors were interested in evaluating the economic impact of Local Boards of Health on West Virginia's economy. Although the authors recognize that the greatest economic benefits of public health are the costs averted through prevention and early detection, they believe that if LBH produce a positive economic multiplier State officials may view public health allocations in a more positive light. To assess the impact of LBH in West Virginia, spending data for each was collected. The direct, indirect, and induced spending

  10. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

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    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  11. Towards a New Assessment of Urban Areas from Local to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; McKee, J.; Weaver, J.; Bright, E.; Weber, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000s, starting with NASA MODIS, satellite based remote sensing has facilitated collection of imagery with medium spatial resolution but high temporal resolution (daily). This trend continues with an increasing number of sensors and data products. Increasing spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data archives, from both public and commercial sources, have significantly enhanced the quality of mapping and change data products. However, even with automation of such analysis on evolving computing platforms, rates of data processing have been suboptimal largely because of the ever-increasing pixel to processor ratio coupled with limitations of the computing architectures. Novel approaches utilizing spatiotemporal data mining techniques and computational architectures have emerged that demonstrates the potential for sustained and geographically scalable landscape monitoring to be operational. We exemplify this challenge with two broad research initiatives on High Performance Geocomputation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: (a) mapping global settlement distribution; (b) developing national critical infrastructure databases. Our present effort, on large GPU based architectures, to exploit high resolution (1m or less) satellite and airborne imagery for extracting settlements at global scale is yielding understanding of human settlement patterns and urban areas at unprecedented resolution. Comparison of such urban land cover database, with existing national and global land cover products, at various geographic scales in selected parts of the world is revealing intriguing patterns and insights for urban assessment. Early results, from the USA, Taiwan, and Egypt, indicate closer agreements (5-10%) in urban area assessments among databases at larger, aggregated geographic extents. However, spatial variability at local scales could be significantly different (over 50% disagreement).

  12. Microbiological Hazard Identification and Exposure Assessment of Poultry Products Sold in Various Localities of Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao V. Sudershan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to identify microbiological hazards and assess their exposure associated with consumption of poultry based street food served in different localities of Hyderabad. The study indicated that chicken 65, chicken fried rice, chicken noodles, chicken Manchuria and chilly chicken are the most common recipes. A process flow diagram was developed to identify critical control points in the food item. After analysis of the samples at each level of preparation, it was observed that rice and noodles were kept at room temperature for about 5-6 hrs which was a critical control point. A total of 376 samples including chicken fried rice, chicken noodles, boiled noodles and boiled rice were collected from circle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of Greater Hyderabad municipal corporation (GHMC and analyzed for microbiological examination. The most prevalent pathogenic bacteria isolated were S. aureus (3.4 log 10 cfu/g and B. cereus (3.4 log 10 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. was present in salads (3.2 log 10 cfu/g and hand washings of the food handler (3.5 log 10 cfu/g. Salmonella contamination was found in salads served along with chicken fried rice and chicken noodles than in the food.

  13. Identifying the “Usual Suspects”—Assessing Patterns of Representation in Local Environmental Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fenton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of literature explores the role of transnational municipal networks (TMNs in governing sustainable development. As associations, one key task of TMNs is to represent their members through production and dissemination of information and knowledge concerning municipal action for sustainable development. Case studies, often emphasising best practice, are used by many TMNs to fulfil this task. Nevertheless, despite strong scrutiny concerning the use of case studies in “policy mobilities” research, there have been limited attempts to quantify the ways in which TMNs present and disseminate case studies and, by doing so, generate trends of presence and absence in literature on sustainable development. Assessing patterns of representation for continents, countries, municipalities and themes across nine international case study collections published by ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability since 1991, this study responds to this research gap and identifies the presence of “usual suspects” in the ICLEI case study collections, along with notable absentees. By doing so, the study contributes to policy mobilities research and literature on TMNs, by encouraging reflection and further research concerning the representation patterns influencing which municipalities and what topics are presented in discourses on sustainable development.

  14. Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment. A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wratt, D.; Mullan, B.; Salinger, J. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research NIWA, Newmarket, Auckland (New Zealand); Allan, S.; Morgan, T. [MWH New Zealand, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kenny, G. [Earthwise Consulting, Hastings (New Zealand)

    2004-05-15

    Climate change is a real and internationally recognised outcome of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It will have effects over the next decades that are predictable with some level of certainty, but which will vary from place to place throughout New Zealand. The climate will also change from year to year and decade to decade due to natural processes. For example, some parts of the country often have dry summers and autumns when an El Nino climate pattern is present. Both natural fluctuations and human-induced climate changes need to be considered when developing adaptation plans and policies, rather than just 'greenhouse warming' effects on their own. Councils already address extreme weather events and climate variations as they develop plans and provide services. Climate change effects need also to be considered as part of these regulatory, assessment and planning activities. It is not necessary to develop a set of procedures for dealing separately with effects and impacts of climate change - they can be built into existing practices. Over time, climate change responses will involve iterative planning processes, keeping up-to-date with new information, monitoring changes, and reviewing the effectiveness of responses. The response to climate change involves international, national, regional, district and community consideration and action. The Guidance Manual aims to assist local government in working with its communities and making appropriate decisions.

  15. The role of community health centers in assessing the social determinants of health for planning and policy: the example of frontier New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Sean; Stone, Lisa Cacari; Wilger, Susan; Cantor, Jeremy; Guzman, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the experience of a frontier-based community health center when it utilized the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE) for assessing social determinants of health with a local health consortium. Community members (N = 357) rated safety, jobs, housing, and education among the top health issues. Community leaders integrated these health priorities in a countywide strategic planning process. This example of a frontier county in New Mexico demonstrates the critical role that community health centers play when engaging with local residents to assess community health needs for strategic planning and policy development.

  16. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  17. Determination of the total phenols, flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts from locally grown neem stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salim Khamis Al-Jadidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prepare the crude extracts from the stems of neem with maceration extractor and determine their total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antimicrobial activity by established methods. Methods: The dry stem samples were used to prepare different crude extracts using maceration method. The total phenolics and total flavonoids contents were determined through FolinCiocalteu’s reagent and AlCl3 methods. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts from the local neem was determined by disc diffusion method against one Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and three Grams-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vulgaris pathogenic bacterial strains. The standard amoxicillin was used as a positive control for the antimicrobial study. Results: The results of the total phenolics content of the crude extracts from different stems ranged from 20.80 mg/100 g to 107.29 mg/100 g of the powder crude extracts. The total flavonoids content of different crude extracts from powder stems of neem ranged from 136.50 mg/100 g to 484.50 mg/100 g of the powder samples. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts from different stems of neem at different concentrations against four bacterial strains didn’t give any activity. Conclusions: Thanks to the contents of the total phenolics and flavonoids, the crude extracts could be used as medicines for different aliments.

  18. Determination of Rectification Corrections for Semi Gantry Crane Rail Axes in the Local 3D Coordinate System

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    Filipiak Daria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.

  19. Augmented Reality on a C-Arm System: A Preclinical Assessment for Percutaneous Needle Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racadio, John M; Nachabe, Rami; Homan, Robert; Schierling, Ross; Racadio, Judy M; Babić, Draženko

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To compare the navigational accuracy and radiation dose during needle localization of targets for augmented reality (AR) with and without motion compensation (MC) versus those for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) with real-time fluoroscopy navigation in a pig model. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Three operators each localized 15 targets (bone fragments) approximately 7 cm deep in the paraspinal muscles of nine Yorkshire pigs by using each of the three modalities (AR with and without MC and cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy). Target depth, accuracy (distance between needle tip and target), and radiation dose (dose-area product [DAP]) were recorded for each procedure. Correlation between accuracy and depth of target was assessed by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Two-way analysis of variance was used for differentiating accuracy and DAPs across navigation techniques and operator backgrounds. Results There was no correlation between depth of target and accuracy. There was no significant difference in accuracy between modalities (mean distance, 3.0 mm ± 1.9 [standard deviation] for cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy, 2.5 mm ± 2.0 for AR, and 3.2 mm ± 2.7 for AR with MC [P = .33]). There was, however, a significant difference in fluoroscopy radiation dose (10.4 Gy · cm(2) ± 10.6 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 2.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 2.4 for AR, and 3.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 4.6 for AR with MC [P < .05]) and therefore in total procedural radiation dose (20.5 Gy · cm(2) ± 13.4 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 12.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 5.3 for AR, 13.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 7.4 for AR with MC [P < .05]). Conclusion Use of an AR C-arm system reduces radiation dose while maintaining navigational accuracy compared with cone-beam CT fluoroscopy during image-guided percutaneous needle placement in a pig model. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact...

  1. Assessment of validity of the national public health performance standards: the local public health performance assessment instrument.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Joyce; Scutchfield, F. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The National Public Health Performance Standards Program (NPHPSP) has developed performance standards measurement instruments, based on the 10 "Essential Services of Public Health" that are being tested in several states. This article is a report on the face and content validity of the instrument designed for local public health systems. Judgments about the face validity of the standards were obtained in a survey of local public health systems that had used the instrument in a test state. The...

  2. Determining Component Weights in a Communications Assessment Using Judgmental Policy Capturing

    OpenAIRE

    Harvill, Leo M.; Lang, F. Forrest; McCord, Ronald S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Tools are needed for determining appropriate weights for complex performance assessment components in medical education. The feasibility of using judgmental policy capturing (JPC), a procedure to statistically describe the information processing strategies of experts, for this purpose was investigated. Methods: Iterative JPC was used to determine appropriate weighting for the six core communication skill scores from a communications objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)...

  3. A truce with neutral theory: local deterministic factors, species traits and dispersal limitation together determine patterns of diversity in stream invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin

    2006-03-01

    1. Studies seeking to explain local patterns of diversity have typically relied on niche explanations, reflected in correlations with local environmental conditions, or neutral theory, invoking dispersal processes and speciation. 2. We used macroinvertebrate community data from 10 streams that varied independently in local ecological conditions and spatial proximity. Neutral theory predicts that similarity in communities will be negatively associated with distance between sites, while niche theory suggests that community similarity will be positively associated with similarity in local ecological conditions. 3. Similarity in total invertebrate, grazer and predator assemblages showed negative relationships with distance and, for grazers and predators, positive relationships with local ecological conditions. However, the best model predicting community similarity in all three cases included aspects of both local ecological conditions and distance between sites. 4. When assemblages were analysed according to dispersal ability, high-dispersal species were shown to be freely accessing all sites and community similarity was not well predicted by either local ecology or spatial separation. Assemblages of species with low and moderate dispersal ability were best predicted by combined models, including distance between sites and local ecological factors. 5. The results suggest that the perceived dichotomy between neutral and local environmental processes in determining local patterns of diversity may not be useful. Neutral and niche processes structured these communities differentially depending on trophic level and species traits. 6. We emphasize the potential for both dispersal processes and local environmental conditions to explain local patterns of diversity.

  4. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  5. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS MANAGED BY LOCAL INFILTRATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajay Bharti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylitis is a well known elbow disorder known to affect a variety of population. Though the disorder is expected to affect a lot of sports personnel, the incidence is not uncommon in persons of household activities. The management comprises of conservative to operative with a dilemma of what to be done in most of the affected population. A large number of interventions have been tried to delineate the best modality but none of them proved to be conclusive. The aim of the present study was to prove the efficacy of cheapest possible interventional modality autologous blood for treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis. Twenty five patients of Tennis elbow were included in this study who have attended the OPD of GSVM Medical College and associated LLR Hospital, Kanpur from November 2007 to April 2008 and fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. 78% were females, mostly housewives involved in regular household activities. All the patients were infiltrated autologous blood with local anaesthetic infiltration. Patients were deprived of regular activities for 3 weeks after infiltration. Follow up was done at weekly interval for 2 weeks and then at 6th week and 12th week. Assessment was done using Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS and Verhaar et al scoring system. Total follow up period was 3 months. We observed that the mean VAS score improved from preinfiltrative 6.40±1.22 to 0.48±1.53 with p value being < .001. 64% patients showed excellent results and 32% showed good results as per Verhaar et al scoring system on 12 weeks follow up. One patient did not respond to this procedure and showed poor result as per Verhaar et al score. Therefore, autologous blood infiltration is a safe and effective modality in treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

  6. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  7. Assessment of modern smartphone sensors performance on vehicle localization in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Theodoros; Danezis, Chris

    2017-09-01

    The advent of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) initiated a revolution in Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) applications. Besides the enormous impact on geospatial data acquisition and reality capture, satellite navigation has penetrated everyday life, a fact which is proved by the increasing degree of human reliance on GNSS-enabled smart devices to perform casual activities. Nevertheless, GNSS does not perform well in all cases. Specifically, in GNSS-challenging environments, such as urban canyons or forested areas, navigation performance may be significantly degraded or even nullified. Consequently, positioning is achieved by combining GNSS with additional heterogeneous information or sensors, such as inertial sensors. To date, most smartphones are equipped with at least accelerometers and gyroscopes, besides GNSS chipsets. In the frame of this research, difficult localization scenarios were investigated to assess the performance of these low-cost inertial sensors with respect to higher grade GNSS and IMU systems. Four state-of-the-art smartphones were mounted on a specifically designed on-purpose build platform along with reference equipment. The platform was installed on top of a vehicle, which was driven by a predefined trajectory that included several GNSS-challenging parts. Consequently, positioning and inertial readings were acquired by smartphones and compared to the information collected by the reference equipment. The results indicated that although the smartphone GNSS receivers have increased sensitivity, they were unable to produce an acceptable solution for more than 30% of the driven course. However, all smartphones managed to identify, up to a satisfactory degree, distinct driving features, such as curves or bumps.

  8. Assessment of Cracks in Stress Concentration Regions with Localized Plastic Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, E.

    1998-11-25

    Marty brittle fracture evaluation procedures include plasticity corrections to elastically computed stress intensity factors. These corrections, which are based on the existence of a plastic zone in the vicinity of the crack tip, can overestimate the plasticity effect for a crack embedded in a stress concentration region in which the elastically computed stress exceeds the yield strength of the material in a localized zone. The interactions between the crack, which acts to relieve the high stresses driving the crack, plasticity effects in the stress concentration region, and the nature and source of the loading are examined by formulating explicit flaw finite element models for a crack emanating from the root of a notch located in a panel subject to an applied tensile stress. The results of these calculations provide conditions under which a crack-tip plasticity correction based on the Irwin plastic zone size overestimates the plasticity effect. A failure assessment diagram (FAD) curve is used to characterize the effect of plasticity on the crack driving force and to define a less restrictive plasticity correction for cracks at notch roots when load-controlled boundary conditions are imposed. The explicit flaw finite element results also demonstrate that stress intensity factors associated with load-controlled boundary conditions, such as those inherent in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as well as in most handbooks of stress intensity factors, can be much higher than those associated with displacement-controlled conditions, such as those that produce residual or thermal stresses. Under certain conditions, the inclusion of plasticity effects for cracks loaded by displacement-controlled boundary conditions reduces the crack driving force thus justifying the elimination of a plasticity correction for such loadings. The results of this study form the basis for removing unnecessary conservatism from flaw evaluation procedures that utilize plasticity

  9. Advancing the use of local ecological knowledge for assessing data-poor species in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Anne H; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-03-01

    Many of the world's most vulnerable and rapidly changing ecosystems are also among the most data-poor, leading to an increased interest in use of local ecological knowledge (LEK) to document long-term environmental change. The integration of multiple knowledge sources for assessing species abundance and distribution has gained traction over the past decade as a growing number of case studies show concordance between LEK and scientific data. This study advances the use of quantitative approaches for synthesizing LEK by presenting a novel application of bootstrapping and statistical modeling to evaluate variance in ecological observations of fisheries practitioners. We developed an historical record of abundance for 22 marine species in Puget Sound, Washington (USA), using LEK, and we quantified variation in perceptions of abundance trends among fishers, divers, and researchers. These individuals differed in aspects of their information environments, which are characterized by how, when, and where an individual has acquired ecological information. Abundance trends derived from interviews suggest that populations of long-lived rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) have been in decline since at least the 1960s and that three rockfishes protected under the Endangered Species Act were perceived as relatively less abundant than other species. Differences in perception of rockfish abundance trends among age groups were consistent with our hypothesis that the reported magnitude of decline in abundance would increase with age, with younger respondents more likely to report high abundance than older individuals across all periods. Temporal patterns in the mean and variance of reported rockfish abundance indices were qualitatively similar between fishers and researchers; however, fishers reported higher indices of abundance than researchers for all but one rockfish species. The two respondent groups reported similar changes in rockfish abundance from the 1940s to 2000s, except for two

  10. Electronic Health Records and Meaningful Use in Local Health Departments: Updates From the 2015 NACCHO Informatics Assessment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karmen S; Shah, Gulzar H

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are evolving the scope of operations, practices, and outcomes of population health in the United States. Local health departments (LHDs) need adequate health informatics capacities to handle the quantity and quality of population health data. The purpose of this study was to gain an updated view using the most recent data to identify the primary storage of clinical data, status of data for meaningful use, and characteristics associated with the implementation of EHRs in LHDs. Data were drawn from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, which used a stratified random sampling design of LHD populations. Oversampling of larger LHDs was conducted and sampling weights were applied. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression in SPSS. Forty-two percent of LHDs indicated the use of an EHR system compared with 58% that use a non-EHR system for the storage of primary health data. Seventy-one percent of LHDs had reviewed some or all of the current systems to determine whether they needed to be improved or replaced, whereas only 6% formally conducted a readiness assessment for health information exchange. Twenty-seven percent of the LHDs had conducted informatics training within the past 12 months. LHD characteristics statistically associated with having an EHR system were having state or centralized governance, not having created a strategic plan related to informatics within the past 2 years throughout LHDs, provided informatics training in the past 12 months, and various levels of control over decisions regarding hardware allocation or acquisition, software selection, software support, and information technology budget allocation. A focus on EHR implementation in public health is pertinent to examining the impact of public health programming and interventions for the positive change in population health.

  11. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of sulfadiazine based on localized surface plasmon resonance peak of silver nanoparticles after cloud point extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Elahe; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Khodaveisi, Javad

    2017-12-01

    A novel, efficient, easy to use, environmentally friendly and cost-effective methodology is developed for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of sulfadiazine in different samples. The method is based on the micelle-mediated extraction of silver sulfadiazine and converting the silver content of the resultant surfactant-rich phase to the silver nanoparticles via generation of [Ag(NH3)2]+ followed by its chemical reduction using ascorbic acid. The changes in the amplitude of localized surface plasmon resonance peak of silver nanoparticles as a function of sulfadiazine concentration in the sample solution was monitored using fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry at 457 nm. The experimental conditions were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, the developed procedure showed dynamic linear calibration within the range of 10.0-800.0 μg L- 1 with a detection limit of 2.8 μg L- 1 for sulfadiazine. The relative standard deviation of the method for six replicate measurements at 150.0 μg L- 1 of sulfadiazine was 4.7%. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfadiazine in different samples including well water, human urine, milk and pharmaceutical formulation.

