WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing human obesity

  1. Three-dimensional surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Yu, Wurong; Yao, Ming; Pepper, M. Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2009-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable, and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3-D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for the estimation of body composition. We present a new 3-D body imaging system, which is designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology is used to satisfy the requirement for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisition. The portability of the system is created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements is improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3-D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also are developed. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  2. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  3. Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obesity phenotypes, taken together with healthy, lean women (n = 12) and men (n = 12), were studied. Systemic, splanchnic, and leg FFA kinetics were measured. The results showed that plasma FFA concentrations were approximately 20% greater in obese men and obese women. The contribution of splanchnic lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery ranged from less than 10% to almost 50% and increased as a function of visceral fat in women (r = 0.49, P = 0.002) and in men (r = 0.52, P = 0.002); the slope of the relationship was greater in women than in men (P < 0.05). Leg and splanchnic tissues contributed a greater portion of systemic FFA release in obese men and women than in lean men and women. We conclude that the contribution of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery increases with increasing visceral fat in humans and that this effect is greater in women than in men. PMID:15173884

  4. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Kevin P; Orr, Jeb S

    2009-02-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Low SNS activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. In contrast, SNS activation is characteristic of a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that occur more frequently in obese individuals. Until recently, the relation between obesity and SNS behavior has been controversial because previous approaches for assessing SNS activity in humans have produced inconsistent findings. Beginning in the early 1990s, many studies using state of the art neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques have provided important insight. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the region specific alterations in SNS behavior in human obesity. We will discuss findings from our own laboratory which implicate visceral fat as an important depot linking obesity with skeletal muscle SNS activation. The influence of weight change on SNS behavior and the potential mechanisms and consequences of region specific SNS activation in obesity will also be considered.

  5. Genetic aspects of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Lim, Chung Thong; Coll, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic consequences represent a major public health problem. Huge changes within the environment have undoubtedly contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity but genetic factors are also critical in determining an individual's predisposition to gain weight. The last two decades have seen a huge increase in the understanding of the mechanisms controlling appetitive behavior, body composition, and energy expenditure. Many regions throughout the central nervous system play critical roles in these processes but the hypothalamus, in particular, receives and orchestrates a variety of signals to bring about coordinated changes in energy balance. Reviewing data from human genetic and model organism studies, we consider how disruptions of hypothalamic pathways evolved to maintain energy homeostasis and go on to cause obesity. We highlight ongoing technological developments which continue to lead to novel insights and discuss how this increased knowledge may lead to effective therapeutic interventions in the future.

  6. Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obe...

  7. Genetic & epigenetic approach to human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajender Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important clinical and public health challenge, epitomized by excess adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure. It is a forerunner for a variety of other diseases such as type-2-diabetes (T2D, cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, stroke, hyperlipidaemia and can be fatal leading to premature death. Obesity is highly heritable and arises from the interplay of multiple genes and environmental factors. Recent advancements in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have shown important steps towards identifying genetic risks and identification of genetic markers for lifestyle diseases, especially for a metabolic disorder like obesity. According to the 12 th u0 pdate of Human Obesity Gene Map there are 253 quantity trait loci (QTL for obesity related phenotypes from 61 genome wide scan studies. Contribution of genetic propensity of individual ethnic and racial variations in obesity is an active area of research. Further, understanding its complexity as to how these variations could influence ones susceptibility to become or remain obese will lead us to a greater understanding of how obesity occurs and hopefully, how to prevent and treat this condition. In this review, various strategies adapted for such an analysis based on the recent advances in genome wide and functional variations in human obesity are discussed.

  8. Genetic & epigenetic approach to human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Rajender; Lal, Nirupama; Giridharan, N V

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is an important clinical and public health challenge, epitomized by excess adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure. It is a forerunner for a variety of other diseases such as type-2-diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, stroke, hyperlipidaemia and can be fatal leading to premature death. Obesity is highly heritable and arises from the interplay of multiple genes and environmental factors. Recent advancements in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown important steps towards identifying genetic risks and identification of genetic markers for lifestyle diseases, especially for a metabolic disorder like obesity. According to the 12th Update of Human Obesity Gene Map there are 253 quantity trait loci (QTL) for obesity related phenotypes from 61 genome wide scan studies. Contribution of genetic propensity of individual ethnic and racial variations in obesity is an active area of research. Further, understanding its complexity as to how these variations could influence ones susceptibility to become or remain obese will lead us to a greater understanding of how obesity occurs and hopefully, how to prevent and treat this condition. In this review, various strategies adapted for such an analysis based on the recent advances in genome wide and functional variations in human obesity are discussed.

  9. Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar Rodríguez, M; Pérez, Daniel; Javier Chaves, Felipe; Esteve, Eduardo; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Xifra, Gemma; Vendrell, Joan; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Chacón, Matilde R; Fernández Real, José Manuel

    2015-10-12

    The human intestine is home to a diverse range of bacterial and fungal species, forming an ecological community that contributes to normal physiology and disease susceptibility. Here, the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in obese and non-obese subjects was characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-based sequencing. The results demonstrate that obese patients could be discriminated by their specific fungal composition, which also distinguished metabolically "healthy" from "unhealthy" obesity. Clusters according to genus abundance co-segregated with body fatness, fasting triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. A preliminary link to metabolites such as hexadecanedioic acid, caproic acid and N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid was also found. Mucor racemosus and M. fuscus were the species more represented in non-obese subjects compared to obese counterparts. Interestingly, the decreased relative abundance of the Mucor genus in obese subjects was reversible upon weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that manipulation of gut mycobiome communities might be a novel target in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, S; Erhart, W.; Brosch, M; Ammerpohl, O.; von Schonfels, W.; Ahrens, M.; Heits, N.; Bell, J.T.; Tsai, P.-C.; Spector, T D; Deloukas, P.; Siebert, R.; Sipos, B.; Becker, T.; Rocken, C.

    2014-01-01

    Because obese people are at an increased risk of many age-related diseases, it is a plausible hypothesis that obesity increases the biological age of some tissues and cell types. However, it has been difficult to detect such an accelerated aging effect because it is unclear how to measure tissue age. Here we use a recently developed biomarker of aging (known as “epigenetic clock”) to study the relationship between epigenetic age and obesity in several human tissues. We report an unexpectedly ...

  11. The genetics of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalen, Jill

    2014-10-01

    The heritability of obesity has long been appreciated and the genetics of obesity has been the focus of intensive study for decades. Early studies elucidating genetic factors involved in rare monogenic and syndromic forms of extreme obesity focused attention on dysfunction of hypothalamic leptin-related pathways in the control of food intake as a major contributor. Subsequent genome-wide association studies of common genetic variants identified novel loci that are involved in more common forms of obesity across populations of diverse ethnicities and ages. The subsequent search for factors contributing to the heritability of obesity not explained by these 2 approaches ("missing heritability") has revealed additional rare variants, copy number variants, and epigenetic changes that contribute. Although clinical applications of these findings have been limited to date, the increasing understanding of the interplay of these genetic factors with environmental conditions, such as the increased availability of high calorie foods and decreased energy expenditure of sedentary lifestyles, promises to accelerate the translation of genetic findings into more successful preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  12. Human Carboxylesterase 2 Reverses Obesity-Induced Diacylglycerol Accumulation and Glucose Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell A. Ruby; Julie Massart; Hunerdosse, Devon M.; Milena Schönke; Jorge C. Correia; Louie, Sharon M.; Ruas, Jorge L.; Erik Näslund; Nomura, Daniel K.; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2017-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are a large family of multifunctional enzymes known to influence obesity. Here, we performed activity-based protein profiling to assess the functional level of serine hydrolases in liver biopsies from lean and obese humans in order to gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. We identified reduced hepatic activity of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in human obesity. In primary human hepatocytes, CES2 knockdown imp...

  13. Assessment of obesity management in medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treyzon Leo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a growing international health problem that has already reached epidemic proportions, particularly within the United States where a majority of the population is overweight or obese. Effective methods of treatment are needed, and should be taught to physicians by efficient means. There exists a disconnect between the rising obesity prevalence with its high toll on medical resources, and the lack of obesity education provided to practitioners in the course of their training. One particular shortfall is the lack of representation of obesity on standardized medical examinations. Physician attitudes toward obesity are influenced by their lack of familiarity with the management of the disease. This may include dietary restriction, increasing physical activity, behavior modification, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions. Thus, curricular changes in the medical education of obesity could help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  14. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

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    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  15. Mutation analysis of the MCHR1 gene in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Reichwald, Kathrin; Büch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity....

  16. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  17. Endocannabinoids measurement in human saliva as potential biomarker of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Matias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a meal or to body weight loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fasting plasma and salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were measured through liquid mass spectrometry in 12 normal weight and 12 obese, insulin-resistant subjects. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were evaluated in the same cohort before and after the consumption of a meal. Changes in salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines after body weight loss were investigated in a second group of 12 obese subjects following a 12-weeks lifestyle intervention program. The levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes regulating the metabolism of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines and of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1 receptor, alongside endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines content, were assessed in human salivary glands. The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, and the N-acylethanolamines (oleoylethanolamide, OEA and palmitoylethanolamide, PEA were quantifiable in saliva and their levels were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight subjects. Fasting salivary AEA and OEA directly correlated with BMI, waist circumference and fasting insulin. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines did not change in response to a meal. CB(1 receptors, ligands and enzymes were expressed in the salivary glands. Finally, a body weight loss of 5.3% obtained after a 12-weeks lifestyle program significantly decreased salivary AEA

  18. An assessment of molecular pathways of obesity susceptible to nutrient, toxicant and genetically induced epigenetic perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing; Ideraabdullah, Folami Y

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the etiology of human disease has greatly improved with the inclusion of epigenetic mechanisms, in particular as a common link between environment and disease. However, for most diseases we lack a detailed interpretation of the epigenetic regulatory pathways perturbed by environment and causal mechanisms. Here, we focus on recent findings elucidating nutrient-related epigenetic changes linked to obesity. We highlight studies demonstrating that obesity is a complex disease linked to disruption of epigenetically regulated metabolic pathways in the brain, adipose tissue and liver. These pathways regulate (1) homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, (2) adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and (3) energy expenditure. By compiling these data, we illustrate that obesity-related phenotypes are repeatedly linked to disruption of critical epigenetic mechanisms that regulate key metabolic genes. These data are supported by genetic mutation of key epigenetic regulators, and many of the diet-induced epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are also perturbed by exposure to environmental toxicants. Identifying similarly perturbed epigenetic mechanisms in multiple experimental models of obesity strengthens the translational applications of these findings. We also discuss many of the ongoing challenges to understanding the role of environmentally induced epigenetic pathways in obesity and suggest future studies to elucidate these roles. This assessment illustrates our current understanding of molecular pathways of obesity that are susceptible to environmental perturbation via epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, it lays the groundwork for dissecting the complex interactions between diet, genes and toxicants that contribute to obesity and obesity-related phenotypes.

  19. Effects of Probiotics on Human Obesity Control: An Unproven Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.

  20. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...... for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant...

  1. Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments...... for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal...... of animals in obesity research as especially problematic....

  2. Molecular genetics of human obesity: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajan Kumar; Kumar, Permendra; Mahalingam, Kulandaivelu

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and its related health complications is a major problem worldwide. Hypothalamus and their signalling molecules play a critical role in the intervening and coordination with energy balance and homeostasis. Genetic factors play a crucial role in determining an individual's predisposition to the weight gain and being obese. In the past few years, several genetic variants were identified as monogenic forms of human obesity having success over common polygenic forms. In the context of molecular genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach and their findings signified a number of genetic variants predisposing to obesity. However, the last couple of years, it has also been noticed that alterations in the environmental and epigenetic factors are one of the key causes of obesity. Hence, this review might be helpful in the current scenario of molecular genetics of human obesity, obesity-related health complications (ORHC), and energy homeostasis. Future work based on the clinical discoveries may play a role in the molecular dissection of genetic approaches to find more obesity-susceptible gene loci.

  3. Unraveling the genetics of human obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern molecular biology tools in deciphering the perturbed biochemistry and physiology underlying the obese state has proven invaluable. Identifying the hypothalamic leptin/melanocortin pathway as critical in many cases of monogenic obesity has permitted targeted, hypothesis-driven experiments to be performed, and has implicated new candidates as causative for previously uncharacterized clinical cases of obesity. Meanwhile, the effects of mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene, for which the obese phenotype varies in the degree of severity among individuals, are now thought to be influenced by one's environmental surroundings. Molecular approaches have revealed that syndromes (Prader-Willi and Bardet-Biedl previously assumed to be controlled by a single gene are, conversely, regulated by multiple elements. Finally, the application of comprehensive profiling technologies coupled with creative statistical analyses has revealed that interactions between genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the common obesity currently challenging many Westernized societies. As such, an improved understanding of the different "types" of obesity not only permits the development of potential therapies, but also proposes novel and often unexpected directions in deciphering the dysfunctional state of obesity.

  4. Genetic & epigenetic approach to human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    K Rajender Rao; Nirupama Lal; N V Giridharan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important clinical and public health challenge, epitomized by excess adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure. It is a forerunner for a variety of other diseases such as type-2-diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, stroke, hyperlipidaemia and can be fatal leading to premature death. Obesity is highly heritable and arises from the interplay of multiple genes and environmental factors. Recent advanceme...

  5. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  6. Activation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Böhnke, Jana; Feldpausch, Mareike; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Janke, Jürgen; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judy; Luft, Friedrich C; Sharma, Arya M; Jordan, Jens

    2005-10-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Activation of the central endocannabinoid system increases food intake and promotes weight gain. Blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) receptor reduces body weight in animals by central and peripheral actions; the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity is now being extensively investigated. We measured circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and studied the expression of CB-1 and the main degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in adipose tissue of lean (n = 20) and obese (n = 20) women and after a 5% weight loss in a second group of women (n = 17). Circulating levels of anandamide and 1/2-arachidonoylglycerol were increased by 35 and 52% in obese compared with lean women (P obese subjects (P endocannabinoids. Circulating endocannabinoids and CB-1 or FAAH expression were not affected by 5% weight loss. The expression of CB-1 and FAAH was increased in mature human adipocytes compared with in preadipocytes and was found in several human tissues. Our findings support the presence of a peripheral endocannabinoid system that is upregulated in human obesity.

  7. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Ruth E; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Klein, Samuel; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2006-12-21

    Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.

  8. Metabolic thrift and the genetic basis of human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has molded metabolic thrift within humans, a genetic heritage that, when thrust into our modern “obesogenic” environment, creates the current obesity crisis. Modern genetic analysis has identified genetic and epigenetic contributors to obesity, an understanding of which will guide the development of environmental, pharmacologic, and genetic therapeutic interventions. “The voyage was so long, food and water ran out. One hundred of the paddlers died; forty men remained. The voyager...

  9. Assessment and management of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A

    2011-11-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.

  10. Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; DiBaise, John K; Zuccolo, Andrea; Kudrna, Dave; Braidotti, Michele; Yu, Yeisoo; Parameswaran, Prathap; Crowell, Michael D; Wing, Rod; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2009-02-17

    Recent evidence suggests that the microbial community in the human intestine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. We examined 184,094 sequences of microbial 16S rRNA genes from PCR amplicons by using the 454 pyrosequencing technology to compare the microbial community structures of 9 individuals, 3 in each of the categories of normal weight, morbidly obese, and post-gastric-bypass surgery. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that although the Bacteria in the human intestinal community were highly diverse, they fell mainly into 6 bacterial divisions that had distinct differences in the 3 study groups. Specifically, Firmicutes were dominant in normal-weight and obese individuals but significantly decreased in post-gastric-bypass individuals, who had a proportional increase of Gammaproteobacteria. Numbers of the H(2)-producing Prevotellaceae were highly enriched in the obese individuals. Unlike the highly diverse Bacteria, the Archaea comprised mainly members of the order Methanobacteriales, which are H(2)-oxidizing methanogens. Using real-time PCR, we detected significantly higher numbers of H(2)-utilizing methanogenic Archaea in obese individuals than in normal-weight or post-gastric-bypass individuals. The coexistence of H(2)-producing bacteria with relatively high numbers of H(2)-utilizing methanogenic Archaea in the gastrointestinal tract of obese individuals leads to the hypothesis that interspecies H(2) transfer between bacterial and archaeal species is an important mechanism for increasing energy uptake by the human large intestine in obese persons. The large bacterial population shift seen in the post-gastric-bypass individuals may reflect the double impact of the gut alteration caused by the surgical procedure and the consequent changes in food ingestion and digestion.

  11. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  12. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Knight, Rob; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies of rodents suggest that the gut microbiota populations are sensitive to genetic and environmental influences, and can produce or influence afferent signals that directly or indirectly impinge on energy homeostatic systems affecting both energy balance (weight gain or loss) and energy stores. Fecal transplants from obese and lean human, and from mouse donors to gnotobiotic mice, result in adoption of the donor somatotype by the formerly germ-free rodents. Thus, the microbiota is certainly implicated in the development of obesity, adiposity-related comorbidities, and the response to interventions designed to achieve sustained weight reduction in mice. More studies are needed to determine whether the microbiota plays a similarly potent role in human body-weight regulation and obesity.

  13. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  14. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  15. Laboratory animals as surrogate models of human obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia NILSSON; Kirsten RAUN; Fei-fei YAN; Marianne O LARSEN; Mads TANG-CHRISTENSEN

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases represent a growing socioeconomic problem throughout the world.Great emphasis has been put on establishing treatments for this condition,including pharmacological intervention.However,there are many obstacles and pitfalls in the development process from pre-clinical research to the pharmacy counter,and there is no certainty that what has been observed pre-clinically will translate into an improvement in human health.Hence,it is important to test potential new drugs in a valid translational model early in their development.In the current mini-review,a number of monogenetic and polygenic models of obesity will be discussed in view of their translational character.

  16. Assessing the Patient with Abdominal Obesity: Metabolic and Nutritional Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Pop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is a confirmed cardio-vascular risk factor and the elements influencing it are subject for research and intervention. The available nutritional evaluation methods are time consuming, subjective and a standardized approach is missing. Aim: Standardized evaluation of patients with abdominal obesity. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 85 subjects who presented in the Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the Emergency Mures County Hospital between February - April 2013. Variables: age, sex, environment, BMI, waist, blood glucose, triglycerides, HDL-Cholesterol, blood pressure. Each patient filled a food frequency questionnaire. Results: None of the subjects had a “normal” food pyramid. Sex has no influence on the food pyramid. The meat and protein food group is the only one significantly influenced by the environment (p = 0.04. Patients with dyslipidemia consume lower amounts of sweets (1.13 vs. 1.83 servings, p = 0.007. Patients requiring metabolic treatment have significant higher waist values (101.32 vs. 93.07 cm, p=0.03. Patients with simple abdominal obesity consume significant lower amounts of meat and protein and higher amounts of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: A standardized approach to the patient with abdominal obesity using nutritional assessment tools and metabolic evaluation helps to identify those at risk and to give more tailored recommendations

  17. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  18. Malnutritive obesity ('malnubesity'): is it driven by human brain evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2008-12-01

    Abstract Health messages on low-energy diets for healthy weight loss are muddled and not working, and obesity rates are rising. Are there missing links? Accumulating evidence shows that humans have well developed 'self-addictive' appetite pathways to enhance the uptake of highly energy-dense food. Humans synthesize fewer co-factors and vitamins than other mammals and must ingest them. Both processes probably arose to maximize available energy for the developing, large association cortex of the human brain. The default phenotype resulting from consuming an 'addictive', westernized, highly refined, energy-dense, hypomicronutrient diet is 'malnutritive obesity' or 'malnubesity'. A relative lack of antioxidant (and other) co-factors contributes to inefficiently oxidized energy. This 'stress' leads to central fat deposition, disordered energy use by cell mitochondria, especially in muscle and liver, and malfunctioning immune, coagulation, endothelial, and other systems. The resultant problems appear to range from epigenetic reprogramming in utero to end organ damage of the metabolic syndrome and the immune failure of cancer. Treatment of 'malnubesity' may require: (1) understanding the drivers and mechanisms of addictions, (2) reprioritizing satiating, micronutrient-dense whole foods, (3) nonjudgmental general, psychological, and medical support for those at risk or affected by obesity; and (4) practical incentives/regulation for healthy food production and distribution.

  19. A PYY Q62P variant linked to human obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska,Anna; Collier, John Michael; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Dent,Robert; Pennacchio, Len A.; McPherson, Ruth

    2005-06-27

    Members of the pancreatic polypeptide family and the irreceptors have been implicated in the control of food intake in rodents and humans. To investigate whether nucleotide changes in these candidate genes result in abnormal weight in humans, we sequenced the coding exons and splice sites of seven family members (NPY, PYY, PPY, NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY4R, and NPY5R) in a large cohort of extremely obese (n=379) and lean (n=378) individuals. In total we found eleven rare non-synonymous variants, four of which exhibited familial segregation, NPY1R L53P and PPY P63L with leanness and NPY2R D42G and PYY Q62P with obesity. Functional analysis of the obese variants revealed NPY2R D42G to have reduced cell surface expression, while previous cell culture based studies indicated variant PYY Q62P to have altered receptor binding selectivity and we show that it fails to reduce food intake through mouse peptide injection experiments. These results support that rare non-synonymous variants within these genes can alter susceptibility to human body mass index extremes.

  20. Genotype-by-nutrient interactions assessed in European obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Jose L; Boutin, Philippe; Verdich, Camilla;

    2006-01-01

    The development of obesity is influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Whereas changes in the environment appear to be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity, genetic factors interacting with environmental factors would contribute to explain obesity onset...

  1. Mapping and annotating obesity-related genes in pig and human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fontanesi, Luca; Piovesan, Damiano; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a major health problem in both developed and emerging countries. Obesity is a complex disease whose etiology involves genetic factors in strong interplay with environmental determinants and lifestyle. The discovery of genetic factors and biological pathways underlying human obesity is hampered by the difficulty in controlling the genetic background of human cohorts. Animal models are then necessary to further dissect the genetics of obesity. Pig has emerged as one of the most attractive models, because of the similarity with humans in the mechanisms regulating the fat deposition. Results. We collected the genes related to obesity in humans and to fat deposition traits in pig. We localized them on both human and pig genomes, building a map useful to interpret comparative studies on obesity. We characterized the collected genes structurally and functionally with BAR+ and mapped them on KEGG pathways and on STRING protein interaction network. Conclusions. The collected set consists of 361 obesity related genes in human and pig genomes. All genes were mapped on the human genome, and 54 could not be localized on the pig genome (release 2012). Only for 3 human genes there is no counterpart in pig, confirming that this animal is a good model for human obesity studies. Obesity related genes are mostly involved in regulation and signaling processes/pathways and relevant connection emerges between obesity-related genes and diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases.

  2. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O;

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk....... In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension....... of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130...

  3. SAA is Found on ApoB-Containing Lipoproteins in Obese Diabetic Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangiri, Anisa; Wilson, Patricia G.; Hou, Tianfei; Brown, Aparna; King, Victoria L.; Tannock, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    In murine models of obesity/diabetes there is an increase in plasma SAA levels along with redistribution of SAA from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to apo-B containing lipoprotein particles, namely low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). The goal of this study was to determine if obesity is associated with similar SAA lipoprotein redistribution in humans. Three groups of obese individuals were recruited from a weight loss clinic: healthy obese (n=14), metabolic ...

  4. FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF OLDER OBESE PATIENTS CANDIDATES FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis PAJECKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Obesity in the elderly is associated with exacerbation of functional decline (dependency, that occurs with aging, because of decreased muscle mass and strength, and increased joint dysfunction. Consequently, there is progressive loss of independence, autonomy, chronic pain and impaired quality of life. The weight loss can bring benefits in all these aspects, especially when accompanied by exercises. Elderly patients with morbid obesity may be submitted to surgical treatment, taking into account that the massive weight loss, eventually caused by bariatric surgery, may exacerbate the loss of muscle mass and nutritional complications that may bring harm to the overall health and quality of life of these patients. The functional assessment of elderly patients, candidates for bariatric surgery and the extent to which surgery can bring benefits to the patients, in the field of functionality, has still to be determined. Objective To describe profile functionality in obese elderly referred to a bariatric surgery program. Methods Patients with age ≥60 and BMI ≥35 underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that evaluates co morbidities, medication use, ability to perform basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, and the “Timedupandgo” test to evaluate mobility, whose cut-off point was ≤10 seconds. Statistical analysis was performed in order to see if there is a positive correlation of dependency with BMI and age (over or under 65 years. Results Forty subjects have completed evaluation. The mean age was 64.1 years (60-72 and 75% were women. They had an average weight of 121.1 kg (72.7-204 and a mean BMI of 47.2 kg/m2 (35.8-68.9. 16 patients (40% have shown dependency for activities of daily living, 19 (47,5% for instrumental activities of daily living and 20 patients (50% had a “Timedupandgo” test over 10 seconds. Statistical analysis (t-Student, Mann-Whitney, Binary Logistic Regression has shown

  5. Obesity and Bariatric Surgery Drive Epigenetic Variation of Spermatozoa in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donkin, Ida; Versteyhe, Soetkin; Ingerslev, Lars R.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heritable disorder, with children of obese fathers at higher risk of developing obesity. Environmental factors epigenetically influence somatic tissues, but the contribution of these factors to the establishment of epigenetic patterns in human gametes is unknown. Here, we hypothesized...... that weight loss remodels the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa in human obesity. Comprehensive profiling of the epigenome of sperm from lean and obese men showed similar histone positioning, but small non-coding RNA expression and DNA methylation patterns were markedly different. In a separate cohort...

  6. Human obesity: an evolutionary approach to understanding our bulging waistline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ran, A

    2001-01-01

    The unique worldwide spread of the human species and the remarkably long post-reproductive survival show that our genome permits excellent adaptation to vastly different environments. Moreover, the main scourges of later age, namely malignant growths and atherosclerosis, appear in humans later than in shorter-living animals. In recent years, excess weight and obesity have become mass phenomena with a pronounced upward trend in all developed countries. However, despite the detrimental effects of being overweight, these populations live longer than ever, which in part may be explained by the availability of better medical treatment. The prevalence and predicted further spread of obesity can be understood in the light of evolution. In all animal species energy metabolism is asymmetric with energy accumulation ('thrifty genotype') being the necessary condition of survival during hard times. For humans, which are no different to other animals in this respect, this genetic programming was necessary for survival because during the course of history, including the recorded history in the more developed Middle East, Europe or China, there was never a long period of uninterrupted food abundance, whereas famines were regular and frequent. Therefore fat accumulation, when food was available, meant survival at times of shortage, while the possible detrimental effects of overindulgence in food and being overweight expressed in unrealistically old age were irrelevant. It is the central, mostly intra-abdominal fat (in both humans and animals) that is more medically important than the subcutaneous truncal fat, and the accumulation of both types of fat is conditioned by high food consumption; therefore it is a historic novelty for human populations. In contrast, lower-body fat in human females is unique in the animal kingdom: it is much less metabolically active, it is of much lower pathologic significance than central fat, and it is programmed to be mobilized mostly during

  7. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity...... and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F...

  8. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  9. Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvarijonaviciute Asta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%. The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD, which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS], systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008, cholesterol (P = 0.003, triglyceride (P = 0.018, and fasting insulin (P P = 0.001. However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031, and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030 in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.

  10. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  11. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  12. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  13. Epistemological and ethical assessment of obesity bias in industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azétsop Jacquineau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bernard Lonergan's cognitive theory challenges us to raise questions about both the cognitive process through which obesity is perceived as a behaviour change issue and the objectivity of such a moral judgment. Lonergan's theory provides the theoretical tools to affirm that anti-fat discrimination, in the United States of America and in many industrialized countries, is the result of both a group bias that resists insights into the good of other groups and a general bias of anti-intellectualism that tends to set common sense against insights that require any thorough scientific analyses. While general bias diverts the public's attention away from the true aetiology of obesity, group bias sustains an anti-fat culture that subtly legitimates discriminatory practices and policies against obese people. Although anti-discrimination laws may seem to be a reasonable way of protecting obese and overweight individuals from discrimination, obesity bias can be best addressed by reframing the obesity debate from an environmental perspective from which tools and strategies to address both the social and individual determinants of obesity can be developed. Attention should not be concentrated on individuals' behaviour as it is related to lifestyle choices, without giving due consideration to the all-encompassing constraining factors which challenge the social and rational blindness of obesity bias.