  12. Using Monoclonal Antibody to Determine Lead Ions with a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Fiber-optic Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mon-Fu Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reflection-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR fiber-optic probe has been developed to determine the heavy metal lead ion concentration. Monoclonal antibody as the detecting probe containing massive amino groups to capture Pb(II-chelate complexes was immobilized onto gold nanoparticle-modified optical fiber (NMAuOF. The optimal immobilizing conditions of monoclonal antibody on to the NMAuOF are 189 μg/mL in pH7.4 PBS for 2 h at 25°C. The absorbability of the functionalized NMAuOF sensor increases to 12.2 % upon changing the Pb(II-EDTA level from 10 to 100 ppb with a detection limit of 0.27 ppb. The sensor retains 92.7 % of its original activity and gives reproducible results after storage in 5% D-( -Trehalose dehydrate solution at 4°C for 35 days. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibody-functionalized NMAuOF sensor shows a promising result for determining the concentration of Pb(II with high sensitivity.

  13. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  14. Assessment of validity of the national public health performance standards: the local public health performance assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Joyce; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The National Public Health Performance Standards Program (NPHPSP) has developed performance standards measurement instruments, based on the 10 "Essential Services of Public Health" that are being tested in several states. This article is a report on the face and content validity of the instrument designed for local public health systems. Judgments about the face validity of the standards were obtained in a survey of local public health systems that had used the instrument in a test state. The validity of each standard was addressed along the following dimensions: the importance of the standard as a measure of the Essential Service; its completeness as a measure; and its reasonableness for achievement. All standards for each Essential Service were then judged in terms of their completeness in measuring performance of that service. Respondents judged the standards to be highly valid measures of local public health system performance. Some respondents had reservations about whether standards related to "enforcing laws and regulations" were achievable. Holding local public health systems accountable for the activities of other agencies was a factor mentioned in conjunction with those standards. The NPHPSP standards have face and content validity for measuring local public health system performance. Further testing of their validity and reliability is continuing.

  15. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  16. Simultaneous determination of four local anesthetics by CE with ECL and study on interaction between procainamide and human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hong-Bing; Cao, Jun-Tao; Yang, Jiu-Jun; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yan-Ming

    2016-07-01

    A new method of capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with tris(2, 2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection has been developed to detect four local anesthetics procainamide (PAH), tetracaine (TCH), proparacaine (PCH) and cinchocaine (CIN) simultaneously. An europium (III)-doped prussian blue analogue film (Eu-PB) modified platinum electrode was prepared and applied to improve the detection sensitivity. The parameters including additives, concentration and pH of the running buffer, separation voltage and detection potential that affect CE separation and ECL detection were optimized in detail. The four local anesthetics were baseline separated and detected within 10min under the optimized conditions. The detection limits (LOD) of PAH, TCH, PCH and CIN are 5.5×10(-8), 9.6×10(-8), 2.5×10(-8) and 3.5×10(-8)molL(-1) (S/N=3), respectively. RSDs of the migration time for four analytes range from 1.2% to 2.5% within intraday and from 2.4% to 4.9% in interday, RSDs of the peak area for four analytes are from 1.7% to 3.3% within intraday and from 2.2% to 5.6% in interday, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) (S/N=10) for PAH, TCH, PCH and CIN in human urine sample are 5.9×10(-7), 9.2×10(-7), 8.3×10(-7) and 5.0×10(-7)molL(-1), separately. The recoveries (n=3) of four analytes in human urine are from 87.6% to 107.7% with less than 5.9% in RSDs. The developed method was used to determine four local anesthetics in human urine samples and investigate the interaction between PAH and human serum albumin (HSA). The number of binding sites and the binding constant of PAH with HSA were calculated to be 1.03 and 2.4×10(4)Lmol(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of local seismic response of the Stracciacappa maar (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Simionato, Maurizio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Sottili, Gianluca; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Sirianni, Pietro; Pileggi, Domenico; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Razzano, Roberto; Mancini, Marco; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we face the definition of a subsoil model aimed at the local seismic response assessment of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy) (e.g., De Rita and Zanetti, 1986; Marra et al., 2014). The pyroclastic succession of Stracciacappa records two main hydromagmatic eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago (e.g., Sottili et al., 2010). The preserved crater, with a diameter of about 1500 meters and a crater floor of about 30-40 m, hosted a lake until it was drained in AD 1834. In the framework of the cooperation between CNR IGAG and Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC funds 2014), a multidisciplinary approach including detailed stratigraphic and geophysical study has been carried out in the Stracciacappa maar and surrounding areas. New geological map and cross sections illustrate the complex geometric relationships between the thick pyroclastic surge succession, showing diffuse sandwave structures, and even meter-sized lava ballistic. A composite interdigitation between lacustrine and epiclastic debris sediments fills the crater floor. A continuous coring borehole was drilled inside the crater, 45 meters deep from the wellhead, with sampling of undisturbed samples. In addition, four MASW and one SCPTU test were carried out, in order to define the velocity profile of the s-waves within the lacustrine deposits. This Vs profile was then extended at higher depths by using the results of four 2D seismic passive arrays. Moreover, in order to define the resonance frequency of sedimentary covers via the HVSR technique, twenty-eight measurements were carried out with digital sensor Tromino® and seven measurements were performed with a Lennartz® Le-3D/5s sensor with Lennartz Marslite® digitizer. Finally, three electrical resistivity tomography tests, with a total length of about 3500 meters, were carried out with the purpose of constraining the subsoil model. Regarding the non linear

  18. Risks assessment of water pollution by pesticides at local scale (PESTEAUX project): study of polluting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Stéphanie; Billo Bah, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of water resources (surface waters and ground waters) by pesticide uses is one of the key point of the European policy with the implementation of the Water Frame Work Directive (2000/60/EC) and the thematic Strategy on the Sustainable use of pesticides. According to this legislation, the Member States must initiate measures to limit environmental and toxicological effects caused by pesticide uses. The Agricultural Research Centre of Wallonia (CRA-W) emphasized the need of a tool for spatial risk analysis and develOPs it within the framework of PESTEAUX project. The originality of the approach proposed by the CRA-W is to generate maps to identify the risk of pollution at locale scale (agricultural parcel). The risk will be assessed according to the study of different factors, grouped under 3 data's layers: polluting pressure, vulnerability of the physical environment (soil) and meteorological data. This approach is directly based on the risk's definition which takes into account the polluting pressure, linked to the human activities, and the vulnerability of the soil, defined by factors of physical environment which characterize the water flow in the parcel. Moreover, meteorological data influence the intensity and likelihood flow of water, and indirectly pesticide by leaching or runoff. The PESTEAUX's approach to study the pollution is based on the model "source-vector-target". The source is the polluting pressure, in other words, the pesticides which could reach the targets. The main vector is the water which vehicles the pesticide on and trough the soil until the target which are the surface waters or ground waters. In this paper we introduce the factors contributing to the polluting pressure. These factors are linking to the human activities and more precisely, to the pesticide uses. The factors considered have an influence on pesticide's transport by water (in its solid state or in dissolved state by leaching, run-off, or erosion) but also on a set of

  19. Direct Assessment of Vorticity Alignment with Local and Nonlocal Strain Rates in Turbulent Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlington, Peter E.; Schumacher, Jörg; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2008-01-01

    A direct Biot-Savart integration is used to decompose the strain rate into its local and nonlocal constituents, allowing the vorticity alignment with the local and nonlocal strain rate eigenvectors to be investigated. These strain rate tensor constituents are evaluated in a turbulent flow using data from highly-resolved direct numerical simulations. While the vorticity aligns preferentially with the intermediate eigenvector of the \\textit{combined} strain rate, as has been observed previously...

  20. Reliability of a higher-taxon approach to richness, rarity, and composition assessments at the local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelik, Yael; Dayan, Tamar; Chikatunov, Vladimir; Kravchenko, Vasiliy

    2007-12-01

    A promising shortcut for quantifying species patterns is to use genera and families as surrogates of species. At large spatial scales, concurrence between patterns of richness, rarity, and composition of species and higher taxa is generally high. Only a few researchers, however, have examined this relationship at the local scale, which is frequently the relevant scale in land-use conflicts. We investigated the reliability of the higher-taxon approach in assessing patterns of species richness, rarity, and composition at the local scale. We studied diversity patterns of three commonly used surrogate taxa: vascular plants, ground-dwelling beetles, and moths. We conducted year-round field surveys for these taxa in the Jerusalem Mountains and the Judean foothills, Israel. Richness and composition of species were highly correlated with richness and composition of genera for all taxa. At the family level, correlations with richness and composition of species were much lower. Excluding monotypic genera and families did not affect these relations. Rarity representation based on higher taxa varied considerably depending on the taxon, and rarity scale and was weaker compared with richness and composition representation. Cumulative richness curves of species and genera showed similar patterns, leveling off at equivalent sampling efforts. Genus-level assessments were a reliable surrogate for local patterns of species richness, rarity, and composition, but family-level assessments performed poorly. The advantage of using coarse taxonomic scales in local diversity surveys is that it may decrease identification time and the need for experts, but it will not reduce sampling effort.

  1. Evaluating the use of locally-based health facility assessments in Afghanistan: a pilot study of a novel research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jack S; Natiq, Kayhan; Alonge, Olakunle; Gupta, Shivam; Agarwal, Anubhav; Peters, David H

    2014-01-01

    Through the Balanced Scorecard program there have been independent, annual and nationwide assessments of the Afghan health system from 2004 to 2013. During this period, Afghanistan remained in a dynamic state of conflict, requiring innovative approaches to health service evaluation in insecure areas. The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the reliability of health facility assessments conducted by a novel, locally-based data collection method compared to a standard survey team. In this cross-sectional study, one standard survey team of clinicians and multiple rapidly trained locally-based survey teams of teachers conducted health facility assessments in Badghis province, Afghanistan from March - August, 2010. Outpatient facilities covered under the country's Basic Package of Health Services were eligible for inclusion. Both approaches attempted to survey as many health facilities as safely possible, up to 25 total facilities per method. Each facility assessed was scored on 23 health services indicators used to evaluate performance in the annual Balanced Scorecard national assessment. For facilities assessed by both survey methods, the indicator scores produced by each method were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficients and linear regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. The standard survey team was able to assess 11 facilities; the locally-based approach was able to assess these 11 facilities, as well as 13 additional facilities in areas of greater insecurity. Among the 11 facilities assessed by both approaches, 19 of 23 indicators were statistically similar by survey method (p < .05). Spearman's coefficients varied widely from (-0.39) to (0.71). The differences were greatest for items requiring specialized data collector knowledge on reviewing patient records, patient examination and counseling, and health worker reported satisfaction. This pilot study of a novel method of data collection in health facility

  2. Determining Component Weights in a Communications Assessment Using Judgmental Policy Capturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvill, Leo M; Lang, F Forrest; McCord, Ronald S

    2004-12-01

    Tools are needed for determining appropriate weights for complex performance assessment components in medical education. The feasibility of using judgmental policy capturing (JPC), a procedure to statistically describe the information processing strategies of experts, for this purpose was investigated. Iterative JPC was used to determine appropriate weighting for the six core communication skill scores from a communications objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for medical students using a panel of four communication skill experts. The mean regression weights from the panel indicated they placed less importance on information management (8.5%), moderate and nearly equal importance on rapport building (15.8%), agenda setting (15.4%), and addressing feelings (14.1%), and greater importance on active listening (20.1%) and reaching common ground with the patient (25.5%). JPC is an effective procedure for determining appropriate weights for complex clinical assessment components. The derived weights may be very different for those assessment components.

  3. Experimental determination with EPR-methods of dose loads on local population in inhabited localities adjacent to the tailing pond "Koshkar-ata" (Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuterbekov, Kairat; Sadykov, Nurllah; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Nurgaliyeva, Rano; Kabyshev, Aset; Abseitov, Erbolat; Kurmanzhanov, Askar

    2017-11-01

    EPR study of TE from teeth donors in KOSHKAR-ATA region. During the first year we received22 tooth samples from local people in KOSHKAR-ATA region; the teeth were removed by dentists in accordance with their medical prescriptions. Obtained data showed that radiation signal in the analyzed samples corresponds to doses not exceeding 0.3 Gy; only one sample carriers the signal of (0.35±0.15)Gy.

  4. Oxygen mass transfer and hydrodynamic behaviour in wastewater: determination of local impact of surfactants by visualization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Mélanie; Dietrich, Nicolas; Grace, John R; Hébrard, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Powerful techniques, based on the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, are deployed to locally visualize and quantify the impact of surfactants in wastewaters on hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer. Bubble diameter, aspect ratio, rise velocity, contamination angle, as well as flux, flux density, liquid side mass transfer and diffusion coefficients of transferred oxygen are determined based on these techniques applied in the wake of rising bubbles of diameter 1 mm and through planar gas/liquid interfaces. The initial experiments were performed in demineralized water containing small amounts of surfactant. Different concentrations of surfactant were added to finally reach the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). Bubbles have classically been found to be more spherical with a reduced rise velocity in the presence of surfactants up to the CMC. Above the CMC, these hydrodynamic characteristics were found to be almost constant, although the oxygen mass transfer decreased due to the presence of surfactants. Experimental results were markedly lower than predicted by the well-known Frössling equation with rigid surfaces. This is believed to be caused by a barrier of surfactants hindering the oxygen mass transfer at the interface. Similar hindrance of oxygen mass transfer applies to waters from sewage plants (filtered raw water and treated water), making accurate design of aeration tanks difficult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafimisebi, Taiwo E; Oguntade, Adegboyega E; Fajemisin, Adebowale N; Aiyelari, Olaiya P

    2012-01-12

    Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs) for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation.

  6. Analysis of wastewater as a new approach to determine the amount of drugs intake by local communities. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Boroń

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis of wastewater in terms of the amount of illegal drugs and their metabolites is a modern method of research, which is considered to be an objective and effective way to determine the amount of substances taken and excreted by humans. The results obtained in a real time allow for a quick identification of the quantitative and qualitative changes of the drugs intake. Such approach allows to estimate the daily intake of the drug by the local communities in terms of cities, countries and even the continent. Most often the estimation refers to the intake of the following drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis. The wastewater`s monitoring provides information on the dynamics of the drug level changes depending on the weekday, and the general trend in a year. Retrospective estimation of drug intake carries errors, dependent from sampling, sewer system tightness, the stability of the analytes and mixtures of the wastewater itself but remains objective by providing very valuable information for the institutions struggling with drug crime.

  7. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels of groundwater in Ife north local government area of Osun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolanle Saheed Adekunle

    Full Text Available This study determined the presence and levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs of groundwater in Moro, Edun-Abon, Yakoyo and Ipetumodu communities in Ife-North Local Government Area of Osun State. This was with a view to create public awareness about the safety of groundwater as a source for domestic purposes (e.g., drinking, cooking etc. in non-industrial area. Water samples were collected on seasonal basis, comprising of three months (August–October in the wet season and three months (December–February in the dry season. The PAHs in the water samples were extracted with n-hexane using liquid–liquid extraction method, while their qualitative identifications and quantitative estimations were carried out with the use of gas chromatography. Levels of PAHs detected showed predominance of light PAHs (less than four fused rings for both wet and the dry seasons. Higher concentrations of PAHs were recorded during the wet season than the dry season. The study concluded that the groundwater in the communities was contaminated with light PAHs and the total PAHs in this area exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 10 μg L−1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for safety of groundwater. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Groundwater, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Health impact

  8. An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, A. H.; Lisle, A. T.; Phillips, C. J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response) to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts). The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ? 70), 24 scored 71?80 (referred for...

  9. Assessing the Extent to Which the UK’s National Risk Register Supports Local Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hiscock

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how a national risk register supports the implementation of disaster risk management practices at a local level. We present a case study of the UK’s National Risk Register of Civil Emergencies and explore stakeholder understanding, views, perceptions, opinions, and application within the East of England. A semi-structured interview methodology was adopted for this paper with 14 key stakeholders from across the East of England interviewed. Thematic coding analysis was used to structure the results against a set of research questions. Interviewees were found to be largely unaware of the National Risk Register, and as such its usefulness as a risk management tool is limited. In particular, restricted local resources, limited understanding of risk, and a lack of actionable strategies were highlighted as barriers to action. Opportunities for capacity building at the local level, sharing best practice, and improved risk communication were all identified. The National Risk Register could be used to improve risk management at local levels but more engagement with it at a local level is required.

  10. Efficient star-topology solving local minima for geolocation in real UMTS networks: an experimental assessment with real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Juan Antonio; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic radio-location systems possess intrinsic uncertainty that depends on the Node B stations geometry when an iterative positioning algorithm like for instance, Levenberg–Marquardt,is employed to determine an estimate of the mobile station position. This inherent uncertainty arises from...... of avoiding any local minima. In this manner, errors in the positioning algorithm are only due to multipath environment and co-channel interference, ensuring that local minima do not affect the result offered by the positioning method. A provisional patent application based on this method has been filed...

  11. Comparison of dietetics service delivery (demand and determinants within two Australian Medical Assessment and Planning Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P Vivanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims Assessment and Planning Units have increased globally however, models of care literature is limited. With high malnutrition prevalence amongst ageing populations, this case report identifies demands for dietetic services. Methods Descriptive data compared and contrasted two service including medical models, eligibility criteria, malnutrition screening, dietetic services, clinical follow-up, and team composition. Results High malnutrition prevalence (17 per cent, 31 per cent was evident with different screening approaches successfully implemented. Both units favoured rapid assessment and intervention. Conclusion Dietetic expertise was required for malnutrition assessment, and ongoing management in acute or community setting as determined by differing health-care system arrangements

  12. A fast and effective determination of the biodistribution and subcellular localization of fluorescent immunoliposomes in freshly excised animal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansi, Felista L; Rüger, Ronny; Kollmeier, Ansgar M; Böhm, Claudia; Kontermann, Roland E; Teichgraeber, Ulf K; Fahr, Alfred; Hilger, Ingrid

    2017-01-18

    Preclinical research implementing fluorescence-based approaches is inevitable for drug discovery and technology. For example, a variety of contrast agents developed for biomedical imaging are usually evaluated in cell systems and animal models based on their conjugation to fluorescent dyes. Biodistribution studies of excised organs are often performed by macroscopic imaging, whereas the subcellular localization though vital, is often neglected or further validated by histological procedures. Available systems used to define the subcellular biodistribution of contrast agents such as intravital microscopes or ex vivo histological analysis are expensive and not affordable by the majority of researchers, or encompass tedious and time consuming steps that may modify the contrast agents and falsify the results. Thus, affordable and more reliable approaches to study the biodistribution of contrast agents are required. We developed fluorescent immunoliposomes specific for human fibroblast activation protein and murine endoglin, and used macroscopic fluorescence imaging and confocal microscopy to determine their biodistribution and subcellular localization in freshly excised mice organs at different time points post intravenous injection. Near infrared fluorescence macroscopic imaging revealed key differences in the biodistribution of the respective immunoliposomes at different time points post injection, which correlated to the first-pass effect as well as the binding of the probes to molecular targets within the mice organs. Thus, a higher accumulation and longer retention of the murine endoglin immunoliposomes was seen in the lungs, liver and kidneys than the FAP specific immunoliposomes. Confocal microscopy showed that tissue autofluorescence enables detection of organ morphology and cellular components within freshly excised, non-processed organs, and that fluorescent probes with absorption and emission maxima beyond the tissue autofluorescence range can be easily

  13. Phase analysis and determination of local charge carrier concentration in eutectic Mg{sub 2}Si–Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E.M., E-mail: levin@iastate.edu [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hanus, R. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Cui, J. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Xing, Q.; Riedemann, T. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lograsso, T.A. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Schmidt-Rohr, K. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Multiphase materials attract attention due to possible combination of various properties attributed to each phase. The phase diagram of Mg–Si system shows that solidification of a melt containing about 45 and 55 at.% of Mg and Si should result in formation of Mg{sub 2}Si and Si. Two alloys, Mg{sub 45}Si{sub 55} and Mg{sub 46}Si{sub 54} + 0.5 wt.% Cu have been synthesized and studied using XRD, SEM, and {sup 29}Si NMR at 300 K, and the Seebeck effect, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300–750 K have been measured. {sup 29}Si NMR detects two distinct signals, at −177 and −80 ppm, in both materials, which are assigned to Mg{sub 2}Si and Si phases, respectively. Both phases are slightly nonstoichiometric and doped with Mg. Two phases also are found by XRD and electron microscopy. {sup 29}Si NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in Mg{sub 2}Si and Si phases show at least two components, short and long, which can be attributed to different local carrier concentrations, high and low, respectively, reflecting a local electronic inhomogeneity in each phase. The carrier concentrations range between 0.6 × 10{sup 19} and 9 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The Seebeck coefficient in both alloys is mostly determined by the Si phase, while the thermal conductivity is limited by the Mg{sub 2}Si phase with a lower value than that of the Si phase. By utilizing all characterization tools, we show how various experimental methods can be used as complementary methods to better understand the individual and combined properties of multiphase alloys. - Highlights: • Two distinct phases, Mg{sub 2}Si and Si, are found in Mg{sub 45}Si{sub 55} and Mg{sub 46}Si{sub 54} + 0.5 wt.% Cu alloys. • {sup 29}Si NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements demonstrate two relaxation components in each phase. • XRD, electron microscopy, and NMR have been demonstrated as complementary methods to study multiphase alloys.

  14. Designing, construction, assessment, and efficiency of local exhaust ventilation in controlling crystalline silica dust and particles, and formaldehyde in a foundry industry plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza, Mortezavi Mehrizi; Hossein, Kakooi; Amirhossein, Matin; Naser, Hasheminegad; Gholamhossein, Halvani; Hossein, Fallah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design and assess the efficiency of a local exhaust ventilation system used in a foundry operation to control inhalable dust and particles, microcrystal particles, and noxious gases and vapours affecting workers during the foundry process. It was designed based on recommendations from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene. After designing a local exhaust ventilation system (LEV), we prepared and submitted the implementation plan to the manufacturer. High concentrations of crystalline silica dust and formaldehyde, which are common toxic air pollutants in foundries, were ultimately measured as an indicator for studying the efficiency of this system in controlling inhalable dust and particles as well as other air pollutants. The level of occupational exposure to silica and formaldehyde as major air pollutants was assessed in two modes: first, when the LEV was on, and second, when it was off. Air samples from the exposure area were obtained using a personal sampling pump and analysed using the No. 7601 method for crystal silica and the No. 2541 method for formaldehyde of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Silica and formaldehyde concentrations were determined by visible absorption spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. The results showed that local exhaust ventilation was successful in preserving the crystal silica particles in the work environment at a level below the NIOSH maximum allowed concentration (0.05 mg m-3). In contrast, formaldehyde exceeded the NIOSH limit (1 ppm or 1.228 mg m-3).

  15. An integrated system for the determination of the local, regional and long-transport contributions to Particulate Matter concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Daresta, B. E.; de Gennaro, G.; di Gilio, A.; Ielpo, P.,; Placentino, C. M.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M.

    2010-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the negative effects of air pollution on human health, which range from respiratory and cardiovascular disease to neurotoxic effects, and cancer. Most recent investigations have been focused on health toxicological features of Particulate Matter (PM) and its interactions with other pollutants: it was found that fine particles (PM2.5) could be an effective media to transport these pollutants deeply into the lung and to cause many kind of reactions which include oxidative stress, local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses (Künzli and Perez, 2009). Based on these implications on public health, many countries have developed plans to suggest effective control strategies which involve the identification of Particulate Matter sources, the quantitative estimation of the emission rates of the pollutants, the understanding of PM transport, mixing and transformation processes and the identification of main factors influencing PM concentrations. In this field, receptor models can be useful tools to estimate sources contributions to PM collected in an area under investigations. Different approaches to receptor model analysis can be distinguished on basis of whether chemical characteristics of emission sources are required to be known before the source apportionment. The multivariate approach could be preferred when a lack of information concerning sources profiles occurred (Hopke, 2003). In this work, the results obtained by applying an integrated approach in the monitoring of PM using several typologies of instrumentations will be shown. A prototype for the determination of the contributions of a single source (‘fugitive emission') on the fine PM concentrations has been developed: it consists of a Swam dual-channel sampler, an OPC Monitor, a sonic anemometer and a PBL Mixing monitor. The investigated site chosen for the application of prototype will be the iron and steel pole of Taranto (Apulia Region, South of Italy

  16. Assessing land cover performance in Senegal, West Africa using 1-km integrated NDVI and local variance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M.E.; Tappan, G.; Rowland, J.; Lewis, J.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    The researchers calculated seasonal integrated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each of 7 years using a time-series of 1-km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (1992-93, 1995) and SPOT Vegetation (1998-2001) sensors. We used a local variance technique to identify each pixel as normal or either positively or negatively anomalous when compared to its surroundings. We then summarized the number of years that a given pixel was identified as an anomaly. The resulting anomaly maps were analysed using Landsat TM imagery and extensive ground knowledge to assess the results. This technique identified anomalies that can be linked to numerous anthropogenic impacts including agricultural and urban expansion, maintenance of protected areas and increased fallow. Local variance analysis is a reliable method for assessing vegetation degradation resulting from human pressures or increased land productivity from natural resource management practices. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  18. Assessment Of School Library Services In Ile-Luji/Okeigbo Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper carried out the analysis of the library collection, staffing, building space and furniture of Ile-oluji/Okeigbo Local Government Area, Ondo State. The evaluation was based on the “Ondo State Library Board for Schools Standard”. Findings from the research showed that these school libraries were yet to achieve any ...

  19. Comparative Assessment of Mediterranean Gorgonian-Associated Microbial Communities Reveals Conserved Core and Locally Variant Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M

    2016-10-10

    Gorgonians are key habitat-forming species of Mediterranean benthic communities, but their populations have suffered from mass mortality events linked to high summer seawater temperatures and microbial disease. However, our knowledge on the diversity, dynamics and function of gorgonian-associated microbial communities is limited. Here, we analysed the spatial variability of the microbiomes of five sympatric gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa, Leptogorgia sarmentosa and Paramuricea clavata), collected from the Mediterranean Sea over a scale of ∼1100 km, using next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all gorgonian species were generally dominated by members of the genus Endozoicomonas, which were at very low abundance in the surrounding seawater. Although the composition of the core microbiome (operational taxonomic units consistently present in a species) was found to be unique for each host species, significant overlap was observed. These spatially consistent associations between gorgonians and their core bacteria suggest intricate symbiotic relationships and regulation of the microbiome composition by the host. At the same time, local variations in microbiome composition were observed. Functional predictive profiling indicated that these differences could be attributed to seawater pollution. Taken together, our data indicate that gorgonian-associated microbiomes are composed of spatially conserved bacteria (core microbiome members) and locally variant members, and that local pollution may influence these local associations, potentially impacting gorgonian health.

  20. Assessing the suitability of commercial fisheries data for local-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are suitable for systematic spatial planning on a local scale and can be used for future spatial management and conservation. Keywords: chokka-squid, conservation planning, demersal trawl, linefish, logbooks, observer data, shark longline, small pelagic, vessel monitoring system. African Journal of Marine Science 2014, ...

  1. Assessing the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability: Towards a theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Rio, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, the existing literature has put much emphasis on the environmental benefits (including the reduction of global and local pollutants), while socioeconomic impacts have not received a comparable attention. These include diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. With the exception of the diversification and security of energy supply, these benefits have usually been mentioned, but their analysis has been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and, even more so, the local level, has been lacking. At most, studies provide scattered evidence of some of those regional and local benefits, but without an integrated conceptual framework to analyse them. This paper tries to make a contribution in this regard by developing an integrated theoretical framework which allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of renewable energy on local sustainability and which can be empirically applied to identify these benefits in different territories. (author)

  2. Assessing the sensitivity of coral reef condition indicators to local and global stressors with Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are highly valued ecosystems that are currently imperiled. Although the value of coral reefs to human societies is only just being investigated and better understood, for many local and global economies coral reefs are important providers of ecosystem services that su...

  3. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Bustin, Paul M. J.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet

  4. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Bustin, P.M.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet

  5. Assessing determinants of the intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination: A survey among Dutch parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Olga; Kraan, Janneke; Akkermans, Reinier; Ruiter, Robert A C; van der Velden, Koos; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2016-09-07

    Pertussis cocooning is one of the strategies aiming to prevent the potential harm of pertussis in infants by vaccinating (among others) their parents. Several countries adopted this strategy, but uptake is a problem. Determinants of parental uptake are important in the design of an effective vaccination programme. Therefore, this study aims to assess parents' intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination and its determinants. A 98 item questionnaire was developed based on a theoretical framework, assessing parents' intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination and its personal and psychosocial determinants. In addition, beliefs underlying parents' attitude towards pertussis cocooning vaccination were assessed. Both logistic and linear regression analysis were used to assess univariate and multivariate associations amongst study variables. Parents returned 282 questionnaires. The majority of the parents (78%) reported a positive intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination. Attitude (OR 6.6, pvaccination beliefs (β 0.58, pvaccination. The parental intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination in this study is rather high. Targeting the identified determinants of parents' acceptance in a pertussis cocooning vaccination programme is crucial to secure that intention is translated into actual vaccination uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 45 CFR 681.34 - How are penalty and assessment amounts determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are penalty and assessment amounts determined? 681.34 Section 681.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.34 How are...

  7. Measuring local autonomy: A decision-making approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Willemse, R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies on central-local relations it is common to assess local autonomy in a deductive way. The extent of local autonomy is determined by measuring the central legal and financial competence, after which the remaining room for local decision-making is determined. The outcome of this indirect

  8. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  9. The importance of performance assessment in local government decisions to fund health and human services nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Shannon K

    2010-01-01

    In times of fiscal crisis, demand for health and human services increases while revenues shrink, causing funders to focus more intently on identifying the most successful organizations in which to invest scarce resources. This research grew out of interest in enhancing performance assessment of nonprofit organizations expressed by local government managers. A survey of Alliance for Innovation Members explores two primary research questions: 1) what is a successful nonprofit; and 2) what type(s) of performance assessment tools are the most useful. The results strengthen our understanding of what information city and county managers want and why they prefer certain evaluation tools.

  10. An approach to developing local climate change environmental public health indicators, vulnerability assessments, and projections of future impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; English, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnerability and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance community resilience. This review draws on a guidance document developed by the U.S. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative climate change working group to present a three-tiered approach to develop local climate change EPHIs. Local climate change EPHIs can assist local health departments (LHDs) in implementing key steps of the 10 essential public health services and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework. They also allow LHDs to incorporate climate-related trends into the larger health department planning process and can be used to perform vulnerability assessments which can be leveraged to ensure that interventions designed to address climate change do not exacerbate existing health disparities.

  11. Writing social determinants into and out of cancer control: an assessment of policy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Hooker, L Claire; Davey, Heather M

    2009-04-01

    A large literature concurs that social determinants of health (SDH) are demonstrable, important, and insufficiently attended to in policy and practice. A resulting priority for research should be to determine how the social determinants of health can best be addressed. In this paper we support the more effective transfer of social determinants research into policy by: (1) describing a qualitative analysis of thirty-two cancer control policy documents from six English-speaking OECD countries and two transnational organizations, demonstrating great variability in the treatment of social determinants in these policies; (2) critiquing these various policy practices in relation to their likely impact on social determinants of health; and (3) advancing a tool that policy writers can use to assess the way in which social determinants of health have been addressed in their work. In the sample of policy documents, the distinction between structural and intermediate determinants, population-based and targeted interventions, and their respective relationships to equity were not always clear. The authors identified four approaches to social determinants (acknowledging SDH, auditing SDH, stating aims regarding SDH and setting out actions on SDH), and five ways of writing about the relationship between social determinants and cancer risk. These five discourses implied, respectively: that group membership was intrinsically risky; that not enough was known about SDH; that risk arose from choices made by individuals; that groups were constrained by circumstance; or that structural change was necessary. Socio-cultural factors were generally presented negatively, though New Zealand policies modeled a possible alternative. Based on their empirical work, the authors propose a matrix and a set of questions to guide the development and assessment of health policy.

  12. A novel sensor for determination of naproxen based on change in localized surface plasmon peak of functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaveisi, Javad; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Saberi, Dariush

    2017-05-01

    A highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensor for the determination of naproxen (NAP) based on the aggregation of the thiolated β-cyclodextrin (Tβ-CD) functionalized gold nanoparticles (Tβ-CD-Au NPs) in the presence of NAP and Zn2 + is described. The hydrophobic end of NAP interacts with the immobilized Tβ-CD on the Au NPs and forms the complex of Tβ-CD:NAP while the Zn2 + ions form a 1:2 complex of (NAP)2Zn with the carboxyl groups of NAP resulting in the aggregation of functionalized gold nanoparticles. As a result of aggregation, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of functionalized gold nanoparticles around 520 nm decreases and a new red shifted band at 650 nm appears which increases gradually as the function of NAP concentration. The calibration graph derived from the intensity ratios of absorbance at 650 nm to 520 nm was linear in the concentration range of 4-180 μg L- 1of NAP. At the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.6 and 2.1 μg L- 1, respectively and the relative standard deviation at 20 μg L- 1of NAP (n = 5) was 2.5%. The selectivity and applicability of the method was verified through analyzes of the synthetic samples containing the major interference compounds reported in literature as well as tablets, wastewater and urine samples. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery experiments and analysis of pharmaceutical tablets.

  13. Comparison between bilateral cochlear implants and Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant: speech perception, sound localization and patient self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Damien; Lautissier, Sylvie; Bosset-Audoit, Amélie; Coriat, Géraldine; Beraha, Max; Maunoury, Antoine; Martel, Jacques; Darrouzet, Vincent; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre; Dauman, René

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to bilateral cochlear implantation is offered by the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant, which allows stimulation of both cochleae within a single device. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare a group of Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant users (denoted BINAURAL group, n = 7) with a group of bilateral adult cochlear implant users (denoted BILATERAL group, n = 6) in terms of speech perception, sound localization, and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. Speech perception was assessed using word recognition at 60 dB SPL in quiet and in a 'cocktail party' noise delivered through five loudspeakers in the hemi-sound field facing the patient (signal-to-noise ratio = +10 dB). The sound localization task was to determine the source of a sound stimulus among five speakers positioned between -90° and +90° from midline. Change in health status was assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and hearing disability was evaluated with the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. Speech perception was not statistically different between the two groups, even though there was a trend in favor of the BINAURAL group (mean percent word recognition in the BINAURAL and BILATERAL groups: 70 vs. 56.7% in quiet, 55.7 vs. 43.3% in noise). There was also no significant difference with regard to performance in sound localization and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. On the basis of the BINAURAL group's performance in hearing tasks involving the detection of interaural differences, implantation with the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant may be considered to restore effective binaural hearing. Based on these first comparative results, this device seems to provide benefits similar to those of traditional bilateral cochlear implantation, with a new approach to stimulate both auditory nerves. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Is HIA the most effective tool to assess the impact on health of climate change mitigation policies at the local level? A case study in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Thierno; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Simos, Jean; Christie, Derek P T H

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand how the health dimension is integrated into four impact assessment tools used in Geneva, Switzerland: environmental impact assessment (EIA), strategic environmental assessment (SEA), sustainability assessment (SA) and health impact assessment (HIA). We have chosen as a case study greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction policies chosen by the city of Geneva. The methodological approach consists in analysing EIA, SEA, SA and HIA conducted on three projects in three topic areas: urban planning, heating and transportation. These projects are: a complex urbanisation plan in an urban neighbourhood in Geneva (the Gare des Eaux-Vives project), a sustainable transportation plan for a central district in Geneva (the St-Gervais transportation project) and a strategy to encourage the City's employees to use sustainable transport for local business travel. The results show some shortcomings in the consideration of health in SEA, EIA and SA. This work highlights a narrow vision of health in SEA and EIA, limiting itself to a review of the effects of projects on the determinants of the physical environment as required by the legislation relating to these tools. EIA does not require the integration of the health dimension. As for SA, our research found that health is treated much more superficially than in HIA and primarily through the analysis of 'health and safety' criteria. It appears from this work that HIA is the tool which provides the most elaborate assessment, compared to SA, SEA or EIA, of the consequences for health of the GHG reduction policies chosen by the local decision-makers of a city. However, our study suggests that the HIA community should identify the situations in which HIA should be carried out and in which cases it is better to include health issues within an integrated analysis.

  15. The Right to Internal Self-Determination in Peacebuilding Processes: A Reinterpretation of the Concept of Local Ownership from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU DEMIR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to internal self-determination offers a legal ‘checklist’ for the UN to provide both legitimacy and sustainability to peacebuilding processes. The right both clarifies the actors of post-conflict reconstruction and also concretises to what extent these actors should be incorporated into peacebuilding processes. Although the concept of local ownership has become an often-cited concept in peacebuilding literature, the legal ground of the concept (i.e. the right to internal self-determination has been disregarded. This paper aims to reveal the legal aspect of the concept of local ownership and thus, attaches the right to internal self-determination with local ownership.

  16. Analysis of p53 expression and proliferative assessment using PCNA in localized prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite K.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical specimens from 51 men submitted to radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were examined by immunohistochemistry using proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA monoclonal antibody to evaluate the proliferative index (PI. The relationship between PI, biological variables and p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. PI was low in invasive localized prostate carcinoma (mean, 12.4% and the incidence of PCNA-positive cells was significantly higher in tumors with p53 expression (P = 0.0226. There was no statistical difference in PCNA values when biological parameters such as Gleason score, tumor volume, extraprostatic involvement, seminal vesicle infiltration or lymph node metastasis were considered. We conclude that proliferative activity is usually low in prostate carcinoma but is correlated with p53 immune staining, indicating that p53 is important in cell cycle control in this neoplasm.