  14. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men....

  15. Relationship between Human Gut Microbiota and Interleukin 6 Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Gut microbial diversity and abundance can profoundly impact human health. Research has shown that obese individuals are likely to have altered microbiota compared to lean individuals. Obesity is often considered a pro-inflammatory state, however the relationship between microbiota and i...

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  17. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  18. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shapses Sue A; Pierson Richard N; Heymsfield Steven B; Levitt David G; Kral John G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI) is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction...

  19. Expression of Obesity Hormone Leptin in Human Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-chun Cong; Xian-wei Dai; Ming-yang Shen; Jun-jiang Wang; Chun-sheng Chen; Hong Zhang; Lei Qiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The obesity hormone, leptin, has been found to participate in the development and proliferation of normal and malignant tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of leptin in human colorectal cancer.Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured via ABC-ELLSA in 30 colorectal cancers and 24 normal controls. Leptin concentration in colorectal cancer was analyzed in terms of selected clinicopathological features and some oncogenes.Results: The mean concentration of leptin was significantly higher for colorectal cancers(3.54±1.46 ng/ml) than normal controls(2.27±0.99 ng/ml), no gender difference was observed in this study. Leptin expression in poorly differentiated tumors was obviously lower than those in moderately and well differentiated tumors. There were no statistically significant correlations between leptin and the serum CEA and CA199 in colorectal cancers (P>0.05), and between leptin and the expressions of K-RAS, P53, APC, DCC genes in tumor tissues (P>0.05).Conclusion: Leptin is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer, which is related to the differentiation degrees of the tumor. There is no correlation between leptin expression and chages of oncogenes in colorectal cancers.

  20. Obesity, More than a 'Cosmetic' Problem. Current Knowledge and Future Prospects of Human Obesity Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by WHO as its prevalence has increased at an alarming rate in the last few decades worldwide. It is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, etc. The contribution of genes to the development of obesity was confirmed in late twentieth century. The concept of monogenic obesity came with the identification of leptin, and mutations in its gene, followed by the discovery of more single gene mutations. However, the recent explosion of obesity could not be explained on the basis of these rare mutations and it was after the first genome-wide association study in 2007 that made possible the identification of different effect size variants in many candidate and non-candidate genes acting in a quantitative way to add to body weight. These studies laid down the basis for polygenic cause of common forms of obesity. The role of epigenetic regulation in the modulation of energy regulation pathway was another important explanation put forward in the latter half of the past decade. Taking into account the quantitative contribution of different variants has given the concept of obesity risk scoring in order to score individuals into different risk groups so as to decide for treatment options.

  1. Comparative analyses of QTLs influencing obesity and metabolic phenotypes in pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Sameer Dinkar; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jacobsen, Mette Juul;

    2015-01-01

    The pig is a well-known animal model used to investigate genetic and mechanistic aspects of human disease biology. They are particularly useful in the context of obesity and metabolic diseases because other widely used models (e.g. mice) do not completely recapitulate key pathophysiological...... features associated with these diseases in humans. Therefore, we established a F2 pig resource population (n = 564) designed to elucidate the genetics underlying obesity and metabolic phenotypes. Segregation of obesity traits was ensured by using breeds highly divergent with respect to obesity traits...... in the parental generation. Several obesity and metabolic phenotypes were recorded (n = 35) from birth to slaughter (242 ± 48 days), including body composition determined at about two months of age (63 ± 10 days) via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. All pigs were genotyped using Illumina Porcine...

  2. The art of targeting gut microbiota for tackling human obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding strategies to tackle worldwide obesity because of its accelerated wide spread accompanied with numerous negative effects on health and high costs. Obesity has been traditionally associated with an imbalance in energy consumed when compa

  3. Potential Epigenetic Biomarkers of Obesity Related Insulin Resistance in Human Whole-blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Samantha E; Coletta, Richard L; Kim, Joon Young; Garcia, Luis A; Campbell, Latoya E; Benjamin, Tonya R; Roust, Lori R; De Filippis, Elena A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Coletta, Dawn K

    2017-01-20

    Obesity can increase the risk of complex metabolic diseases, including insulin resistance. Moreover, obesity can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are not well defined. Therefore, the identification of novel epigenetic biomarkers of obesity allows for a more complete understanding of the disease and its underlying insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to identify DNA methylation changes in whole-blood that were strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whole-blood was obtained from lean (n = 10; BMI = 23.6 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 34.4 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)) participants in combination with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on genomic DNA isolated from the blood. We identified 49 differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs; qobese compared to lean participants. We identified two sites (Chr.21:46,957,981 and Chr.21:46,957,915) in the 5' untranslated region of solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1) with decreased in methylation in obese participants (lean 0.73 ± 0.11 vs. obese 0.09 ± 0.05; lean 0.68 ± 0.10 vs. obese 0.09 ± 0.05, respectively). These two DMCs identified by obesity were also significantly predicted by insulin sensitivity (r = 0.68, P = 0.003; r = 0.66; P = 0.004). In addition, we performed a differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis and demonstrated a decrease in methylation of Chr.21:46,957,915-46,958,001 in SLC19A1 of -34.9% (70.4% lean vs. 35.5% obese). The decrease in whole-blood SLC19A1 methylation in our obese participants was similar to the change observed in skeletal muscle (Chr.21:46,957,981, lean 0.70 ± 0.09 vs. obese 0.31 ± 0.11 and Chr.21:46,957,915, lean 0.72 ± 0.11 vs. obese 0.31 ± 0.13). Pyrosequencing analysis further demonstrated a decrease in methylation at Chr.21:46,957,915 in both whole-blood (lean 0.71 ± 0.10 vs. obese 0.18 ± 0

  4. Multi-Institutional Sharing of Electronic Health Record Data to Assess Childhood Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Charles Bailey

    Full Text Available To evaluate the validity of multi-institutional electronic health record (EHR data sharing for surveillance and study of childhood obesity.We conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of 528,340 children with outpatient visits to six pediatric academic medical centers during 2007-08, with sufficient data in the EHR for body mass index (BMI assessment. EHR data were compared with data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES.Among children 2-17 years, BMI was evaluable for 1,398,655 visits (56%. The EHR dataset contained over 6,000 BMI measurements per month of age up to 16 years, yielding precise estimates of BMI. In the EHR dataset, 18% of children were obese versus 18% in NHANES, while 35% were obese or overweight versus 34% in NHANES. BMI for an individual was highly reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 for obese children and 0.97 for all children. Only 14% of visits with measured obesity (BMI ≥95% had a diagnosis of obesity recorded, and only 20% of children with measured obesity had the diagnosis documented during the study period. Obese children had higher primary care (4.8 versus 4.0 visits, p<0.001 and specialty care (3.7 versus 2.7 visits, p<0.001 utilization than non-obese counterparts, and higher prevalence of diverse co-morbidities. The cohort size in the EHR dataset permitted detection of associations with rare diagnoses. Data sharing did not require investment of extensive institutional resources, yet yielded high data quality.Multi-institutional EHR data sharing is a promising, feasible, and valid approach for population health surveillance. It provides a valuable complement to more resource-intensive national surveys, particularly for iterative surveillance and quality improvement. Low rates of obesity diagnosis present a significant obstacle to surveillance and quality improvement for care of children with obesity.

  5. Comparative Analyses of QTLs Influencing Obesity and Metabolic Phenotypes in Pigs and Humans.

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    Sameer D Pant

    Full Text Available The pig is a well-known animal model used to investigate genetic and mechanistic aspects of human disease biology. They are particularly useful in the context of obesity and metabolic diseases because other widely used models (e.g. mice do not completely recapitulate key pathophysiological features associated with these diseases in humans. Therefore, we established a F2 pig resource population (n = 564 designed to elucidate the genetics underlying obesity and metabolic phenotypes. Segregation of obesity traits was ensured by using breeds highly divergent with respect to obesity traits in the parental generation. Several obesity and metabolic phenotypes were recorded (n = 35 from birth to slaughter (242 ± 48 days, including body composition determined at about two months of age (63 ± 10 days via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scanning. All pigs were genotyped using Illumina Porcine 60k SNP Beadchip and a combined linkage disequilibrium-linkage analysis was used to identify genome-wide significant associations for collected phenotypes. We identified 229 QTLs which associated with adiposity- and metabolic phenotypes at genome-wide significant levels. Subsequently comparative analyses were performed to identify the extent of overlap between previously identified QTLs in both humans and pigs. The combined analysis of a large number of obesity phenotypes has provided insight in the genetic architecture of the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits indicating that QTLs underlying similar phenotypes are clustered in the genome. Our analyses have further confirmed that genetic heterogeneity is an inherent characteristic of obesity traits most likely caused by segregation or fixation of different variants of the individual components belonging to cellular pathways in different populations. Several important genes previously associated to obesity in human studies, along with novel genes were identified. Altogether, this study provides novel

  6. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

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    Shapses Sue A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in

  7. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  8. Expression studies of six human obesity-related genes in seven tissues from divergent pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, S; Jensen, M S; Elbrønd, V S; Moesgaard, S G; Christoffersen, B Ø; Kadarmideen, H N; Skovgaard, K; Bruun, C V; Karlskov-Mortensen, P; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and has become the cause of several major health risks worldwide. Presently, more than 100 loci have been related to obesity and metabolic traits in humans by genome-wide association studies. The complex genetic architecture behind obesity has triggered a need for the development of better animal models than rodents. The pig has emerged as a very promising biomedical model to study human obesity traits. In this study, we have characterized the expression patterns of six obesity-related genes, leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR)1 and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), in seven obesity-relevant tissues (liver; muscle; pancreas; hypothalamus; and retroperitoneal, subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues) in two pig breeds (production pigs and Göttingen minipigs) that deviate phenotypically and genetically from each other with respect to obesity traits. We observe significant differential expression for LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ in muscle and in all three adipose tissues. Interestingly, in pancreas, LEP expression is only detected in the fat minipigs. FTO shows significant differential expression in all tissues analyzed, and NEGR1 shows significant differential expression in muscle, pancreas, hypothalamus and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The MC4R transcript can be detected only in hypothalamus. In general, the expression profiles of the investigated genes are in accordance with those observed in human studies. Our study shows that both the differences between the investigated breeds and the phenotypic state with respect to obesity/leanness play a large role for differential expression of the obesity-related genes.

  9. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure.

  10. The usefulness of circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekuni Inadera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, one of the key targets of public health is obesity and its associated pathological conditions. Obesity occurs as a result of white adipose tissue enlargement, caused by adipocyte hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy. Recently, endocrine aspects of adipose tissue have become an active research area and these adipose tissue-derived factors are referred to as adipokines. These adipokines interact with a range of processes in many different organ systems and influence a various systemic phenomena. Therefore, dysregulated production of adipokines has been found to participate in the development of metabolic and vascular diseases related to obesity. The obese state is also known to be associated with increased local and systemic inflammation. Adipokines influence not only systemic insulin resistance and have pathophysiological roles in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, but also contribute toward an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Thus, circulating levels of adipokines can be used as high-throughput biomarkers to assess the obesity-related health problems, including low grade inflammation. This review focuses on the usefulness of measuring circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems.

  11. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strom

    Full Text Available Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c. infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001 which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  12. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  13. The Neuropathology of Obesity: Insights from Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward B.; Mark P. Mattson

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, a pathologic state defined by excess adipose tissue, is a significant public health problem as it affects a large proportion of individuals and is linked with increased risk for numerous chronic diseases. Obesity is the result of fundamental changes associated with modern society including overnutrition and sedentary lifestyles. Proper energy homeostasis is dependent on normal brain function as the master metabolic regulator which integrates peripheral signals, modulates autonomic ou...

  14. Differential representation of liver proteins in obese human subjects suggests novel biomarkers and promising targets for drug development in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Iannelli, Antonio; Sciarrillo, Rosaria; Picariello, Gianluca; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Addeo, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects. In particular, over-representation of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, Δ(3,5)-Δ(2,4)dienoyl-CoA isomerase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase B, peroxiredoxin I, protein DJ-1, catalase, α- and β-hemoglobin subunits, 3-mercaptopyruvate S-transferase, calreticulin, aminoacylase 1, phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein and a form of fatty acid-binding protein, together with downrepresentation of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase A1, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 1A and a form of apolipoprotein A-I, was associated with the obesity condition. Some of these metabolic enzymes and antioxidant proteins have already been identified as putative diagnostic markers of liver dysfunction in animal models of steatosis or obesity, suggesting additional investigations on their role in these syndromes. Their differential representation in human liver was suggestive of their consideration as obesity human biomarkers and for the development of novel antiobesity drugs.

  15. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  16. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise − rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and a greater reduction in MRT with AA infusion (r = −0.43, P = 0.02). We concluded that AA infusion during moderate-intensity, rhythmic forearm exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. PMID:25038148

  17. Assessment of postural stability in overweight and obese middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kováčiková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation and are associated with balance disorders. Objective: To assess the postural stability in a natural stance in overweight and obese women based on center of pressure (CoP velocity in the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions. Methods: A total of 102 women categorized according to body mass index into normal weight, overweight and obese categories underwent a measurement of quiet standing with their eyes open (EO and with their eyes closed (EC. Postural stability was assessed with a force platform. The mean CoP velocity was evaluated in both directions. Results: In the AP direction under EO conditions, obese women swayed significantly faster than normal weight women (1.01 cm/s and 0.80 cm/s. In the ML direction, a higher CoP velocity was observed in normal weight women than in obese women (0.52 cm/s and 0.41 cm/s. Under EC conditions in the AP direction, obese women swayed significantly faster than normal weight women (1.29 cm/s and 0.97 cm/s. In the ML direction, a higher CoP velocity was observed in normal weight women than in obese women (0.65 cm/s and 0.48 cm/s. Conclusions: Results suggest a negative impact of obesity on postural stability in the AP direction. In the ML direction, obese women were more stable than normal weight women, probably due to enlargement of the support base in a natural stance.

  18. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  19. Pathophysiology and genetics of obesity and diabetes in the New Zealand obese mouse: a model of the human metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Reinhart; Scherneck, Stephan; Schürmann, Annette; Joost, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    The New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse is one of the most thoroughly investigated polygenic models for the human metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. It presents the main characteristics of the disease complex, including early-onset obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. As a consequence of this syndrome, a combination of lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity produces beta-cell failure and apoptosis resulting in hypoinsulinemia and diabetic hyperglycemia. With NZO as a breeding partner, several adipogenic and diabetogenic gene variants have been identified by hypothesis-free positional cloning (Tbc1d1, Zfp69) or by combining genetic screens and candidate gene approaches (Pctp, Abcg1, Nmur2, Lepr). This chapter summarizes the present knowledge of the NZO strain and describes its pathophysiology as well as the known underlying genetic defects.

  20. Role of PUFAs, the precursors of endocannabinoids, in human obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Alejandro; Repossi, Gaston; Das, Undurti N; Eynard, Aldo Renato

    2010-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) serve as precursors of the endocannabinoids (ECs) that are bioactive lipids molecules. Recent studies revealed that ECs participate in several physiological and pathological processes including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we review the experimental and clinical aspects of the role of endocannabinoids in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the modification of the endocannabinoids by exogenously administered PUFAs. Based on these evidences, we propose that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) can be modulated by exogenous manipulation of PUFAs that could help in the prevention and management of human diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Genome-wide DNA promoter methylation and transcriptome analysis in human adipose tissue unravels novel candidate genes for obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Keller; Lydia Hopp; Xuanshi Liu; Tobias Wohland; Kerstin Rohde; Raffaella Cancello; Matthias Klös; Karl Bacos; Matthias Kern; Fabian Eichelmann; Arne Dietrich; Michael R Schön; Daniel Gärtner; Tobias Lohmann; Miriam Dreßler

    2017-01-01

    Objective/methods: DNA methylation plays an important role in obesity and related metabolic complications. We examined genome-wide DNA promoter methylation along with mRNA profiles in paired samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) from non-obese vs. obese individuals. Results: We identified negatively correlated methylation and expression of several obesity-associated genes in our discovery dataset and in silico replicated ETV6 in two i...

  2. Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and sex difference affect the fate of glucose in the human heart

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Linda R.; Herrero, Pilar; Coggan, Andrew R.; Kisrieva-Ware, Zulia; Saeed, Ibrahim; Dence, Carmen; Koudelis, Deborah; McGill, Janet B.; Lyons, Matthew R.; Novak, Eric; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Waggoner, Alan D.; Gropler, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and sex difference affect myocardial glucose uptake and utilization. However, their effect on the intramyocellular fate of glucose in humans has been unknown. How the heart uses glucose is important, because it affects energy production and oxygen efficiency, which in turn affect heart function and adaptability. We hypothesized that type 2 diabetes, sex difference, and obesity affect myocardial glucose oxidation, glycolysis, and glycogen production. In a first-in-hum...

  3. Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka

    1990-01-01

    Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

  4. Competence assessment in minors, illustrated by the case of bariatric surgery for morbidly obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, L.L.E.; Summeren van, M

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians have to assess children's competence frequently. In order to do justice to children who are competent to make decisions and to protect incompetent children, valid assessment is essential. We address this issue by using bariatric surgery for morbidly obese minors as a case study. Our previ

  5. Stochastic sensors designed for assessment of biomarkers specific to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioates Negut, Catalina; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Ungureanu, Eleonora-Mihaela; Udeanu, Denisa Ioana

    2016-09-01

    Two stochastic sensors based on the following oleamides: 1-adamantyloleamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-oleylamidoethyl)amine physically immobilized on graphite paste were designed. The sensors were able to determine simultaneously from the whole blood of Wistar rats three biomarkers specific to obesity: leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). The whole blood samples were obtained from Wistar rats treated with oleoylethanolamide (OEA), (Z)-N-[(1S)-2-hidroxy-1-(phenylmethyl) ethyl]-9octadecenamide (OLA), and with the aqueous solution of 1% Tween 80 used as solvent for oleamides formulations (control samples). The proposed sensors were very sensitive and reliable for the assay of obesity biomarkers in whole blood of rats.

  6. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity development in humans: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, J L; Andersen, Helle Raun; Jensen, T K

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans. The resu...... predisposing to later weight gain. The study findings suggest that some endocrine disruptors may play a role for the development of the obesity epidemic, in addition to the more commonly perceived putative contributors.......This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans...

  7. Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in relation to obesity and food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBroek-Stice, Lauren; Stojek, Monika K; Beach, Steven R H; vanDellen, Michelle R; MacKillop, James

    2017-05-01

    Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains.

  8. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  9. The l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 System and Its Potential Role in Human Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Catalán, Victoria; Whyte, Lauren; Díaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Rotellar, Fernando; Guzmán, Rocío; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Pulido, Marina R.; Russell, Wendy R.; Imbernón, Mónica; Ross, Ruth A.; Malagón, María M.; Dieguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Frühbeck, Gema; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    GPR55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. We investigated 1) whether GPR55 is expressed in fat and liver; 2) the correlation of both GPR55 and LPI with several metabolic parameters; and 3) the actions of LPI on human adipocytes. We analyzed CB1, CB2, and GPR55 gene expression and circulating LPI levels in two independent cohorts of obese and lean subjects, with both normal or impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Ex vivo experiments were used to measure intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation. GPR55 levels were augmented in the adipose tissue of obese subjects and further so in obese patients with type 2 diabetes when compared with nonobese subjects. Visceral adipose tissue GPR55 correlated positively with weight, BMI, and percent fat mass, particularly in women. Hepatic GPR55 gene expression was similar in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Circulating LPI levels were increased in obese patients and correlated with fat percentage and BMI in women. LPI increased the expression of lipogenic genes in visceral adipose tissue explants and intracellular calcium in differentiated visceral adipocytes. These findings indicate that the LPI/GPR55 system is positively associated with obesity in humans. PMID:22179809

  10. Exercise, Obesity, and Cutaneous Wound Healing: Evidence from Rodent and Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Impaired cutaneous wound healing is a major health concern. Obesity has been shown in a number of studies to impair wound healing, and chronic nonhealing wounds in obesity and diabetes are a major cause of limb amputations in the United States. Recent Advances: Recent evidence indicates that aberrant wound site inflammation may be an underlying cause for delayed healing. Obesity, diabetes, and other conditions such as stress and aging can result in a chronic low-level inflammatory state, thereby potentially affecting wound healing negatively. Critical Issues: Interventions which can speed the healing rate in individuals with slowly healing or nonhealing wounds are of critical importance. Recently, physical exercise training has been shown to speed healing in both aged and obese mice and in older adults. Exercise is a relatively low-cost intervention strategy which may be able to be used clinically to prevent or treat impairments in the wound-healing process. Future Directions: Little is known about the mechanisms by which exercise speeds healing. Future translational studies should address potential mechanisms for these exercise effects. Additionally, clinical studies in obese humans are necessary to determine if findings in obese rodent models translate to the human population. PMID:24761347

  11. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis and arterial norepinephrine response persist after weight reduction in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Christensen, N J;

    1990-01-01

    A reduced thermic response and an impaired activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been reported after oral glucose in human obesity. It is, however, not known whether the reduced SNS activity returns to normal along with weight reduction. The thermic effect of glucose was lower...... in eight obese patients than in matched control subjects (1.7% vs 9.2%, p less than 0.002). The increase in arterial norepinephrine after glucose was also blunted in the obese patients. After a 30-kg weight loss their glucose and lipid profiles were markedly improved but the thermic effect of glucose...... was still lower than that of the control subjects (4.2%, p less than 0.001). The glucose-induced arterial norepinephrine response remained diminished in the reduced obese patients whereas the changes in plasma epinephrine were similar in all three groups. The results suggest that a defective SNS may...

  12. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between...... plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS......), TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. RESULTS: Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass...

  13. Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and autonomic nervous system function in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Koichiro; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Adachi, Tetsuya; Aoki, Norihiko; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Tsuda, Kinsuke

    2006-09-01

    Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors for catecholamines. They are essential components of the sympathetic nervous system, organized within the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which controls various physiological functions, including energy homeostasis and metabolism of glucose and lipids. An impairment of ANS function in metabolism is considered to be one of the pathological states associated with human obesity and related metabolic diseases; thus, alterations in AR function might be implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Several studies have suggested an association between obesity phenotypes and some AR polymorphisms. In vitro and human clinical studies indicate that some of these polymorphisms have functional and pathophysiological significance, including the linkage to ANS function. This review summarizes present knowledge of AR polymorphisms related to human obesity, and their association with ANS function.

  14. Functional polymorphism of IL-1 alpha and its potential role in obesity in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Um

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokines secreted from adipose tissue contribute to the morbidity associated with obesity. IL-1α is one of the proinflammatory cytokines; however, it has not been clarified whether IL-1α may also cause obesity. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms in IL-1α contribute to human obesity. A total of 260 obese subjects were genotyped for IL-1α C-889T (rs1800587 and IL-1α G+4845T (rs17561. Analyses of genotype distributions revealed that both IL-1α polymorphisms C-889T (rs1800587 and G+4845T (rs17561 were associated with an increase in body mass index in obese healthy women. In addition, the effect of rs1800587 on the transcriptional activity of IL-1α was explored in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Significant difference was found between the rs1800587 polymorphism in the regulatory region of the IL-1α gene and transcriptional activity. We extended these observations in vivo to a high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model and in vitro to pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. IL-1α levels were dramatically augmented in obese mice, and triglyceride was increased 12 hours after IL-1α injection. Taken together, IL-1α treatment regulated the differentiation of preadipocytes. IL-1α C-889T (rs1800587 is a functional polymorphism of IL-1α associated with obesity. IL-1α may have a critical function in the development of obesity.

  15. Obesity: assessment, diagnosis, treatment and opportunities for its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Perea-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem in the world. Its impact and poten- tial consequences on health and quality of life of individuals and their families, health systems and the global economy, has become a priority issue for governments and administrative systems. It is a multifactorial disease with well-known prenatal and postnatal origins, which offer prevention and treatment opportunities. So, is necessary the health professional have an intimate knowledge of the disease and its com- plications, also existing treatment options: behavior management for acquiring a healthy lifestyle, drugs, nutrients and bariatric surgery; to achieve contain the impact on healthy life years, life expectancy and occupational health worldwide.

  16. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  17. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital......-weight or obese at gestational ages 11-13, 18-22, and 36-38, and expressed as median number of daily steps during a whole week, working days, and weekends. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between BMI and physical activity during pregnancy and compliance with wearing the pedometer. RESULTS: Noncompliance was more...... in Copenhagen. POPULATION: 338 pregnant women, 175 normal-weight women with body mass index (BMI) 20-25 kg/m(2) and 163 obese women with BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2). METHODS: Physical activity was assessed by a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700/701) on seven consecutive days in six different groups: normal...

  18. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital in ...

  19. Stigmatization of obese individuals by human resource professionals: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel Katrin E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight-related stigmatization is a public health problem. It impairs the psychological well-being of obese individuals and hinders them from adopting weight-loss behaviors. We conducted an experimental study to investigate weight stigmatization in work settings using a sample of experienced human resource (HR professionals from a real-life employment setting. Methods In a cross-sectional, computer-based experimental study, a volunteer sample of 127 HR professionals (age: 41.1 ± 10.9 yrs., 56% female, who regularly make career decisions about other people, evaluated individuals shown in standardized photographs regarding work-related prestige and achievements. The photographed individuals differed with respect to gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Participants underestimated the occupational prestige of obese individuals and overestimated it for normal-weight individuals. Obese people were more often disqualified from being hired and less often nominated for a supervisory position, while non-ethnic normal-weight individuals were favored. Stigmatization was most pronounced in obese females. Conclusions The data suggest that HR professionals are prone to pronounced weight stigmatization, especially in women. This highlights the need for interventions targeting this stigmatization as well as stigma-management strategies for obese individuals. Weight stigmatization and its consequences needs to be a topic that is more strongly addressed in clinical obesity care.

  20. Lack of support for the association between GAD2 polymorphisms and severe human obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Swarbrick

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of association between common genetic variants and chronic human diseases such as obesity could have profound implications for the prediction, prevention, and treatment of these conditions. Unequivocal proof of such an association, however, requires independent replication of initial positive findings. Recently, three (-243 A>G, +61450 C>A, and +83897 T>A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2 were found to be associated with class III obesity (body mass index > 40 kg/m2. The association was observed among 188 families (612 individuals segregating the condition, and a case-control study of 575 cases and 646 lean controls. Functional data supporting a pathophysiological role for one of the SNPs (-243 A>G were also presented. The gene GAD2 encodes the 65-kDa subunit of glutamic acid decarboxylase-GAD65. In the present study, we attempted to replicate this association in larger groups of individuals, and to extend the functional studies of the -243 A>G SNP. Among 2,359 individuals comprising 693 German nuclear families with severe, early-onset obesity, we found no evidence for a relationship between the three GAD2 SNPs and obesity, whether SNPs were studied individually or as haplotypes. In two independent case-control studies (a total of 680 class III obesity cases and 1,186 lean controls, there was no significant relationship between the -243 A>G SNP and obesity (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18, p = 0.89 in the pooled sample. These negative findings were recapitulated in a meta-analysis, incorporating all published data for the association between the -243G allele and class III obesity, which yielded an OR of 1.11 (95% CI 0.90-1.36, p = 0.28 in a total sample of 1,252 class III obese cases and 1,800 lean controls. Moreover, analysis of common haplotypes encompassing the GAD2 locus revealed no association with severe obesity in families with the condition. We also obtained functional data for the

  1. Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia in Obese Individuals Undergoing Physical Stress Echocardiography (PSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Graziele Maciel Silveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical stress echocardiography is an established methodology for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in patients with physical capacity. In obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 the usefulness of pharmacological stress echocardiography has been demonstrated; however, has not been reported the use of physical stress echocardiography in this growing population group. Objective: To assess the frequency of myocardial ischemia in obese and non-obese patients undergoing physical stress echocardiography and compare their clinical and echocardiographic differences. Methods: 4,050 patients who underwent treadmill physical stress echocardiography were studied according to the Bruce protocol, divided into two groups: obese (n = 945; 23.3% and non-obese (n = 3,105; 76.6%. Results: There was no difference regarding gender. Obese patients were younger (55.4 ± 10.9 vs. 57.56 ± 11.67 and had a higher frequency of hypertension (75.2% vs. 57, 2%; p < 0.0001, diabetis mellitus (15.2% vs. 10.9%; p < 0.0001, dyslipidemia (59.5% vs 51.9%; p < 0.0001, family history of coronary artery disease (59.3% vs. 55.1%; p = 0.023 and physical inactivity (71.4% vs. 52.9%, p < 0.0001. The obese had greater aortic dimensions (3.27 vs. 3.14 cm; p < 0.0001, left atrium (3.97 vs. 3.72 cm; p < 0.0001 and the relative thickness of the ventricule (33.7 vs. 32.8 cm; p < 0.0001. Regarding the presence of myocardial ischemia, there was no difference between groups (19% vs. 17.9%; p = 0.41. In adjusted logistic regression, the presence of myocardial ischemia remained independently associated with age, female gender, diabetes and hypertension. Conclusion: Obesity did not behave as a predictor of the presence of ischemia and the physical stress echocardiography. The application of this assessment tool in large scale sample demonstrates the feasibility of the methodology, also in obese.