  17. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.; Leth, H; Lou, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    hyperventilated voluntarily, the vascular reactivity was homogeneously distributed predominantly over the grey matter. The experiments demonstrate that local impairment of vascular CO2 reactivity in the distressed infant brain can be detected by T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI, which is also known as functional......The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal...... of the brain slice investigated decreased by 1.2-2.6% per kPa change in PCO2 as a reflection of decreased cerebral blood flow during hyperventilation. Pixel-wise analysis revealed absence of vascular response in the basal ganglia, the thalamus or in the occipital region. In two adult controls, who...

  18. Assessing the impacts of local knowledge and technology on climate change vulnerability in remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Christopher; Alessa, Lilian; Altaweel, Mark; Kliskey, Andrew; Lammers, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure) between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of 'knowledge-providers' influence community perception about changes to their local climate.

  19. Hidden Debt Forms of the Local Authorities – an Attempt of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Langer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some of the most important issues related to the hidden debt forms of the local authority in Poland. In particular, draws attention to the characteristic of different types of them. Additionally, this article discusses a significant provision of laws, which has provided by the Minister of Finance to elimination of debt limit evasion. Moreover, bearing in mind the above is should be noted that the necessity of consider the non-budgetary funds in the budget reporting.

  20. Assessment of Interior General and Local Lighting in Carpet Weaving Workshops in Bijar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : The comfort lighting in the workplace provides employees visual health which can improve safety, visual comfort and enhance performance and product quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate general and local lighting in carpet weaving workshops in Bijar city . Methods : In this descriptive analytical study, 101 carpet weaving workshops were randomly selected. The illuminance were measured based on the models and formulas presented in Illuminating Engineering Society (IES using luxmeter model Hagner EC1 in height 76 cm from the ground surface. The local illuminances were measured in horizontal and vertical weaving level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16. Results : Research findings revealed the average of total and artificial illuminance level were 484.5±458.9 and 80.0±49.9 Lx respectively. Mean total, natural and artificial illuminance 39.6, 57.4 and 100 percent were lower the recommended 300 Lx levels. The average of minimum of local illuminance was less than 500 Lx in all workshops. Conclusion : About 60% of workrooms had the acceptable general illuminance levels in middle day. However, due to the insufficient lighting sources in workshops, the artificial illuminance levels are unsuitable. Therefore, it is necessary to improve general illuminance levels by reform and repair artificial lighting systems or redesign them in carpet weaving workrooms.

  1. Assessment of value of calibrated lyophilised plasmas to determine International Sensitivity Index for coagulometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K; Taberner, D A; Thomson, J M; Morris, J A; Poller, L

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to correct for the effects of coagulometers on the International Sensitivity Index (ISI) in a series of collaborative studies. Modified ISI were derived from the prothrombin time results with coagulometer systems using a range of calibrated plasmas. Two alternative approaches to correction of the ISI were evaluated. The first relied on the consensus orthogonal regression slopes of the prothrombin times for each coagulometer system plotted against the consensus manual results; the second depended on the local individual slope of the prothrombin times for each instrument. The two procedures were compared with the currently recommended method where International Normalised Ratios (INR) are derived from the manual ISI of the thromboplastin. The recommended method gave a significant bias from the manual results with most coagulometers. In contrast, the local correction procedure gave no significant biases, whereas the consensus method did so in a few instances. Both these correction procedures seem more reliable than the recommended method of INR derivation, but the local correction is more accurate and offers a more practical solution by allowing laboratories to determine their own corrected ISI on a range of calibrated plasmas. PMID:1740517

  2. Determinants of eating at local and western fast-food venues in an urban Asian population: a mixed methods approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasheen Naidoo; Rob M van Dam; Sheryl Ng; Chuen Seng Tan; Shiqi Chen; Jia Yi Lim; Mei Fen Chan; Ling Chew; Salome A Rebello

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods We examined the socio-demographic characteristics of persons who frequently ate away from home in local eateries called hawker centres and Western fast-food restaurants, using data from 1647...

  3. Functional assessment of the acute local and distal transplantation of human neural stem cells after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivan; Mayle, Robert E; Cox, Christopher A; Park, Don Y; Smith, Robert L; Corcoran-Schwartz, Ian; Ponnusamy, Karthikeyan E; Oshtory, Rayshad; Smuck, Matthew W; Mitra, Raj; Kharazi, Alexander I; Carragee, Eugene J

    2012-11-01

    Spinal cord injury can lead to severe functional impairments secondary to axonal damage, neuronal loss, and demyelination. The injured spinal cord has limited regrowth of damaged axons. Treatment remains controversial, given inconsistent functional improvement. Previous studies demonstrated functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusion after transplantation of rat fetal neural stem cells. We hypothesized that acute transplantation of human fetal neural stem cells (hNSCs) both locally at the injury site as well as distally via intrathecal injection would lead to improved functional recovery compared with controls. Twenty-four adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into four groups with six animals in each group: two experimental and two control. Functional assessment was measured after injury and then weekly for 6 weeks using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Score. Data were analyzed using two-sample t test and linear mixed-effects model analysis. Posterior exposure and laminectomy at T10 level was used. Moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor with 10-g weight dropped from a height of 25 mm. Experimental subjects received either a subdural injection of hNSCs locally at the injury site or intrathecal injection of hNSCs through a separate distal laminotomy. Controls received control media injection either locally or distally. Statistically significant functional improvement was observed in local or distal hNSCs subjects versus controls (p=.034 and 0.016, respectively). No significant difference was seen between local or distal hNSC subjects (p=.66). Acute local and distal transplantation of hNSCs into the contused spinal cord led to significant functional recovery in the rat model. No statistical difference was found between the two techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementing REDD+ at the local level: Assessing the key enablers for credible mitigation and sustainable livelihood outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atela, Joanes O; Minang, Peter A; Quinn, Claire H; Duguma, Lalisa A

    2015-07-01

    Achieving cost-effective mitigation and sustainable livelihoods through reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) depends heavily on the local context within which REDD+ projects are implemented. Studies have focused on how REDD+ can benefit or harm local people, with little attention paid to how people, their assets and institutions can promote or impede REDD+. This paper examines the key local assets necessary for REDD+ to protect forests and support local livelihoods based on evidence from a globally-linked REDD+ project in Kenya. Household interviews (n = 100), focus group discussions (n = 6) and in-depth interviews with government (n = 8) and project stakeholders (n = 14) were undertaken to rank and explain how local assets interact with the project's efforts to protect forests, and the role of State institutions in shaping project-asset interactions. Locally, pro-poor assets such as land tenure and water access had most influence on the project's ability to protect forests. Inclusion of communal forests as part of the REDD+ project entitled local poor peasant farmers to participate in and benefit from the project and so dissuaded them from using protected forests for charcoal production. Water access determined agricultural productivity and intensity of forest use for livelihoods and coping. Even though carbon revenues were distributed equally between social groups and support directed to pro-poor livelihood initiatives, efforts were impeded by State decisions on land that interfered with communal approaches to forest conservation, by strict carbon standards that limited trade-offs between livelihoods and forest protection and by fluctuating carbon prices and buyers that limited funds needed for project operations and local livelihoods. Equitable and pro-poor benefit sharing are necessary but not sufficient for effective REDD+ implementation unless national institutions are reformed and global carbon pricing harmonized

  5. A Novel Method to Determine the Local Stability of the n-Species Lotka-Volterra System with Multiple Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-species Lotka-Volterra system with discrete delays is considered. The local asymptotic stability of positive equilibrium is investigated based on a contour integral method. The main purpose of this paper is to propose a new and general algorithm to study the local asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium for the n-dimensional Lotka-Volterra system. Some numerical experiments are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori; R. Hernández Rubio; M. Piedra Díaz

    2006-01-01

    En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras...

  7. Prioritizing health: a systematic approach to scoping determinants in health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McCallum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of Health Impact Assessment (HIA, the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted including both primary and grey literature. A total of 10 HIA Scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors such as impact, public concern and data availability to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programmed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool.

  8. Prioritizing Health: A Systematic Approach to Scoping Determinants in Health Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Ollson, Christopher A; Stefanovic, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of health impact assessment (HIA), the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical) for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted, including both primary and gray literature. A total of 10 HIA scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors, such as impact, public concern, and data availability, to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool.

  9. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-10-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.

  10. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. An assessment of rate-pegging in New South Wales local government

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Dollery; Albert Wijeweera

    2010-01-01

    Rate-pegging has been in place in NSW for more than thirty years with broad support from all sides of politics. However, in late 2008 the NSW Government commissioned IPART to report on the adequacy of rate-pegging. IPART produced a Draft Report and then a Final Report, which has not yet been released by the NSW Government. Nevertheless, the NSW Government has made some changes to local government finance by way of capping developer charges, allowing IPART to make annual rate-pegging determina...

  12. Development of a Survey to Assess Local Health Department Organizational Processes and Infrastructure for Supporting Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting; Stamatakis, Katherine A; McVay, Allese B

    2017-12-07

    Local health departments (LHDs) have an important function in controlling the growing epidemic of obesity in the United States. Data are needed to gain insight into the existence of routine functions and structures of LHDs that support and sustain obesity prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the reliability of measures to assess foundational LHD organizational processes and functions specific to obesity prevention. Survey measures were developed using a stratified, random sample of US LHDs to assess supportive organizational processes and infrastructure for obesity prevention representing different domains. Data were analyzed using weighted κ and intraclass correlation coefficient for assessing test-retest reliability. Most items and summary indices in the majority of survey domains had moderate/substantial or almost perfect reliability. The overall findings support this survey instrument to be a reliable measurement tool for a large number of processes and functions that comprise obesity prevention-related capacity in LHDs.

  13. Assessment of Self-Determination in Adolescents with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Donna; Rasmussen, Lynnette; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S; Nelson, Virginia S

    2017-06-23

    The term self-determination refers to decision-making, goal setting, and perseverance to achieve those goals. Numerous studies have established the importance of self-determination to enhance learning and improve postschool outcomes. However, most studies evaluate students with learning disabilities, cognitive impairment, or behavioral disabilities. There is an absence of research on self-determination for adolescents with physical disabilities. To assess self-determination of adolescents with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) compared with their typically developing peers via self-reported measures of function. Case-control study. Brachial plexus clinic. Twenty adolescents with NBPP (aged 10-17 years) and their parents and 20 age/gender-matched typically developing adolescents and their parents were recruited. Non-English-speaking participants and those with other physical impairments were excluded from study. Participants completed demographic and American Institutes for Research (AIR) self-determination surveys. One of two designated occupational therapists evaluated participant physical function. A demographic survey and AIR self-determination assessment were administered, and active range of motion measurements in shoulder forward flexion, elbow flexion, elbow extension, forearm pronation, and supination were obtained. Grip/pinch strength, MRC muscle strength, 9-Hole Peg Test, and Mallet scale scores also were evaluated. Despite physical differences, adolescents with NBPP presented similar self-determination levels as their typically developing peers. Adolescents with NBPP rated their opportunities to engage in self-determined behaviors at school significantly lower than at home. Both adolescents with NBPP and those in the control group rated their opportunities to engage in self-determined behaviors at school significantly lower than at home. Adolescents with NBPP presented similar self-determination scores as their age/gender-matched typically developing

  14. Local recurrence and assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy in deep soft tissue leiomyosarcoma of the extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyman Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyosarcoma of deep soft tissues of the extremities is a rare malignant tumour treated primarily by surgery. The incidence of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis is uncertain and it is not known whether a sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated in these tumours. Methods A retrospective review of patients treated for extremity deep soft tissue leiomyosarcoma at our institution over a 10-year period was conducted. Patients developing local recurrence or lymph node metastasis were identified. The presence or absence of lymphatics in the primary tumours was assessed by immunohistochemical expression of LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Results 27 patients (mean age 62 years were included in the study. 15 were female and 12 male. Lymph node metastasis was seen in only two cases (7%; intratumoural lymphatics were identified in the primary tumours of both these cases. Local recurrence occurred in 25.9% of cases despite complete excision and post-operative radiotherapy; the mean time to recurrence was 10.1 months. Conclusion On the basis of this study, we do not advocate sentinel lymph node biopsy in this group of patients except in those cases in which intratumoural lymphatics can be demonstrated. Close follow up is important especially for high grade leiomyosarcomas, particularly in the first year, as these tumours have a high incidence of local recurrence.

  15. New technologies and surgical innovation: five years of a local health technology assessment program in a surgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Paule; Austen, Lea; Kortbeek, John B; Lafrenière, René

    2012-06-01

    There is pressure for surgical departments to introduce new and innovative health technologies in an evidence-based manner while ensuring that they are safe and effective and can be managed with available resources. A local health technology assessment (HTA) program was developed to systematically integrate research evidence with local operational management information and to make recommendations for subsequent decision by the departmental executive committee about whether and under what conditions the technology will be used. The authors present a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of this program as used by the Department of Surgery & Surgical Services in the Calgary Health Region over a 5-year period from December 2005 to December 2010. Of the 68 technologies requested, 15 applications were incomplete and dropped, 12 were approved, 3 were approved for a single case on an urgent/emergent basis, 21 were approved for "clinical audit" for a restricted number of cases with outcomes review, 14 were approved for research use only, and 3 were referred to additional review bodies. Subsequent outcome reports resulted in at least 5 technologies being dropped for failure to perform. Decisions based on local HTA program recommendations were rarely "yes" or "no." Rather, many technologies were given restricted approval with full approval contingent on satisfying certain conditions such as clinical outcomes review, training protocol development, or funding. Thus, innovation could be supported while ensuring safety and effectiveness. This local HTA program can be adapted to a variety of settings and can help bridge the gap between evidence and practice.

  16. Ultrasound localization microscopy to image and assess microvasculature in a rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiret, Josquin; Zhang, Hua; Ilovitsh, Tali; Mahakian, Lisa; Tam, Sarah; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2017-10-20

    The recent development of ultrasound localization microscopy, where individual microbubbles (contrast agents) are detected and tracked within the vasculature, provides new opportunities for imaging the vasculature of entire organs with a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. In stationary tissue, recent studies have demonstrated a theoretical resolution on the order of microns. In this work, single microbubbles were localized in vivo in a rat kidney using a dedicated high frame rate imaging sequence. Organ motion was tracked by assuming rigid motion (translation and rotation) and appropriate correction was applied. In contrast to previous work, coherence-based non-linear phase inversion processing was used to reject tissue echoes while maintaining echoes from very slowly moving microbubbles. Blood velocity in the small vessels was estimated by tracking microbubbles, demonstrating the potential of this technique to improve vascular characterization. Previous optical studies of microbubbles in vessels of approximately 20 microns have shown that expansion is constrained, suggesting that microbubble echoes would be difficult to detect in such regions. We therefore utilized the echoes from individual MBs as microscopic sensors of slow flow associated with such vessels and demonstrate that highly correlated, wideband echoes are detected from individual microbubbles in vessels with flow rates below 2 mm/s.

  17. Assessing the Institutional Capacity of External Agencies in Holding Local Government Accountable in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Kakumba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Uganda established external agencies as part of the control mechanisms aimed at promoting accountability in the public sector in general and local governments (LGs in particular. The two cardinal control agencies include the Office of the Auditor General (OAG and the Inspectorate of Government (IG, who are mandated to enhance public service through efficient and effective resource management, ensuring adherence to standards and regulations, and promoting responsiveness to community needs. In spite of these institutional controls, a surge of unbearable events involving abuse of authority and misuse of public resources still exists, suggesting significant managerial and capacity handicaps, not only in the internal mechanisms of LGs, but also in the external control agencies. This paper presents findings of a study conducted to evaluate the institutional capacity of the OAG and the IG in the enhancement of accountability in local governments (LGs in Uganda. The findings demonstrate deficiencies in institutional capacity across the spectrum of financial, human and material resources, as well as the enabling legislation and lack stakeholder support. The scenario is a recipe for encouraging public malfeasance. The paper makes a strong case for strengthening institutional capacity, through improvements in planning, resource facilitation and collaborative relations among the key stakeholders. It is argued that the establishment of a special anti-corruption court could help reduce the delays and provide appropriate corrective measures in support of accountability.

  18. Assessing marine biotechnology research centres in peripheral regions: developing global and local STI indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.K.R.; Schoen, A.; Laurens, P.; Horellou, S.; Colas, P.; Larédo, P.

    2016-07-01

    Our study tackles the challenge of developing STI indicators for assessing marine biotechnology (Blue Bio) research institutes that are geographically located in peripheral regions, far from major metropolitan areas. The promise of Blue Bio couples (a) the promise of new sources of knowledge and innovation with (b) the promise to stimulate jobs and growth in regions which struggle to prosper due to a number of factors (such as economic migration from peripheries to large cities, decline of traditional coastal economic activity etc.). In this paper we outline the context of Marine Biotechnology assessment, the framework that is being used, and the first results of its application. (Author)

  19. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  20. Life cycle assessment of sisal fibre – Exploring how local practices can influence environmental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Dellaert, S.N.C.; Cok, B.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Shen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Sisal fibre can potentially replace glass fibre in natural fibre composites. This study focuses on the environmental performance of sisal fibre production by quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of producing sisal fibre in Tanzania and Brazil using life cycle assessment

  1. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Galli, Francesca; Barjolle, Dominique; Broekhuizen, Van Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific

  2. Three dimensional intravascular ultrasonic assessment of the local mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Costa (Marco); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); K. Kozuma (Ken); A.L. Gaster; M. Sabaté (Manel); I.P. Kay (Ian Patrick); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); P. Thayssen; M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); D.P. Foley (David); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty. DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENTS: 13 patients treated with balloon angioplasty. INTERVENTIONS: 111 coronary subsegments (2 mm each) were analysed after balloon angioplasty and at a six month follow up using

  3. Determining Component Weights in a Communications Assessment Using Judgmental Policy Capturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo M. Harvill, PhD

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Tools are needed for determining appropriate weights for complex performance assessment components in medical education. The feasibility of using judgmental policy capturing (JPC, a procedure to statistically describe the information processing strategies of experts, for this purpose was investigated. Methods: Iterative JPC was used to determine appropriate weighting for the six core communication skill scores from a communications objective structured clinical examination (OSCE for medical students using a panel of four communication skill experts. Results: The mean regression weights from the panel indicated they placed less importance on information management (8.5%, moderate and nearly equal importance on rapport building (15.8%, agenda setting (15.4%, and addressing feelings (14.1%, and greater importance on active listening (20.1% and reaching common ground with the patient (25.5%. Discussion: JPC is an effective procedure for determining appropriate weights for complex clinical assessment components. The derived weights may be very different for those assessment components

  4. An evaluation of a behaviour assessment to determine the suitability of shelter dogs for rehoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, A H; Lisle, A T; Phillips, C J C

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response) to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts). The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score behavioural modification), and 82 (score > 80) failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well.

  5. Assessment of the validity of RTDP application and RAOC operating region determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Rho, Hui Cheon; Phaek, Won Phil; Ha, Sang Joon; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Park, Jae Ook; Kim, Yoon Il; Kim, Soo Hyeong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-15

    The objectives of this work are to assess the validity of the RTDP(Revised Thermal Design Procedure) application in reload thermal design and safety analysis with emphasis on the method of incorporating the DNB(Departure from Nucleate Boiling) degradation problem of the rotated-grid Vantage05H fuel with IFM(V5H/IFM), and to assess the appropriateness of the determination of RAOC(Relaxed Axial Offset Control) operating region, with respect to the fuel reloading of UlChin Units 1 and 2 (UCN 1/2). The scope and contents of this work are summarized as follows : review of the westinghouse' thermal design procedure RTDP, validity assessment of the RTDP application to UCN 1/2 reload design, follow-up of the DNB recovery program for V/5H/IFM, review of the westinghouse' axial offset control method RAOC, validity assessment of the RAOC application to UCN 1/2 operating region determination.

  6. Local carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness assessment by a novel ultrasound-based system in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarelli, Chiara; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Magagna, Armando; Landini, Linda; Faita, Francesco; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Penno, Giuseppe; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate local carotid stiffness (CS) and intima-medial thickness (C-IMT) in hypertensive patients with different cardiovascular risk profile, using a new user-friendly ultrasound-based system, previously validated vs. RF-based echotracking device. We investigated a population with different cardiovascular risk: 45 healthy normotensives (NT), 90 non-diabetic hypertensives (HT), and 48 patients with hypertension and type-2 diabetes (DM). Framingham risk factor score (FRS) was calculated. PWV was assessed by applanation tonometry. The relative stroke change in diameter (ΔD) and C-IMT were measured on carotid scans. Distensibility coefficient (DC) was calculated as ΔA/(A*ΔP), where A = diastolic lumen area, ΔA = stroke change in lumen area, and ΔP = carotid pulse pressure. CS (m/s) was calculated as (ρ*DC) - 1/2 (ρ = blood density). CS, C-IMT, PWV were significantly increased in HT and DM vs. NT. C-IMT and PWV were significantly higher in DM than HT. ΔD and DC were significantly lower in HT and DM vs. NT. FRS ≥10% group showed increased carotid diameter, C-IMT and CS than the FRS <10%. FRS was (p < 0.001) correlated with CS (r = 0.35); ΔD (r = -0.36), DC (r = 0.35), C-IMT (r = 0.48), PWV (r = 0.38). CS correlated (p < 0.05) with PWV in the entire population (r = 0.37), in the NT (r = 0.35), in the HT and DM (r = 0.20). PWV (r = 0.50) and CS (r = 0.33) were correlated with age. Determinants of aortic and carotid stiffness were identified by multivariate stepwise analysis. The proposed B-mode ultrasound-based system is a reliable and user-friendly method that could serve to investigate the predictive value of CS for cardiovascular events in future large clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at

  8. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  9. Tracer Shape and Local Media Structure Determine the Trend of Translation-Rotation Decoupling in Two-Dimensional Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2015-10-09

    The translational diffusion of tracers in glass-forming materials often violates the Stokes-Einstein relation while their rotation follows the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation faithfully, thus decoupling translational and rotational diffusion. In this Letter, we show by performing molecular dynamics simulations for two-dimensional (2D) colloids that the tracer shape and the local media structure are critical such that rotational diffusion is either suppressed or enhanced depending on the tracer shape. For square tracers dissimilar in structure to the local media structure of 2D colloids, the translation-rotation decoupling occurs and the rotational diffusion is enhanced relative to the translation. For sufficiently large diamond tracers similar in structure to the local media structure, tracers undergo rotational hopping motions and their rotation is suppressed relative to the translation. For distorted-diamond tracers, the decoupling is marginal. Translational diffusion does not change significantly with the tracer shape and obeys the Stokes-Einstein relation.

  10. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  11. An integrated model for disaster risk assessment for local government in South Africa / Maliga Reddy

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Maliga

    2010-01-01

    The intensifying nature and extent of disasters together with the associated devastation and astronomical costs required to manage the rippling effects of disasters, enunciates the national and international focus on disaster risk reduction. Further the ever evolving and complex dynamics of risk as the decisive contributor to disasters has heightened the urgency to pursue effective disaster risk assessment as a prerequisite to inform the disaster risk management planning and disaster risk red...

  12. Seismic risk assessment of architectural heritages in Gyeongju considering local site effects

    OpenAIRE

    H.-J. Park; D.-S. Kim; D.-M. Kim

    2013-01-01

    A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cultural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea's ancient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Buddhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site ...

  13. How useful is ultrasound in the assessment of local advancement of laryngeal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepakowska, Anna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to examine the possibility of assessing the advancement of laryngeal cancer by ultrasound (USG) in patients qualified for laryngectomy. Ultrasound examination of the larynx was performed in 25 patients before the planned surgery. The staging of larynx tumor was evaluated according to the guidelines of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Laryngectomy was performed eventually in 22 patients. The results of histopathological examination of the excised larynx and lymph nodes were compared with the results obtained by ultrasound examination performed prior to surgery using McNemar test to estimate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the method. The evaluation of tumor location with ultrasound was appropriate in all patients in the presented study. The accuracy of staging tumor advancement was 81% for USG (18/22). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in detecting infiltration of paraglottic space was 91.7% and 83.3%, respectively, and in detecting subglottic infiltration - 100% and 95.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasound in the assessment of preepiglotic space infiltration and invasion of the laryngeal cartilage was 75% and specificity - 100% and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasound in the assessment of extralaryngeal infiltration was 50% and the specificity 100%. Ultrasound can provide a valuable complement to laryngoscopy and tomography in patients with laryngeal cancer. It enables the real-time evaluation of cancer advancement before planned surgery. Moreover, it can also be used in screening.

  14. Comparison of estimated energy intake using Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-determined energy expenditure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Biltoft-Jensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet project carried out a school meal study to assess the impact of a New Nordic Diet (NND. The random controlled trial involved 834 children aged 8–11 in nine local authority schools in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children to collect data from the children. Objective: To compare the energy intake (EI of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy expenditure (TEE as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design: Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore an accelerometer for two periods of seven consecutive days: at baseline, when they ate their usual packed lunches and at intervention when they were served the NND. EI was estimated using WebDASC, and TEE was calculated from accelerometer-derived activity energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and diet-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results: Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods of collecting dietary data and proved both effective and acceptable with children aged 8–11, even with perhaps less familiar foods of the NND. Conclusions: WebDASC is a useful method that provided a reasonably accurate measure of EI at group level when compared to TEE derived from accelerometer-determined physical activity in children. WebDASC will benefit future research in this area.

  15. Ranking the effects of urban development projects on social determinants of health: health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malek Afzali, Hosein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2014-05-30

    Health impact assessment (HIA) offer a very logical and interesting approach for those aiming to integrate health issues into planning processes. With a lot of works and plans waiting to be done (e.g., developing and updating plans, counseling planning commissions, cooperation with other organizations), planners find it difficult to prioritize health among a variety of possible issues and solutions they confront. In the present article, first, the list of social determinants of health associated with Chitgar man-made lake was extracted out using a qualitative method and with content analysis approach, and then they were prioritized using analytic hierarchy process. 28 social determinants of health including "intermediary" and "structural" determinants were extracted out. Regarding positive effects of lake on these determinants, "recreational services" and "traffic" received the highest and the lowest weights with 0.895 and 0.638 respectively among structural determinants and with consideration to "construction" option. Furthermore, among intermediary determinants for "construction" option, sub-criteria of both "physical activity" and "air quality" received the final highest weight (0.889) and "pathogenesis" indicated the lowest weight with 0.617. Moreover, lake demonstrated the highest negative effects on "housing" among "structural" determinants which it takes the highest weight (0.476) in "non-construction" option. Additionally, lake had the highest negative effects on "noise pollution" among "intermediary determinants" and it takes the highest weight (0.467) in "non-construction" option. It has been shown that urban development projects such as green spaces, man-made lakes … have a huge range of effects on community's health, and having not considered these effects by urban planners and mangers is going to confront urban health with many challenges.

  16. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, G.D.; Gur, N.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Pines, O.; Vardimon, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS

  17. Method development for the enantiomeric purity determination of low concentrations of adrenaline in local anaesthetic solutions by capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari E.; Ek, Anders G.; Widahl-Näsman, Monica E.; Andersson, E. K Margareta

    2006-01-01

    L-Adrenaline is often included in local anaesthetic (LA) solutions for injection to improve the quality of the anaesthetic block. The concentration of the LA is between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml and the concentration of adrenaline is typically ≤0.1% of the LA concentration. In order to follow the

  18. Dark-bright exciton spin-flip rates of quantum dots determined by a modified local density of optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Johansen, Jeppe; Julsgaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on time-resolved detection of spontaneous emission. Using the modified local density of optical states of a GaAs-air interface and its known dependence on distance (z), it was recently shown that the bright exciton radiative and non-radiative processes could be fully unravelled. Hence, the spin-flip rate...

  19. Determinants of "Community Participation": The Tradition of Local Initiatives and the Institutionalisation of School Management Committees in Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2014-01-01

    A School Management Committee (SMC) is an administrative tool adopted in many developing countries to decentralise administrative and financial responsibilities at school level, while involving local people in decision-making and making education more responsive to demands. I question the assumption linking administrative decentralisation and…

  20. Determining the validity and reliability of clinical communication assessment tools for dental patients and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönwetter, Dieter J; Wener, Mickey Emmons; Mazurat, Nita

    2012-10-01

    A shortcoming identified in the dental education literature is the scarcity of patient assessment of the quality of communication between student clinicians and patients. This study, the second in a series, attempts to address this scarcity by testing the communication components deemed critical to patients identified in the first article. Two instruments were tested: the Patient Communication Assessment Instrument (PCAI) and the Student Communication Assessment Instrument (SCAI). Item-to-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was examined through principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation using a total of 820 participants (410 patients and 410 students), who completed communication skills questionnaires collected in the 2006-07 school year as part of dental and dental hygiene clinical courses. Each component in the assessment instruments demonstrated internal consistency (alpha range=0.779-0.960). Based on a principal components analysis, six new factors were found to be significantly associated with communication skills: being caring and respectful, sharing information, interacting with team members, tending to comfort, professional relationship-building, and appointment preparation/follow-up. Correlational analysis demonstrated a core of critical instrument items to be considered for future assessment of the quality of communication between student clinicians and patients. Adequate estimates of reliability and validity for the PCAI and SCAI were demonstrated. Further research is needed in other countries and cultures to test and confirm the constructs.

  1. Assessment and determinants of aggression in a forensic psychiatric institution in Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Oliver; Chow, Kavin Kit-wan

    2014-12-15

    Institutional aggression in forensic psychiatric setting is an under-researched subject, despite the magnitude of the problem. No studies have been conducted on the assessment of risk and the examination of predictors of aggression among the Chinese forensic psychiatric population. Our study aimed to examine the determinants of aggression in the only forensic psychiatric institution in Hong Kong, and to test the psychometric properties of a risk-assessment instrument, the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA). We recruited a representative sample of 530 consecutively admitted detainees. Qualified nurses completed two risk-assessment instruments, the DASA and the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), once daily during the participants׳ first 14 days of admission. Aggressive incidents were recorded using the revised Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS-R), and participants׳ data were collected for multivariate analyses. We showed that female gender, diagnoses of personality disorder and substance-related disorder, and admission at other correctional institutions were associated with institutional aggression. Aggression was perpetrated by 17.7% of the participants, and the DASA was demonstrated to have good psychometric properties in assessing and predicting aggressive incidents. Our findings preliminarily support the use of daily in-patient risk-assessment and affirm the role of dynamic factors in institutional aggression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing statistical views of natural selection: Room for non-local causation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneman, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Recently some philosophers (the "statisticalists") have emphasized a potentially irreconcilable conceptual antagonism between the statistical characterization of natural selection (derived from population genetics) and the standard scientific discussion of natural selection in terms of forces and causes. Other philosophers have developed an account of the causal character of selectionist statements represented in terms of counterfactuals. I examine the compatibility between such statisticalism and counterfactually based causal accounts of natural selection (and related arguments about counterfactuals and causality) by distinguishing two distinct statisticalist claims: firstly the suggested impossibility for natural selection to be a cause acting upon populations and secondly the conceptualization that all evolutionary causes occur at the level of interactions between individual organisms. I argue that deriving the latter from the former involves supplementary assumptions concerning precisely what causation is. I critically examine two of these assumptions purportedly preventing natural selection being regarded as a cause: the locality claim and the modularity claim. I conclude that justifying the strongest version of statisticalism-i.e. evolutionary causation only occurs at the level of individual interactions between organisms-would require further metaphysical arguments that are likely to be deemed highly problematic. Additionally, I argue that such a metaphysical position would be considered incongruous with both our scientific and ordinary use of the concepts of causality and explanation as employed within our everyday epistemological framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by the resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with collocated sources of variable slip on the Hikurangi subduction interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay in New Zealand and investigated the tsunami effects on the cities of Napier and Gisborne. Rupture complexity was found to have a first-order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for local tsunami sources. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface in tsunami models can underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an Mw 8.7 to Mw 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area that could potentially be inundated by equivalent nonuniform slip events of Mw 8.4. Deaggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose two predictors for inundation severity based on the offshore tsunami wavefield using the linear wave equations in an attempt to keep costly simulations of full inundation to a minimum.

  4. Scintigraphic assessment of ectopic splenic tissue localization and function following splenectomy for trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwas, S.T.; Samra, D.; Samra, Y.; Sibber, G.R.

    1986-07-01

    Twenty-three subjects who had a splenectomy as a result of trauma underwent scintigraphic evaluation with a sensitive heat-denatured sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells (DRBC). This method enabled detection of ectopic splenic tissue foci (ESTF) as small as 1x1 cm in diameter. ESTF splenosis or accessory spleen was detected in 15 cases (65%), a higher incidence than previously reported. The size of the ESTF ranged from 1x1 to 5x10 cm (0.8-40 cm/sup 2/), and 53% were less than 2x2 cma (3 cm/sup 2/). A new multiparametric scintigraphic evaluating technique is described, which estimates the quantity of ESTF and its grade of activity, relative to that of the liver. The technique is a highly efficient assessor of ESTF function. Good correlation was found between the size and activity of the ESTF and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), but with a low sensitivity for detecting small ESTF. Correlation was low between residual splenic tissue and concentrations of IgM, IgA and IgG immunoglobulins. The sup(99m)Tc-DRBC method described is recommended for verification of ESTF existence, localization, and function.

  5. Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment and Implications for Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend of crop plantation expansion. This trend has been spurred by policies in the European Union, United States, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance energy security and reduce carbon emissions, as well as by the desire of governments in developing countries to harness the stimulus that new commercial investments provide to the agricultural sector and to national economies. Despite these potential benefits, a number of concerns have been raised about the local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion. We shed light on this debate through a synthesis of findings from case studies in six biofuel producer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and a seventh paper exploring the implications of the land-use changes observed in these case studies for the climate mitigation potential of biofuels. We also explore the implications for governing the environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock production, protecting the rights of customary land users, and enabling smallholder-inclusive business models. Our analysis suggests that better governance of the sector's impacts is not the exclusive preserve of unitary sets of actors, but instead requires concerted and coordinated efforts by governments of producer and consumer countries, investors, civil society, and the financial sector to better capture the sector's potential while minimizing its social and environmental costs.

  6. Assessment of Nutritional Status, Digestion and Absorption, and Quality of Life in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochtenberg-Potjes, C. M.; Wierdsma, N. J.; Scheffer, H. J.; Kazemier, G.; Ottens-Oussoren, K.; Meijerink, M. R.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Methods Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI). Results Two patients had a low BMI, 10 patients had WL > 10%/6 months, 8 patients had a FFMI carbohydrates was observed in, respectively, 9, 8, 12, and 10 patients. FE1 levels were low (nutritional status, most likely as a result of an increased REE and malabsorption due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The trial is registered with PANFIRE clinicaltrials.gov NCT01939665. PMID:28912804

  7. Fracture Assessment of PEEK under Static Loading by Means of the Local Strain Energy Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Peron

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK has gained interest in many industrial applications due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent heat tolerance and high corrosion resistance. Stress concentrators such as notches and geometrical discontinuities are present in many such components necessitating the reliable assessment of notch sensitivity of PEEK in monotonic tension. Here we evaluate the applicability of the strain energy density (SED approach for the assessment of the fracture strength of experimentally tested notched geometries subject to corrosion. The fracture behavior of neat, circumferentially razor-grooved dog-bone specimens and circumferentially U-notched specimens with different notch radii can be predicted with a discrepancy lower than ±10%. Reliable predictions are shown on two previously published datasets employing both computed and published mechanical properties as inputs for the SED calculations. This report presents the first successful application of SED for PEEK as well as the successful prediction of tensile behavior in corrosive environments. This opens the road towards future applications of PEEK in fields its compliant use is of growing popularity.

  8. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low.

  9. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  10. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high

  11. Assessing Local Structure Motifs Using Order Parameters for Motif Recognition, Interstitial Identification, and Diffusion Path Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E. R. Zimmermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure–property relationships form the basis of many design rules in materials science, including synthesizability and long-term stability of catalysts, control of electrical and optoelectronic behavior in semiconductors, as well as the capacity of and transport properties in cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. The immediate atomic environments (i.e., the first coordination shells of a few atomic sites are often a key factor in achieving a desired property. Some of the most frequently encountered coordination patterns are tetrahedra, octahedra, body and face-centered cubic as well as hexagonal close packed-like environments. Here, we showcase the usefulness of local order parameters to identify these basic structural motifs in inorganic solid materials by developing classification criteria. We introduce a systematic testing framework, the Einstein crystal test rig, that probes the response of order parameters to distortions in perfect motifs to validate our approach. Subsequently, we highlight three important application cases. First, we map basic crystal structure information of a large materials database in an intuitive manner by screening the Materials Project (MP database (61,422 compounds for element-specific motif distributions. Second, we use the structure-motif recognition capabilities to automatically find interstitials in metals, semiconductor, and insulator materials. Our Interstitialcy Finding Tool (InFiT facilitates high-throughput screenings of defect properties. Third, the order parameters are reliable and compact quantitative structure descriptors for characterizing diffusion hops of intercalants as our example of magnesium in MnO2-spinel indicates. Finally, the tools developed in our work are readily and freely available as software implementations in the pymatgen library, and we expect them to be further applied to machine-learning approaches for emerging applications in materials science.

  12. An Assessment of Records Management Practice in Selected Local Government Councils in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare, Abdullahi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What government does/fails to do is conveyed to the public largely by records and information of various types in the public service, without which there will be no government. When records are poorly managed, much time is involved in sorting and locating needed information from large volumes of records. The rate of records misplaced or lost from which useful information for decision making is usually obtained makes it difficult to provide concise and up-to-date records of both past and present operations, raising the challenge of effective record-keeping. Thus this study examined records management practices in selected local government councils in Ogun State, Nigeria, adopting the descriptive survey research method using questionnaires for data collection. Its population comprised 415 records of personnel in the selected councils, of which 208 were sampled using simple random technique. From the 208 copies of the questionnaire administered on the registry personnel, 150 copies were useable, with a 72.12% response rate. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. The results indicated a prevalence of paper as the dominant medium for recording/conveying information in the councils with most of these being either in active state, semi-active, and vital and were kept and maintained in the registry, while in-active records were kept in the records store. Storage facilities for record-keeping were insufficient. Security measures against unauthorized access to records were by restrictions and subject users to managerial clearance. The study concluded that council records were in chaos and recommended the formulation of coherent records management policy, adequate budgetary provision, and adequate finance.