  2. Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia in Obese Individuals Undergoing Physical Stress Echocardiography (PSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mara Graziele Maciel; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Santos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Melo, Luiza Dantas; de Andrade, Loren Suyane Oliveira; Santos, Emmanuel Lima Almeida; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical stress echocardiography is an established methodology for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in patients with physical capacity. In obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) the usefulness of pharmacological stress echocardiography has been demonstrated; however, has not been reported the use of physical stress echocardiography in this growing population group. Objective To assess the frequency of myocardial ischemia in obese and non-obese patients undergoing physical stress echocardiography and compare their clinical and echocardiographic differences. Methods 4,050 patients who underwent treadmill physical stress echocardiography were studied according to the Bruce protocol, divided into two groups: obese (n = 945; 23.3%) and non-obese (n = 3,105; 76.6%). Results There was no difference regarding gender. Obese patients were younger (55.4 ± 10.9 vs. 57.56 ± 11.67) and had a higher frequency of hypertension (75.2% vs. 57, 2%; p < 0.0001), diabetis mellitus (15.2% vs. 10.9%; p < 0.0001), dyslipidemia (59.5% vs 51.9%; p < 0.0001), family history of coronary artery disease (59.3% vs. 55.1%; p = 0.023) and physical inactivity (71.4% vs. 52.9%, p < 0.0001). The obese had greater aortic dimensions (3.27 vs. 3.14 cm; p < 0.0001), left atrium (3.97 vs. 3.72 cm; p < 0.0001) and the relative thickness of the ventricule (33.7 vs. 32.8 cm; p < 0.0001). Regarding the presence of myocardial ischemia, there was no difference between groups (19% vs. 17.9%; p = 0.41). In adjusted logistic regression, the presence of myocardial ischemia remained independently associated with age, female gender, diabetes and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity did not behave as a predictor of the presence of ischemia and the physical stress echocardiography. The application of this assessment tool in large scale sample demonstrates the feasibility of the methodology, also in obese. PMID:25714197

  3. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

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    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction. METHODOLOGY: 23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations

  4. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Eating Disorder and Obesity Research: a Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D; Thomas, Graham; Bond, Dale; Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler; Steffen, Kristine J; Green, Dan D; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Our current understanding of the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders and obesity continues to be far from complete. Similarly, our understanding of determinants of both successful and unsuccessful weight loss surgery is also quite limited. While a number of research methodologies have been applied to these areas, one methodology that has recently seen a rise in popularity is the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). EMA allows one to study a variety of variables of interest in the natural environment. The study of eating disorders, obesity, and bariatric surgery has all been conducted using EMA recently. The current study is a review of these areas and summarizes the recent literature (past 3 years) in eating disorders, obesity, and bariatric surgery using EMA methodology.

  5. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2......)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P...... = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44...

  6. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  7. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3 is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6 as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3.

  8. Critical moments in preschool obesity: the call for nurses and communities to assess and intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water, Tineke

    2011-12-01

    Thirty years ago obesity was rarely seen in children but is now described as a world wide pandemic. Previous research has focused on school age children; however, researchers have now identified critical moments of development during uterine life and early infancy where negative factors or insults could cause permanent changes in the structure and function of tissues and lead to epigenetic changes. Obesity in preschool children can cause premature and long term chronic health problems; has been associated with academic and social difficulties in kindergarten children; difficulty with social relationships; increased feelings of sadness, loneliness and anxiety; and negative self image in children as young as 5 years of age. The importance of identifying children under the age of five with obesity and associated risks is important yet less than half of health professionals intervene in cases of preschool obesity. This paper explores the concerns around antenatal and preschool obesity and the challenges for nurses and midwives in assessing and providing appropriate interventions for children and families in community settings.

  9. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC OBESE YOUNG ADULTS - PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewing’s battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Student‘t’ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.

  11. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

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    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  12. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

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    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  13. Enteropeptidase: a gene associated with a starvation human phenotype and a novel target for obesity treatment.

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    Sandrine Braud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity research focuses essentially on gene targets associated with the obese phenotype. None of these targets have yet provided a viable drug therapy. Focusing instead on genes that are involved in energy absorption and that are associated with a "human starvation phenotype", we have identified enteropeptidase (EP, a gene associated with congenital enteropeptidase deficiency, as a novel target for obesity treatment. The advantages of this target are that the gene is expressed exclusively in the brush border of the intestine; it is peripheral and not redundant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potent and selective EP inhibitors were designed around a boroarginine or borolysine motif. Oral administration of these compounds to mice restricted the bioavailability of dietary energy, and in a long-term treatment it significantly diminished the rate of increase in body weight, despite ad libitum food intake. No adverse reactions of the type seen with lipase inhibitors, such as diarrhea or steatorrhea, were observed. This validates EP as a novel, druggable target for obesity treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo testing of novel boroarginine or borolysine-based EP inhibitors validates a novel approach to the treatment of obesity.

  14. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

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    Caroline Braet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods: Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results: Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions: This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  15. Obesity and Surgical Treatment – A Cost-Effectiveness Assessment for Sweden

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    Sixten Borg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The rising trend in the prevalence of obesity has during the past decades become a major public health concern in many countries, as obesity may lead to comorbidities and death. A frequent used marker for obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI. The cost of treatment for obesity related diseases has become a heavy burden on national health care budget in many countries. While diet and exercise are the cornerstones of weight management, pharmaco­therapy is often needed to achieve and maintain desired weight loss.  In some cases of extreme obesity, bariatric surgery may be recommended. It is expected to increase by 50% in Sweden.Objective: The overall objective was to develop a cost-effectiveness model using the best available evidence to assess the cost-effectiveness of gastric bypass (GBP surgical treatments for obesity in adult patients, in comparison with conventional treatment (CT, in Sweden from a healthcare perspective. With the model we also seeked to identify the lower cut-off point using BMI criteria, for the surgical intervention to be cost-effective. Methods:A micro-simulation model with an underlying Markov methodology was developed, that simulates individual patients. It simulates the outcomes of the patients in terms of treatment costs, life years, and quality adjusted life years (QALY over his/her remaining lifetime. The costs are presented in SEK in the year 2006 price level (1 SEK ≈ 0.11 EUR ≈ 0.14 USD.Results: We estimated that the incremental cost per QALY gained will not exceed SEK 33,000 per QALY in patients with BMI < 35. In patients with BMI > 35 kg/m2, gastric bypass surgery has lower costs compared to conventional treatment. Conclusion: Gastric bypass surgery is a cost-effective intervention compared to conventional treatment consisting of watchful waiting, diet and exercise.

  16. Lack of Support for the Association Between GAD2 Polymorphisms andSevere Human Obesity

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    Swarbrick, Michael M.; Waldenmaier, Bjorn; Pennacchio, Len A.; Lind,Denise L.; Cavazos, Martha M.; Geller, Frank; Merriman, Raphael; Ustaszewska, Anna; Malloy, Mary; Scherag, Andre; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Rief,Winfried; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Pullinger, Clive R.; Kane, John P.; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand,Johannes; Vaisse, Christian

    2004-11-17

    Demonstration of association between common genetic variants and chronic human diseases such as obesity could have profound implications for the prediction, prevention and treatment of these conditions. Unequivocal proof of such an association, however, requires adherence to established methodological guidelines, which include independent replication of initial positive findings. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GAD2 were found to be associated with class III obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) in 188 families (612 individuals) segregating the condition and a case-control study of 575 cases and 646 lean controls. Functional data supporting a pathophysiological role for one of the SNPs (-243A>G) were also presented. In the present study, we attempted to replicate this association in larger groups of subjects, and to extend the functional studies of the -243A>G SNP. In 2,327 subjects comprising 692 German nuclear families with severe, early-onset obesity, we found no evidence for a relationship between the three GAD2 SNPs and obesity, whether SNPs were studied individually or as haplotypes. In two independent case-control studies (a total of 680 class III obesity cases and 1,186 lean controls), there was no significant relationship between the -243A>G SNP and obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83 - 1.18,in the pooled sample). These negative findings were reinforced by a meta-analysis for the association between the 243G allele and class III obesity, which yielded an OR of 1.11 (95% CI 0.90 - 1.36) in a total sample of 1,252 class III obese cases and 1,800 lean controls. Finally,we were unable to confirm or extend the functional data pertaining to the -243A>G variant. Potential confounding variables in association studies involving common variants and complex diseases (low power to detect modest genetic effects, over-interpretation of marginal data, population stratification and biological plausibility) are also discussed in the context of GAD2 and

  17. Advances on human milk hormones and protection against obesity.

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    Savino, F; Benetti, S; Liguori, S A; Sorrenti, M; Cordero Di Montezemolo, L

    2013-11-03

    Extensive research shows that breast milk could have positive health effects not limited to infancy, but extend into childhood and adulthood. Recently many studies have provided new evidence on the long—term positive effects of breastfeeding, in particular protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that breast milk may have a role in the programming of later metabolic diseases. The mechanism throughout breastfeeding that exerts these effects has been a major focus of interest for researchers and it is still not completely known. There are some hints for biological plausibility of beneficial effects of breastfeeding including macronutrient intake, hormonal and behavioural mechanisms related to breast milk composition. Breast milk biochemical components, such as protein quantity and quality, polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides, cytokines and hormones, in particular leptin, adiponectin and resistin together with the breastfeeding practice itself can influence infants feeding behaviour and regulation of growth and appetite control later in life. Further research is needed to confirm the possibility that hormones present in breast milk exert a metabolic and beneficial effects.

  18. Effect of Bariatric Weight Loss on the Adipose Lipolytic Transcriptome in Obese Humans

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    Shakun Karki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dysregulated lipolysis has been implicated in mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease and inflammation in obesity. Purpose. We sought to examine the effect of bariatric weight loss on adipose tissue lipolytic gene expression and their relationship to systemic metabolic parameters in obese subjects. Methods/Results. We biopsied subcutaneous adipose tissue in 19 obese individuals (BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m2, 79% female at baseline and after a mean period of 8 ± 5 months (range 3–15 months following bariatric surgery. We performed adipose tissue mRNA expression of proteins involved in triglyceride hydrolysis and correlated their weight loss induced alterations with systemic parameters associated with cardiovascular disease risk. mRNA transcripts of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, and lipid droplet proteins comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58 and perilipin increased significantly after weight loss (p<0.05 for all. ATGL expression correlated inversely with plasma triglyceride (TG, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C, and glucose, and HSL expression correlated negatively with glucose, while CGI-58 was inversely associated with HbA1C. Conclusion. We observed increased expression of adipose tissue lipolytic genes following bariatric weight loss which correlated inversely with systemic markers of lipid and glucose metabolism. Functional alterations in lipolysis in human adipose tissue may play a role in shaping cardiometabolic phenotypes in human obesity.

  19. Changes in Obesity Awareness, Obesity Identification, and Self-Assessment of Health: Results from a Statewide Public Education Campaign

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    Tsai, Adam G.; Boyle, Tracy F.; Hill, James O.; Lindley, Corina; Weiss, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of obesity, individuals may be desensitized to weight as a personal health concern. Purpose: To evaluate changes in obesity awareness associated with a statewide public education campaign in Colorado. Methods: Cross-sectional random digit dial telephone surveys (n = 1,107 pre, n = 1101 post) were conducted…

  20. An integrated approach of comparative genomics and heritability analysis of pig and human on obesity trait: evidence for candidate genes on human chromosome 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional candidate gene approach has been widely used for the study of complex diseases including obesity. However, this approach is largely limited by its dependence on existing knowledge of presumed biology of the phenotype under investigation. Our combined strategy of comparative genomics and chromosomal heritability estimate analysis of obesity traits, subscapular skinfold thickness and back-fat thickness in Korean cohorts and pig (Sus scrofa), may overcome the limitations of candidate gene analysis and allow us to better understand genetic predisposition to human obesity. Results We found common genes including FTO, the fat mass and obesity associated gene, identified from significant SNPs by association studies of each trait. These common genes were related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness (P = 1.65E-05) and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.00578). Through the estimation of variance of genetic component (heritability) for each chromosome by SNPs, we observed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.479) between genetic contributions of human and pig to obesity traits. Furthermore, we noted that human chromosome 2 (syntenic to pig chromosomes 3 and 15) was most important in explaining the phenotypic variance for obesity. Conclusions Obesity genetics still awaits further discovery. Navigating syntenic regions suggests obesity candidate genes on chromosome 2 that are previously known to be associated with obesity-related diseases: MRPL33, PARD3B, ERBB4, STK39, and ZNF385B. PMID:23253381

  1. An integrated approach of comparative genomics and heritability analysis of pig and human on obesity trait: evidence for candidate genes on human chromosome 2

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    Kim Jaemin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional candidate gene approach has been widely used for the study of complex diseases including obesity. However, this approach is largely limited by its dependence on existing knowledge of presumed biology of the phenotype under investigation. Our combined strategy of comparative genomics and chromosomal heritability estimate analysis of obesity traits, subscapular skinfold thickness and back-fat thickness in Korean cohorts and pig (Sus scrofa, may overcome the limitations of candidate gene analysis and allow us to better understand genetic predisposition to human obesity. Results We found common genes including FTO, the fat mass and obesity associated gene, identified from significant SNPs by association studies of each trait. These common genes were related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness (P = 1.65E-05 and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.00578. Through the estimation of variance of genetic component (heritability for each chromosome by SNPs, we observed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.479 between genetic contributions of human and pig to obesity traits. Furthermore, we noted that human chromosome 2 (syntenic to pig chromosomes 3 and 15 was most important in explaining the phenotypic variance for obesity. Conclusions Obesity genetics still awaits further discovery. Navigating syntenic regions suggests obesity candidate genes on chromosome 2 that are previously known to be associated with obesity-related diseases: MRPL33, PARD3B, ERBB4, STK39, and ZNF385B.

  2. Glucocorticoid mediated regulation of inflammation in human monocytes is associated with depressive mood and obesity.

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    Cheng, Tiefu; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Pruitt, Christopher; Hong, Suzi

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in various conditions, including depression and obesity, which are also often related. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and desensitization of peripheral GC receptors (GRs) are often the case in HPA dysregulation seen in depression, and GC plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation. Given the growing evidence that inflammation is a central feature of some depression cases and obesity, we aimed to investigate the immune-regulatory role of GC-GR in relation to depressive mood and obesity in 35 healthy men and women. Depressive mood and level of obesity were assessed, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) and body mass index (BMI), respectively. We measured plasma cortisol levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by monocytes, using flow cytometry. Cortisol sensitivity was determined by the difference in monocytic TNF production between the conditions of 1 and 0 μM cortisol incubation ("cortisol-mediated inflammation regulation, CoMIR"). GR vs. mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism for CoMIR was examined by using mifepristone and spironolactone. A series of multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate independent contribution of depressive mood vs. obesity after controlling for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and plasma cortisol in predicting CoMIR. CoMIR was explained by somatic subcomponents of depressive mood (BDI-S: β=-0.499, p=0.001), or BMI (β=-0.466, pobesity and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with smaller efficacy of the blockers, which warrants further investigation. Our findings, although in a preclinical sample, signify the shared pathophysiology of immune dysregulation in depression and obesity and warrant further mechanistic investigation.

  3. Food restriction normalizes chylomicron remnant metabolism in murine models of obesity as assessed by a novel stable isotope breath test.

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    Martins, Ian J; Tran, J M L; Redgrave, Trevor G

    2002-02-01

    Evidence is increasing that defective metabolism of postprandial remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to atherogenesis. In obesity, postprandial lipemia is increased by mechanisms that are not currently established. In the present study, a recently developed (13)CO(2) breath test was used to assess the metabolism of chylomicron remnants (CR) in obese mice. Six murine obese models ob/ob, fat/fat, New Zealand Obese (NZO), db/db, gold thioglucose (GTG)-treated and agouti (A(y)) were studied. All obese mice were hyperphagic and their breath test metabolism was markedly impaired (P obese models such as db/db were diabetic, our data suggest that the defective breath test was independent of diabetes because all obese and diabetic models responded similarly to food restriction. Impaired hepatic catabolism of CR was excluded as a cause of the abnormal breath tests. In summary, the impairment (P < 0.05) in remnant metabolism as assessed by the breath test in obese mice was corrected by food restriction, associated with improvements in plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  4. Assessment of Obesity, Overweight and Its Association with the Fast Food Consumption in Medical Students

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    Purohit, Geetanjali; Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Patel, Bhavita; Rawal, Yash; Shah, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates, which leads to various adverse effects on health, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. Fast food consumption is one of the factors which have been reported as a cause of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess obesity and overweight, which can be calculated by using the formula, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres. Aim: This study focused on the relationship of body mass index with fast food consumption, associated soft drink consumption and physical activity. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, SBKS MI and RC, and Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. This study was approved by the ethical review board .One hundred and forty seven medical students from 1st year MBBS course were included in this study. Self-structured questionnaire was used, which contained several data like information on age, height, weight, education level. The formula used for calculating BMI was, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres (Kg/m2). Results: In our study, out of 147 students, a total of 138 students (more than 90%) used to have fast food. Among these, a total of 47 students (34.05%) were pre-obese and obese. Out of 147 students, 87 students (59.18%) were in normal weight range, while 13 (8.84%) students were underweight. Statistical Analysis: Data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and it was analyzed for percentages and proportions. Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test were also applied wherever they were applicable and Alpha error was set at a 5% level. Conclusion: In our study, a significant relationship was found between BMI and fast food consumption, less physical activity, and intake of soft drinks. PMID:24995170

  5. Dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue endocannabinoid system in human abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB(1) mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes.

  6. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

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    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R.

    2012-12-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  7. The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?

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    Jonathan C. K. Wells

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means.

  8. New Guidelines for Assessment of Malnutrition in Adults: Obese Critically Ill Patients.

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    Mauldin, Kasuen; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2015-08-01

    Recently released recommendations for detection and documentation of malnutrition in adults in clinical practice define 3 types of malnutrition: starvation related, acute disease or injury related, and chronic disease related. The first 2 are more easily recognized, but the third may be more often unnoticed, particularly in obese patients. Critical care patients tend to be at high risk for malnutrition and thus require a thorough nutritional assessment. Compared with patients of earlier times, intensive care unit patients today tend to be older, have more complex medical and comorbid conditions, and often are obese. Missed or delayed detection of malnutrition in these patients may contribute to increases in hospital morbidity and longer hospital stays. Critical care nurses are in a prime position to screen patients at risk for malnutrition and to work with members of the interprofessional team in implementing nutritional intervention plans.

  9. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

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    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  10. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lanzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min (STest and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min (LTest] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2 without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2 completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1 and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1 and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001 and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001 during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  11. Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity.

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    Mohamed Abu-Farha

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake are prominent contributors to obesity; a major risk factors for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions is of relevant importance as it might lead to the identification of novel anti-obesity targets. The purpose of the current study is to investigate differentially expressed proteins between lean and obese subjects through a shot-gun quantitative proteomics approach using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs extracts as well as potential modulation of those proteins by physical exercise. Using this approach, a total of 47 proteins showed at least 1.5 fold change between lean and obese subjects. In obese, the proteomic profiling before and after 3 months of physical exercise showed differential expression of 38 proteins. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise. Conversely, the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4 was downregulated in obese subjects and then induced by physical exercise. The proteomic data was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both PBMCs and adipose tissue. We also showed that HDAC4 levels correlated positively with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max but negatively with body mass index, percent body fat, and the inflammatory chemokine RANTES. In functional assays, our data indicated that ectopic expression of HDAC4 significantly impaired TNF-α-dependent activation of NF-κB, establishing thus a link between HDAC4 and regulation of the immune system. Together, the expression pattern of HDAC4 in obese subjects before and after physical exercise, its correlation with various physical, clinical and metabolic parameters along with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB are suggestive of a protective role of HDAC4 against obesity. HDAC4 could therefore represent

  12. Assessment of the anti-obesity effects of the TNP-470 analog, CKD-732.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo Mee; An, Juan Ji; Jin, Yong-Jun; Rhee, Yumie; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2007-04-01

    The systemic treatment with angiogenesis inhibitor has been shown to result in weight reduction and adipose tissue loss in various models of obesity. To verify the mechanism of CKD-732 (TNP-470 analog) against obesity, we evaluated CKD-732's peripheral and central anti-obesity effects. CKD-732 was injected subcutaneously (s.c.) for 7 days in various animal models and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesion mice, ob/ob mice, and normal littermates. Modulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNAs after i.c.v. injection was evaluated in ARC lesion mice and normal littermates. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was performed using lithium chloride (LiCl) as a positive control agent in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. As a result, 7 days of CKD-732 s.c. injection reduced the cumulative food intake and the body weight significantly in both treated obese (e.g. 114.8 +/- 13.4 g vs 170.7 +/- 20.6 g, 7.9 +/- 0.5% decrease vs 0.3 +/- 2.2% decrease; in treated OLETF rat versus control OLETF rat, P obese models. Epididymal and mesenteric fat pads, and the size of adipocytes were significantly decreased in treated rats. A single i.c.v. injection decreased food intake and body weight in ARC lesion mice and ob/ob mice but not in normal littermates. Unexpectedly, the hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNAs were not altered by single i.c.v. injection. CKD-732 also induced a dose-dependent CTA comparable with LiCl injection, which is a commonly used agent to produce a CTA. In conclusion, CKD-732 causes significant body weight and appetite reduction, possibly by decreasing adiposity directly and inducing central anorexia, which is partly explained by a CTA. These results should be carefully verified to assess the utility of CKD-732 as an anti-obesity drug.

  13. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of factor

  14. Assessment of nutritional status and obesity in elderly patients as seen in general medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, P A

    1993-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are generally considered to have a negative impact on longevity because of their association with many diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer. Nevertheless, some authors, notably Ancel Keys, have concluded that being overweight improves one's chances for longevity. I studied 122 consecutive patients who had comprehensive geriatric assessment with regard to their body mass index, responses to Wolinsky's Nutritional Risk Index, and serum albumin levels. There was a high prevalence of overweight (60% of men and 45.6% of women). This fact, coupled with the observed low prevalence of underweight subjects, tends to support Keys' statement concerning the benefit of being overweight. However, the relative absence of significant obesity supports the impression that significantly obesity reduces prospects for longevity. Although serum albumin measurements were obtained for only 38 subjects, the fact that the value was low in only one instance--in the case of a person who was seriously ill--suggests that obtaining routine serum albumin measurements in ambulatory, community-dwelling elderly people is not cost-effective.

  15. [Assessment of selected vitamins content in daily food rations of obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapska, Danuta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Stefańska, Ewa; Karczewski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the content of chosen vitamins soluble in fats (A, E) and in water (B1, B2 B6, B12, C, niacin, folic acid) in daily food rations of obese subjects, who are not on a reducing diet (201 obese women - BMI = 32.9 +/- 6.2 kg/ m2 and 60 men - BMI = 33.4 +/- 5.3 kg/m2). The mean age was 45.8 +/- 12.2 years for women and 48 +/- 13.5 years for men. Dietary habits were assessed using the 24 h dietary recall method. Computer program DIETA2 was used to evaluate the vitamin content in daily food rations. Vitamin intake was compared with safe levels for subjects with low physical activity. Low intake were observed in the consumption of vitamin B1 in women and B2 in men. Daily food rations of patients with excessive body mass (both women and men) met safe level daily requirements for vitamin E, niacin, folic acid, riboflavin (women), vitamin B6 (men). High intakes of vitamin A, B12, and C were noted both among obese women and men.

  16. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  17. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jihua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values. Methods Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male, 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile. The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR ( Results 9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5 and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR Conclusion WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.

  18. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Sarah E

    2007-12-01

    To revise 1998 recommendations on childhood obesity, an Expert Committee, comprised of representatives from 15 professional organizations, appointed experienced scientists and clinicians to 3 writing groups to review the literature and recommend approaches to prevention, assessment, and treatment. Because effective strategies remain poorly defined, the writing groups used both available evidence and expert opinion to develop the recommendations. Primary care providers should universally assess children for obesity risk to improve early identification of elevated BMI, medical risks, and unhealthy eating and physical activity habits. Providers can provide obesity prevention messages for most children and suggest weight control interventions for those with excess weight. The writing groups also recommend changing office systems so that they support efforts to address the problem. BMI should be calculated and plotted at least annually, and the classification should be integrated with other information such as growth pattern, familial obesity, and medical risks to assess the child's obesity risk. For prevention, the recommendations include both specific eating and physical activity behaviors, which are likely to promote maintenance of healthy weight, but also the use of patient-centered counseling techniques such as motivational interviewing, which helps families identify their own motivation for making change. For assessment, the recommendations include methods to screen for current medical conditions and for future risks, and methods to assess diet and physical activity behaviors. For treatment, the recommendations propose 4 stages of obesity care; the first is brief counseling that can be delivered in a health care office, and subsequent stages require more time and resources. The appropriateness of higher stages is influenced by a patient's age and degree of excess weight. These recommendations recognize the importance of social and environmental change to reduce

  19. Zinc-transporter genes in human visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes: lean versus obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Kamille; Pedersen, Steen B; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole; Fisker, Sanne; Bendix, Jørgen; Wogensen, Lise; Rungby, Jørgen

    2007-01-29

    Zinc ions influence adipose tissue metabolism by regulating leptin secretion and by promoting free fatty acid release and glucose uptake. The mechanisms controlling zinc metabolism in adipose tissue are unknown. We therefore examined the gene-expression levels of a number of zinc-transporting proteins in adipose tissue, comparing subcutaneous fat with visceral fat from lean and obese humans. Both ZnT-proteins responsible for zinc transport from cytosol to extracellular compartments and intracellular vesicles and Zip-proteins responsible for zinc transport to the cytoplasm were expressed in all samples. This suggests that zinc metabolism in adipocytes is actively controlled by zinc-transporters. The expression levels were different in lean and obese subjects suggesting a role for these proteins in obesity. Furthermore, the expression levels were different from subcutaneous fat to intra-abdominal fat suggesting that the metabolic activity in adipocytes is to some extent dependent upon zinc and the activity of zinc-transporting proteins or vice versa.

  20. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W M; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs.

  1. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  2. A polymorphism in the human agouti-related protein is associated with late-onset obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, George; Rankinen, Tuomo; Neufeld, Doni R; Rice, Treva; Province, Michael A; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude

    2002-09-01

    The mouse agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a powerful appetite effector that results in hyperphagia and the development of obesity when administered intracerebroventricularly or when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Animal studies have also shown that exogenous administration of AGRP predisposes toward hedonic intake of high fat and high sucrose diets. The human ortholog (hAGRP) maps on chromosome 16q22 and has similar physiological properties, as tested in animal models. A polymorphism was identified in the third exon of hAGRP, c.199G-->A, that resulted in a nonconservative amino acid substitution, Ala(67)Thr. Computational analysis of the protein showed significant differences in the coils of the two polymorphic isoforms of the protein. Human studies showed no genotype effects in individuals with a mean age of 25 yr. However, the G/G genotype was significantly associated with fatness and abdominal adiposity in the parental population with a mean age of 53 yr. The c.199G-->A polymorphism in hAGRP could, therefore, play a role in the development of human obesity in an age-dependent fashion.

  3. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    -wide changes in DNA methylation and expression patterns during differentiation of primary human muscle stem cells (myoblasts). We identified epigenetic and transcriptional changes of myogenic transcription factors (MYOD1, MYOG, MYF5, MYF6, PAX7, MEF2A, MEF2C, and MEF2D), cell cycle regulators, metabolic......BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity...... enzymes and genes previously not linked to myogenesis, including IL32, metallothioneins, and pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoproteins. Functional studies demonstrated IL-32 as a novel target that regulates human myogenesis, insulin sensitivity and ATP levels in muscle cells. Furthermore, IL32 transgenic...