  13. Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by a resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with sources on the Hikurangi subduction-interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay/Napier and Poverty Bay/Gisborne (New Zealand). For both target areas rupture complexity was found to have a first order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for the local tsunami sources investigated. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. The distribution of inundation extent for one earthquake of given magnitude but different realisations of slip distribution is skewed. The extent of inundation predicted by a uniform distribution of slip on the rupture interface is roughly represented by the median of this distribution. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface therefore will underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an MW 8.7 to MW 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area potentially affected by inundation of an equivalent non-uniform slip event of MW 8.4 for Napier. The extent of inundation does not follow a simple monotonic relationship to the magnitude of the earthquake. Therefore de-aggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose to use parameters of the tsunami wave field measured offshore as predictors for inundation severity to perform de-aggregation based on simulations with the linear wave equations.

  14. Seismic risk assessment at local level taking into account possible technological accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Seismic safety of population and urban territories is one of the most complicated problems of seismology and earthquake engineering worldwide. It is especially vital for the earthquake prone regions with high level of seismicity and high density of population. The paper contains the results of the recent study that was done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Extreme Situations Research Center and "Rosstrojizyskaniya" Ltd aimed at verification of engineering geological conditions, updating of previous map of seismic microzonation and seismic risk assessment for the Sochi City territory. The City is located in the Krasnodar area, which is characterized by a high density population and a rather high level of seismic hazard. According to maps of review seismic zoning of the Russian Federation territory, earthquakes with intensities I = 6-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur here. The City territory is located along the Black Sea shore and characterized by different level potential of landslides, mudflow, erosion and other geological hazardous processes. The Imeretinskaya valley, where future Olympic Games' facilities are under construction, are located within the marine terrace composed predominantly by gravel-pebble deposits with sand and clay with thickness more than 30 m; the bedrock at the depth of about 70 -90 m, the groundwater level encountered at depths of 0.2-4 m from the surface. According to recent seismic risk assessment at regional level for more that 60% of the Krasnodar area territory, the values of seismic risk computed taking into account the secondary technological accidents exceed the value of 1.0×10-5 1/year. Regional estimation of risk obtained for the Sochi City is equal to 35.0×10-5; contribution of technological risk to seismic one is about 5.0×10-5. The work is under way within the Russian Federal Program "Development of the Sochi City as a mountain resort in 2006 - 2014". The paper will present the results

  15. Local stress gradients in Ti/Al composite wires determined by two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschke, A., E-mail: andy.eschke@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Strukturphysik, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zinn, W. [Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, 34125 Kassel (Germany); Marr, T. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstraße 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Strukturphysik, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, L.; Eckert, J. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstraße 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    By means of a two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction system, the stress state of a severely deformed ultrafine-grained Ti/Al composite wire was investigated in terms of the local stress development with the increasing degree of deformation. The wire was processed by Accumulative Swaging and Bundling in order to gain a high-strength composite material, potentially suitable for light-weight applications. In the present paper, the non-conventional measurement system based on the two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and its application is elucidated. Particularly, the results of the local residual stress development concerning different degrees of deformation are shown and discussed with respect to (i) the development of texture, microstructural and mechanical properties of the severely deformed ultrafine-grained material composite as well as (ii) the intrinsic characteristics of the Accumulative Swaging and Bundling process.

  16. Local Structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, N.; Jiang, Y.; Anderson, I. E.; Belanger, D. P.; Booth, C. H.; Bridges, F.; Mitchell, J. F.; Proffen, Th.; Zheng, H.

    2009-01-26

    The combined local structure techniques, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function analysis, have been used for temperatures 4<= T<= 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of the Co-O bond in La1?xSrxCoO3 for a significant fraction of Co sites (x<= 0.35), indicating few, if any, JT-active, singly occupied eg Co sites exist.

  17. Local products image determinant communes of Nisko Znaczenie produktów lokalnych w budowaniu wizerunku gmin powiatu Nisko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  18. Impact assessment and coastal climate change adaptation in a local transdisciplinary perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, N. H.; Knudsen, Per

    From an applied point of view, the authors present and discuss inter- and transdisciplinary approaches to assess and deal with natural coastal hazards and climate change impacts. The construction of a shared working platform for knowledge integration across levels of governance and between research...... of climate change. The platform is dynamically updated with additional data and knowledge, e.g. from climate change evidence, or, by provision of updated regional models of future sea level rise. In order to integrate natural hazards and impact development over time, models on hydrology, geology...... a more prominent role. For example, the investment and maintenance costs of securing functional water and wastewater pipes are significantly reduced by incorporation of knowledge about climate change impacts. The presented approaches yield an integrative process-oriented framework to handle uncertainties...

  19. Conducting Community Health Needs Assessments in the Local Public Health Department: A Comparison of Random Digit Dialing and the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kahler; Sierocki, Allison; Shah, Vaidehi; Ylitalo, Kelly R; Horney, Jennifer A

    2017-01-30

    Community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are now required by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for nonprofit hospitals and the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) for local health departments that seek accreditation. Currently, various primary data collection methods exist that meet the ACA and PHAB requirements. To compare 2 CHNA data collection methods implemented in the same geographical area from a local health department perspective. Two community surveys, one door-to-door and one telephone, in the 76706 zip code area of McLennan County, Texas. Adult survey respondents (Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response [CASPER]: N = 184; random digit dialing [RDD]: N = 133) of the 76706 zip code in McLennan County, Texas. Survey response rates, sociodemographic characteristics of survey respondents, and self-reported health behaviors from both community survey types. The CASPER survey had a contact rate of 36.0% and a cooperation rate of 60.5%, compared with a 10.1% response rate for the RDD survey. CASPER respondents were younger (26.6% aged 18-24 years), had lower education attainment (17.4% less than high school), and had a higher proportion of Hispanics (24.5%) than RDD respondents (4.6%, 10.5%, and 17.3%, respectively). CASPER respondents were less likely to report being overweight or obese (56.5%), to report days where no fruit or vegetables were consumed (7.1%), and to report days where no walking activity was conducted (9.8%) than RDD respondents (70.2%, 27.8%, and 21.8%, respectively). The CASPER survey cost less to conduct ($13 500) than the RDD survey ($100 000) and was logistically easier for the local health department to conduct using internally available resources. Local health departments use various data collection methods to conduct CHNAs for their populations and require varying levels of commitment and resources. RDD and CASPER can be used to meet ACA and PHAB requirements, collecting valuable health needs estimates and offer

  20. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gideon D; Gur, Noa; Koopman, Werner J H; Pines, Ophry; Vardimon, Lily

    2010-02-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS gene, it is not clear how tissue-specific subcellular localization is achieved. Here we show that in chicken, which utilizes the uricotelic system, the GS transcripts of liver and brain cells are identical and, consistently, there is no difference in the amino acid sequence of the protein. The N-terminus of GS, which constitutes a 'weak' mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS), is sufficient to direct a chimeric protein to the mitochondria in hepatocytes and to the cytoplasm in astrocytes. Considering that a weak MTS is dependent on a highly negative mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) for import, we examined the magnitude of DeltaPsi in hepatocytes and astrocytes. Our results unexpectedly revealed that DeltaPsi in hepatocytes is considerably more negative than that of astrocytes and that converting the targeting signal into 'strong' MTS abolished the capability to confer tissue-specific subcellular localization. We suggest that evolutional selection of weak MTS provided a tool for differential targeting of an identical protein by taking advantage of tissue-specific differences in DeltaPsi.

  1. Assessment of the Local Residual Stresses of 7050-T7452 Aluminum Alloy in Microzones by the Instrumented Indentation with the Berkovich Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Huang, C. H.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, F.; Zhang, N.; Li, F. G.

    2017-09-01

    The local residual stresses in microzones are investigated by the instrumented indentation method with the Berkovich indenter. The parameters required for determination of residual stresses are obtained from indentation load-penetration depth curves constructed during instrumented indentation tests on flat square 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy specimens with a central hole containing the compressive residual stresses generated by the cold extrusion process. The force balance system with account of the tensile and compressive residual stresses is used to explain the phenomenon of different contact areas produced by the same indentation load. The effect of strain-hardening exponent on the residual stress is tuned-off by application of the representative stress σ_{0.033} in the average contact pressure assessment using the Π theorem, while the yield stress value is obtained from the constitutive function. Finally, the residual stresses are calculated according to the proposed equations of the force balance system, and their feasibility is corroborated by the XRD measurements.

  2. Assessment of the Local Residual Stresses of 7050-T7452 Aluminum Alloy in Microzones by the Instrumented Indentation with the Berkovich Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Huang, C. H.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, F.; Zhang, N.; Li, F. G.

    2017-10-01

    The local residual stresses in microzones are investigated by the instrumented indentation method with the Berkovich indenter. The parameters required for determination of residual stresses are obtained from indentation load-penetration depth curves constructed during instrumented indentation tests on flat square 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy specimens with a central hole containing the compressive residual stresses generated by the cold extrusion process. The force balance system with account of the tensile and compressive residual stresses is used to explain the phenomenon of different contact areas produced by the same indentation load. The effect of strain-hardening exponent on the residual stress is tuned-off by application of the representative stress σ_{0.033} in the average contact pressure assessment using the Π theorem, while the yield stress value is obtained from the constitutive function. Finally, the residual stresses are calculated according to the proposed equations of the force balance system, and their feasibility is corroborated by the XRD measurements.

  3. Generalized Fragility Relationships with Local Site Conditions for Probabilistic Performance-based Seismic Risk Assessment of Bridge Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivathayalan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of detailed seismic risk assessment cannot be easily applied to all the bridges in a large transportation networks due to limited resources. This paper presents a new approach for seismic risk assessment of large bridge inventories in a city or national bridge network based on the framework of probabilistic performance based seismic risk assessment. To account for the influences of local site effects, a procedure to generate site-specific hazard curves that includes seismic hazard microzonation information has been developed for seismic risk assessment of bridge inventories. Simulated ground motions compatible with the site specific seismic hazard are used as input excitations in nonlinear time history analysis of representative bridges for calibration. A normalizing procedure to obtain generalized fragility relationships in terms of structural characteristic parameters of bridge span and size and longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios is presented. The seismic risk of bridges in a large inventory can then be easily evaluated using the normalized fragility relationships without the requirement of carrying out detailed nonlinear time history analysis.

  4. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  5. Local and global methods of assessing thermal nociception in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Abanti; Gilstrap, A'Tondra V; Galko, Michael J

    2012-05-18

    In this article, we demonstrate assays to study thermal nociception in Drosophila larvae. One assay involves spatially-restricted (local) stimulation of thermal nociceptors while the second involves a wholesale (global) activation of most or all such neurons. Together, these techniques allow visualization and quantification of the behavioral functions of Drosophila nociceptive sensory neurons. The Drosophila larva is an established model system to study thermal nociception, a sensory response to potentially harmful temperatures that is evolutionarily conserved across species. The advantages of Drosophila for such studies are the relative simplicity of its nervous system and the sophistication of the genetic techniques that can be used to dissect the molecular basis of the underlying biology In Drosophila, as in all metazoans, the response to noxious thermal stimuli generally involves a "nocifensive" aversive withdrawal to the presented stimulus. Such stimuli are detected through free nerve endings or nociceptors and the amplitude of the organismal response depends on the number of nociceptors receiving the noxious stimulus. In Drosophila, it is the class IV dendritic arborization sensory neurons that detect noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in addition to their recently discovered role as photoreceptors. These neurons, which have been very well studied at the developmental level, arborize over the barrier epidermal sheet and make contacts with nearly all epidermal cells. The single axon of each class IV neuron projects into the ventral nerve cord of the central nervous system where they may connect to second-order neurons that project to the brain. Under baseline conditions, nociceptive sensory neurons will not fire until a relatively high threshold is reached. The assays described here allow the investigator to quantify baseline behavioral responses or, presumably, the sensitization that ensues following tissue damage. Each assay provokes distinct but related

  6. Gender Differences in Musculoskeletal Lipid Metabolism as Assessed by Localized Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendhil Velan; Department of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in lipid metabolism are poorly understood and difficult to study using conventional approaches. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS permits non-invasive investigation of lipid metabolism. We employed novel two- dimensional MRS techniques to quantify intramyocellular (IMCL and extramyocellular (EMCL lipid compartments and their degree of unsaturation in normal weight adult male and female subjects. Using muscle creatine (Cr for normalization, a statistically significant (p 0.05 increase in IMCL/Cr (7.8 ± 1.6 and EMCL/Cr (22.5 ± 3.6 for female subjects was observed (n = 8, as compared to IMCL/Cr (5.9 ± 1.7 and EMCL/Cr (18.4 ± 2.64 for male subjects. The degree of unsaturation within IMCL and EMCL was lower in female subjects, 1.3 ± 0.075 and 1.04 ± 0.06, respectively, as compared to that observed in males (n = 8, 1.5 ± 0.08 and 1.12 ± 0.03, respectively (p 0.05 male vs female for both comparisons. We conclude that certain salient gender differences in lipid metabolism can be assessed noninvasively by advanced MRS approaches.

  7. A Method to Assess Localized Impact of Better Floodplain Topography on Flood Risk Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy J.-P. Schumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the need for a higher accuracy global digital elevation model (DEM, mainly in river floodplains and deltas and along coastlines. In this paper, we present a method to infer the impact of a better DEM on applications and science using the Lower Zambezi basin as a use case. We propose an analysis based on a targeted observation algorithm to evaluate potential data acquisition subregions in terms of their impact on the prediction of flood risk over the entire study area. Consequently, it becomes trivial to rank these subregions in terms of their contribution to the overall accuracy of flood prediction. The improvement from better topography data may be expressed in terms of economic output and population affected, providing a multifaceted assessment of the value of acquiring better elevation data. Our results highlight the notion that having higher resolution measurements would improve our current large-scale flood inundation prediction capabilities in the Lower Zambezi by at least 30% and significantly reduce the number of people affected as well as the economic loss associated with high magnitude flooding. We believe this procedure to be simple enough to be applied to other regions where high quality topographic and hydrodynamic data are currently unavailable.

  8. Intraductal Ultrasonography as a Local Assessment Before Magnetic Compression Anastomosis for Obstructed Choledochojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hideaki; Hitomi, Misuzu; Inoue, Naonori; Kawakatsu, Yukino; Okazaki, Yuji; Miyata, Masatoshi

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic compression anastomosis (MCA) has been developed as a non-surgical alternative treatment for biliary obstruction without serious complications. A 70-year-old woman who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy with modified Child reconstruction for pancreatic head cancer suffered from obstructed choledochojejunostomy with no recurrent findings 4 months after the operation. Cholangiography using the percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographic drainage (PTCD) and fluoroscopy revealed complete obstruction of the upper common bile duct, and the length of the obstruction was 7 mm. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) showed fibrous heterogenous hyperechoic appearance without fluid collection, vessels or foreign bodies at the site of the obstruction. We performed choledochojejunostomy using the MCA technique. One magnet was inserted into the obstruction of the hepatic side through the PTCD fistula. Another was delivered endoscopically to the obstruction of the jejunal side. The two magnets were immediately attracted towards each other transmurally, and reanastomosis was confirmed 7 days after starting the compression. The magnets were easily retrieved endoscopically. A 16-Fr indwelling drainage tube was placed in the jejunum through the PTCD. The internal tube is still in place 6 months after reanastomosis, and no MCA-related complications have been observed. In conclusion, MCA is a safe, effective, low-invasive treatment for biliary obstruction, and IDUS is useful for the pretreatment assessment of feasibility and safety.

  9. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  10. Marketing prospect and assessment for local manufacture of wind converters in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakpahan, S.; Utami, N.S.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Indonesia provide opportunities to improve the delivery of electricity consumption for small and medium scale applications particularly for rural and remote areas and will be developed as the part of national rural electrification programs. By proper selection of design, this kind of energy source has shown to be a technically proven and affordable means of providing electricity at those areas. The promotion of WECS technology have been initiated in Indonesia by establishing some pilot projects at selected areas while in commercialization efforts, several private companies are now being involved. Dissemination of WECS technology should be based on proper selection of WECS types including economic consideration and marketing programs; for obtaining this, manufacturing of some WECS components / parts have been initiating using available materials and components; while other components that`s still not producible in Indonesia will be produced by cooperation with industry. In addition, wind resource assessments will be extended sustainably in order to identify more potential areas and locations. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-06-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  12. Gate-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment for Determining Carbon Footprint of Catalytic Converter Assembly Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Mustfizul Karim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the pursuit of embracing the circular economy, having upward trend in vehicle sales and environmental concern, sustainability has become an imperative part of the global automotive manufacturing strategies. One of the tactics to achieve this sustainable goal is to conserve and enhance the resource base by salvaging the embedded values from end-of-life product and for which, the remanufacturing can be considered as one of the most prominent epitome. Even though many of the auto parts like engine, transmissions, starters, alternators and etc. have been assessed for remanufacturability since last few decades, being a major component of a car body the Catalytic Converter (CC still remains unfocused in literature. However, to examine the remanufacturability of CC, a comprehensive study for assessing its economic, social, and environmental impact is inevitable. Therefore, with an underlying aim of designing the remanufacturable CC, in this endeavour an attempt has made to evaluate the environmental impact of its welding operations by means of energy consumption through gate-to-gate life cycle assessment. Real life data are collected from a Local Malaysian CC manufacturer. The obtained results show that the welding section has a carbon footprint of 0.203 kgCO2e/unit with major emission coming from the plasma arc welding. In addition to that, it is also observed that the value of carbon footprint is not only sensitive to the emission factor and processing time, but also it is responsive to the nature of the processing operations. Certainly, this observation will motivate to change the product design from the prospect of remanufacturing.

  13. Local structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sundaram, Nalini [UCSC; Jiang, Y [UCSC; Anderson, Ingrid [UCSC; Belanger, D P [UCSC; Booth, C H [LBNL; Bridges, F [UCSC; Mitchell, J F [ANL; Zheng, H [ANL

    2008-01-01

    The combined local structure techniques, extended X-ray absorption fine struture (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, have been used for temperatures 4 {<=} T {<=} 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion of the Co-O bond in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} for a significant fraction of Co sites (x {<=} 0.35), indicating few, if any, J-T active, single-occupied e{sub g} Co sites exist.

  14. Estimating the frequency and characteristics of respiratory disease outbreaks at mass gatherings in the United States: Findings from a state and local health department assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argelia Figueroa; Reena K Gulati; Jeanette J Rainey

    2017-01-01

    .... We administered an online assessment to the 50 state health departments and 31 large local health departments in the United States to gather information about mass gathering-related respiratory...

  15. Availability, content and quality of local guidelines for the assessment of suicide attempters in university and general hospitals in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Waarde, J.A. van; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Gerritsen, G.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the availability, content and quality of local guidelines for the assessment of suicide attempters in the Netherlands. METHOD: All university and general hospitals in the Netherlands were asked to provide their local guidelines. Published national

  16. [The role of regional and local authorities in shaping health-conducive environmental determinants in the light of the Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier research concerning the role of public health administration (governmental and self-governmental) in health protection and health promotion. The aim of the study was to specify the function of local self-governments (at county, community and district levels) in shaping health-conducive environmental determinants. Polish legal acts concerning biological, chemical and physical hazards, binding up to November 30, 2009 were the subject of the study. All these acts were analyzed and the provisions referring to the control of the above mentioned hazards and obligations imposed on local self-governments to promote health-conducive environmental factors were identified. Of the 41 environment protection legal acts, 24 were selected as the most important from the point of the aim of the analysis. It was found that these acts underline the significance of environmental health determinants and explicitly formulate the role and duties of local authorities in the area of environmental health promotion, as well as in controlling and monitoring harmful biological, chemical and physical factors. The participation of local societies in these activities is also emphasized.

  17. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Traditional Cosmetics Sold in Tunisian Local Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Mohamed Anouar; Mahjoubi, Salah; Ghorbel, Asma; Ben Haj Yahia, Marouen; Amira, Dorra; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderrazek

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine heavy metal contents in twelve (n = 12) henna brands and eleven (n = 11) kohl products. An analytical test was performed for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in henna and kohl products using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The overall mean concentrations of heavy metals in henna varied between 1.2 and 8.9 μg g−1 for Pb; 0.8 and 18.6 μg g−1 for Cd; 0.5 μg g−1 and 3.3 μg g−1 for Cu; and 3.7 μg g−1 and 90.0 μg g−1 for Zn. As for kohl products, Pb concentrations ranged between 51.1 μg g−1 and 4839.5 μg g−1, Cd concentrations ranged between 1.0 μg g−1 and 158.6 μg g−1, Cu concentrations ranged between 2.5 μg g−1 and 162.5 μg g−1, and Zn concentrations ranged between 0.7 μg g−1 and 185.0 μg g−1. The results of our study revealed that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn contents in investigated samples were high, making from the prolonged use of such products a potential threat to human health. Therefore, major quality controls are recommended in order to enforce acceptable limits of potential contaminants in cosmetics and good manufacturing practice. PMID:27382641

  18. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  19. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    extirpation for a local population may rapidly increase with only minimal increases in wind mortality. Conservation biologists and wildlife managers may need to consider this mortality pattern when issuing take permits and developing monitoring protocols for wind facilities. We also describe how our branching process models may be generalized across a wider range of species for a larger assessment project and then describe how our methods may be applied to other stressors in addition to wind.

  20. How might the London 2012 Olympics influence health and the determinants of health? Local newspaper analysis of pre-Games pathways and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanayagam, Marinie; Thompson, Claire; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Cummins, Steven; Bourke, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a content analysis of pre-Games local media coverage of the potential impact on health and the determinants of health in Newham, the site of the Olympic Park. Design Local newspaper content analysis. Setting Olympic park host site of the London Borough of Newham. Outcome measures Media coverage of employment, physical activity and well-being. Results Three hundred and 51 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The overwhelming majority of the articles took a positive perspective on the Olympic Games being hosted in Newham with less than 10% (32/351) addressing potential adverse effects. The frequency of articles reporting on both employment and well-being increased significantly over time (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). A non-significant increasing trend was observed for physical activity (p=0.146). New employment opportunities and the promotion of physical activity in young people were the pathways most frequently reported in the local media. However, much less attention is devoted to understanding the uncertainties about how much of these new opportunities will directly improve the determinants of health in the Newham population. Conclusions Pre-Games reporting on the impact on health and the determinants of health increased over time in the London Borough of Newham, and is overwhelmingly positive. However, specific uncertainties around the true nature of its impact on local employment and physical activity were articulated. Further evaluation of the tangible impacts on population health, and the determinants of health and health inequalities from the London 2012 Olympics, is required. PMID:23151394

  1. 42 CFR 90.6 - Notification of determination to conduct a health assessment in response to a request from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment in response to a request from the public. 90.6 Section 90.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES... determination to conduct a health assessment in response to a request from the public. (a) Following a...

  2. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere

  3. Development of the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process for Determining Environmental Flows for New Jersey Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Henriksen, James A.; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The natural flow regime paradigm and parallel stream ecological concepts and theories have established the benefits of maintaining or restoring the full range of natural hydrologic variation for physiochemical processes, biodiversity, and the evolutionary potential of aquatic and riparian communities. A synthesis of recent advances in hydroecological research coupled with stream classification has resulted in a new process to determine environmental flows and assess hydrologic alteration. This process has national and international applicability. It allows classification of streams into hydrologic stream classes and identification of a set of non-redundant and ecologically relevant hydrologic indices for 10 critical sub-components of flow. Three computer programs have been developed for implementing the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process (HIP): (1) the Hydrologic Indices Tool (HIT), which calculates 171 ecologically relevant hydrologic indices on the basis of daily-flow and peak-flow stream-gage data; (2) the New Jersey Hydrologic Assessment Tool (NJHAT), which can be used to establish a hydrologic baseline period, provide options for setting baseline environmental-flow standards, and compare past and proposed streamflow alterations; and (3) the New Jersey Stream Classification Tool (NJSCT), designed for placing unclassified streams into pre-defined stream classes. Biological and multivariate response models including principal-component, cluster, and discriminant-function analyses aided in the development of software and implementation of the HIP for New Jersey. A pilot effort is currently underway by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in which the HIP is being used to evaluate the effects of past and proposed surface-water use, ground-water extraction, and land-use changes on stream ecosystems while determining the most effective way to integrate the process into ongoing regulatory programs. Ultimately, this scientifically defensible

  4. An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Poulsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts. The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ≤ 70, 24 scored 71–80 (referred for behavioural modification, and 82 (score > 80 failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well.

  5. An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, A. H.; Lisle, A. T.; Phillips, C. J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response) to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts). The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ≤ 70), 24 scored 71–80 (referred for behavioural modification), and 82 (score > 80) failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well. PMID:20445786

  6. Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis solution by localized surface plasmon resonance technique based on silver nanoparticles formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrournia, Mahboube; Montazarolmahdi, Maliheh; Sani, Faramarz Aliasghari

    2017-07-01

    Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis with a method based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation was investigated. In a green chemistry method, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix of gelatin. The nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorbance signal of AgNPs could be applied to determine the various concentrations of dextrose solutions. Drop wise and ultrasonic methods were used and compared with each other. The dynamic range of methods with limit of detection and relative standard deviations were obtained. Results for real sample (peritoneal dialysis) were satisfied.

  7. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime(®) manufactured by Revlon(®) consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I' (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I' (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  8. Reproducibility of Cutaneous Vascular Conductance Responses to Slow Local Heating Assessed Using seven-Laser Array Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ellen A; Low, David A; Meeuwis, Iris H M; Kerstens, Floor G; Atkinson, Ceri L; Cable, Nigel Timothy; Green, Daniel J; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2015-05-01

    Gradual local heating of the skin induces a largely NO-mediated vasodilatation. However, use of this assessment of microvascular health is limited because little is known about its reproducibility. Healthy volunteers (n = 9) reported twice to the laboratory. CVC, derived from laser Doppler flux and mean arterial pressure, was examined in response to a standardized local heating protocol (0.5°C per 150 second from 33°C to 42°C, followed by 20 minutes at 44°C). Skin responses were examined at two locations on the forearm (between-site). Heating was repeated after a break of 24-72 hours (between-day). Reproducibility of skin responses at 33-42°C is presented for absolute CVC and relative CVC responses corrected for maximal CVC at 44°C (%CVCmax ). Between-day reproducibility of baseline CVC and %CVCmax for both sites was relatively poor (22-30%). At 42°C, CVC and %CVCmax responses showed less variation (9-19%), whilst absolute CVC responses at 44°C were 14-17%. Between-day variation for %CVCmax increased when using data from site 1 on day 1, but site 2 on the subsequent day (25%). Day-to-day reproducibility of baseline laser Doppler-derived skin perfusion responses is poor, but acceptable when absolute and relative skin perfusion to a local gradual heating protocol is utilized and site-to-site variation is minimized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Local Marine Geoid Variations and Jason-2 Bias Determination using the Gavdos Permanent Cal/Val Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, S. P.; Daskalakis, A.; Tziavos, I. N.

    2012-01-01

    , but others are related to under-sampling of the Earth's gravity field due to the resolution of the geoid model. New reference surfaces for calibration have thus emerged. Finally, new updated values for the Jason-2 altimeter bias have been determined as 191.81 ± 2.80 mm with the geoid model and as 181.51 ± 2...

  10. Assessing the Quality of a Local Authority Conference and Hospitality Venue Using the ServQual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Mike

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The close attention paid to service quality by successful private companies has become part of the environment within which most public service organizations now operate. The ServQual model has been used with success to help companies quantify customers' expectations and perceptions of their service and to use this analysis as the basis for improvement. More recently, the ServQual approach has been applied in public service contexts with mixed reliability and validity. This paper reports on the application of the ServQual model to a conference and hospitality venue operated by a Scottish local authority. The study investigates five distinct customer segments: conferences, meetings, receptions, performances, and weddings. The expectations-perceptions gaps are assessed for each of these segments using the ServQual model and the size and antecedents of ServQual Gap 1 is also examined.

  11. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5].

  12. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zea Escamilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI. All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount into mass (kg units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road and international (freight ship, which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5

  13. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Escamilla, E.; Habert, G.

    2015-01-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5] PMID:26217807

  14. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  16. Prognostic assessment of stable coronary artery disease as determined by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene H; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To examine the 3.5 year prognosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in real-world clinical practice, overall and within subgroups of patients according to age, sex, and comorbidity. Methods and results: This cohort study......, and comorbidity. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease determined by CCTA in real-world practice predicts the 3.5 year composite risk of late revascularization, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death across different groups of age, sex, or comorbidity burden....... included 16,949 patients (median age 57 years; 57% women) with new-onset symptoms suggestive of CAD, who underwent CCTA between January 2008 and December 2012. The endpoint was a composite of late coronary revascularization procedure >90 days after CCTA, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death...

  17. Determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study: implications for exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Madsen, Stine Mann; di Vecchia, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The output power of a mobile phone is directly related to its radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field strength, and may theoretically vary substantially in different networks and phone use circumstances due to power control technologies. To improve indices of RF exposure...... for epidemiological studies, we assessed determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study. METHODS: More than 500 volunteers in 12 countries used Global System for Mobile communications software-modified phones (GSM SMPs) for approximately 1 month each. The SMPs recorded date, time, and duration...... of each call, and the frequency band and output power at fixed sampling intervals throughout each call. Questionnaires provided information on the typical circumstances of an individual's phone use. Linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of possible explanatory variables...

  18. Uncertainty assessment for measurements performed in the determination of thermal conductivity by scanning thermal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiandrisoa, Liana; Allard, Alexandre; Hay, Bruno; Gomés, Séverine

    2017-11-01

    Although its use has been restricted to relative studies, scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is presented today as a candidate technique for performing quantitative measurement of thermal properties at the nanoscale, thanks to the development of relevant calibration protocols. Based on the principle behind near-field microscopes, SThM uses a miniaturized probe to quantify heat transfers versus samples of various thermal conductivities: since the thermal conductivity of a sample cannot be directly estimated, a direct measurand related to the heat transfer must be defined and measured for each sample. That is the reason why the SThM technique applied to thermal conductivity determination belongs to the family of inverse methods. In this work we aim to qualify the technique from a metrological point of view. For the first time, assessment of uncertainty associated with the direct measurand Δ R is performed, yielding a result of less than 2%.

  19. Determining the sources of fine-grained sediment using the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Sanisaca, Lillian E.; Gellis, Allen C.; Lorenz, David L.

    2017-07-27

    A sound understanding of sources contributing to instream sediment flux in a watershed is important when developing total maximum daily load (TMDL) management strategies designed to reduce suspended sediment in streams. Sediment fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches are two techniques that, when used jointly, can qualify and quantify the major sources of sediment in a given watershed. The sediment fingerprinting approach uses trace element concentrations from samples in known potential source areas to determine a clear signature of each potential source. A mixing model is then used to determine the relative source contribution to the target suspended sediment samples.The computational steps required to apportion sediment for each target sample are quite involved and time intensive, a problem the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT) addresses. Sed_SAT is a user-friendly statistical model that guides the user through the necessary steps in order to quantify the relative contributions of sediment sources in a given watershed. The model is written using the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2016b) and utilizes Microsoft Access® as a user interface but requires no prior knowledge of R or Microsoft Access® to successfully run the model successfully. Sed_SAT identifies outliers, corrects for differences in size and organic content in the source samples relative to the target samples, evaluates the conservative behavior of tracers used in fingerprinting by applying a “Bracket Test,” identifies tracers with the highest discriminatory power, and provides robust error analysis through a Monte Carlo simulation following the mixing model. Quantifying sediment source contributions using the sediment fingerprinting approach provides local, State, and Federal land management agencies with important information needed to implement effective strategies to reduce sediment. Sed_SAT is designed to assist these agencies in applying the sediment fingerprinting

  20. Assessment of complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients: Determination of factors effecting dental arch relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Anas Imran; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the treatment outcome of non-syndromic patients having complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) by using GOSLON index and to determine any association of pre and/or postnatal factors with the treatment outcome. One hundred and one sets of dental models of patients having CUCLP were assessed in this retrospective study. Five examiners that were blinded to case-specific information scored the dental models at two instances with an interval of two weeks to ensure memory bias elimination (5 × 101 × 2 = 1010 observations). Calibration courses were conducted prior to scoring and each examiner was provided with scoring sheets, pictures of GOSLON reference models and flowcharts explaining the scoring method. According to GOSLON index, a mean (SD) GOSLON score of 3.04 (1.25) was determined. Based on treatment outcome groups, 62 patients had favorable (grade 1, 2, and 3) and 39 cases had unfavorable (grade 4 and 5) treatment outcome. Chi-square tests revealed a significant association of gender (P = 0.002), cheiloplasty (P = 0.001) and palatoplasty (P models. The current study found an intermediate treatment outcome of CUCLP cases using GOSLON index. Final logistic model showed that gender, cheiloplasty, and palatoplasty had significantly higher odds of influencing outcomes. Identification of these factors provides us an evidence of traditional and outdated surgical methods and encourages clinicians to adopt current techniques to improve treatment outcomes. This implementation will facilitate comparison between the traditional and current techniques of primary surgical repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  2. Implementation of phc in a Marginal Urban Area of Cali: An Experience of Local Alliances to Face Social Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Holguín-Ruiz, Jorge; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Aristizábal-Grisales, Juan Carlos; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Cali; Murillo-Hurtado, Edwin; Center for Healthcare Innovation of Chicago-Illinois; Acosta-Ramírez, Naydú; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Cali

    2015-01-01

     Due to the persistence of complex social and health problems in the marginal areas of a large city, we developed an intervention by means of a research-action project with the participation of the academy, institutional and community actors, under the frame of Primary Healthcare. The purpose of the first phase was to perform a diagnosis of the health conditions, and the purpose of the second phase was the action or intervention, both guided by a focus on social determinants. The diagnosis wa...

  3. Assessment of Nutritional Status, Digestion and Absorption, and Quality of Life in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet-van Nierop, J E; Lochtenberg-Potjes, C M; Wierdsma, N J; Scheffer, H J; Kazemier, G; Ottens-Oussoren, K; Meijerink, M R; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2017-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI). Two patients had a low BMI, 10 patients had WL > 10%/6 months, 8 patients had a FFMI < P10, and 8 patients had a HGS < P10. Measured REE was 33% higher (P = 0.002) than predicted REE. TEE was significantly higher than daily energy intake (P = 0.047). Malabsorption (<85%) of energy, fat, protein, and carbohydrates was observed in, respectively, 9, 8, 12, and 10 patients. FE1 levels were low (<200 μg/g) in 13 patients. Total QoL scored 71% (ample satisfactory). Patients with LAPC have a severely impaired nutritional status, most likely as a result of an increased REE and malabsorption due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The trial is registered with PANFIRE clinicaltrials.gov NCT01939665.

  4. The value of diffusion kurtosis magnetic resonance imaging for assessing treatment response of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Qing; Song, Jia-Cheng; Li, Yan; Dai, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Shi, Hai-Bin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Huang, Dong-Ya [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Nanjing (China); Li, Yang [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Pathology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and value of diffusion kurtosis (DK) imaging in assessing treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Forty-one patients were included. All patients underwent pre- and post-CRT DCE-MRI on a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Imaging indices (D{sub app}, K{sub app} and ADC values) were measured. Change value (∇X) and change ratio (r ∇X) were calculated. Pathological tumour regression grade scores (Mandard) were the standard reference (good responders: pTRG 1-2; poor responders: pTRG 3-5). Diagnostic performance was compared using ROC analysis. For the pre-CRT measurements, pre-D{sub app-10th} was significantly lower in the good responder group than that of the poor responder group (p = 0.036). For assessing treatment response to neoadjuvant CRT, pre-D{sub app-10th} resulted in AUCs of 0.753 (p = 0.036) with a sensitivity of 66.67 % and a specificity of 77.78 %. The r ∇D{sub app} had a relatively high AUC (0.859) and high sensitivity (100 %) compared with other image indices. DKI is feasible for selecting good responders for neoadjuvant CRT for LARC. (orig.)

  5. TRACE assessment on local condensation heat transfer in presence of non-condensable gas inside a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kap; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    TRACE assessment was performed to investigate local condensation heat transfer coefficients in the presence of a noncondensable gas inside a vertical tube. The data obtained from pure steam and steam/nitrogen mixture condensation experiments were compared to study the effects of noncondensable nitrogen gas on the annular film condensation phenomena. The condenser tube had a small inner diameter of 13mm (about 1/2-in.) and this experiment had been performed to prove the effectiveness of the a Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), which is a small modular integral-type pressurized water reactor that is developed for the dual purposes of seawater desalination and small-scaled power generation. In the case of nitrogen presence, TRACE results show the converged results but the prediction is different from experimental data. The candidate reasons can be focused on several models, such as the film thickness calculation, surface area, and condensation heat transfer correlations, etc. In the case of pure steam condensation case, TRACE results shows large oscillations and do not converge. This should be investigated in detail to identify the reason. Until now, the oscillation in thermal hydraulic parameters results from the film thickness calculation and surface area calculation. For future works, the whole sets of the experiment will be assessed and the improvement of TRACE will be performed.