  4. Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Baturcam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P<0.05. Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P<0.05 in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P=0.001 and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P<0.05. Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue.

  5. Reverse relationship between blood boron level and body mass index in humans: does it matter for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Cipe, Gokhan; Kadioglu, Huseyin; Aysan, Erhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2013-06-01

    The exact role of boron in humans is not known although its supplementation causes several important metabolic and inflammatory changes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an association between blood boron level and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects. A total number of 80 subjects, categorized into four groups based on their body mass index as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese, were enrolled in this study. Age, sex, body mass index, and blood boron levels were recorded for each subject. Although the distribution of female and male subjects and blood boron levels were similar between groups, the mean age of normal subjects was significantly lower than the others (p = 0.002). There was a significant relationship between age and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject (β = 0.24; p = 0.003). In addition, between blood boron levels and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, a significant reverse relationship was detected (β = -0.16; p = 0.043). Although age seemed to be an important variable for blood boron level and body mass index, blood boron levels were shown to be lower in obese subjects in comparison to non-obese subjects.

  6. Physical exercise reduces the expression of RANTES and its CCR5 receptor in the adipose tissue of obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturcam, Engin; Abubaker, Jehad; Tiss, Ali; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; Hammad, Maha; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said; Dehbi, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF- α , IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1 ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue.

  7. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Regulation of nutrition-associated receptors in blood monocytes of normal weight and obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; Hornemann, Silke; Weimer, Sandra; Lu, Ye; Murahovschi, Veronica; Zhuk, Sergei; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna; Kruse, Michael; Busjahn, Andreas; Rudovich, Natalia; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation which involves interplay of nutrition and monocyte/macrophage functions. We suggested that some factors such as nutrient components, neuropeptides involved in the control of gastrointestinal functions, and gastrointestinal hormones might influence immune cell functions and in this way contribute to the disease pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression of twelve nutrition-associated receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), isolated monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and their regulation under the switching from the high-carbohydrate low-fat diet to the low-carbohydrate high-fat (LC/HFD) isocaloric diet in healthy humans. The mRNA expression of receptors for short chain fatty acids (GPR41, GPR43), bile acids (TGR5), incretins (GIPR, GLP1R), cholecystokinin (CCKAR), neuropeptides VIP and PACAP (VIPR1, VIPR2), and neurotensin (NTSR1) was detected in PBMC and monocytes, while GPR41, GPR43, GIPR, TGR5, and VIPR1 were found in macrophages. Correlations of the receptor expression in monocytes with a range of metabolic and inflammatory markers were found. In non-obese subjects, the dietary switch to LC/HFD induced the increase of GPR43 and VIPR1 expression in monocytes. No significant differences of receptor expression between normal weight and moderately obese subjects were found. Our study characterized for the first time the expression pattern of nutrition-associated receptors in human blood monocytes and its dietary-induced changes linking metabolic responses to nutrition with immune functions in health and metabolic diseases.

  9. Assessing public policies and assets that affect obesity risk while building new public health partnerships, New Hampshire, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ludmila; Foster, Scot; Flynn, Regina; Fitterman, Mindy

    2013-08-08

    The New Hampshire Obesity Prevention Program and the 9 New Hampshire regional planning commissions assessed the state's obesity-related policies and assets by using community measures recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A self-administered questionnaire that focused on policies and assets that promote healthful eating, physical activity, and breast-feeding was sent to 234 municipalities; 59% responded (representing 73% of the state's population). Of the municipalities that responded, 52% had sidewalks, 22% had bicycle lanes, none had nutrition standards, and 4% had a policy supporting breastfeeding. Through collaboration, we gathered baseline information that can be used to set priorities and assess progress over time.

  10. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  12. Assessing prebaccalaureate human physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, V L

    1998-12-01

    Two surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1996. The purpose of the initial survey was to obtain demographic information about prebaccaulareate human physiology courses. Of the 117 responding physiology departments, 50% offered human physiology at the prebaccalaureate level to 14,185 students during the 1994-1995 academic year. The mean was 245 students per year (+/- 30 SE). Class size was limited by 44% of the respondents. Prebaccaluareate human physiology was offered as a separate course from anatomy by 93% of the departments. Sixty-one percent scheduled the course once a year. The purpose of the second survey was to determine how physiology departments evaluated prebaccalaureate physiology courses and faculty. All responding departments utilized student feedback; 38% of the departments included physiology chair review, 38% peer review, and 9% allied health faculty review. Twenty-eight percent of allied health programs evaluated the course. Results indicated that, whereas a significant number of undergraduate students are enrolled in prebaccaluareate physiology courses annually, those courses appear to lack formal, consistent formative evaluation.

  13. Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Mou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001 and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05. We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype.

  14. Assessment of the energetics of human labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampietro, M. (Istituto Nazionale della Nutrizione, Rome (Italy)); Pimentel, D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The energetic analysis of farming systems implies an assessment of the energetics of human labor. The energy cost of 1 h of human labor is generally estimated according to its physiological requirement (the hierarchical level at which the assessment is made is at the individual level). A different way of describing the interaction between human society and the ecosystem is presented (assessment referred to the society level). The shift from the individual level to the societal level provides a new perspective when assessing the energetic efficiency of farming. For example, the power level of the system becomes a new and important parameter to consider. Numerical examples illustrate the proposed approach. 4 figs., 12 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Current review of genetics of human obesity: from molecular mechanisms to an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, David; Stice, Eric; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Manco, Licíno; Nóbrega, Clévio

    2015-08-01

    It is well-known that obesity is a complex multifactorial and heterogeneous condition with an important genetic component. Recently, major advances in obesity research emerged concerning the molecular mechanisms contributing to the obese condition. This review outlines several studies and data concerning the genetics and other important factors in the susceptibility risk to develop obesity. Based in the genetic etiology three main categories of obesity are considered: monogenic, syndromic, and common obesity. For the monogenic forms of obesity, the gene causing the phenotype is clearly identified, whereas for the common obesity the loci architecture underlying the phenotype is still being characterized. Given that, in this review we focus mainly in this obesity form, reviewing loci found until now by genome-wide association studies related with the susceptibility risk to develop obesity. Moreover, we also detail the obesity-related loci identified in children and in different ethnic groups, trying to highlight the complexity of the genetics underlying the common obese phenotype. Importantly, we also focus in the evolutionary hypotheses that have been proposed trying to explain how natural selection favored the spread of genes that increase the risk for an obese phenotype and how this predisposition to obesity evolved. Other factors are important in the obesity condition, and thus, we also discuss the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the susceptibility and development of obesity. Covering all these topics we expect to provide a complete and recent perspective about the underlying mechanisms involved in the development and origin of obesity. Only with a full understanding of the factors and mechanisms contributing to obesity, it will be possible to provide and allow the development of new therapeutic approaches to this condition.

  16. Dietary supplementation with purified citrus limonin glucoside does not alter ex vivo functions of circulating T lymphocytes or monocytes in overweight/obese human adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight/obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and impairs both innate and adaptive immune responses. Limonoids found in citrus fruits have shown health benefits in human and animal studies. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 10 overweight/obese human subjects were fed pur...

  17. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  18. [Obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Hélène; Thariat, Juliette; Vignot, Marina; Merrouche, Yacine; Vignot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of people affected by obesity is increasing and this finding emphasizes several issues in oncology: obesity as a risk factor for cancer, prognostic value of obesity in cancer patients, nutritional assessment in overweight patients and impact of obesity on treatment management. It is important to remember the common underevaluation of malnutrition in overweight or obese patients. Every caregiver must be especially careful about the management of comorbidities in these patients.

  19. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter H; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper B; Kristensen, Dorte E; Vind, Birgitte F; Baba, Otto; Nøhr, Jane; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue composed of different fiber types. Studies suggest that insulin-mediated glucose metabolism is different between muscle fiber types. We hypothesized that differences are due to fiber type-specific expression/regulation of insulin signaling elements and/or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared with type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4, hexokinase II, glycogen synthase (GS), and pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDH-E1α) and a lower protein content of Akt2, TBC1 domain family member 4 (TBC1D4), and TBC1D1. In type I fibers compared with type II fibers, the phosphorylation response to insulin was similar (TBC1D4, TBC1D1, and GS) or decreased (Akt and PDH-E1α). Phosphorylation responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS, and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I muscle fibers compared with type II fibers have a higher glucose-handling capacity but a similar sensitivity for phosphoregulation by insulin.

  20. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of exercise training programmes in obesity - an overview of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leońska-Duniec, A; Ahmetov, I I; Zmijewski, P

    2016-09-01

    Frequent and regular physical activity has significant benefits for health, including improvement of body composition and help in weight control. Consequently, promoting training programmes, particularly in those who are genetically predisposed, is a significant step towards controlling the presently increasing epidemic of obesity. Although the physiological responses of the human body to exercise are quite well described, the genetic background of these reactions still remains mostly unknown. This review not only summarizes the current evidence, through a literature review and the results of our studies on the influence of gene variants on the characteristics and range of the body's adaptive response to training, but also explores research organization problems, future trends, and possibilities. We describe the most reliable candidate genetic markers that are involved in energy balance pathways and body composition changes in response to training programmes, such as FTO, MC4R, ACE, PPARG, LEP, LEPR, ADRB2, and ADRB3. This knowledge can have an enormous impact not only on individualization of exercise programmes to make them more efficient and safer, but also on improved recovery, traumatology, medical care, diet, supplementation and many other areas. Nevertheless, the current studies still represent only the first steps towards a better understanding of the genetic factors that influence obesity-related traits, as well as gene variant x physical activity interactions, so further research is necessary.

  1. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: Impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2015-01-01

    /or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared to type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4......-responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared to lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I......, hexokinase II, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH-E1α) and a lower protein content of Akt2, TBC1D4 and TBC1D1. In type I fibers compared to type II fibers, the phosphorylation-response to insulin was similar (TBC1D4, TBC1D1 and GS) or decreased (Akt and PDH-E1α). Phosphorylation...

  2. Human intestinal microbiota composition is associated with local and systemic inflammation in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, F.J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Jonge, de C.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Erbil, R.; Greve, J.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Rensen, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal microbiota have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity, but the mechanism remains elusive. The relationship between microbiota composition, intestinal permeability, and inflammation in nonobese and obese subjects was investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fecal m

  3. Impact of metabolic regulators on the expression of the obesity associated genes FTO and NAMPT in human preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Friebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FTO and NAMPT/PBEF/visfatin are thought to play a role in obesity but their transcriptional regulation in adipocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptional regulation of FTO and NAMPT in preadipocytes and adipocytes by metabolic regulators. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed FTO mRNA expression during human adipocyte differentiation of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS cells and primary subcutaneous preadipocytes in vitro and evaluated the effect of the metabolic regulators glucose, insulin, dexamethasone, IGF-1 and isoproterenol on FTO and NAMPT mRNA expression in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes. FTO mRNA levels were not significantly modulated during adipocyte differentiation. Also, metabolic regulators had no impact on FTO expression in preadipocytes or adipocytes. In SGBS preadipocytes NAMPT expression was more than 3fold induced by dexamethasone and isoproterenol and 1.6fold by dexamethasone in adipocytes. Complete glucose restriction caused an increase in NAMPT mRNA expression by more than 5fold and 1.4fold in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes, respectively. CONCLUSION: FTO mRNA expression is not significantly affected by differentiation or metabolic regulators in human adipocytes. The stimulation of NAMPT expression by dexamethasone, isoproterenol and complete glucose restriction may indicate a regulation of NAMPT by metabolic stress, which was more pronounced in preadipocytes compared to mature adipocytes.

  4. Impact of Metabolic Regulators on the Expression of the Obesity Associated Genes FTO and NAMPT in Human Preadipocytes and Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberg, Maria; Bernhard, Falk; Büttner, Petra; Landgraf, Kathrin; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Background FTO and NAMPT/PBEF/visfatin are thought to play a role in obesity but their transcriptional regulation in adipocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptional regulation of FTO and NAMPT in preadipocytes and adipocytes by metabolic regulators. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed FTO mRNA expression during human adipocyte differentiation of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cells and primary subcutaneous preadipocytes in vitro and evaluated the effect of the metabolic regulators glucose, insulin, dexamethasone, IGF-1 and isoproterenol on FTO and NAMPT mRNA expression in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes. FTO mRNA levels were not significantly modulated during adipocyte differentiation. Also, metabolic regulators had no impact on FTO expression in preadipocytes or adipocytes. In SGBS preadipocytes NAMPT expression was more than 3fold induced by dexamethasone and isoproterenol and 1.6fold by dexamethasone in adipocytes. Complete glucose restriction caused an increase in NAMPT mRNA expression by more than 5fold and 1.4fold in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes, respectively. Conclusion FTO mRNA expression is not significantly affected by differentiation or metabolic regulators in human adipocytes. The stimulation of NAMPT expression by dexamethasone, isoproterenol and complete glucose restriction may indicate a regulation of NAMPT by metabolic stress, which was more pronounced in preadipocytes compared to mature adipocytes. PMID:21687707

  5. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    in the controls (obese r = 0.06, controls r = 0.02; p greater than 0.05). Plasma fibronectin was insignificantly correlated with body weight (obese r = 0.21, controls r = 0.15; p greater than 0.05) and percentage overweight (obese r = 0.27, controls r = 0.04; p greater than 0.05). The raised level of circulating...... insulin may in part explain the excess of plasma fibronectin obese subjects....

  6. Genome wide association study identifies KCNMA1 contributing to human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Hong; Arner, Peter; Hoffstedt, Johan;

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population....... Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity....

  7. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  8. Olfactory receptor genes cooperate with protocadherin genes in human extreme obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, E.C.; Szklarczyk, R.J.; Bouwman, F.G.; Aller, E.E.; Baak, M.A. van; Wang, P.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. More knowledge about the complex etiology of obesity is needed in order to find additional approaches for treatment and prevention. Investigating the exome sequencing data of 30 extremely obese subjects (BMI 45-65

  9. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES AMONG OBESE AND NON OBESE PERSONS, IN ABOVE 40 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hubbe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT : Obesity is increasing in the developed as well as developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is on the rise among the slum population. Increased incidence of vis ceral adiposity, hypertension, n on insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM and coron ary heart disease often cluster in the same individual and there have been speculations that a common mechanism may be responsible for all these pathological conditions. This risk factor constellation, which is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiova scular disease, is referred to as “Syndrome X . AIMS : To assess the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among obese and non obese in above 40 years age group in a slum area of Chennai. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Urban slum in Chennai, Cross sectional study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : P r esent study was undertaken in a s lum in Chennai in persons above 4 0 years age group . One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre - designed and pre - tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio - demographic profile, the diet pattern , the intake of non - vegetarian and oily foods , past history of hypertension and diabetes . Anthropometric data regarding height and weight was taken to assess body mass index (BMI , blood pressure was checked using mercury column sphygmomanometer and blood gluco se level b y G lucometer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find association with the factors. RESULTS : The prevalence of obesity was 13.66% and of overweight was 27.72%. The prevalence of Hy pertension among obese was 39.13%, pre obese 32.39% and non obese 24.93%. The prevalence of Dia betes among obese was 28.98%, pre obese 19.71% and non obese 15.34%. CONCLUSION : There is a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban slum dwellers. The prevalence of

  10. The circulatory and metabolic responses to hypoxia in humans - with special reference to adipose tissue physiology and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Heinonen (Ilkka); R. Boushel (Robert); K.K. Kalliokoski (Kari)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAdipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply

  11. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nervous system stimulants, with or without one or more additional drug substances such as barbiturates or.... (b) Combinations of thyroid or other thyrogenic drugs with central nervous system stimulants with or... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  12. You are what you eat, or are you? The challenges of translating high-fat-fed rodents to human obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M; Chandrasekera, P C; Barnard, N D

    2014-09-08

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are rapidly growing worldwide epidemics with major health consequences. Various human-based studies have confirmed that both genetic and environmental factors (particularly high-caloric diets and sedentary lifestyle) greatly contribute to human T2DM. Interactions between obesity, insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction result in human T2DM, but the mechanisms regulating the interplay among these impairments remain unclear. Rodent models of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity have been used widely to study human obesity and T2DM. With >9000 publications on PubMed over the past decade alone, many aspects of rodent T2DM have been elucidated; however, correlation to human obesity/diabetes remains poor. This review investigates the reasons for this translational discrepancy by critically evaluating rodent HFD models. Dietary modification in rodents appears to have limited translatable benefit for understanding and treating human obesity and diabetes due-at least in part-to divergent dietary compositions, species/strain and gender variability, inconsistent disease penetrance, severity and duration and lack of resemblance to human obesogenic pathophysiology. Therefore future research efforts dedicated to acquiring translationally relevant data-specifically human data, rather than findings based on rodent studies-would accelerate our understanding of disease mechanisms and development of therapeutics for human obesity/T2DM.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat in an Obese Patient Population Using Non-contrast CT Fat Percent Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Ali F.; Cheema, Ahmad R.; Khan, Atif N.; Raptopoulos, V.; Hauser, T.; Nasser, I.; Welty, F.K.; Karellas, A.; Clouse, Melvin E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a simplified method to quantify liver fat using CT fat % index (CTFPI) compared to liver spleen method (CTL/S, CTL-S) Methods Non-contrast CT of the liver was performed in 89 patients (overweight, obese, severely obese) to quantify fat, using: CTFPI= [(65-patient HU)/65] ×100, normal liver =65 HU. Results There was strong linear correlation between CTFPI and the standard method of assessing liver fat using CTL/S (r = −0.901), CTL-S (r = −0.911). Hepatic HU and CTFPI were significantly different in the severely obese group compared to other two groups(p<0.05). Conclusion Significant correlation indicates equal diagnostic accuracy of the two methods in appropriately calibrated scanners. PMID:24559751

  14. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy.

  15. Proteomics analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals novel abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Hyonson; Bowen, Benjamin P; Lefort, Natalie;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Studies of insulin resistance usually are highly focused. However, approaches that give a more global picture of abnormalities in insulin resistance are useful in pointing out new...... changes involving the use of proteomics was used here. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic volunteers (n = 8 each); glucose clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Muscle protein was subjected to mass spectrometry...... directions for research. In previous studies, gene expression analyses show a coordinated pattern of reduction in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene expression in insulin resistance. However, changes in mRNA levels may not predict changes in protein abundance. An approach to identify global protein abundance...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN OBESE PATIENTS AND BARIATRIC SURGERY (IN SPANISH)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is an important cause of morbi-morbidity and it is considered a public health problem. Currently, the bariatric surgery is one of the used strategies to reduce the obesity, nevertheless, there are little information about its impact on the quality of life related with the health (QLRH). The aim was to compare the quality of life of obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery with previously intervened patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried ...

  17. Role of the autonomic nervous system and neuropeptides in the development of obesity in humans: targets for therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Jerry R; Campbell, Lesley V

    2008-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. These metabolic disorders, particularly obesity, are characterised by increased basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity but an impaired sympathetic response to certain stimuli, such as insulin. Although targeting the SNS may seem an attractive avenue for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders, it remains unknown whether changes in SNS tone are primary and contribute to the development of these metabolic conditions or whether they develop secondary to the obese state. This question can be answered by the study of insulin-resistant individuals prior to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using this model, it has been shown that early insulin resistance is associated with increased SNS activity in genetically-predisposed humans. It has been suggested that in insulin-resistant states, hyperinsulinaemia is the initiating factor that increases sympathetic neural activity. Over time, adrenoreceptor down-regulation and/or reduced sensitivity are likely to develop, resulting in reduced sympathetic responsiveness. In the postprandial state, this will lead to impaired diet-induced thermogenesis and post-prandial fat oxidation, promoting the accumulation of body fat. More recent evidence demonstrates that stress-induced SNS overactivity up-regulates Neuropeptide Y, an orexigenic hormone, and its Y2 receptor, in visceral adipose tissue, the fat depot most strongly linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. There is evidence that SNS overactivity specifically contributes to the development of abdominal obesity via this pathway, which could represent a novel target for the prevention and treatment of abdominal obesity and related metabolic consequences.

  18. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  19. Does obesity increase susceptibility to ozone? Respiratory, behavioral, and metabolic assessments in Brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    There may be a link between obesity and susceptibility to the respiratory, cardiovascular, and other health effects of air pollutants. Furthermore, it has been proposed that some air pollutants are obesogenic and may contribute to obesity. In view of the epidemic growth of obesit...

  20. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pardis Pedram; Guang Sun

    2014-01-01

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 73...

  1. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT AT PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Boncea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world we are living in today has increasingly become aware of the importance of the human factor in all types of organizations. The present paper is intended to assess the performance of the human resource department at PricewaterhouseCoopers and to provide adequate recommendations for activity improvement. After a statement of the current HR strategy and an in-depth analysis of the external and internal environment, the paper continues with some proposals upon a more efficient HR function and the corresponding action plan to achieve this objective. In addition, the paper presents a section on how employees respond to change inside the company.

  2. Pain assessment in human fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio

    2012-09-01

    In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20-22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

  3. Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Wärnberg, Julia; Estruch, Ramón; Román, Pilar; Arós, Fernando; Vinyoles, Ernest; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Covas, María-Isabel; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as 3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to participants consuming 3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. Conclusions Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:23460844

  4. Cross-sectional assessment of nut consumption and obesity, metabolic syndrome and other cardiometabolic risk factors: the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ibarrola-Jurado

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as 3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to participants consuming 3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001, MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001, and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043. Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001. No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

  5. Moving Forward in Human Cancer Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Paules, Richard S.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Corvi, Raffaella; Garthoff, Bernward; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current safety paradigm for assessing carcinogenic properties of drugs, cosmetics, industrial chemicals, and environmental exposures relies mainly on in vitro genotoxicity testing followed by 2-year rodent bioassays. This testing battery is extremely sensitive but has low specificity. Furthermore, rodent bioassays are associated with high costs, high animal burden, and limited predictive value for human risks. Objectives We provide a response to a growing appeal for a paradigm ...

  6. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children☆

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Sylvia do Carmo Castro FRANCESCHINI

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC,...

  7. Association of Lipidome Remodeling in the Adipocyte Membrane with Acquired Obesity in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietilainen, K. H.; Rog, T.; Seppanen-Laakso, T.;

    2011-01-01

    Identification of early mechanisms that may lead from obesity towards complications such as metabolic syndrome is of great interest. Here we performed lipidomic analyses of adipose tissue in twin pairs discordant for obesity but still metabolically compensated. In parallel we studied more evolved...

  8. DNA methylation is altered in B and NK lymphocytes in obese and type 2 diabetic human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simar, David; Versteyhe, Soetkin; Donkin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and the infiltration of immune cells in insulin-sensitive tissues, leading to metabolic impairment. Epigenetic mechanisms control immune cell lineage determination, function and migration and are implicated in obesity and type 2 diabetes...... were recruited. Global DNA methylation levels were measured in a cell type-specific manner by flow cytometry. We validated the assay against mass spectrometry measures of the total 5-methylcytosine content in cultured cells treated with the hypomethylation agent decitabine (r = 0.97, p ....001). Results Global DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, lymphocytes or T cells was not altered in obese or T2D subjects. However, analysis of blood fractions from lean, obese, and T2D subjects showed increased methylation levels in B cells from obese and T2D subjects...

  9. Recent progress in genetics, epigenetics and metagenomics unveils the pathophysiology of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeyre, Marie; Yazdi, Fereshteh T; Kaur, Yuvreet; Meyre, David

    2016-06-01

    In high-, middle- and low-income countries, the rising prevalence of obesity is the underlying cause of numerous health complications and increased mortality. Being a complex and heritable disorder, obesity results from the interplay between genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, metagenomics and the environment. Attempts at understanding the genetic basis of obesity have identified numerous genes associated with syndromic monogenic, non-syndromic monogenic, oligogenic and polygenic obesity. The genetics of leanness are also considered relevant as it mirrors some of obesity's aetiologies. In this report, we summarize ten genetically elucidated obesity syndromes, some of which are involved in ciliary functioning. We comprehensively review 11 monogenic obesity genes identified to date and their role in energy maintenance as part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway. With the emergence of genome-wide association studies over the last decade, 227 genetic variants involved in different biological pathways (central nervous system, food sensing and digestion, adipocyte differentiation, insulin signalling, lipid metabolism, muscle and liver biology, gut microbiota) have been associated with polygenic obesity. Advances in obligatory and facilitated epigenetic variation, and gene-environment interaction studies have partly accounted for the missing heritability of obesity and provided additional insight into its aetiology. The role of gut microbiota in obesity pathophysiology, as well as the 12 genes associated with lipodystrophies is discussed. Furthermore, in an attempt to improve future studies and merge the gap between research and clinical practice, we provide suggestions on how high-throughput '-omic' data can be integrated in order to get closer to the new age of personalized medicine.

  10. Are Complexity Metrics Reliable in Assessing HRV Control in Obese Patients During Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Cabiddu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Linear methods, including time domain and frequency domain analysis, are normally applied on the heart rate variability (HRV signal to investigate autonomic cardiovascular control, whose imbalance might promote cardiovascular disease in these patients. However, given the cardiac activity non-linearities, non-linear methods might provide better insight. HRV complexity was hereby analyzed during wakefulness and different sleep stages in healthy and obese subjects. Given the short duration of each sleep stage, complexity measures, normally extracted from long-period signals, needed be calculated on short-term signals. Sample entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity and detrended fluctuation analysis were evaluated and results showed no significant differences among the values calculated over ten-minute signals and longer durations, confirming the reliability of such analysis when performed on short-term signals. Complexity parameters were extracted from ten-minute signal portions selected during wakefulness and different sleep stages on HRV signals obtained from eighteen obese patients and twenty controls. The obese group presented significantly reduced complexity during light and deep sleep, suggesting a deficiency in the control mechanisms integration during these sleep stages. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time on how the HRV complexity changes in obesity during wakefulness and sleep. Further investigation is needed to quantify altered HRV impact on cardiovascular mortality in obesity.

  11. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model of human type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapati, Kritika; Adams, David; Bednar, Kyle; Ridgway, William M

    2012-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has thus served as a model for understanding the genetic and immunological basis, and treatment, of T1D. Since its initial description in 1980, however, the field has matured and recognized that prevention of diabetes in NOD mice (i.e., preventing the disease from occurring by an intervention prior to frank diabetes) is relatively easy to achieve and does not correlate well with curing the disease (after the onset of frank hyperglycemia). Hundreds of papers have described the prevention of diabetes in NOD mice but only a handful have described its actual reversal. The paradoxical conclusion is that preventing the disease in NOD mice does not necessarily tell us what caused the disease nor how to reverse it. The NOD mouse model is therefore best used now, with respect to human disease, as a way to understand the genetic and immunologic causes of and as a model for trying to reverse disease once hyperglycemia occurs. We describe how genetic approaches to identifying causative gene variants can be adapted to identify novel therapeutic agents for reversing new-onset T1D.

  12. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1 lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2 energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3 inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  13. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  14. Elevated NF-κB activation is conserved in human myocytes cultured from obese type 2 diabetic patients and attenuated by AMP-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Charlotte Jane; Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the inflammatory phenotype found in obese and diabetic individuals is preserved in isolated, cultured myocytes and to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation upon the attenuation of inflammation in these myocytes....

  15. Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Davidsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE in 35 obese 7–9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys. Total body water (TBW and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of 18O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM, using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher (p = 0.018 in boys (44.9% ± 3.3% than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%, while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; p = 0.014. TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day; p = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; p = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7–9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity.

  16. Elevated NF-κB activation is conserved in human myocytes cultured from obese type 2 diabetic patients and attenuated by AMP-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Charlotte Jane; Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the inflammatory phenotype found in obese and diabetic individuals is preserved in isolated, cultured myocytes and to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation upon the attenuation of inflammation in these myocytes.......To examine whether the inflammatory phenotype found in obese and diabetic individuals is preserved in isolated, cultured myocytes and to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation upon the attenuation of inflammation in these myocytes....

  17. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess the role of the built environment in influencing obesity: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Features of the built environment are increasingly being recognised as potentially important determinants of obesity. This has come about, in part, because of advances in methodological tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS has made the procurement of data related to the built environment easier and given researchers the flexibility to create a new generation of environmental exposure measures such as the travel time to the nearest supermarket or calculations of the amount of neighbourhood greenspace. Given the rapid advances in the availability of GIS data and the relative ease of use of GIS software, a glossary on the use of GIS to assess the built environment is timely. As a case study, we draw on aspects the food and physical activity environments as they might apply to obesity, to define key GIS terms related to data collection, concepts, and the measurement of environmental features.

  18. Human immune system development and survival of non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) mice engrafted with human thymus and autologous haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, L; Jangalwe, S; Jouvet, N; Laning, J; Burzenski, L; Shultz, L D; Brehm, M A

    2013-12-01

    Immunodeficient mice bearing targeted mutations in the IL2rg gene and engrafted with human immune systems are effective tools for the study of human haematopoiesis, immunity, infectious disease and transplantation biology. The most robust human immune model is generated by implantation of human fetal thymic and liver tissues in irradiated recipients followed by intravenous injection of autologous fetal liver haematopoietic stem cells [often referred to as the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) model]. To evaluate the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG)-BLT model, we have assessed various engraftment parameters and how these parameters influence the longevity of NSG-BLT mice. We observed that irradiation and subrenal capsule implantation of thymus/liver fragments was optimal for generating human immune systems. However, after 4 months, a high number of NSG-BLT mice develop a fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-like syndrome, which correlates with the activation of human T cells and increased levels of human immunoglobulin (Ig). Onset of GVHD was not delayed in NSG mice lacking murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I or II and was not associated with a loss of human regulatory T cells or absence of intrathymic cells of mouse origin (mouse CD45(+) ). Our findings demonstrate that NSG-BLT mice develop robust human immune systems, but that the experimental window for these mice may be limited by the development of GVHD-like pathological changes.

  19. A Low-Glycemic Diet Lifestyle Intervention Improves Fat Utilization during Exercise in Older Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Cook, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    lipid was reduced (P foods for reversing metabolic defects in obesity.......Objective: To determine the influence of dietary glycemic index on exercise training-induced adaptations in substrate oxidation in obesity. Design and Methods: Twenty older, obese individuals undertook 3 months of fully supervised aerobic exercise and were randomized to low- (LoGIX) or high....... Results: Weight loss (-8.6 ± 1.1%) and improvements (P fasting lipemia, and metabolic flexibility were similar for both LoGIX and HiGIX groups. During submaximal exercise, energy expenditure was higher following the intervention (P

  20. Assessment of risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Watharkar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Objective: To determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children of age group 12-15 years in Kanpur. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to August 2014 among students of age group 12-15 years in four schools of Kanpur that were selected by using multistage random sampling. Sample size was 806. The information about dietary habits and physical activity pattern was obtained by direct interview method. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques for the same and BMI was calculated. Student who had BMI >85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age >95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.97% and 9.80%  respectively and consuming fast foods and carbonated drinks regularly, low levels of physical activity, watching television for more than 2 hours per day or playing computer games for more than 2 hours per day were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major risk factors for overweight/ obesity in adolescents. Intervention measures focusing mainly on increasing the physical activity, decreasing consumption of energy dense foods and providing psychological support is essential to fight this new emerging problem of obesity in adolescents.

  1. Assessment tools of energy balance-related behaviours used in European obesity prevention strategies: review of studies during preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, T; Mesana, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B; Chinapaw, M J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Socha, P; Iotova, V; Moreno, L A

    2012-03-01

    Valid and reliable measures of energy balance-related behaviours are required when evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions aiming at prevention of childhood obesity. A structured descriptive review was performed to appraise food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour assessment tools used in obesity intervention strategies targeting mainly preschool children across Europe. In total, 25 papers are described, addressing energy balance-related behaviours as study outcomes and targeting individuals or clusters of individuals at school- or home-based environment. Parentally reported food records and 24-h recalls were commonly used to assess food intake. Subjective levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were commonly accessed via parentally reported questionnaires. Accelerometry was used to obtain objective measures of physical activity. Insufficient evidence of tool evaluation was provided. When feasible, food records and accelerometry are recommended as the most appropriate methods to assess food intake in young children. Sedentary behaviour could be assessed via questionnaires that include key indicators of sedentarism and are able to differentiate individual practices. The choice of methodology for the assessment of specific intervention effects should be equally balanced between required accuracy levels and feasibility, and be guided by the intervention targets.

  2. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  3. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  4. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique; Marques, Marie A; Berlan, Michel; Bajzova, Magda; Polak, Jan; Van de Voorde, Johan; Bülow, Jens; Lafontan, Max; Crampes, François; Langin, Dominique; Stich, Vladimir; de Glisezinski, Isabelle

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of various hormones involved in the regulation of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise and to assess the impact of obesity on this regulation. Eight lean and eight obese men performed a 60-min cycle exercise bout at 50% of their peak oxygen uptake on two occasions: during intravenous infusion of octreotide (a somatostatin analog) or physiological saline (control condition). Lipolysis in SCAT was evaluated using in situ microdialysis. One microdialysis probe was perfused with the adrenergic blockers phentolamine and propranolol while another probe was perfused with the phosphodiesterase and adenosine receptor inhibitor aminophylline. Compared with the control condition, infusion of octreotide reduced plasma insulin levels in lean (from approximately 3.5 to 0.5 microU/ml) and in obese (from approximately 9 to 2 microU/ml), blunted the exercise-induced rise in plasma GH and epinephrine levels in both groups, and enhanced the exercise-induced natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in lean but not in obese subjects. In both groups, octreotide infusion resulted in higher exercise-induced increases in dialysate glycerol concentrations in the phentolamine-containing probe while no difference in lipolytic response was found in the aminophylline-containing probe. The results suggest that insulin antilipolytic action plays a role in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise in lean as well as in obese subjects. The octreotide-induced enhancement of exercise lipolysis in lean subjects was associated with an increased exercise-induced plasma NP response. Adenosine may contribute to the inhibition of basal lipolysis in both subject groups.

  5. Downregulation of STEAP4, a highly-expressed TNF-α-inducible gene in adipose tissue, is associated with obesity in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-mei ZHANG; Xia CHI; Bin WANG; Min ZHANG; Yu-hui NI; Rong-hua CHEN; Xiao-nan LI; Xi-rong GUO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4 (STEAP4) expression and obesity. Methods: RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were performed to determine the differential expressions of STEAP4 mRNA and protein, respectively, in human omental adipose tissue from obese patients and normal weight controls. The expression pattern of STEAP4 mRNA in various human tissues was determined by RT-PCR. The subcellular localization of the STEAP4 protein in human adipose tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Finally, we confirmed that cultured human omental adi- pose tissue undergoes TNF-α-mediated regulation of the STEAP4 expression.Results: STEAP4 mRNA and protein levels were downregulated in omental adi-pose tissue from obese patients relative to normal controls. The STEAP4 expres-sion was most abundant in human adipose tissue. An immunohistochemical analy-sis confirmed that STEAP4 was associated with the plasma membrane of adipocytes. The STEAP4 expression was induced by TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner in human adipose tissue. Conclusion: STEAP4 was abundantly expressed in human adipose tissue, and the STEAP4 expression was significantly downregulated in obese patients. STEAP4 localized to the plasma membrane of adipocytes, and the STEAP4 expression was induced by TNF-α in adipose tissue.These data suggest that STEAP4 may play a significant role in the development of human obesity.

  6. Olfactory receptor genes cooperate with protocadherin genes in human extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariman, Edwin C M; Szklarczyk, Radek; Bouwman, Freek G; Aller, Erik E J G; van Baak, Marleen A; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. More knowledge about the complex etiology of obesity is needed in order to find additional approaches for treatment and prevention. Investigating the exome sequencing data of 30 extremely obese subjects (BMI 45-65 kg/m(2)) shows that predicted damaging missense variants in olfactory receptor genes on chromosome 1q and rare predicted damaging variants in the protocadherin (PCDH) beta-cluster genes on chromosome 5q31, reported in our previous work, co-localize in subjects with extreme obesity. This implies a synergistic effect between genetic variation in these gene clusters in the predisposition to extreme obesity. Evidence for a general involvement of the olfactory transduction pathway on itself could not be found. Bioinformatic analysis indicates a specific involvement of the PCDH beta-cluster genes in controlling tissue development. Further mechanistic insight needs to await the identification of the ligands of the 1q olfactory receptors. Eventually, this may provide the possibility to manipulate food flavor in a way to reduce the risk of overeating and of extreme obesity in genetically predisposed subjects.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  8. Metagenomic systems biology of the human gut microbiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblum, Sharon; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2012-01-10

    The human microbiome plays a key role in a wide range of host-related processes and has a profound effect on human health. Comparative analyses of the human microbiome have revealed substantial variation in species and gene composition associated with a variety of disease states but may fall short of providing a comprehensive understanding of the impact of this variation on the community and on the host. Here, we introduce a metagenomic systems biology computational framework, integrating metagenomic data with an in silico systems-level analysis of metabolic networks. Focusing on the gut microbiome, we analyze fecal metagenomic data from 124 unrelated individuals, as well as six monozygotic twin pairs and their mothers, and generate community-level metabolic networks of the microbiome. Placing variations in gene abundance in the context of these networks, we identify both gene-level and network-level topological differences associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We show that genes associated with either of these host states tend to be located at the periphery of the metabolic network and are enriched for topologically derived metabolic "inputs." These findings may indicate that lean and obese microbiomes differ primarily in their interface with the host and in the way they interact with host metabolism. We further demonstrate that obese microbiomes are less modular, a hallmark of adaptation to low-diversity environments. We additionally link these topological variations to community species composition. The system-level approach presented here lays the foundation for a unique framework for studying the human microbiome, its organization, and its impact on human health.

  9. Obesity and age-related alterations in the gene expression of zinc-transporter proteins in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, R H; Hyde, T M; Kleinman, J E

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. Major risk factors for AD are advancing age and diabetes. Lately, obesity has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. Obese and diabetic individuals are prone to decreased circulating levels of zinc, reducing the amount of zinc...... available for crucial intracellular processes. In the brain, zinc co-localizes with glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and modulates NMDA receptor activity. Intracellular zinc is involved in apoptosis and fluctuations in cytoplasmic Zn(2+) affect modulation of intracellular signaling. The ZNT and ZIP proteins...... participate in intracellular zinc homeostasis. Altered expression of zinc-regulatory proteins has been described in AD patients. Using microarray data from human frontal cortex (BrainCloud), this study investigates expression of the SCLA30A (ZNT) and SCLA39A (ZIP) families of genes in a Caucasian and African...

  10. The Circulatory and Metabolic Responses to Hypoxia in Humans – With Special Reference to Adipose Tissue Physiology and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Boushel, Robert; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. However, acute exercise during systemic hypoxia reduces subcutaneous blood flow in healthy young subjects, but the response in overweight or obese subjects remains to be investigated. Emerging evidence also indicates that exercise training during hypoxic exposure may provide additive benefits with respect to many traditional cardiovascular risk factors as compared to exercise performed in normoxia, but unfavorable effects of hypoxia have also been documented. These topics will be covered in this brief review dealing with hypoxia and adipose tissue physiology. PMID:27621722

  11. Prostaglandin E2 Exerts Multiple Regulatory Actions on Human Obese Adipose Tissue Remodeling, Inflammation, Adaptive Thermogenesis and Lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica García-Alonso

    Full Text Available Obesity induces white adipose tissue (WAT dysfunction characterized by unremitting inflammation and fibrosis, impaired adaptive thermogenesis and increased lipolysis. Prostaglandins (PGs are powerful lipid mediators that influence the homeostasis of several organs and tissues. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory actions of PGs in human omental WAT collected from obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to adipocyte hypertrophy, obese WAT showed remarkable inflammation and total and pericellular fibrosis. In this tissue, a unique molecular signature characterized by altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and WAT browning was identified by microarray analysis. Targeted LC-MS/MS lipidomic analysis identified increased PGE2 levels in obese fat in the context of a remarkable COX-2 induction and in the absence of changes in the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (i.e. mPGES-1, mPGES-2 and cPGES. IPA analysis established PGE2 as a common top regulator of the fibrogenic/inflammatory process present in this tissue. Exogenous addition of PGE2 significantly reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes in human WAT explants and significantly down-regulated Col1α1, Col1α2 and αSMA in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes exposed to TGF-β. In addition, PGE2 inhibited the expression of inflammatory genes (i.e. IL-6 and MCP-1 in WAT explants as well as in adipocytes challenged with LPS. PGE2 anti-inflammatory actions were confirmed by microarray analysis of human pre-adipocytes incubated with this prostanoid. Moreover, PGE2 induced expression of brown markers (UCP1 and PRDM16 in WAT and adipocytes, but not in pre-adipocytes, suggesting that PGE2 might induce the trans-differentiation of adipocytes towards beige/brite cells. Finally, PGE2 inhibited isoproterenol-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Taken together, these findings identify PGE2 as a regulator of the complex network of

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Exerts Multiple Regulatory Actions on Human Obese Adipose Tissue Remodeling, Inflammation, Adaptive Thermogenesis and Lipolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Verónica; Titos, Esther; Alcaraz-Quiles, Jose; Rius, Bibiana; Lopategi, Aritz; López-Vicario, Cristina; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Delgado, Salvadora; Lozano, Juanjo; Clària, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity induces white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction characterized by unremitting inflammation and fibrosis, impaired adaptive thermogenesis and increased lipolysis. Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful lipid mediators that influence the homeostasis of several organs and tissues. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory actions of PGs in human omental WAT collected from obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to adipocyte hypertrophy, obese WAT showed remarkable inflammation and total and pericellular fibrosis. In this tissue, a unique molecular signature characterized by altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and WAT browning was identified by microarray analysis. Targeted LC-MS/MS lipidomic analysis identified increased PGE2 levels in obese fat in the context of a remarkable COX-2 induction and in the absence of changes in the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (i.e. mPGES-1, mPGES-2 and cPGES). IPA analysis established PGE2 as a common top regulator of the fibrogenic/inflammatory process present in this tissue. Exogenous addition of PGE2 significantly reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes in human WAT explants and significantly down-regulated Col1α1, Col1α2 and αSMA in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes exposed to TGF-β. In addition, PGE2 inhibited the expression of inflammatory genes (i.e. IL-6 and MCP-1) in WAT explants as well as in adipocytes challenged with LPS. PGE2 anti-inflammatory actions were confirmed by microarray analysis of human pre-adipocytes incubated with this prostanoid. Moreover, PGE2 induced expression of brown markers (UCP1 and PRDM16) in WAT and adipocytes, but not in pre-adipocytes, suggesting that PGE2 might induce the trans-differentiation of adipocytes towards beige/brite cells. Finally, PGE2 inhibited isoproterenol-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Taken together, these findings identify PGE2 as a regulator of the complex network of interactions

  13. Seven- to nine-year-old children's own assessment of health-related quality of life is important in preventing overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit;

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study how, and to what degree, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as assessed by children and their mothers, was related to overweight and obesity among children aged seven to nine years. Mother-child pairs of 149 non-overweight, 95 overweight and 16 obese children participated....... We assessed HRQOL by the children's self-report and parent proxy report module of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. We found that non-overweight children scored HRQOL slightly higher than overweight ones but significantly higher than did obese children. The same pattern was seen for the mothers......' proxy HRQOL score and mothers in general scored higher than the children did. The results indicate that mothers in general were not sufficiently aware of how overweight and obesity affect their children's HRQOL. The psychosocial dimension of HRQOL was the most important aspect for the children. Thus...

  14. Modulation of fatty acid transport and metabolism by maternal obesity in the human full-term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Evemie; Gravel, Ariane; Martin, Coralie; Desparois, Guillaume; Moussa, Issa; Ethier-Chiasson, Maude; Forest, Jean-Claude; Giguère, Yves; Masse, André; Lafond, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the consequences of maternal obesity in human placental fatty acids (FA) transport and metabolism is limited. Animal studies suggest that placental uptake of maternal FA is altered by maternal overnutrition. We hypothesized that high maternal body mass index (BMI) affects human placental FA transport by modifying expression of key transporters. Full-term placentas were obtained by vaginal delivery from normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) women. Blood samples were collected from the mother at each trimester and from cord blood at delivery. mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was evaluated using enzyme fluorescence. In vitro linoleic acid transport was studied with isolated trophoblasts. Our results demonstrated that maternal obesity is associated with increased placental weight, decreased gestational age, decreased maternal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels during the first and third trimesters, increased maternal triglyceride levels during the second and third trimesters, and increased maternal T3 levels during all trimesters, and decreased maternal cholesterol (CHOL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels during the third trimester; and increased newborn CHOL, LDL, apolipoprotein B100, and T3 levels. Increases in placental CD36 mRNA and protein expression levels, decreased SLC27A4 and FABP1 mRNA and protein and FABP3 protein expression, and increased LPL activity and decreased villus cytotrophoblast linoleic acid transport were also observed. No changes were seen in expression of PPARA, PPARD, or PPARG mRNA and protein. Overall this study demonstrated that maternal obesity impacts placental FA uptake without affecting fetal growth. These changes, however, could modify the fetus metabolism and its predisposition to develop diseases later in life.

  15. Obesity and age-related alterations in the gene expression of zinc-transporter proteins in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, R H; Hyde, T M; Kleinman, J E; Smidt, K; Rungby, J; Larsen, A

    2016-06-14

    The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. Major risk factors for AD are advancing age and diabetes. Lately, obesity has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. Obese and diabetic individuals are prone to decreased circulating levels of zinc, reducing the amount of zinc available for crucial intracellular processes. In the brain, zinc co-localizes with glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and modulates NMDA receptor activity. Intracellular zinc is involved in apoptosis and fluctuations in cytoplasmic Zn(2+) affect modulation of intracellular signaling. The ZNT and ZIP proteins participate in intracellular zinc homeostasis. Altered expression of zinc-regulatory proteins has been described in AD patients. Using microarray data from human frontal cortex (BrainCloud), this study investigates expression of the SCLA30A (ZNT) and SCLA39A (ZIP) families of genes in a Caucasian and African-American sample of 145 neurologically and psychiatrically normal individuals. Expression of ZNT3 and ZNT4 were significantly reduced with increasing age, whereas expression of ZIP1, ZIP9 and ZIP13 were significantly increased. Increasing body mass index (BMI) correlated with a significant reduction in ZNT1 expression similar to what is seen in the early stages of AD. Increasing BMI also correlated with reduced expression of ZNT6. In conclusion, we found that the expression of genes that regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis in the human frontal cortex is altered with increasing age and affected by increasing BMI. With the increasing rates of obesity throughout the world, these findings warrant continuous scrutiny of the long-term consequences of obesity on brain function and the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Is there a relationship between dietary MSG and [corrected] obesity in animals or humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, John T; Drewnowski, Adam; Friedman, Mark I

    2014-09-01

    The sodium salt of glutamate (monosodium glutamate; MSG) imparts a savory/meaty taste to foods, and has been used as a flavoring agent for millennia. Past research on MSG/glutamate has evaluated its physiologic, metabolic and behavioral actions, and its safety. Ingested MSG has been found to be safe, and to produce no remarkable effects, except on taste. However, some recent epidemiologic and animal studies have associated MSG use with obesity and aberrations in fat metabolism. Reported effects are usually attributed to direct actions of ingested MSG in brain. As these observations conflict with past MSG research findings, a symposium was convened at the 13th International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins to discuss them. The principal conclusions were: (1) the proposed link between MSG intake and weight gain is likely explained by co-varying environmental factors (e.g., diet, physical activity) linked to the "nutrition transition" in developing Asian countries. (2) Controlled intervention studies adding MSG to the diet of animals and humans show no effect on body weight. (3) Hypotheses positing dietary MSG effects on body weight involve results from rodent MSG injection studies that link MSG to actions in brain not applicable to MSG ingestion studies. The fundamental reason is that glutamate is metabolically compartmentalized in the body, and generally does not passively cross biologic membranes. Hence, almost no ingested glutamate/MSG passes from gut into blood, and essentially none transits placenta from maternal to fetal circulation, or crosses the blood-brain barrier. Dietary MSG, therefore, does not gain access to brain. Overall, it appears that normal dietary MSG use is unlikely to influence energy intake, body weight or fat metabolism.

  17. Future management of human obesity: understanding the meaning of genetic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins AB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthur B Jenkins,1,2 Lesley V Campbell2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Diabetes Centre and Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Gene–environment interactions are central to the expression of obesity. The condition is strongly heritable (ie, genetic, and most of the variation in obesity levels between countries and between individuals can be explained by the effects of obesogenic environments on individual genetic susceptibilities. The nature of the obesogenic environmental influences is not clear in detail, but they correlate closely with measures of affluence. The causes of variation in genetic susceptibility are also not clearly defined, but their general nature has become clearer. The failure of genome-wide association studies or large linkage studies to identify or replicate causative genetic variants, together with the segregation of obesity-related traits in families, implicates a heterogenetic mechanism in which rare, dominantly or additively expressed genetic variants are responsible for most of common obesity. The search for rare causative variants continues with some successes, but those identified contribute very little to the overall burden and, assuming heterogenetics, there are many more to find. The time when genomic risk factors provide more information than do currently available markers, such as family history, is a long way off. Genomic studies to date have contributed little, if anything, to the prevention and treatment of common obesity and its associated disorders. This contrasts with the obvious and immediate potential implications of the well-established overall genetic basis of obesity, which have not yet been exploited in the clinical or public health arenas. Genomic studies, which have helped to define the genetic basis of

  18. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  19. Weight loss is effective for symptomatic relief in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis independently of joint damage severity assessed by high-field MRI and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, H; Boesen, M; Lohmander, L S

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing prevalence of older and obese citizens, the problems of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) will escalate. Weight loss is recommended for obese KOA patients and in a majority of cases this leads to symptomatic relief. We hypothesized that pre-treatment structural status of the knee joint......, assessed by radiographs, 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and knee-joint alignment, may influence the symptomatic changes following a significant weight reduction....

  20. The human gut microbial ecology associated with overweight and obesity determines ellagic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Romo-Vaquero, María; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan C

    2016-04-01

    We recently identified three metabotypes (0, A and B) that depend on the metabolic profile of urolithins produced from polyphenol ellagic acid (EA). The gut microbiota and Gordonibacter spp. recently were identified as species able to produce urolithins. A higher percentage of metabotype B was found in patients with metabolic syndrome or colorectal cancer in comparison with healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to analyse differences in EA metabolism between healthy overweight-obese and normoweight individuals and evaluate the role of gut microbial composition including Gordonibacter. Although the three metabotypes were confirmed in both groups, metabotype B prevailed in overweight-obese (31%) versus normoweight (20%) individuals while metabotype A was higher in normoweight (70%) than the overweight-obese group (57%). This suggests that weight gain favours the growth of bacteria capable of producing urolithin B and/or isourolithin A with respect to urolithin A-producing bacteria. Gordonibacter spp. levels were not significantly different between normoweight and overweight-obese groups but higher Gordonibacter levels were found in metabotype A individuals than in those with metabotype B. Other bacterial species have been reported to show a much closer relationship to obesity and dysbiosis than Gordonibacter. However, Gordonibacter levels are negatively correlated with metabotype B, which prevails in metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer. This is the first report that links overweight and obesity with an alteration in the catabolism of EA, and where the correlation of Gordonibacter to this alteration is shown. Future investigation of Gordonibacter and urolithin metabotypes as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets of obesity-related diseases is warranted.

  1. Development of a Tool to Assess Resident Physicians' Perceived Competence for Patient-Centered Obesity Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amy M.; Brezausek, Carl M.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Agne, April A.; Hankins, Shirley L.; Cherrington, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Physicians report a number of barriers to obesity counseling, among them low perceived competence in the ability to counsel. While there is increasing recognition of the need for resident training on counseling, implementation requires residency programs to have the necessary curricula and tools to evaluate training effectiveness. This study's…

  2. Human factors assessment mechanical compression tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    The design and use of mechanical compression tools in electrical distribution functions were examined from the point of view of effects of design and use of tools on human operators. Various alternative tools such as manual compression tools, battery operated tools, wedge pressure tools, hydraulic tools, and insulating piercing connectors were also examined for purposes of comparison. Results of the comparative assessment were summarized and a tool satisfaction ratings table was produced for Burndy MD6, Huskie-Robo (REC 258) and Ampact (small) tools, rating level of effort, fatigue experienced, tool mass, force required to crimp, ease of use, comfort while using the tool, maneuverability, and overall satisfaction. Both the battery operated tool as well as the wedge pressure tool have been found to have ergonomic advantages over the mechanical compression tool.

  3. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) Is Expressed in Human Adipocytes In Vivo and Is Related to Obesity but Not to Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nike Müller; Schulte, Dominik M.; Susann Hillebrand; Kathrin Türk; Jochen Hampe; Clemens Schafmayer; Mario Brosch; Witigo von Schönfels; Markus Ahrens; Rainald Zeuner; Schröder, Johann O.; Matthias Blüher; Christian Gutschow; Sandra Freitag-Wolf; Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation and metabolism have been shown to be evolutionary linked and increasing evidence exists that pro-inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, most data suggest that within adipose tissue these factors are secreted by cells of the innate immune system, e. g. macrophages. In the present study we demonstrate that B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is increased in human obesity. In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found ...

  4. Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise on Apelin Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apelin is an adipokine which plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the link between increased adipose tissue mass and obesity related metabolic diseases. Here we investigate the role of omental and subcutaneous (SC adipose tissue apelin and its receptor APJ mRNA expression in human obesity and test the hypothesis that changes in circulating apelin are associated with reduced fat mass in three weight loss intervention studies. Methods: Apelin serum concentration was measured in 740 individuals in a cross-sectional (n = 629 study including a subgroup (n = 161 for which omental and SC apelin mRNA expression has been analyzed and in three interventions: 12 weeks exercise (n = 60, 6 months calorie-restricted diet (n = 19, 12 months after bariatric surgery (n = 32. Results: Apelin mRNA is significantly higher expressed in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlates with circulating apelin, BMI, body fat, C-reactive protein, and insulin sensitivity. Obesity surgery-induced weight loss causes a significant reduction in omental and SC apelin expression. All interventions led to significantly reduced apelin serum concentrations which significantly correlate with improved insulin sensitivity, independently of changes in BMI. Conclusions: Reduced apelin expression and serum concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity beyond significant weight loss.

  5. Expression studies of six human obesity-related genes in seven tissues from divergent pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Jensen, M. S.; Elbrønd, V. S.;

    2014-01-01

    receptor (MC4R), fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR)1 and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), in seven obesity-relevant tissues (liver; muscle; pancreas; hypothalamus; and retroperitoneal, subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues) in two pig breeds (production pigs and Göttingen...... minipigs) that deviate phenotypically and genetically from each other with respect to obesity traits. We observe significant differential expression for LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ in muscle and in all three adipose tissues. Interestingly, in pancreas, LEP expression is only detected in the fat minipigs. FTO...... shows significant differential expression in all tissues analyzed, and NEGR1 shows significant differential expression in muscle, pancreas, hypothalamus and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The MC4R transcript can be detected only in hypothalamus. In general, the expression profiles of the investigated...

  6. Weight loss after gastric bypass surgery in human obesity remodels promoter methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Kirchner, Henriette; Rasmussen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    observed in the normal-weight, healthy subjects. Using bisulfite sequencing, we show that promoter methylation of PGC-1a and PDK4 is altered with obesity and restored to nonobese levels after RYGB-induced weight loss. A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of skeletal muscle revealed that obesity...... is associated with hypermethylation at CpG shores and exonic regions close to transcription start sites. Our results provide evidence that obesity and RYGB-induced weight loss have a dynamic effect on the epigenome....... of genes enriched in metabolic process and mitochondrial function. After weight loss, the expression of the majority of the identified genes was normalized to levels observed in normal-weight, healthy controls. Among the 14 metabolic genes analyzed, promoter methylation of 11 genes was normalized to levels...

  7. Genetic, molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in human obesity: Society for Endocrinology Medal Lecture 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Sadaf I

    2015-01-01

    The health consequences of obesity represent one of the major public health challenges of our time. Whilst the role of environmental drivers such as reduced physical activity and increased food intake is widely acknowledged, the importance of biological factors which influence individual variation in weight is less readily recognised. Considerable evidence suggests that genetic factors influence a person's weight in a given environment and that these genetic influences are more potent at the extremes of the body mass index (BMI) distribution. The discovery that genetic disruption of certain pathways can lead to severe obesity has informed our current understanding of how body weight is regulated by brain circuits that regulate appetite and energy expenditure. These studies provide a framework for investigating patients and ultimately may guide the development of more rational-targeted therapies for genetically susceptible individuals with severe obesity.