  6. Health impact assessment (HIA) of political proposals at the local level: successful introduction, but what has happened 15 years later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berensson, Karin; Tillgren, Per

    2017-06-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) were first introduced in Sweden in the mid-to-late 1990s, with the aim of placing health issues on the political agenda and helping to reduce health inequalities. In the early 2000s, HIAs entered a second phase and the Swedish Parliament adopted a national public health policy. A national survey conducted in 2001 showed that 10/289 municipalities had begun to use HIA and 55/289 had decided to use HIA or had initiated an adoption process. In a 2013 follow-up study based on a strategic sample of municipalities, 9/36 municipalities reported using HIA and/or similar tools. Corresponding figures for the 21 Swedish regions were 10 regions in 2001 and four in 2013. HIA and similar tools (sustainability analyses, child impact assessments, and others) were applied to the same extent as HIA. Fifteen years after implementation began, HIA is still being used. Regions show a clear decrease in the use of HIA. There are several explanations for this development. One is the political context, and other explanations are shifts in which actors are responsible for HIA and for public health at the local/regional levels.

  7. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Accessory Infraorbital Foramen and Determination of Infraorbital Foramen Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibrahim K; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R; Salve, Prashant

    2017-11-09

    There is no evidence about evaluating accessory infraorbital foramen by 3-dimensional analysis like multi slice computed tomography or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in human subjects. To authors' best knowledge this is a first study to assess the accessory infraorbital foramen and position of infraorbital foramen in relation to crown of maxillary teeth using CBCT. This study primarily aimed to assess the location and number of accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF), to measure the distance between main infraorbital foramen and AIOF and secondarily to determine the position of infraorbital foramen in relation to crowns of maxillary second premolar, first molar, and second molar. Cone beam computed tomography volumes of 200 patients were retrieved from the digital imaging and communications in medicine archive folder. Accessory infraorbital foramen was recognized in 29% of the patients among whom 46.6% were present on the right side, 31% on the left side, and 22.4% located bilaterally. The most frequent position of infraorbital foramen was found to be in line with crown of second premolar. The presence of AIOF and inability to recognize it in preoperative evaluation could be considered among the other reasons of failure or incomplete anesthesia.

  8. A comparative assessment of alternatives to the full-leg radiograph for determining knee joint alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navali Amir M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of alternative measures of frontal plane knee alignment, namely the radiographic anatomic axis and two clinical measures in patients complaining of knee malalignment as compared with the mechanical axis on full-length radiograph of lower limbs. Methods The knee-alignment angle was measured in 100 knees of 50 subjects with the chief complaint of frontal knee malalignment according to the following methods: lower-limb mechanical axis on radiograph, lower-limb anatomic axis on radiograph, distance between medial femoral condyles or medial malleoli using a calliper and lower-limb alignment using a goniometer. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. Results The anatomic axis best correlated with the mechanical axis (r = 0.93, P Conclusions The anatomic axis on radiograph, the calliper method and to a lesser extent the goniometer measurement appear to be valid alternatives to the mechanical axis on full-leg radiograph for determining frontal plane knee alignment. These alternative measures have the potential to provide useful information regarding knee alignment and may increase the assessment of this parameter by clinicians and researchers.

  9. Determination of the Frequency of Minichromosome Loss to Assess Chromosome Stability in Fission Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Osami

    2017-07-21

    Quantitative assessment of chromosome stability in specific genetic backgrounds or under conditions of environmental stress can be addressed by direct cytological examination of chromosome transmission errors (using live or fixed imaging); however, in many cases, this is impractical, particularly when the rate of loss is low. Model chromosomes that allow simple and convenient assessment of chromosome stability are therefore useful. Ch16 is a 530-kb minichromosome constructed by the deletion of large portions of chromosome 3 termini. Ch16 carries the ade6-M216 allele, which interallelically complements the ade6-M210 mutation. Hence, Ade+ is an indication of the presence of Ch16, and Ade- indicates its loss. Ade+ and Ade- are phenotypically discernible as white and red colonies, respectively, on media containing limiting amounts of adenine. When a single cell bearing Ch16 divides on a plate to give rise to two daughter cells, one of which has lost Ch16, it will result in the formation of a half-sectored colony (half of the colony is red and the other half is white). The frequency of half-sectored colonies provides an accurate estimate of mitotic minichromosome loss per cell division. This protocol describes a method to determine half-sectored colony frequency and potential problems associated with the method. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Differences in water depth determine leaf-litter decomposition in streams: implications on impact assessment reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter decomposition is a widespread functional indicator to assess the stream ecosystem status. However, the spatial location of leaf-bags could distort the impact assessment since intrinsic features of a given site have an important role in the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates, which could affect decomposition rate. A source of variability that can be easily controlled is the water depth at which bags are incubated in stream bed. Therefore, we tested if water depth within a same mesohabitat (riffles can determine decomposition rates. Due to the seasonal variability of macroinvertebrate assemblages in temperate regions, the study was performed in autumn-winter and spring to test the consistency of the findings. In three streams from North of Spain 15 mesh bags with alder leaves were placed in riffles covering a gradient of depths. Depth had a positive effect on decomposition rates and biomass of associated total invertebrates and shredders in autumn-winter, fauna variables helping to explain the differences in rates. In spring, depth affected negatively rates, the observed variability being weakly explained by invertebrates, which did not show differences along depth. Despite the opposite trend between seasons, water depth influences the decomposition rates, which may reduce or increase differences among systems if the water depth distribution is greatly biased. Our study highlights the importance of covering a similar range of water depths in the different systems being compared.

  11. What Shapes the Phylogenetic Structure of Anuran Communities in a Seasonal Environment? The Influence of Determinism at Regional Scale to Stochasticity or Antagonistic Forces at Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarissa de Araújo; Roque, Fabio de Oliveira; Santos, Bráulio A; Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Strüssmann, Christine; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal.

  12. Determination of Orientation and Practice Requirements When Using an Obstacle Course for Mobility Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Sinclair, Brittany A; Kelly, Alison; Terhaar, Phil; Bossi, Linda L M

    2017-06-01

    Determine effect of orientation (introduction and familiarization) and practice (repeated performance) on human performance under various load conditions as assessed by an obstacle course. Obstacle courses are commonly used as screening tools by military, police, and firefighters or to assess human capabilities and the effect of wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and other occupationally necessary equipment on mobility task performance. Unfortunately, little is formally documented about the effect of orientation and practice on performance outcomes of obstacle or mobility courses being used. Forty-eight participants were recruited from the Canadian Army Infantry and Combat Engineer population. Participants either received regular or extensive orientation of the course before completing it. Following orientation, participants completed the course five consecutive times while wearing their PPE with full fighting order (FFO) and five consecutive times while wearing no PPE and non-FFO across a five-day period (maximum two runs per day), with ensemble presentation order counterbalanced. Total course completion time and individual obstacle completion times were measured for each run of the course. While wearing FFO, participants continued to decrease the time required for completing the course; however, while wearing non-FFO, time to course completion did not significantly change over the five runs. There were no differences in course completion times for the regular and extensive course orientation groups. Considerations required to mitigate orientation and practicing effects can differ depending on type or complexity of load condition. While wearing FFO, practicing effects can introduce undesired confounding factors into data collection. Any practice runs on an obstacle course prior to its use as an assessment tool should focus on the loaded (e.g., FFO) condition because improvement on loaded runs is likely transferred to unloaded, but this does not apply in

  13. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, L.; Grive, M.; Cera, E.; Gaona, X.; Domenech, C.; Bruno, J. [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    This report presents the results for solubility limit calculations for the SR-Can assessment. It has been organized into five chapters that constitute the core of the report, supported by several appendices containing additional and supporting information. The updated thermodynamic database used to conduct the solubility calculations has been issued as a separate report. The near field system for which the concentration limits of the radionuclides are assessed and the scenarios selected by SKB to calculate the solubility limits are thoroughly described. Several sources of information have been used to support the calculated solubility limits. In particular results from selected spent fuel dissolution experiments and natural analogue data are discussed to introduce the proper perspective to the results from the thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the main conceptual and numerical uncertainties associated to the assessment of the concentration limits of each element are numerically evaluated and discussed. Equilibrium calculations have been conducted to select the solubility limiting solid phase for each element. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of parameters of interest for each element is presented and the impact of the uncertainties identified on the solubility of each element quantified. The results are presented in a series of tables containing the calculated solubility for each radionuclide under the reference conditions. Finally concentration limits that are recommended result from the expert judgement built-up around the various sources of information together with the quantification of radionuclide solubility data and their associated uncertainties. The results are compared to previous solubility limits determination performed by SKB in SR 97, as well as the recommended values from other HLNW management organisations.

  14. Assessing Differences Between Results Determined According to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacker, Raghu N; Kessel, Rüdiger; Sommer, Klaus-Dieter

    2010-01-01

    In some metrology applications multiple results of measurement for a common measurand are obtained and it is necessary to determine whether the results agree with each other. A result of measurement based on the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) consists of a measured value together with its associated standard uncertainty. In the GUM, the measured value is regarded as the expected value and the standard uncertainty is regarded as the standard deviation, both known values, of a state-of-knowledge probability distribution. A state-of-knowledge distribution represented by a result need not be completely known. Then how can one assess the differences between the results based on the GUM? Metrologists have for many years used the Birge chisquare test as 'a rule of thumb' to assess the differences between two or more measured values for the same measurand by pretending that the standard uncertainties were the standard deviations of the presumed sampling probability distributions from random variation of the measured values. We point out that this is misuse of the standard uncertainties; the Birge test and the concept of statistical consistency motivated by it do not apply to the results of measurement based on the GUM. In 2008, the International Vocabulary of Metrology, third edition (VIM3) introduced the concept of metrological compatibility. We propose that the concept of metrological compatibility be used to assess the differences between results based on the GUM for the same measurand. A test of the metrological compatibility of two results of measurement does not conflict with a pairwise Birge test of the statistical consistency of the corresponding measured values.

  15. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  16. Sicily and southern Calabria focal mechanism database: a valuable tool for local and regional stress-field determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Scarfì

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new catalog of focal mechanisms calculated for earthquakes recorded in Sicily and southern Calabria. It comprises about 300 solutions, for events with magnitudes ranging from 2.7 to 4.8 that occurred from 1999 to 2011. We used P-wave polarities to compute the fault-plane solutions. Two main goals are achieved. For the first, the catalog allows the stress regime and kinematics characterizing the studied area to be depicted at a regional and more local scale. In particular, moving along the tectonic lineament that extends from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian Sea, there is a change from a regime characterized by sub-horizontal P-axes, ca. NW-SE directed, to an extensive one in the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, where T-axes striking in a NW-SE direction prevail. Our results also show that part of the seismicity is clustered along the main active seismogenic structures, of which the focal mechanisms indicate the kinematics. Finally, in the Etna volcano area, different stress fields act at different depths due to the combination of the regional tectonics, the strong pressurization of the deep magmatic system, and the dynamics of the shallower portion of the volcano. As a second goal, we highlight that the catalog also represents a valuable tool, through the data distribution on the internet, for further studies directed towards improving our understanding of the geodynamic complexity of the region, and for a better characterization of the seismogenic sources.

  17. A miniaturized technique for assessing protein thermodynamics and function using fast determination of quantitative cysteine reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, Daniel G; Marguet, Philippe R; Oas, Terrence G; Hellinga, Homme W

    2011-04-01

    Protein thermodynamic stability is a fundamental physical characteristic that determines biological function. Furthermore, alteration of thermodynamic stability by macromolecular interactions or biochemical modifications is a powerful tool for assessing the relationship between protein structure, stability, and biological function. High-throughput approaches for quantifying protein stability are beginning to emerge that enable thermodynamic measurements on small amounts of material, in short periods of time, and using readily accessible instrumentation. Here we present such a method, fast quantitative cysteine reactivity, which exploits the linkage between protein stability, sidechain protection by protein structure, and structural dynamics to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of proteins. In this approach, the reaction of a protected cysteine and thiol-reactive fluorogenic indicator is monitored over a gradient of temperatures after a short incubation time. These labeling data can be used to determine the midpoint of thermal unfolding, measure the temperature dependence of protein stability, quantify ligand-binding affinity, and, under certain conditions, estimate folding rate constants. Here, we demonstrate the fQCR method by characterizing these thermodynamic and kinetic properties for variants of Staphylococcal nuclease and E. coli ribose-binding protein engineered to contain single, protected cysteines. These straightforward, information-rich experiments are likely to find applications in protein engineering and functional genomics. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. DETERMINING UNDISTURBED GROUND TEMPERATURE AS PART OF SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The undisturbed ground temperature is one of the key thermogeological parameters for the assessment and utilization of shallow geothermal resources. Geothermal energy is the type of energy which is stored in the ground where solar radiation has no effect. The depth at which the undisturbed ground temperature occurs, independent of seasonal changes in the surface air temperature, is functionally determined by climate parameters and thermogeological properties. In deeper layers, the increase of ground temperature depends solely on geothermal gradient. Determining accurate values of undisturbed ground temperature and depth of occurrence is crucial for the correct sizing of a borehole heat exchanger as part of the ground-source heat pump system, which is considered the most efficient technology for utilising shallow geothermal resources. The purpose of this paper is to define three specific temperature regions, based on the measured ground temperature data collected from the main meteorological stations in Croatia. The three regions are: Northern Croatia, Adriatic region, and the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.

  19. Hardware in the Loop Performance Assessment of LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Pose Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-09-24

    In this paper an original, easy to reproduce, semi-analytic calibration approach is developed for hardware-in-the-loop performance assessment of pose determination algorithms processing point cloud data, collected by imaging a non-cooperative target with LIDARs. The laboratory setup includes a scanning LIDAR, a monocular camera, a scaled-replica of a satellite-like target, and a set of calibration tools. The point clouds are processed by uncooperative model-based algorithms to estimate the target relative position and attitude with respect to the LIDAR. Target images, acquired by a monocular camera operated simultaneously with the LIDAR, are processed applying standard solutions to the Perspective-n-Points problem to get high-accuracy pose estimates which can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the accuracy attained by the LIDAR-based techniques. To this aim, a precise knowledge of the extrinsic relative calibration between the camera and the LIDAR is essential, and it is obtained by implementing an original calibration approach which does not need ad-hoc homologous targets (e.g., retro-reflectors) easily recognizable by the two sensors. The pose determination techniques investigated by this work are of interest to space applications involving close-proximity maneuvers between non-cooperative platforms, e.g., on-orbit servicing and active debris removal.

  20. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Štefko, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

  1. Local Foods, Local Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Local Foods, Local Places technical assistance program protects human health and the environment, spurs revitalization, increases access to healthy foods, and creates economic opportunities by promoting local foods.

  2. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  3. Job satisfaction of Catalan graduates and the determinants of their assessment of the training received in university

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lluís Medir; Daniel Montolio

    2015-01-01

    ...). In particular, we pay attention to the determinants of job satisfaction and factors also influence the assessment of the training received in university, in relation to its usefulness for the job...

  4. Assessment of the skin sensitization potential of topical medicaments using the local lymph node assay: an interlaboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, I; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Gerberick, G F; Ryan, C A; Basketter, D A; Lea, L; House, R V; Ladics, G S; Loveless, S E; Hastings, K L

    1998-04-10

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the predictive identification of chemicals that have a potential to cause skin sensitization. Activity is measured as a function of lymph node cell (LNC) proliferative responses stimulated by topical application of test chemicals. Those chemicals that induce a threefold or greater increase in LNC proliferation compared with concurrent vehicle controls are classified as skin sensitizers. In the present investigations we have evaluated further the reliability and accuracy of the LLNA. In the context of an international interlaboratory trial the sensitization potentials of six materials with a history of use in topical medicaments have been evaluated: benzoyl peroxide, hydroquinone, penicillin G, streptomycin sulfate, ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, and methyl salicylate. Each chemical was analyzed in the LLNA by all five laboratories. Either the standard LLNA protocol or minor modifications of it were used. Benzoyl peroxide and hydroquinone, both human contact allergens, elicited strong LLNA responses in each laboratory. Penicillin G, another material shown previously to cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans, was also positive in all laboratories. Streptomycin sulfate induced equivocal responses, in that this material provoked a positive LLNA response in only one of the five laboratories, and then only at the highest concentration tested. Ethylenediamine dihydrochloride dissolved in a 3:1 mixture of acetone with water, or in 4:1 acetone:olive oil (one laboratory), was uniformly negative. However, limited further testing with the free base of ethylene diamine yielded a positive LLNA response when applied in acetone:olive oil (AOO). Finally, methyl salicylate, a nonsensitizing skin irritant, was negative at all test concentrations in each laboratory. Collectively these data serve to confirm that the local lymph node assay is sufficiently robust to yield equivalent results when performed independently in

  5. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  6. Methodology for determination of pipeline trenching depth in shore approach areas using local environmental data and numerical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Valeria S.; Braga, Vinicius R.; Mansur Barros, Claudio R.; Martinez, Marcio B.; Piaulino, Pedro O.; Teixeira, Marcelo J.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gusmao, Luiz A.B. [Aquamodelo Consultoria e Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Shore-approach engineering design of pipelines, including pipeline trenching specifications, presents great complexity due to comparatively (in relation to deeper waters) harsher environmental conditions and highly dynamic interaction between waves, currents and sediment transport. In general, pipelines should be buried in beach areas, but depending on the sea conditions and the trench depth, the pipeline may become unburied during its operational life. Unburied pipelines at shore-approach areas may suffer the action of unpredicted loads. The uncertainty related to these loads may decrease the structural reliability of the pipeline. the problem to be solved is how deep a pipeline requires to be trenched at the shore approach area, considering that it should be kept in this condition throughout its design life. This should be achieved with a cost-effective solution, assuring the structural reliability of the pipeline during operation, in addition to considering the feasibility of the project. Directional wave, water level, beach profile and sediment grain distribution data in the shore approach area permit determination of typical profiles, median sediment grain size, extreme and frequent wave and water level conditions, which are parameters to be used to simulate beach profile evolution through numerical model SBEACH and estimate the minimum burial depth profile. (author)

  7. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-05

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8.

  8. Determination of toxic metals in drinking water sources in the Chief Albert Luthuli Local Municipality in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthunya, Lebea N.; Masheane, Monaheng L.; Malinga, Soraya P.; Nxumalo, Edward N.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Mhlanga, Sabelo D.

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence and levels of toxic metals on selected water sources in a rural community in Lochiel, South Africa. Collection of water samples from identified drinking water sources (open wells, community tanks, water treatment works and boreholes) was done in all seasons of the year (winter, spring, summer and autumn) between 2014 and 2015. The concentrations of identified toxic metals (cobalt, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, manganese and iron) were measured using ICP-OES. Some water sources were found to contain concentrations of toxic metals at levels slightly higher than USEPA, WHO and SANS241 set limits (e.g. manganese and cobalt), while others were found to be within the acceptable limits. This suggested that the residents residing in locations that have water sources containing toxic metals at the concentrations above the set limits are at risk and susceptible to suffer diseases caused by these toxic metals. The side effects of the metals may not be acute; however prolonged exposure to the toxic metals may result in detrimental effects since they are known to bioaccumulate in the body.