  8. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  9. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food addiction (FA is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight, the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium, fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat, omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  10. Hormonal and dietary characteristics in obese human subjects with and without food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Sun, Guang

    2014-12-31

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO) matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight), the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat) and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg) was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium), fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat), omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  11. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis:The aim of this study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre-type distribution and substrate oxidation during exercise in arm and leg muscles in male postobese (PO), obese (O) and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control (C) subjects. The hypothesis of the study......, but not with differences in fibre-type composition, mitochondrial function or muscle enzyme levels compared with Cs. In PO subjects, the changes in fat oxidation are preserved during leg, but not during arm, exercise.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 15 June 2010; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.123....

  12. The future of human rights impact assessments of trade agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken

  13. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using...... energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...... frequency questionnaires (FFQ), doubly labelled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) assessments. RESULTS: In obese and non-obese subgroups, FFQ yielded lower energy and protein intake estimates than 24HR, although biomarker-based information indicated under-reporting with both dietary instruments. Gender...

  14. Adipogenic human adenovirus Ad-36 induces commitment, differentiation, and lipid accumulation in human adipose-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Mashtalir, Nazar; McAllister, Emily J

    2008-01-01

    Human adenovirus Ad-36 is causatively and correlatively linked with animal and human obesity, respectively. Ad-36 enhances differentiation of rodent preadipocytes, but its effect on adipogenesis in humans is unknown. To indirectly assess the role of Ad-36-induced adipogenesis in human obesity...

  15. Synchronized human skeletal myotubes of lean, obese and type 2 diabetic patients maintain circadian oscillation of clock genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jan; Timmers, Silvie; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Duez, Helene; Staels, Bart; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cell and animal studies have demonstrated that circadian rhythm is governed by autonomous rhythmicity of clock genes. Although disturbances in circadian rhythm have been implicated in metabolic disease development, it remains unknown whether muscle circadian rhythm is altered in human models of type 2 diabetes. Here we used human primary myotubes (HPM) to investigate if rhythmicity of clock- and metabolic gene expression is altered in donors with obesity or type 2 diabetes compared to metabolically healthy donors. HPM were obtained from skeletal muscle biopsies of four groups: type 2 diabetic patients and their BMI- and age-matched obese controls and from lean, healthy and young endurance trained athletes and their age-matched sedentary controls. HPM were differentiated for 7 days before synchronization by serum shock followed by gene expression profiling over the next 72 hours. HPM display robust circadian rhythms in clock genes, but REVERBA displayed dampened rhythmicity in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, rhythmicity in NAMPT and SIRT1 expression was only observed in HPM from trained athletes. Rhythmicity in expression of key-regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was modest. We demonstrate that in human skeletal muscle REVERBA/B, NAMPT and SIRT1 circadian rhythms are affected in donors of sedentary life style and poor health status. PMID:27756900

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  17. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to ca

  18. Maternal obesity programs senescence signaling and glucose metabolism in osteo-progenitors from rat and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. However, evidence on the impact of gestational events on regulation of embryonic bone cell fate is sparse. We investigated the effects of maternal obesity on fe...

  19. Increasing dietary fat elicits similar changes in fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity in lean and obese humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN and obese (OB adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF diet. Ten LN (BMI = 22.5±2.5 kg/m², age = 30±8 yrs and nine OB (BMI = 35.9±4.93 kg/m², 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy and HF (50% of energy diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01 during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01 and OB (0.85±0.01. The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4 and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-α (PGC1-α significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  1. A dynamic human health risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

    2012-05-01

    An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors.

  2. CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and downstream human placental growth hormone genes are targets for dysregulation in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Menticoglou, Savas; Cattini, Peter A

    2013-08-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) and placental growth hormone variant (GH-V) act as metabolic adaptors in response to maternal insulin resistance, which occurs in "normal" pregnancy. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance," suggesting that CS, GH-V, or transcription factors that regulate their production might be targets. The human CS genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, flank the GH-V gene. A significant decrease in pre-term placental CS/GH-V RNA levels was observed in transgenic mice containing the CS/GH-V genes in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced maternal obesity. Similarly, a decrease in CS/GH-V RNA levels was detected in term placentas from obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) versus lean (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2)) women. A specific decrease in transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) RNA levels was also seen with obesity; C/EBPβ is required for mouse placenta development and is expressed, like CS and GH-V, in syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CS gene downstream enhancer regions, which by virtue of their position distally flank the GH-V gene, was reduced in placenta chromatin from mice on a HFD and in obese women; a corresponding decrease in RNA polymerase II associated with CS/GH-V promoters was also observed. Detection of decreased endogenous CS/GH-V RNA levels in human placental tumor cells treated with C/EBPβ siRNA is consistent with a direct effect. These data provide evidence for CS/GH-V dysregulation in acute HFD-induced obesity in mouse pregnancy and chronic obesity in human pregnancy and implicate C/EBPβ, a factor associated with CS regulation and placental development.

  3. CCAAT-enhancer-binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) and Downstream Human Placental Growth Hormone Genes Are Targets for Dysregulation in Pregnancies Complicated by Maternal Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Menticoglou, Savas; Cattini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) and placental growth hormone variant (GH-V) act as metabolic adaptors in response to maternal insulin resistance, which occurs in “normal” pregnancy. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this “resistance,” suggesting that CS, GH-V, or transcription factors that regulate their production might be targets. The human CS genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, flank the GH-V gene. A significant decrease in pre-term placental CS/GH-V RNA levels was observed in transgenic mice containing the CS/GH-V genes in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced maternal obesity. Similarly, a decrease in CS/GH-V RNA levels was detected in term placentas from obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) versus lean (BMI 20–25 kg/m2) women. A specific decrease in transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) RNA levels was also seen with obesity; C/EBPβ is required for mouse placenta development and is expressed, like CS and GH-V, in syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CS gene downstream enhancer regions, which by virtue of their position distally flank the GH-V gene, was reduced in placenta chromatin from mice on a HFD and in obese women; a corresponding decrease in RNA polymerase II associated with CS/GH-V promoters was also observed. Detection of decreased endogenous CS/GH-V RNA levels in human placental tumor cells treated with C/EBPβ siRNA is consistent with a direct effect. These data provide evidence for CS/GH-V dysregulation in acute HFD-induced obesity in mouse pregnancy and chronic obesity in human pregnancy and implicate C/EBPβ, a factor associated with CS regulation and placental development. PMID:23782703

  4. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles alter expression of obesity and T2D-associated risk genes in human adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, S.; Daghighi, S.; Motazacker, M. M.; Badlou, B.; Sanjabi, B.; Akbarkhanzadeh, A.; Rowshani, A. T.; Laurent, S.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Rezaee, F.

    2013-07-01

    Adipocytes hypertrophy is the main cause of obesity and its affliction such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used for a wide range of biomedical/medical applications, we aimed to study the effect of SPIONs on 22 and 29 risk genes (Based on gene wide association studies) for obesity and T2D in human adipocytes. The mRNA expression of lipid and glucose metabolism genes was changed upon the treatment of human primary adipocytes with SPIONs. mRNA of GULP1, SLC30A8, NEGR1, SEC16B, MTCH2, MAF, MC4R, and TMEM195 were severely induced, whereas INSIG2, NAMPT, MTMR9, PFKP, KCTD15, LPL and GNPDA2 were down-regulated upon SPIONs stimulation. Since SEC16B gene assist the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and this gene were highly expressed upon SPIONs treatment in adipocytes, it is logic to assume that SPIONs may play a crucial role in this direction, which requires more consideration in the future.

  5. Oral insulin (human, murine, or porcine) does not prevent diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh N; Gibson, Claire; Rydén, Anna K E; Perdue, Nikole; Boursalian, Tamar E; Pagni, Philippe P; Coppieters, Ken; Skonberg, Christian; Porsgaard, Trine; von Herrath, Matthias; Vela, Jose Luis

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown oral insulin prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mouse models, however human trials were inconclusive. We tested the ability of different insulins to prevent T1D in non-obese diabetic mice. Mice received oral insulin or PBS twice weekly and disease was monitored. Contrary to previous studies, no insulin tested showed significant ability to prevent T1D, nor did testing of linked suppression in a delayed type hypersensitivity model have reproducible effect. To investigate delivery of antigen within the GI tract, blue dye was fed to mice. Dye traveled 5-8 cm from stomach to small intestine within 10s, suggesting orally administered antigen may not get digested in the stomach in mice. Insulin incubated with jejunum extracts was instantly digested. Thus, in humans large doses of insulin may be required to achieve tolerance as antigen may be more vulnerable to digestion in the stomach even before reaching the small intestine.

  6. Metabolic signatures of cultured human adipocytes from metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO.10 insulin-resistant (IR vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma.Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p = 0.0039 in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32∶3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA metabolism was found: 15(S-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p = 0.0014, AA (1.5-fold; p = 0.0055 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22∶6; 2-fold; p = 0.0033 were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO.We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO.

  7. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ester; Bargiela, Rafael; Diez, María Suárez; Friedrichs, Anette; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Gosalbes, María José; Knecht, Henrik; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Artacho, Alejandro; Ruiz, Alicia; Campoy, Cristina; Latorre, Amparo; Ott, Stephan J; Moya, Andrés; Suárez, Antonio; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A P; Ferrer, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to carbohydrate metabolism, and to contribute to unravel the underlying mechanisms and consequences for health conditions. We measured the activity level of GIT carbohydrate-active enzymes toward 23 distinct sugars in adults patients (n = 2) receiving 14-d β-lactam therapy and in obese (n = 7) and lean (n = 5) adolescents. We observed that both 14 d antibiotic-treated and obese subjects showed higher and less balanced sugar anabolic capacities, with 40% carbohydrates being preferentially processed as compared with non-treated and lean patients. Metaproteome-wide metabolic reconstructions confirmed that the impaired utilization of sugars propagated throughout the pentose phosphate metabolism, which had adverse consequences for the metabolic status of the GIT microbiota. The results point to an age-independent positive association between GIT glycosidase activity and the body mass index, fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance (r ( 2) ≥ 0.95). Moreover, antibiotics altered the active fraction of enzymes controlling the thickness, composition and consistency of the mucin glycans. Our data and analyses provide biochemical insights into the effects of antibiotic usage on the dynamics of the GIT microbiota and pin-point presumptive links to obesity. The knowledge and the hypotheses generated herein lay a foundation for subsequent, systematic research that will be paramount for the design of "smart" dietary and therapeutic interventions to modulate host-microbe metabolic co-regulation in intestinal homeostasis.

  8. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, pobese patients (51±3.2, pobesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  9. Obesity: A multifactorial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ntokou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ΒΜΙ=Weight/Height2. A value of ΒΜΙ ≥ 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.

  10. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  11. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS is expressed in human adipocytes in vivo and is related to obesity but not to insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Müller

    Full Text Available Inflammation and metabolism have been shown to be evolutionary linked and increasing evidence exists that pro-inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, most data suggest that within adipose tissue these factors are secreted by cells of the innate immune system, e. g. macrophages. In the present study we demonstrate that B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS is increased in human obesity. In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes rather than immune cells. In grade 3 obese human subjects, expression of BLyS in vivo in adipose tissue is significantly increased (p<0.001. Furthermore, BLyS serum levels are elevated in grade 3 human obesity (862.5+222.0 pg/ml vs. 543.7+60.7 pg/ml in lean controls, p<0.001 and are positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.43, p<0.0002. In the present study, bariatric surgery significantly altered serum BLyS concentrations. In contrast, weight loss due to a very-low-calorie-formula-diet (800 kcal/d had no such effect. To examine metabolic activity of BLyS, in a translational research approach, insulin sensitivity was measured in human subjects in vivo before and after treatment with the human recombinant anti-BLyS antibody belimumab. Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of grade 3 obese human subjects are able to activate the adaptive immune system, suggesting that in metabolic inflammation in humans both, innate and adaptive immunity, are of pathophysiological relevance.

  12. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User gu

  13. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products Di

  14. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients.

  15. Obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems.

  16. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) is expressed in human adipocytes in vivo and is related to obesity but not to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nike; Schulte, Dominik M; Hillebrand, Susann; Türk, Kathrin; Hampe, Jochen; Schafmayer, Clemens; Brosch, Mario; von Schönfels, Witigo; Ahrens, Markus; Zeuner, Rainald; Schröder, Johann O; Blüher, Matthias; Gutschow, Christian; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Saggau, Carina; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation and metabolism have been shown to be evolutionary linked and increasing evidence exists that pro-inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, most data suggest that within adipose tissue these factors are secreted by cells of the innate immune system, e. g. macrophages. In the present study we demonstrate that B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is increased in human obesity. In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes rather than immune cells. In grade 3 obese human subjects, expression of BLyS in vivo in adipose tissue is significantly increased (pr = 0.43, panti-BLyS antibody belimumab. Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of grade 3 obese human subjects are able to activate the adaptive immune system, suggesting that in metabolic inflammation in humans both, innate and adaptive immunity, are of pathophysiological relevance.

  17. [Monitoring the prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Due, P.; Hansen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has proposed a model to monitor the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Denmark. The model should make it possible to assess whether different initiatives reduce the prevalence of obesity and to gain knowledge on how to prevent obesity. The prevalence...

  18. Lipid exposure elicits differential responses in gene expression and DNA methylation in primary human skeletal muscle cells from severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Jill M; Brault, Jeffrey J; Shewchuk, Brian M; Witczak, Carol A; Zou, Kai; Rowland, Naomi; Hubal, Monica J; Weber, Todd M; Houmard, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    The skeletal muscle of obese individuals exhibits an impaired ability to increase the expression of genes linked with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) upon lipid exposure. The present study determined if this response could be attributed to differential DNA methylation signatures. RNA and DNA were isolated from primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMC) from lean and severely obese women following lipid incubation. mRNA expression and DNA methylation were quantified for genes that globally regulate FAO [PPARγ coactivator (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs)]. With lipid oversupply, increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, PPARα, and PPARδ expression were dampened in skeletal muscle from severely obese compared with lean women. The expression of genes downstream of the PPARs and NRFs also exhibited a pattern of not increasing as robustly upon lipid exposure with obesity. Increases in CpG methylation near the transcription start site with lipid oversupply were positively related to PPARδ expression; increases in methylation with lipid were depressed in HSkMC from severely obese women. With severe obesity, there is an impaired ability to upregulate global transcriptional regulators of FAO in response to lipid exposure. Transient changes in DNA methylation patterns and differences in the methylation signature with severe obesity may play a role in the transcriptional regulation of PPARδ in response to lipid. The persistence of differential responses to lipid in HSkMC derived from lean and obese subjects supports the possibility of stable epigenetic programming of skeletal muscle cells by the respective environments.

  19. Design of a Human Reliability Assessment model for structural engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J.; Terwel, K.C.; Al-Jibouri, S.H.S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that humans are the “weakest link” in structural design and construction processes. Despite this, few models are available to quantify human error within engineering processes. This paper demonstrates the use of a quantitative Human Reliability Assessment model within struct

  20. Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment^

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...

  1. Benefit-risk assessment of orlistat in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of intestinal lipase, has been available for the treatment of obesity for nearly two decades. In conjunction with a hypocaloric diet, orlistat treatment results in a placebo-subtracted reduction in body weight of around 3 kg at 1 year, and increases the likelihood of achieving clinically significant (≥5%) weight loss by around 20%. Orlistat-induced weight loss also confers modest improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemic parameters, and progression to diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, it has a good safety profile, and serious adverse events (including reports of severe kidney and liver injury) are rare. However, a high rate of gastrointestinal side effects limits adherence to treatment.

  2. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  3. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Tremaroli, Valentina; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that the gut microbiome complements our human genome with at least 100-fold more genes. In contrast to our Homo sapiens-derived genes, the microbiome is much more plastic, and its composition changes with age and diet, among other factors. An altered gut microbiota has been associated with several diseases, including obesity and diabetes, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we discuss factors that affect the gut microbiome, how the gut microbiome may contribute to metabolic diseases, and how to study the gut microbiome. Next-generation sequencing and development of software packages have led to the development of large-scale sequencing efforts to catalog the human microbiome. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered gnotobiotic mouse models may increase our understanding of mechanisms by which the gut microbiome modulates host metabolism. A combination of classical microbiology, sequencing, and animal experiments may provide further insights into how the gut microbiota affect host metabolism and physiology.

  4. Relationship of age and body mass index to the expression of obesity and osteoarthritis related genes in human meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Sandell, Linda J.; Cheverud, James M.; Brophy, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Aging and obesity contribute to the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis with little information on their relation to gene expression in joint tissues, particularly the meniscus. Here, we test the hypothesis that patient age and body mass index (BMI) correlate with the expression of osteoarthritis- and obesity-related gene signatures in the meniscus. Design Meniscus was obtained from patients (N=68) undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. The mRNA expression of twenty-four osteoarthritis-related and four obesity-related genes in meniscus was assessed by qRT-PCR. The relationship between gene expression and patient age and BMI was analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Hierarchical cluster dendrogram and heat maps were generated to study inter-gene associations. Results Age was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with the expression of MMP-1 (r=−0.447), NFκB2 (r=−0.361), NFκBIA (r=−0.312), IκBA (r=−0.308), IL-8 (r=−0.305), ADAMTS-4 (r=−0.294), APLN (r=−0.250) and IL-6 (r=−0.244). Likewise, BMI was negatively correlated with the expression of APLN (r=−0.328), ACAN (r=−0.268) and MMP-1 (r=−0.261). After adjusting for the correlation between age and BMI (r=0.310; P=0.008), the only independent effect of BMI on gene expression was for APLN (r=−0.272). However, age had an independent effect on expression on ADAMTS-4 (r=−0.253), MMP-1 (r=−0.399), IL-8 (r=−0.327), COL1A1 (r=−0.287), NFκBIA (r=−0.278), NFκB2 (r=−0.312) and IκBA (r=−0.299). The gene-correlation analysis identified four clusters of potentially relevant genes: transcription factors, matrix degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines, and obesity genes. Conclusion Age and BMI were negatively correlated with several osteoarthritis- and obesity-related genes. While the bulk of these changes appeared to be driven by age, expression of APLN was related to BMI. Inter-gene correlations implicated a common regulatory role of strongly

  5. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F......2 pig design, by estimating heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations using mixed- and multi-trait BLUP animal models. Our analyses revealed high coefficients of variation (15-42 per cent) and moderate to high heritabilities (0.22 - 0.81) in fatness traits, showing large phenotypic...

  6. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents.

  7. No genetic footprints of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in human plasma 1H CPMG NMR metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it was investigated if any genotypic footprints from the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) SNP could be found in 600 MHz 1H CPMG NMR profiles of around 1,000 human plasma samples from healthy Danish twins. The problem was addressed with a combination of univariate and multivariate...

  8. Replicability of international references for the assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. REPLICABILIDADE DAS PRINCIPAIS REFERÊNCIAS INTERNACIONAIS PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE SOBREPESO E OBESIDADE EM CRIANÇAS E ADOLESCENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Campos,Juliana A. D. B.; A. C. C. ZUANON

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the different international references assessing child andadolescent overweight and obesity. Thus, 2542 students, aged 6-16 years, from Araraquara – Brazil. Were tested. Anthropometric variables (weight and height) were measured and body mass index (BMI) tracked and the nutritional status classified as: 0:nonoverweight and non-obesity; 1: overweight; 2: obesity in accordance to the NCHS8, COLE et al.2. MUST et a...

  9. Anatomical locations of human brown adipose tissue: functional relevance and implications in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Harold; Symonds, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    We will review information about and present hypotheses as to the anatomy of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Why is it located where it is in humans? Its anatomical distribution is likely to confer survival value by protecting critical organs from hypothermia by adaptive thermogenesis. Ultimately, the location and function will be important when considering therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating obesity and type 2 diabetes, in which case successful interventions will need to have a significant effect on BAT function in subjects living in a thermoneutral environment. In view of the diverse locations and potential differences in responsiveness between BAT depots, it is likely that BAT will be shown to have much more subtle and thus previously overlooked functions and regulatory control mechanisms.

  10. TLR-3 is present in human adipocytes, but its signalling is not required for obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov B Ballak

    Full Text Available Innate immunity plays a pivotal role in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation originating from adipose tissue. Key receptors of the innate immune system including Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 (TLRs are triggered by nutrient excess to promote inflammation. The role of other TLRs in this process is largely unknown. In addition to double-stranded viral mRNA, TLR-3 can also recognize mRNA from dying endogenous cells, a process that is frequently observed within obese adipose tissue. Here, we identified profound expression of TLR-3 in adipocytes and investigated its role during diet-induced obesity. Human adipose tissue biopsies (n=80 and an adipocyte cell-line were used to study TLR-3 expression and function. TLR-3-/- and WT animals were exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks to induce obesity. Expression of TLR-3 was significantly higher in human adipocytes compared to the non-adipocyte cells part of the adipose tissue. In vitro, TLR-3 expression was induced during differentiation of adipocytes and stimulation of the receptor led to elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, TLR-3 deficiency did not significantly influence HFD-induced obesity, insulin sensitivity or inflammation. In humans, TLR-3 expression in adipose tissue did not correlate with BMI or insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR. Together, our results demonstrate that TLR-3 is highly expressed in adipocytes and functionally active. However, TLR-3 appears to play a redundant role in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

  11. Quality of life in severe obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, especially morbid obesity, is a major health problem with considerable impact on physical, mental and social quality of life. Assessment of quality of life is considered crucial to understand and evaluate the consequences of obesity. Obesity has major consequences for quality of life, e.g.,

  12. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H

    2008-01-01

    chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6 (interleukin-6) and adiponectin). CONCLUSION: FA1 serum levels were increased in obese subjects and might influence S(i). The stimulatory effect of FA1 protein on pro-inflammatory cytokines on both immune and adipose cell types could contribute to worsening the inflammatory...... levels. In severe obesity, serum levels of FA1 decreased 1.4-fold 6 months after bariatric surgery. In vitro assays with FA1 protein on human monocytes and adipocytes cell lines modified the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte...

  13. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Denise E; Lynch, Christopher J; Olson, Kristine C; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed; Smith, William H; Karpe, Fredrik; Humphreys, Sandy; Bedinger, Daniel H; Dunn, Tamara N; Thomas, Anthony P; Oort, Pieter J; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Amin, Rajesh; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G; Permana, Paska; Anthony, Tracy G; Adams, Sean H

    2013-06-01

    Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35-50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals.

  14. Cathepsin-D, a key protease in breast cancer, is up-regulated in obese mouse and human adipose tissue, and controls adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Masson

    Full Text Available The aspartic protease cathepsin-D (cath-D is overexpressed by human epithelial breast cancer cells and is closely correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The adipocyte is one of the most prominent cell types in the tumor-microenvironment of breast cancer, and clinical studies have shown that obesity increases the incidence of breast cancer. Here, we provide the first evidence that cath-D expression is up-regulated in adipose tissue from obese human beings, as well as in adipocytes from the obese C57BI6/J mouse. Cath-D expression is also increased during human and mouse adipocyte differentiation. We show that cath-D silencing in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes leads to lipid-depleted cells after adipogenesis induction, and inhibits of the expression of PPARγ, HSL and aP2 adipocyte differentiation markers. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the key role of cath-D in the control of adipogenesis, and suggest that cath-D may be a novel target in obesity.

  15. Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Kanasaki

    2011-01-01

    problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human health conditions and diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  16. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation. PMID:28106818

  17. Sexually dimorphic functional connectivity in response to high vs. low energy-dense food cues in obese humans: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayer, Deniz; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Gibson, Charlisa D; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Astbury, Nerys M; Geliebter, Allan

    2014-10-15

    Sexually-dimorphic behavioral and biological aspects of human eating have been described. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis, we investigated sex-based differences in functional connectivity with a key emotion-processing region (amygdala, AMG) and a key reward-processing area (ventral striatum, VS) in response to high vs. low energy-dense (ED) food images using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese persons in fasted and fed states. When fed, in response to high vs. low-ED food cues, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in right subgenual anterior cingulate, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left angular gyrus and right primary motor areas. In addition, when fed, AMG functional connectivity with pre/post-central gyrus was more associated with BMI in women (vs. men). When fasted, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in bilateral supplementary frontal and primary motor areas, left precuneus, and right cuneus, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left inferior frontal gyrus, right thalamus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. When fed, greater functional connectivity with VS was observed in men in bilateral supplementary and primary motor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus. These sex-based differences in functional connectivity in response to visual food cues may help partly explain differential eating behavior, pathology prevalence, and outcomes in men and women.

  18. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  19. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  20. Identification of direct and indirect social network effects in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H C A Henning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent different social network mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin-resistance. DESIGN: We used nonparametric and parametric regression models to analyse whether individual BMI and HOMA-IR are determined by social network characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 677 probands (EGO and 3033 social network partners (ALTER were included in the study. Data gathered from the probands include anthropometric measures, HOMA-IR index, health attitudes, behavioural and socio-economic variables and social network data. RESULTS: We found significant treatment effects for ALTERs frequent dieting (p<0.001 and ALTERs health oriented nutritional attitudes (p<0.001 on EGO's BMI, establishing a significant indirect network effect also on EGO's insulin resistance. Most importantly, we also found significant direct social network effects on EGO's insulin resistance, evidenced by an effect of ALTERs frequent dieting (p = 0.033 and ALTERs sport activities (p = 0.041 to decrease EGO's HOMA-IR index independently of EGO's BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Social network phenomena appear not only to be relevant for the spread of obesity, but also for the spread of insulin resistance as the basis for type 2 diabetes. Attitudes and behaviour of peer groups influence EGO's health status not only via social mechanisms, but also via socio-biological mechanisms, i.e. higher brain areas might be influenced not only by biological signals from the own organism, but also by behaviour and knowledge from different human individuals. Our approach allows the identification of peer group influence controlling for potential homophily even when using cross-sectional observational data.

  1. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  2. Obesity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, Rickie; Brisbon, Nancy; Plumb, James

    2009-09-01

    Obesity has become the second leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, trailing only tobacco use. Weight control, dietary choices, and levels of physical activity are important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. Physicians have a key role in integrating multifactorial approaches to prevention and management into clinical care and advocating for systemic prevention efforts. This article provides an introduction to the epidemiology and magnitude of childhood and adult obesity; the relationship between obesity and cancer and other chronic diseases; potential mechanisms postulated to explain these relationships; a review of recommended obesity treatment and assessment guidelines for adults, adolescents, and children; multilevel prevention strategies; and an approach to obesity management in adults using the Chronic Care Model.

  3. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  4. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of t

  5. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  6. Gene-chip studies of adipogenesis-regulated microRNAs in mouse primary adipocytes and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Iain J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue abundance relies partly on the factors that regulate adipogenesis, i.e. proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. While components of the transcriptional program that initiates adipogenesis is well-known, the importance of microRNAs in adipogenesis is less well studied. We thus set out to investigate whether miRNAs would be actively modulated during adipogenesis and obesity. Methods Several models exist to study adipogenesis in vitro, of which the cell line 3T3-L1 is the most well known, albeit not the most physiologically appropriate. Thus, as an alternative, we produced EXIQON microarray of brown and white primary murine adipocytes (prior to and following differentiation to yield global profiles of miRNAs. Results We found 65 miRNAs regulated during in vitro adipogenesis in primary adipocytes. We evaluated the similarity of our responses to those found in non-primary cell models, through literature data-mining. When comparing primary adipocyte profiles, with those of cell lines reported in the literature, we found a high degree of difference in 'adipogenesis' regulated miRNAs suggesting that the model systems may not be accurately representing adipogenesis. The expression of 10 adipogenesis-regulated miRNAs were studied using real-time qPCR and then we selected 5 miRNAs, that showed robust expression, were profiled in subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from 20 humans with a range of body mass indices (BMI, range = 21-48, and all samples have U133+2 Affymetrix profiles provided. Of the miRNAs tested, mir-21 was robustly expressed in human adipose tissue and positively correlated with BMI (R2 = 0.49, p Conclusion In conclusion, we provide a preliminary analysis of miRNAs associated with primary cell in vitro adipogenesis and demonstrate that the inflammation-associated miRNA, mir-21 is up-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue in human obesity. Further, we provide a novel transcriptomics database of

  7. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  8. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S;

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1...... was given for 5 d by prandial subcutaneous injections (PSI) (76 nmol 30 min before meals, four times daily; a total of 302.4 nmol/24 h) or by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSI) (12.7 nmol/h; a total of 304.8 nmol/24 h). This was performed in nineteen healthy obese subjects (mean age 44.2 (sem 2.5) years......; BMI 39.0 (sem 1.2) kg/m(2)) in a prospective randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Compared with the placebo, rGLP-1 administered as PSI and by CSI generated a 15 % reduction in mean food intake per meal (P=0.02) after 5 d treatment. A weight loss of 0.55 (sem 0.2) kg (P

  9. Jejunal administration of glucose enhances acyl ghrelin suppression in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Sidani, Reem M; Garcia, Anna E; Antoun, Joseph; Isbell, James M; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2016-07-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates hunger and worsens glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin is decreased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this change is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that jejunal nutrient exposure plays a significant role in ghrelin suppression after RYGB. Feeding tubes were placed in the stomach or jejunum in 13 obese subjects to simulate pre-RYGB or post-RYGB glucose exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively, without the confounding effects of caloric restriction, weight loss, and surgical stress. On separate study days, the plasma glucose curves obtained with either gastric or jejunal administration of glucose were replicated with intravenous (iv) infusions of glucose. These "isoglycemic clamps" enabled us to determine the contribution of the GI tract and postabsorptive plasma glucose to acyl ghrelin suppression. Plasma acyl ghrelin levels were suppressed to a greater degree with jejunal glucose administration compared with gastric glucose administration (P 0.05). Direct exposure of the proximal jejunum to glucose increases acyl ghrelin suppression independent of circulating glucose levels. The enhanced suppression of acyl ghrelin after RYGB may be due to a nutrient-initiated signal in the jejunum that regulates ghrelin secretion.

  10. Establishment of a human flora associated mice for obesity patient%肥胖患者HFA小鼠模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾本华; 唐欢; 李文霞; 袁静; 邓人伟; 魏泓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study gut microbiota of obesity patient colonized in germ free mice. Method 20 Kunming mice were inoculated with feces from an obesity patient to construct a human flora associated ( HFA) mice model. Feces of HFA mice and patient were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Result The richness (S) of obesity patient and HFA mice were 24 and 12.04 ± 3.68; ihe Shannon Index (H') of obesity patient and HFA mice were 3. 02 and 2. 46 ± 0. 33; the Similarity Dice of obesity patient and HFA mice was 26%. Most gut microbiota of male mice differed from those of female mice in the cluster profile; and the gut microbiota of male HFA mice were more semblable to human donor than those of female mice. Conclusion HFA mice are able to partly imitate microbiota of obesity patient. The HFA mice model for obesity patient is a new tool for study of the relationship between obesity and microbiota.%目的 研究肥胖患者的肠道菌群在无菌小鼠体内的定植规律.方法 选取20只无菌KM小鼠,接种肥胖患者的粪便,构建菌群人源化(HFA)动物模型,利用变性梯度凝胶电泳技术(DGGE)评价患者肠道菌群在无菌小鼠体内的定植规律.结果 HFA小鼠菌群平均丰富度(richness,S)为12.04±3.68,肥胖患者的条带S为24,为HFA小鼠S的2倍;肥胖患者Shannon指数(H')为3.02,HFA小鼠平均H'为2.46±0.33;HFA小鼠与人肠道菌群的总相似度为26%;大部分雌性HFA小鼠与雄性HFA小鼠在聚类分析图上分离,且雄性HFA小鼠与患者更为相似.结论 HFA小鼠体内能部分模拟肥胖患者的微生物区系,且与患者性别相同的小鼠模拟得更好.本实验建立的HFA模型为肥胖与肠道菌群关系的进一步研究提供新的选择.

  11. Familial obesity as a predictor of child obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirilov Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Studies carried out in various parts of the world indicate that family obesity significantly affects the incidence of obesity in children. This is especially a characteristic of children whose both parents are obese. Material and methods The study was conducted using a polling method. Questionnaires were filled out by parents and brothers and sisters, including their body height and weight. The collected data served as the basis for assessing the family nutritional status. Results Statistical analysis of the results showed that obese children frequently have obese parents, brothers and sisters in regard to normal-weight children. Differences are statistically significant in relation to fathers (r=0.043, i.e. statistically obese schoolchildren have more frequently obese fathers than those of normal nutritional status. Other differences could not be considered significant (p > 0.05. Discussion Obese children have more often obese parents, brothers and sisters than normal-weight children. It was found that the nutritional status of moderately and extremely obese children was quite different from that of normal-weight children and that there was a statistically significant dependence between the nutritional status of children and their fathers. Conclusion This research showed that family obesity is a potential contributing factor to obesity of schoolchildren.

  12. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ianosi Edith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

  13. The obesity paradox in surgical patients : From preoperative assessment to long term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Galal (Wael)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the Netherlands, 16 million inhabitants undergo about 1 million surgical procedures annually. The percentage of serious adverse advents is a burden to society and stresses the need for adequate preoperative assessment in order to select and optimize surgical patients. The clinical

  14. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences.

  15. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity.

  16. CD36- and GPR120-mediated Ca2+ Signaling in Human Taste Bud Cells Mediates Differential Responses to Fatty Acids and is Altered in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Sundaresan, Sinju; Sery, Omar; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A.; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims It is important to increase our understanding of gustatory detection of dietary fat and its contribution to fat preference. We studied the roles of the fat taste receptors CD36 and GPR120 and their interactions via Ca2+ signaling in fungiform taste bud cells (TBC). Methods We measured Ca2+ signaling in human TBC, transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against mRNAs encoding CD36 and GPR120 (or control siRNAs). We also studied Ca2+ signaling in TBC from CD36−/− mice and from wild-type lean and obese mice. Additional studies were conducted with mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 that express GPR120 and stably transfected with human CD36. We measured release of serotonin and GLP-1 from human and mice TBC in response to CD36 and GPR120 activation. Results High concentrations of linoleic acid induced Ca2+ signaling via CD36 and GPR120 in human and mice TBC as well as in STC-1 cells, whereas low concentrations induced Ca2+ signaling via only CD36. Incubation of human and mice fungiform TBC with lineoleic acid downregulated CD36 and upregulated GPR120 in membrane lipid rafts. Obese mice had decreased spontaneous preference for fat. Fungiform TBC from obese mice had reduced Ca2+ and serotonin responses but increased release of GLP1, along with reduced levels of CD36 and increased levels of GPR120 in lipid rafts. Conclusions CD36 and GPR120 have non-overlapping roles in TBC signaling during oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids; these are differentially regulated by obesity. PMID:24412488

  17. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Joselene Martinelli; Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia de; Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues de; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (psocio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  18. Self-reported body weight and height: an assessment tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Noel P T; Choi, Kai C; Nelson, E Anthony S; Sung, Rita Y T; Chan, Juliana C N; Kong, Alice P S

    2013-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used for assessing body fat. Self-reported body weight and height derived BMI (SRDBMI) is a simple, low cost and non-invasive assessment tool and it may be a useful self-reported assessment tool to monitor the prevalence of overweight/obesity in community settings and for epidemiological research. We assessed the agreement of BW and BH between assessor measured and child self-reported values and evaluated the diagnostic ability of SRDBMI to identify children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) clustering. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school settings using a cluster sampling method. A total of 1,614 children aged 6-18 years were included in the analysis. Children were given a questionnaire to complete at home prior to the anthropometric measurements and blood taking at the schools. There was almost perfect agreement on BW, BH and BMI between self-reported and measured values [intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.93-0.94) to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99)]. About half of the children reported their BW and BH absolute values within 1 kg and 2 cm of measured values, respectively. The SRDBMI demonstrated good diagnostic ability for identifying children with overweight/obesity status (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged from 0.83 to 0.98) and CMRFs clustering (AUC-ROCs values of BMI between measured and self-reported values were close ranging from 0.85 to 0.89). Self-reported BW and BH demonstrated almost perfect agreement with measured values and could substantially identify children with overweight/obesity status and CMRFs clustering.

  19. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...

  20. Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2005-08-27

    Some phthalates, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic and endocrino-disrupting effects. In this study, urinary levels of phthalates (DEHP, DBP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate BBP), and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, a major metabolite of DEHP) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human populations (women [hospital visitors], n = 150, and children, n = 150). Daily exposure level of DEHP in children was estimated to be 12.4 microg/kg body weight/d (male 9.9 microg/kg body weight/d, female 17.8 microg/kg body weight/d), but, in women was estimated to be 41.7 microg/kg body weight/d, which exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI, 37 microg/kg body weight/day) level established by the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (SCTEE) based on reproductive toxicity. Based on these data, hazard indices (HIs) were calculated to be 1.12 (41.7/37 TDI) for women and 0.33 (12.4/37 TDI) for children, respectively. These data suggest that Koreans (women and children) were exposed to significant levels of phthalates, which should be reduced to as low a level as technologically feasible to protect Koreans from the exposure to toxic phthalates.

  1. “Infectobesity: viral infections (especially with human adenovirus-36: Ad-36) may be a cause of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Sitnyakowsky, L.; Jeffery, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years viral infections have been recognized as possible cause of obesity, alongside the traditionally recognized causes (genetic inheritance, and behaviour/environmental causes such as diet exercise, cultural practices and stress). Although four viruses have been reported to induce obesity

  2. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind crossov

  3. Changes in human dendritic cell number and function in severe obesity may contribute to increased susceptibility to viral infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, D

    2013-02-26

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune sentinels linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs recognise danger signals and initiate T-cell tolerance, memory and polarisation. They are critical cells in responding to a viral illness. Obese individuals have been shown to have an impaired response to vaccinations against virally mediated conditions and to have an increased susceptibility to multi-organ failure in response to viral illness. We investigated if DCs are altered in an obese cohort (mean body mass index 51.7±7.3 kg m(-2)), ultimately resulting in differential T-cell responses. Circulating DCs were found to be significantly decreased in the obese compared with the lean cohort (0.82% vs 2.53%). Following Toll-like receptor stimulation, compared with lean controls, DCs generated from the obese cohort upregulated significantly less CD83 (40% vs 17% mean fluorescence intensity), a molecule implicated in the elicitation of T-cell responses, particularly viral responses. Obese DCs produced twofold more of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 than lean controls, and in turn stimulated fourfold more IL-4-production from allogenic naive T cells. We conclude that obesity negatively impacts the ability of DCs to mature and elicit appropriate T-cell responses to a general stimulus. This may contribute to the increased susceptibility to viral infection observed in severe obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 26 February 2013; doi:10.1038\\/ijo.2013.16.

  4. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University’s lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shilpi Gupta,1 Samer Hassan,1 Vijaya R Bhatt,2 Houssein Abdul Sater,1 Asma Dilawari31Hematology-Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Hematology-Oncology, Nebraska Medical Ctr, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Hematology-Oncology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Olney, Maryland, USAIntroduction: The incidence of lung cancer in the United States decreased by 1.8% from 1991 to 2005 while it increased by 0.5% in females. We assessed whether nonsmokers afflicted with lung cancer at Staten Island University Hospital are disproportionately female in comparison to national averages. We also evaluated different factors including race, histology, and body mass index (BMI in correlation with smoking history.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2005 to 2011 on 857 patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to their smoking status: current or ever-smokers, and former or never-smokers. A chi-square test for categorical data and multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to study the relation between BMI and the other clinical and demographic data.Results: Forty-nine percent of patients were men and 51% were women with a mean age at diagnosis of 67.8 years. Current smokers were most common (50.2% followed by ever-smokers (18.2%, former smokers (15.8% and never-smokers (15.6%. Forty eight percent had stage IV lung cancer upon presentation. Never-smokers with lung cancer were 24 times more likely to be females. However, the proportion of female former smokers (31.6% was lower than the proportion of male former smokers (68.4% (P=0.001. There was no significant association between American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC stage, sex, race, and histological type in the two smoking groups. Current/ever-smokers tended to be younger at age of diagnosis (P=0.0003. BMI was lower in the current/ever-smokers (26.8 kg/m2 versus former/never-smokers (28.8 in males (P=0.0005. BMI was significantly higher in

  5. Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Asthma in Children Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma in Children Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  6. Genetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Karine; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a typical common multifactorial disease in which environmental and genetic factors interact. In rare cases of severe obesity with childhood onset, a single gene has a major effect in determining the occurrence of obesity, with the environment having only a permissive role in the severity of the phenotype. Exceptional mutations of the leptin gene and its receptor, pro-opiomelanocortine (POMC), prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and more frequently, mutations in the melanocortin receptor 4 (1 to 4% of very obese cases) have been described. All these obesity genes encode proteins that are strongly connected as part of the same loop of the regulation of food intake. They all involve the leptin axis and one of its hypothalamic targets; the melanocortin pathway. Pathways of bodyweight regulation involved in monogenic forms of obesity might represent targets for future drug development. Successful leptin protein replacement in a leptin-deficient child has contributed to the validation of the usefulness of gene screening in humans. However, the individual variability in response to leptin treatment might be related to genetic variability. The efficiency of leptin itself or of small-molecule agonists of the leptin receptor should be studied in relation with genetic variations in the leptin gene promoter. The most common forms of obesity are polygenic. Two general approaches have been used to date in the search for genes underlying common polygenic obesity in humans. The first approach focuses on selected genes having some plausible role in obesity on the basis of their known or presumed biological role. This approach yielded putative susceptibility genes with only small or uncertain effects. The second approach attempts to map genes purely by position and requires no presumptions on the function of genes. Genome-wide scans identify chromosomal regions showing linkage with obesity in large collections of nuclear families. Genome-wide scans in different ethnic

  7. Reduced UCP-1 content in in vitro differentiated beige/brite adipocytes derived from preadipocytes of human subcutaneous white adipose tissues in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Carey

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brown adipose tissue (BAT is a potential therapeutic target to reverse obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary precursor cells isolated from human adult subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT can be induced to differentiate in-vitro into adipocytes that express key markers of brown or beige adipose, and whether the expression level of such markers differs between lean and obese young adult males. METHODS: Adipogenic precursor cells were isolated from lean and obese individuals from subcutaneous abdominal WAT biopsies. Cells were grown to confluence, differentiated for 2.5 weeks then harvested for measurement of gene expression and UCP1 protein. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups with respect to differentiation into adipocytes, as indicated by oil red-O staining, rates of lipolysis, and expression of adipogenic genes (FABP4, PPARG. WAT genes (HOXC9, RB1 were expressed equally in the two groups. Post differentiation, the beige adipose specific genes CITED1 and CD137 were significantly increased in both groups, but classic BAT markers ZIC1 and LHX8 decreased significantly. Cell lines from both groups also equally increased post-differentiation expression of the thermogenic-responsive gene PPARGC1A (PGC-1α. UCP1 gene expression was undetectable prior to differentiation, however after differentiation both gene expression and protein content were increased in both groups and were significantly greater in cultures from lean compared with obese individuals (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Human subcutaneous WAT cells can be induced to attain BAT characteristics, but this capacity is reduced in WAT cells from obese individuals.

  8. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  9. Zinc level and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa S.E Zaky; Eman A Sultan; Mahmoud F Salim; Rana S Dawod

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic condition that is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum zinc level and different clinical and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Patients and methods Twenty-four individuals with BMI more than 30 kg/m 2 and 14 healthy controls (BMI < 24 kg/m 2 ) were assessed for BMI and waist circumference using anthropometric measurements. Colorimetric tes...

  10. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bruin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  11. Overweight and obesity are associated with neuronal injury in the human cerebellum and hippocampus in young adults: a combined MRI, serum marker and gene expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K; Sacher, J; Arelin, K; Holiga, S; Kratzsch, J; Villringer, A; Schroeter, M L

    2012-12-04

    There is growing evidence that obesity represents a risk for enhanced gray matter (GM) density changes comparable to those demonstrated for mild cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, it is not clear what mechanisms underlie this apparent alteration in brain structure of overweight subjects and to what extent these changes can already occur in the adolescent human brain. In the present volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated GM changes and serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker for neuronal injury, in a set of overweight/obese subjects and controls. We report a negative correlation for overweight and obese subjects between serum NSE and GM density in hippocampal and cerebellar regions. To validate our neuroimaging findings, we complement these data with NSE gene expression information obtained from the Allen Brain atlas. GM density changes were localized in brain areas that mediate cognitive function-the hippocampus associated with memory performance, and the cognitive cerebellum (lateral posterior lobes) associated with executive, spatial and linguistic processing. The data of our present study highlight the importance of extending current research on cognitive function and brain plasticity in the elderly in the context of obesity to young adult subjects and include serum biomarkers to validate imaging findings generally.

  12. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  13. Decreased MicroRNA-221 is Associated with High Levels of TNF-α in Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Obese Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Chou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the regulation and involvement of miR-221 in the differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs. The relationships between miR-221 and pro-inflammatory markers and adipokines were also explored. Methods: Eight adipose tissues were obtained from four obese (mean body mass index (BMI =31.7 kg/m2 and four lean (mean BMI= 21.5 kg/m2 women. hASCs were induced to differentiate, and the related gene expression were measured in the hASC-differentiated adipocytes using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR. Results: During adipogenesis, miR-221 was significantly down-regulated; furthermore, miR-221 levels were lower in hASC-differentiated adipocytes from obese subjects than in the corresponding adipocytes from lean subjects. Higher TNF-α mRNA levels were associated with lower levels of miR-221. In addition, the miR-221 levels in the adipocytes were inversely correlated with BMI. Conclusion: Our results support the link between miR-221 and obesity development as well as obesity related inflammatory status.

  14. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  15. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  16. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  17. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  18. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides modulate intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of humanized gnotobiotic diet induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Frederique; Gerard, Philippe; Bossis, Mathilde; Boschat, Laura; Bruneau, Aurélia; Rabot, Sylvie; Wagner, Anne; Martin, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotic fibres like short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) are known to selectively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and especially to stimulate Bifidobacteria. In parallel, the involvement of intestinal microbiota in host metabolic regulation has been recently highlighted. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of scFOS on the composition of the faecal microbiota and on metabolic parameters in an animal model of diet-induced obesity harbouring a human-type microbiota. Forty eight axenic C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with a sample of faecal human microbiota and randomly assigned to one of 3 diets for 7 weeks: a control diet, a high fat diet (HF, 60% of energy derived from fat)) or an isocaloric HF diet containing 10% of scFOS (HF-scFOS). Mice fed with the two HF gained at least 21% more weight than mice from the control group. Addition of scFOS partially abolished the deposition of fat mass but significantly increased the weight of the caecum. The analysis of the taxonomic composition of the faecal microbiota by FISH technique revealed that the addition of scFOS induced a significant increase of faecal Bifidobacteria and the Clostridium coccoides group whereas it decreased the Clostridium leptum group. In addition to modifying the composition of the faecal microbiota, scFOS most prominently affected the faecal metabolome (e.g. bile acids derivatives, hydroxyl monoenoic fatty acids) as well as urine, plasma hydrophilic and plasma lipid metabolomes. The increase in C. coccoides and the decrease in C. leptum, were highly correlated to these metabolic changes, including insulinaemia, as well as to the weight of the caecum (empty and full) but not the increase in Bifidobacteria. In conclusion scFOS induce profound metabolic changes by modulating the composition and the activity of the intestinal microbiota, that may partly explain their effect on the reduction of insulinaemia.

  19. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program.

  20. What virtual reality research in addictions can tell us about the future of obesity assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR), a system of human-computer interaction that allows researchers and clinicians to immerse people in virtual worlds, is gaining considerable traction as a research, education, and treatment tool. Virtual reality has been used successfully to treat anxiety disorders such as fear of flying and post-traumatic stress disorder, as an aid in stroke rehabilitation, and as a behavior modification aid in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Virtual reality has also been employed in research on addictive disorders. Given the strong evidence that drug-dependent people are highly prone to use and relapse in the presence of environmental stimuli associated with drug use, VR is an ideal platform from which to study this relationship. Research using VR has shown that drug-dependent people react with strong craving to specific cues (e.g., cigarette packs, liquor bottles) as well as environments or settings (e.g., bar, party) associated with drug use. Virtual reality has also been used to enhance learning and generalization of relapse prevention skills in smokers by reinforcing these skills in lifelike environments. Obesity researchers and treatment professionals, building on the lessons learned from VR research in substance abuse, have the opportunity to adapt these methods for investigating their own research and treatment questions. Virtual reality is ideally suited to investigate the link between food cues and environmental settings with eating behaviors and self-report of hunger. In addition, VR can be used as a treatment tool for enhancing behavior modification goals to support healthy eating habits by reinforcing these goals in life-like situations.

  1. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  2. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model...... suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs....... non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non...

  3. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF INFLAMMATORY MARKERS AND LIPID PROFILE LEVELS IN NORMOTENSIVE, PRIMARY HYPERTENSIVE AND SECONDARY HYPERTENSIVE MALE OBESE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Ravikiran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertension is recognized as the most common cardiovascular disorder and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Primary hypertension is an indicator for further complications. Hyperlipidaemia is an indicator for hypertension and recognized as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE To assess the C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma lipid profile in primary and secondary hypertensive and normotensive subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this case-control observational study the ESR, CRP and lipid profile (Twelve hour fasting lipid analysis was done for Serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL test values were compared in 150 members. Height and weight were measured with the subject in light clothes without shoes and Body Mass Index (BMI (Kg/m2 was calculated. Statistical analysis was done by Microsoft office 2010. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set for selection of the study group. RESULTS We observed increase in ESR, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in secondary hypertensive people as compared with normotensive and primary hypertensive individuals. HDL cholesterol levels are decreased in secondary hypertensive male individuals, but no change is observed in HDL cholesterol levels in primary hypertensive male. We emphasized minimal increase in CRP levels in secondary hypertensive male obese individuals as compared with normotensive individuals. CONCLUSION Increase in ESR, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL-C indicates person is prone to subacute infection and inflammation. He should be thoroughly examined. Change in lipid profile and increase in ESR levels may lead to further cardiovascular disorders.

  5. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT affects obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation without systemic effects in humans and in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov B Ballak

    Full Text Available Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. We used human adipose tissue biopsies to study the relationship of MAP3K8 expression with markers of obesity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, we evaluated obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice lacking MAP3K8 and WT mice on a high-fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks. Individuals with a BMI >30 displayed a higher mRNA expression of MAP3K8 in adipose tissue compared to individuals with a normal BMI. Additionally, high mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, but not TNF -α, in human adipose tissue were associated with higher expression of MAP3K8. Moreover, high plasma SAA and CRP did not associate with increased MAP3K8 expression in adipose tissue. Similarly, no association was found for MAP3K8 expression with plasma insulin or glucose levels. Mice lacking MAP3K8 had similar bodyweight gain as WT mice, yet displayed lower mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 in adipose tissue in response to the HFD as compared to WT animals. However, MAP3K8 deficient mice were not protected against HFD-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration or the development of insulin resistance. Together, the data in both human and mouse show that MAP3K8 is involved in local adipose tissue inflammation, specifically for IL-1β and its responsive cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but does not seem to have systemic effects on insulin resistance.

  6. Molecular Characterization of the Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 Gene: Regulation by PPARγ and Identification of TUSC5 Coding Variants in Lean and Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina A. Knotts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5 is a gene expressed abundantly in white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and peripheral afferent neurons. Strong adipocyte expression and increased expression following peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonist treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggested a role for Tusc5 in fat cell proliferation and/or metabolism. However, the regulation of Tusc5 in WAT and its potential association with obesity phenotypes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the TUSC5 gene is a bona fide PPARγ target and evaluated whether its WAT expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TUSC5 coding region are associated with human obesity. Induction of Tusc5 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by troglitazone and GW1929 followed a dose-response consistent with these agents' binding affinities for PPARγ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments confirmed that PPARγ protein binds a ∼−1.1 kb promotor sequence of murine TUSC5 transiently during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, concurrent with histone H3 acetylation. No change in Tusc5 mRNA or protein levels was evident in type 2 diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone. Tusc5 expression was not induced appreciably in liver preparations overexpressing PPARs, suggesting that tissue-specific factors regulate PPARγ responsiveness of the TUSC5 gene. Finally, we observed no differences in Tusc5 WAT expression or prevalence of coding region SNPs in lean versus obese human subjects. These studies firmly establish the murine TUSC5 gene locus as a PPARγ target, but the significance of Tusc5 in obesity phenotypes or in the pharmacologic actions of PPARγ agonists in humans remains equivocal.

  7. Different effects of hyperlipidic diets in human lactation and adulthood: growth versus the development of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemany Marià

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After birth, the body shifts from glucose as primary energy substrate to milk-derived fats, with sugars from lactose taking a secondary place. At weaning, glucose recovers its primogeniture and dietary fat role decreases. In spite of human temporary adaptation to a high-fat (and sugars and protein diet during lactation, the ability to thrive on this type of diet is lost irreversibly after weaning. We could not revert too the lactating period metabolic setting because of different proportions of brain/muscle metabolism in the total energy budget, lower thermogenesis needs and capabilities, and absence of significant growth in adults. A key reason for change was the limited availability of foods with high energy content at weaning and during the whole adult life of our ancestors, which physiological adaptations remain practically unchanged in our present-day bodies. Humans have evolved to survive with relatively poor diets interspersed by bouts of scarcity and abundance. Today diets in many societies are largely made up from choice foods, responding to our deeply ingrained desire for fats, protein, sugars, salt etc. Consequently our diets are not well adjusted to our physiological needs/adaptations but mainly to our tastes (another adaptation to periodic scarcity, and thus are rich in energy roughly comparable to milk. However, most adult humans cannot process the food ingested in excess because our cortical-derived craving overrides the mechanisms controlling appetite. This is produced not because we lack the biochemical mechanisms to use this energy, but because we are unprepared for excess, and wholly adapted to survive scarcity. The thrifty mechanisms compound the effects of excess nutrients and damage the control of energy metabolism, developing a pathologic state. As a consequence, an overflow of energy is generated and the disease of plenty develops.

  8. Changes in lipidemia during chronic care treatment of childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Gamborg, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents.......Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents....

  9. Considerations for the integration of human and wildlife radiological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Brown, J E; Beresford, N A

    2010-06-01

    A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which are loosely based on real or predicted discharge data, we investigate how radiological assessments of humans and wildlife can be integrated with special consideration given to the recent outputs of the ICRP. We highlight how assumptions about the location of the exposed population of humans and wildlife, and the selection of appropriate benchmarks for determining potential risks can influence the outcome of the assessments. A number of issues associated with the transfer component and numeric benchmarks were identified, which need to be addressed in order to fully integrate the assessment approaches. A particular issue was the lack of comparable benchmark values for humans and wildlife. In part this may be addressed via the ICRP's recommended derived consideration reference levels for their 12 Reference Animals and Plants.

  10. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  11. Considerations for the integration of human and wildlife radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Brown, J E [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, 1361 Oesteraas (Norway); Beresford, N A, E-mail: david.copplestone@environment-agency.gov.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which are loosely based on real or predicted discharge data, we investigate how radiological assessments of humans and wildlife can be integrated with special consideration given to the recent outputs of the ICRP. We highlight how assumptions about the location of the exposed population of humans and wildlife, and the selection of appropriate benchmarks for determining potential risks can influence the outcome of the assessments. A number of issues associated with the transfer component and numeric benchmarks were identified, which need to be addressed in order to fully integrate the assessment approaches. A particular issue was the lack of comparable benchmark values for humans and wildlife. In part this may be addressed via the ICRP's recommended derived consideration reference levels for their 12 Reference Animals and Plants.

  12. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  13. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  14. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  15. Obesity and age-related alterations in the gene expression of zinc-transporter proteins in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, R H; Hyde, T M; Kleinman, J E; Smidt, K; Rungby, J; Larsen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. Major risk factors for AD are advancing age and diabetes. Lately, obesity has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. Obese and diabetic individuals are prone to decreased circulating levels of zinc, reducing the amount of zinc available for crucial intracellular processes. In the brain, zinc co-localizes with glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and modulates NMDA receptor activity. Intracellular zinc is involved in apoptosis an...

  16. Satellite cells derived from obese humans with type 2 diabetes and differentiated into myocytes in vitro exhibit abnormal response to IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Scheele

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with chronically elevated systemic levels of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a role in skeletal muscle metabolism that signals through the IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes develops a resistance to IL-6. By utilizing western blot analysis, we demonstrate that IL-6Rα protein was down regulated in skeletal muscle biopsies from obese persons with and without type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the status of IL-6 signaling in skeletal muscle in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, we isolated satellite cells from skeletal muscle of people that were healthy (He, obese (Ob or were obese and had type 2 diabetes (DM, and differentiated them in vitro into myocytes. Down-regulation of IL-6Rα was conserved in Ob myocytes. In addition, acute IL-6 administration for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, resulted in a down-regulation of IL-6Rα protein in Ob myocytes compared to both He myocytes (P<0.05 and DM myocytes (P<0.05. Interestingly, there was a strong time-dependent regulation of IL-6Rα protein in response to IL-6 (P<0.001 in He myocytes, not present in the other groups. Assessing downstream signaling, DM, but not Ob myocytes demonstrated a trend towards an increased protein phosphorylation of STAT3 in DM myocytes (P = 0.067 accompanied by a reduced SOCS3 protein induction (P<0.05, in response to IL-6 administration. Despite this loss of negative control, IL-6 failed to increase AMPKα2 activity and IL-6 mRNA expression in DM myocytes. There was no difference in fusion capacity of myocytes between cell groups. Our data suggest that negative control of IL-6 signaling is increased in myocytes in obesity, whereas a dysfunctional IL-6 signaling is established further downstream of IL-6Rα in DM myocytes, possibly representing a novel mechanism by which skeletal muscle function is compromised in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Humans vs Hardware: The Unique World of NASA Human System Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.; Overton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spaceflight risks to crew health and performance is a crucial aspect of preparing for exploration missions in the future. The research activities of the Human Research Program (HRP) provide substantial evidence to support most risk reduction work. The Human System Risk Board (HSRB), acting on behalf of the Office of Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), assesses these risks and assigns likelihood and consequence ratings to track progress. Unfortunately, many traditional approaches in risk assessment such as those used in the engineering aspects of spaceflight are difficult to apply to human system risks. This presentation discusses the unique aspects of risk assessment from the human system risk perspective and how these limitations are accommodated and addressed in order to ensure that reasonable inputs are provided to support the OCHMO's overall risk posture for manned exploration missions.

  18. Rare genetic diseases with human lean and/or starvation phenotype open new avenues for obesity and type II diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harosh, Itzik

    2014-01-01

    Treatments of obesity and type II diabetes target often gene functions involved in appetite-satiety, fat and carbohydrate metabolism or thermogenesis. None of these, have provided efficient drug therapy due to a large number of genes involved in weight and energy management, the redundancy of biochemical pathways and the environmental factors. Here I discuss a new approach based on studies of genes/proteins that are associated with human "lean or starvation" phenotype that became very rare in the course of evolution. This approach has led to the identification of the congenital enteropeptidase deficiency gene and the Anderson's Disease gene as a potential targets for obesity and type II diabetes treatment. The advantages of these targets are: 1) they are expressed exclusively in the intestine; 2) they are peripheral targets as opposed to systemic targets; 3) they are not redundant targets. These targets open new hopes for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of common metabolic syndrome.

  19. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  20. [Expression of human insulin in lactic acid bacteria and its oral administration in non-obese diabetic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Wei; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Lian-Dong

    2007-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an auto-immune disease while oral administrating its autoantigens could be a treatment of T1DM. To express human insulin gene (ins) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for oral vaccine, ins gene was replaced by LAB bias codon and an 8-amino-acid-residue linker peptide forming a beta-turn was designed to link insulin chain A and B. After synthesized by primer annealing method, the whole ins gene was fused with signal peptide sequence SP(Usp45), subcloned into a LAB secretory expressive vector pSW501 and then introduced to Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) MG1363 and Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei ) ATCC27092 respectively. Western blot showed that the expression product (SP(Usp45)-INS protein) targeted mainly at the cell wall while little was found in cytoplasm or supernatant. The highest expression level emerged in exponential phase when the optical density at 600nm of the culture was 0.4. The culture of the recombinant strain Lb. casei/pSW501 was administered to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice orally. ELISA and Western blot results showed that the recombinant strain could induce SP(Usp45)-INS-specific antibodies and raise IL-4 level (38.583 +/- 2.083 pg/mL, P < 0.05) in the mice' s sera. Expression of insulin in the food-grade vehicle LAB could induce oral immune tolerance in NOD mice and protect it from pancreas injury, suggesting it might be a new way to the treatment of T1DM.

  1. Hypertension in obesity: is leptin the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Stephanie E; Cowley, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    The number of obese or overweight humans continues to increase worldwide. Hypertension is a serious disease that often develops in obesity, but it is not clear how obesity increases the risk of hypertension. However, both obesity and hypertension increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this review, we examine how obesity may increase the risk of developing hypertension. Specifically, we discuss how the adipose-derived hormone leptin influences the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), through actions in the brain to elevate energy expenditure (EE) while also contributing to hypertension in obesity.

  2. Association of Obesity-Mediated Insulin Resistance and Hypothalamic Volumes: Possible Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is important in hunger and metabolism. Although a lot is known about the basic role of the human hypothalamus, less is known about how the in vivo volume is affected in obesity, particularly among adolescents. Based on pediatric body mass index percentiles, 95 participants were assigned to lean or obese groups. All subjects had medical evaluations, including fasting blood tests, to assess insulin sensitivity and circulating CRP and neurotrophins (NGF and BDNF and an MRI of the brain. Hypothalamic volumes were measured by a segmentation method combining manual and automated steps. Overall, obese participants had descriptively smaller hypothalamic volumes, although this difference did not reach statistical significance; however, among obese participants, females had significantly smaller hypothalamic volumes than their male counterparts. There was a significant interaction between insulin resistance and sex on hypothalamus volume; obese females with significant insulin resistance have smaller hypothalamic volumes than obese males. Obese adolescents had higher circulating CRP and neurotrophin levels. Furthermore, among obese females, BDNF concentrations were inversely associated with hypothalamus volumes (r=−0.48. Given this negative association between BDNF and hypothalamus volumes among obese insulin-resistant females, elevated neurotrophin levels may suggest an attempt at protective compensation.

  3. Toxicological Findings in 889 Fatally Injured Obese Pilots Involved in Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    controlled by diet and/or disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism 11 Labile hypertension 10 Diabetes controlled by hypoglycemic drugs 6 Glycosuria or...weight-loss .emedtv . com/obesity/obesity-chart .html . 20 . Gearhardt an, corbin Wr, Brownell Kd . Food addiction : an examination of the diagnostic...criteria for dependence . J addict Med 2009; 3(1):1–7 . 21 . heymsfield sB, allison dB, heshka s, Pierson rn, Jr . assessment of human body composition

  4. Assessing the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in young children: comparison of a simple population survey with 24 hr-recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing focus on obesity prevention there is a need for simple, valid tools to assess dietary indicators that may be the targets of intervention programs. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity of previous day dietary intake using a newly developed parent-proxy questionnaire (EPAQ for two to five year old children. Methods A convenience sample of participants (n = 90 recruited through preschools and the community in Geelong, Australia provided dietary data for their child via EPAQ and interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 hr-recall. Comparison of mean food and beverage group servings between the EPAQ and 24 hr-recall was conducted and Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine the association between the two methods. Results Mean servings of food/beverage groups were comparable between methods for all groups except water, and significant correlations were found between the servings of food and beverages using the EPAQ and 24-hr recall methods (ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Conclusion The EPAQ is a simple and useful population-level tool for estimating the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in children aged two to five years. When compared with 24-hour recall data, the EPAQ produced an acceptable level of relative validity and this short survey has application for population monitoring and the evaluation of population-based obesity prevention interventions for young children.

  5. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results.

  6. The human component of sustainability: a study for assessing "human performances" of energy efficient construction blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an applied research aimed at understanding the relevance and the applicability of human related criteria in sustainability assessment of construction materials. Under a theoretical perspective, human factors consideration is strongly encouraged by building sustainability assessment methods, but the practice demonstrates that current models for building sustainability assessment neglect ergonomic issues, especially those ones concerning the construction phase. The study starts from the observation that new construction techniques for high energy efficient external walls are characterized by elements generally heavier and bigger than traditional materials. In this case, high sustainability performances connected with energy saving could be reached only consuming high, and then not very much sustainable, human efforts during setting-up operations. The paper illustrates a practical approach for encompassing human factors in sustainability assessment of four block types for energy efficient external walls. Research steps, from block selections to bricklaying task analysis, human factors indicators and metrics formulation, data gathering and final assessment are going to be presented. Finally, open issues and further possible generalizations from the particular case study will be discussed.

  7. Obesity Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic.

  8. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  9. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  10. Obesity-insulin targeted genes in the 3p26-25 region in human studies and LG/J and SM/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Aldi T; Lawson, Heather A; Arnett, Donna K; Borecki, Ingrid B; Broeckel, Ulrich; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Hunt, Steven C; Province, Michael A; Cheverud, James; Rao, D C

    2012-08-01

    Identifying metabolic syndrome (MetS) genes is important for novel drug development and health care. This study extends the findings on human chromosome 3p26-25 for an identified obesity-insulin factor QTL, with an LOD score above 3. A focused association analysis comprising up to 9578 African American and Caucasian subjects from the HyperGEN Network (908 African Americans and 1025 whites), the Family Heart Study (3035 whites in time 1 and 1943 in time 2), and the Framingham Heart Study (1317 in Offspring and 1320 in Generation 3) was performed. The homologous mouse region was explored in an F(16) generation of an advanced intercross between the LG/J and SM/J inbred strains, in an experiment where 1002 animals were fed low-fat (247 males; 254 females) or high-fat (253 males; 248 females) diets. Association results in humans indicate pleiotropic effects for SNPs within or surrounding CNTN4 on obesity, lipids and blood pressure traits and for SNPs near IL5RA, TRNT1, CRBN, and LRRN1 on central obesity and blood pressure. Linkage analyses of this region in LG/J×SM/J mice identify a highly significant pleiotropic QTL peak for insulin and glucose levels, as well as response to glucose challenge. The mouse results show that insulin and glucose levels interact with high and low fat diets and differential gene expression was identified for Crbn and Arl8b. In humans, ARL8B resides ~137kbps away from BHLHE40, expression of which shows up-regulation in response to insulin treatment. This focused human genetic analysis, incorporating mouse research evidenced that 3p26-25 has important genetic contributions to MetS components. Several of the candidate genes have functions in the brain. Their interaction with MetS and the brain warrants further investigation.

  11. Image cytometer method for automated assessment of human spermatozoa concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, D L; Kjaerulff, S; Hansen, C

    2013-01-01

    to investigator bias. Here we show that image cytometry can be used to accurately measure the sperm concentration of human semen samples with great ease and reproducibility. The impact of several factors (pipetting, mixing, round cell content, sperm concentration), which can influence the read-out as well......In the basic clinical work-up of infertile couples, a semen analysis is mandatory and the sperm concentration is one of the most essential variables to be determined. Sperm concentration is usually assessed by manual counting using a haemocytometer and is hence labour intensive and may be subjected...... and easy measurement of human sperm concentration....

  12. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meydani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

  13. Prebiotics in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L

    2014-06-01

    Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities?

  14. Quality of life in severe obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, EJ; Geenen, R

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, especially morbid obesity, is a major health problem with considerable impact on physical, mental and social quality of life. Assessment of quality of life is considered crucial to understand and evaluate the consequences of obesity. However, the heterogeneity of the quality of life concept

  15. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  16. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in human muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else Marie; Sørensen, Emma Rudbæk; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a well-known and tested method for body mass and muscular health assessment. Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment now makes it possible to assess a particular muscle as a whole, as well as looking at a muscle at the fiber level. The aim of this study was to test...... healthy human control subjects and three selected cases were examined to demonstrate the extent to which this method may be used clinically, and in relation to training in sport. The electrode setup is shown to affect the mfBIA parameters recorded. Our recommendation is the use of noble metal electrodes...

  17. Obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury in mouse embryos: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wenhong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but few reports have examined thawed embryo transfer in obese women. Many studies have shown that increased lipid accumulation aggravates vitrification injury in porcine and bovine embryos, but oocytes of these species have high lipid contents (63 ng and 161 ng, respectively. Almost nothing is known about lipids in human oocytes except that these cells are anecdotally known to be relatively lipid poor. In this regard, human oocytes are considered to be similar to those of the mouse, which contain approximately 4 ng total lipids/oocyte. To date, no available data show the impact of obesity on vitrification in mouse embryos. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of maternal diet-induced obesity and to characterize the effect of obesity on vitrification by investigating the survival rate and embryo developmental competence after thawing. Methods Prospective comparisons were performed between six–eight-cell embryos from obese and normal-weight mice and between fresh and vitrified embryos. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow (normal-weight group or a high-fat diet (obese group for 6 weeks. The mice were mated, zygotes were collected from oviducts and cultured for 3 days, and six–eight-cell embryos were then selected to assess lipid content in fresh embryos and to evaluate differences in apoptosis, survival, and development rates in response to vitrification. Results In fresh embryos from obese mice, the lipid content (0.044 vs 0.030, Pvs.9.3%, Pvs. 93.1%, P Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in survival and developmental rates between embryos from obese and normal-weight mice were eliminated after vitrification. Thus, maternal obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury, but obesity alone greatly impairs pre-implantation embryo survival and development.

  18. Quantification of Human Movement for Assessment in Automated Exercise Coaching

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Stuart; Bajczy, Ruzena; Pavel, Misha

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of human movement is a challenge in many areas, ranging from physical therapy to robotics. We quantify of human movement for the purpose of providing automated exercise coaching in the home. We developed a model-based assessment and inference process that combines biomechanical constraints with movement assessment based on the Microsoft Kinect camera. To illustrate the approach, we quantify the performance of a simple squatting exercise using two model-based metrics that are related to strength and endurance, and provide an estimate of the strength and energy-expenditure of each exercise session. We look at data for 5 subjects, and show that for some subjects the metrics indicate a trend consistent with improved exercise performance.

  19. Use of pyrosequencing and DNA barcodes to monitor variations in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes communities in the gut microbiota of obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of 16S rRNA genes in the mammalian gut microbiota distinguished a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in obese individuals compared to lean individuals. This ratio was estimated using a clonal Sanger sequencing approach which is time-consuming and requires laborious data analysis. In contrast, new high-throughput pyrosequencing technology offers an inexpensive alternative to clonal Sanger sequencing and would significantly advance our understanding of obesity via the development of a clinical diagnostic method. Here we present a cost-effective method that combines 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and DNA barcodes of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes to determine the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiota of obese humans. Results The main result was the identification of DNA barcodes targeting the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. These barcodes were validated using previously published 16S rRNA gut microbiota clone libraries. In addition, an accurate F/B ratio was found when the DNA barcodes were applied to short pyrosequencing reads of published gut metagenomes. Finally, the barcodes were utilized to define the F/B ratio of 16S rRNA pyrosequencing data generated from brain abscess pus and cystic fibrosis sputum. Conclusion Using DNA barcodes of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes 16S rRNA genes combined with pyrosequencing is a cost-effective method for monitoring relevant changes in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes bacterial communities in microbial ecosystems.

  20. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-06-13

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders.

  1. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Sáez-Lara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS, type 2 diabetes (T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders.

  2. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders. PMID:27304953

  3. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids is, in part, determined by the isoenzymes 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and type 2, interconverting inert cortisone and active cortisol. Increased tissue activity of cortisol may play a part in features...... of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...

  4. Human peripheral blood leucocyte non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene mouse model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease and the role of host major histocompatibility complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M A; Covassin, L; Brehm, M A; Racki, W; Pearson, T; Leif, J; Laning, J; Fodor, W; Foreman, O; Burzenski, L; Chase, T H; Gott, B; Rossini, A A; Bortell, R; Shultz, L D; Greiner, D L

    2009-01-01

    Immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immune-deficient (scid) mice bearing a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2rγnull) engraft readily with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we report a robust model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease (GVHD) based on intravenous injection of human PBMC into 2 Gy conditioned NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice. These mice develop xenogeneic GVHD consistently (100%) following injection of as few as 5 × 106 PBMC, regardless of the PBMC donor used. As in human disease, the development of xenogeneic GVHD is highly dependent on expression of host major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules and is associated with severely depressed haematopoiesis. Interrupting the tumour necrosis factor-α signalling cascade with etanercept, a therapeutic drug in clinical trials for the treatment of human GVHD, delays the onset and progression of disease. This model now provides the opportunity to investigate in vivo mechanisms of xenogeneic GVHD as well as to assess the efficacy of therapeutic agents rapidly. PMID:19659776

  5. Humanized mouse model for assessing the human immune response to xenogeneic and allogeneic decellularized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond M; Johnson, Todd D; He, Jingjin; Rong, Zhili; Wong, Michelle; Nigam, Vishal; Behfar, Atta; Xu, Yang; Christman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    Current assessment of biomaterial biocompatibility is typically implemented in wild type rodent models. Unfortunately, different characteristics of the immune systems in rodents versus humans limit the capability of these models to mimic the human immune response to naturally derived biomaterials. Here we investigated the utility of humanized mice as an improved model for testing naturally derived biomaterials. Two injectable hydrogels derived from decellularized porcine or human cadaveric myocardium were compared. Three days and one week after subcutaneous injection, the hydrogels were analyzed for early and mid-phase immune responses, respectively. Immune cells in the humanized mouse model, particularly T-helper cells, responded distinctly between the xenogeneic and allogeneic biomaterials. The allogeneic extracellular matrix derived hydrogels elicited significantly reduced total, human specific, and CD4(+) T-helper cell infiltration in humanized mice compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels, which was not recapitulated in wild type mice. T-helper cells, in response to the allogeneic hydrogel material, were also less polarized towards a pro-remodeling Th2 phenotype compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels in humanized mice. In both models, both biomaterials induced the infiltration of macrophages polarized towards a M2 phenotype and T-helper cells polarized towards a Th2 phenotype. In conclusion, these studies showed the importance of testing naturally derived biomaterials in immune competent animals and the potential of utilizing this humanized mouse model for further studying human immune cell responses to biomaterials in an in vivo environment.

  6. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  7. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  8. Intracellular Retention of Human Melanocortin-4 Receptor:A Molecular Mechanism Underlying Early-onset Obesity in F261S Pedigree of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI-CHEN FANG; WEI-PING JIA; SHU-BING CAI; XIN-YU SHAO; RONG ZHANG; CONG-RONG WANG; YU-QIAN BAO; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how F261S mutation identified from Chinese obese patients affects the function of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and to analyze the obesity-related phenotypes in subjects carrying the F261S mutation. Methods F261S mutant of MC4R was generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Plasmids encoding wild-type or F261S mutant of MC4R were transfected into HEK293 and COS-7 cells to examine their functional characteristics. Signaling properties of F261S MC4R were assessed by measuring intracellular cAMP levels in response to α-MSH stimulation. Cell surface expression of F261S MC4R was compared with that of wild-type MC4R. Clinical examinations were performed in subjects carrying F261S mutation and in non-mutated controls. Results The α-MSH-stimulated reporter gene activity was significantly reduced in cells expressing F261S MC4R, with a maximal response equal to 57% of wild-type MC4R. The F261S mutation also led to a significant change in the EC value compared with the wild-type receptor (P<0.01). Immunofluorescent assay revealed a marked reduction in plasma membrane localization of the MC4R in cells expressing the F261S mutant receptor. The resting metabolic rate and fat composition of the mutant carriers were not significantly different from those of the non-mutated obese controls. Conclusions The decreased response to α-MSH due to the intracellular retention of MC4R may cause early-onset obesity in the F261S pedigree of Chinese.

  9. A Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related Metabolic Signature that Differentiates Obese and Lean Humans and Contributes to Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Newgard, Christopher B.; An, Jie; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Robert D. Stevens; Lien, Lillian F.; Haqq, Andrea M.; Shah, Svati H.; Arlotto, Michelle; Slentz, Cris A.; Rochon, James; Gallup, Dianne; Ilkayeva, Olga; Brett R. Wenner; Yancy, William E

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling of obese versus lean humans reveals a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-related metabolite signature that is suggestive of increased catabolism of BCAA and correlated with insulin resistance. To test its impact on metabolic homeostasis, we fed rats on high-fat (HF), HF with supplemented BCAA (HF/BCAA) or standard chow (SC) diets. Despite having reduced food intake and weight gain equivalent to the SC group, HF/BCAA rats were equally insulin resistant as HF rats. Pair-feed...

  10. Percentage of body fat assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a weight loss program for obese or overweight Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Li

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the estimates of body fat percentage (%BF by performing bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a sample of obese or overweight Chinese adults who participated in a weight-loss randomized control trial stratified by gender to determine whether or not BIA is a valid measurement tool. Among 189 adults [73 males, 116 females; age = 41 to 74 years; mean body mass index (BMI = 27.3 kg/m(2], assessments of %BF at the baseline and six months from the baseline were conducted by performing BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between %BFBIA and %BFDXA. Compared with DXA, BIA underestimated %BF [in males: 4.6, -2.4 to 11.7 (mean biases, 95% limit of agreement at the baseline, 1.4, -7.4 to 10.2 at the endpoint, and 3.2, -4.8 to 11.3 in changes; in females: 5.1, -2.4 to 12.7; 2.2, -6.1 to 10.4; and 3.0, -4.8 to 10.7, respectively]. For males and females, %BFDXA proved to be a significant predictor of the difference between DXA and BIA at the baseline, the endpoint, and in changes when BMI and age were considered (in males: p<0.01 and R (2 = 23.1%, 24.1%, 20.7%, respectively; for females: p<0.001 and R (2 = 40.4%, 48.8%, 25.4%, respectively. The current study suggests that BIA provides a relatively accurate prediction of %BF in individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity after the end of weight-loss program, but less accurate prediction of %BF in obese individuals at baseline or weight change during the weight-loss intervention program.

  11. A novel gene THSD7A is associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, S; Govindaraj, P; Saxena, S; Kashyap, M; Mishra, A; Singh, S; Rotti, H; Raval, R; Nayak, J; Bhat, B K; Prasanna, B V; Dhumal, V R; Bhale, S; Joshi, K S; Dedge, A P; Bharadwaj, R; Gangadharan, G G; Nair, S; Gopinath, P M; Patwardhan, B; Kondaiah, P; Satyamoorthy, K; Valiathan, M S; Thangaraj, K

    2015-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a non-invasive measurement of obesity. It is commonly used for assessing adiposity and obesity-related risk prediction. Genetic differences between ethnic groups are important factors, which contribute to the variation in phenotypic effects. India inhabited by the first out-of-Africa human population and the contemporary Indian populations are admixture of two ancestral populations; ancestral north Indians (ANI) and ancestral south Indians (ASI). Although ANI are related to Europeans, ASI are not related to any group outside Indian-subcontinent. Hence, we expect novel genetic loci associated with BMI. In association analysis, we found eight genic SNPs in extreme of distribution (P⩽3.75 × 10(-5)), of which WWOX has already been reported to be associated with obesity-related traits hence excluded from further study. Interestingly, we observed rs1526538, an intronic SNP of THSD7A; a novel gene significantly associated with obesity (P=2.88 × 10(-5), 8.922 × 10(-6) and 2.504 × 10(-9) in discovery, replication and combined stages, respectively). THSD7A is neural N-glycoprotein, which promotes angiogenesis and it is well known that angiogenesis modulates obesity, adipose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hence our result find a correlation. This information can be used for drug target, early diagnosis of obesity and treatment.

  12. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zapata-Gonzalez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2. We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127. It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032, and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women.

  13. Markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and lipid accumulation are moderately associated with the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance in obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A Samjoo

    Full Text Available Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes, IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS and intermyofibrillar (IMF regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density, increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r = -0.34; P = 0.051 and IMF mitochondrial density (r = -0.29; P = 0.096, IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r = -0.30; P = 0.086, and COXII (r = -0.32; P = 0.095 and COXIV protein abundance (r = -0.35; P = 0.052; while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r = 0.28; P = 0.119 and SS IMCL density (r = 0.25; P = 0.152. Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have been

  14. Similarities between obesity in pets and children : the addiction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behaviors in Pigs and its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Genome Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behaviors inDanish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behaviors in humans.Individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of dailyvisits to feeder (NVD), time spent to eat...... chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD (p =9.6E-07). Thirty six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs havepreviously been reported...... for geneticimprovement of pig feed efficiency. The results of pig-human comparative genemapping revealed some important genomic regions and/or genes on the humangenome that may influence eating behavior in human and consequently affect thedevelopment of obesity and metabolic syndromes. This is the first...

  16. Preclinical models for obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Perry; Mercer, Julian G; Morgan, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Here, we review the traditional monogenic models of obesity, their contemporary optogenetic and chemogenetic successors, and the use of dietary manipulations and meal-feeding regimes to recapitulate the complexity of human obesity. We critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these different models to explore the underlying mechanisms, including the neural circuits that drive behaviours such as appetite control. We also discuss the use of these models for testing and screening anti-obesity drugs, beneficial bio-actives, and nutritional strategies, with the goal of ultimately translating these findings for the treatment of human obesity.

  17. Preclinical models for obesity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Barrett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene–environment interactions. Here, we review the traditional monogenic models of obesity, their contemporary optogenetic and chemogenetic successors, and the use of dietary manipulations and meal-feeding regimes to recapitulate the complexity of human obesity. We critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these different models to explore the underlying mechanisms, including the neural circuits that drive behaviours such as appetite control. We also discuss the use of these models for testing and screening anti-obesity drugs, beneficial bio-actives, and nutritional strategies, with the goal of ultimately translating these findings for the treatment of human obesity.

  18. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles alter expression of obesity and T2D-associated risk genes in human adipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, S.; Daghighi, S.; Motazacker, M. M.; Badlou, B.; Sanjabi, B.; Akbarkhanzadeh, A.; Rowshani, A. T.; Laurent, S.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Rezaee, F.

    2013-01-01

    Adipocytes hypertrophy is the main cause of obesity and its affliction such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used for a wide range of biomedical/medical applications, we aimed to study the effect of SPIONs on 22 and 29 risk genes (Based on gene

  19. Adipose tissue gene expression is differentially regulated with different rates of weight loss in overweight and obese humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, R G; Roumans, N J; Fazelzadeh, P; Tareen, S H K; Boekschoten, M V; van Baak, M A; Mariman, E C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Moderate weight loss (WL) can ameliorate adverse health effects associated with obesity, reflected by an improved adipose tissue (AT) gene expression profile. However, the effect of rate of WL on the AT transcriptome is unknown. We investigated the global AT gene expression pr

  20. Do nutrient-gut-microbiota interactions play a role in human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamant, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The current obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemics have causes beyond changes in eating and exercise habits against a susceptible genetic background. Gut bacteria seem to additionally contribute to the differences in body weight, fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and glucose- and lipid-metabolism

  1. Investigations of the human endocannabinoid system in two subcutaneous adipose tissue depots in lean subjects and in obese subjects before and after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, M F; Wellner, Niels; Ahmed, Shamaila Saghir;

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (ECs) have a role in obesity by affecting appetite and through peripheral effects. Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS).......Endocannabinoids (ECs) have a role in obesity by affecting appetite and through peripheral effects. Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS)....

  2. Association between diet and presence of overweight and obesity. Dietary assessment method of the Spanish National Health Survey 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Isabel Norte-Navarro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to analyze the association between frequency of food consumption and presence of overweight / obesity using data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2006 (NHS-06.Material and Methods: retrospective cross-sectional study of secondary sources of NHS-06. To selected 29.321 subjects answered the food frequency questionnaire, consist of a list of 12 groups that asked about their frequency of consumption in 5 response options and to categorized into three for analysis (daily, weekly and occasional. Descriptive analysis of the consumption of food groups categorized by frequency of consumption, and calculating the difference (gap between men and women. The association between food consumption frequency with overweight-obesity was performed using logistic regression.Results: 40.7% of the population consume vegetables daily and 65.2% consume fruit daily. 69.8%, and 46.3% of women complies with the recommendations for fruit consumption (gap -7.2, and vegetables (-14.0 gap respectively. Eating fruit occasionally, decreases the probability of obesity (OR = 0.72 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82, opposite to consume daily. Eating sausages daily, reduces the probability of obesity (OR = 0.75 95% CI 0.68 to 0.83, compared to occasional use.Conclusions: the results show scientific contradictions by the presence of bias in the instrument used in the collection of information. Suggesting the need, that the NHS includes a method for collecting dietary and nutritional information validated and adopted, allowing higher quality measurements.

  3. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower

  4. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomotor energy costs can be substantial for large-bodied species and those with high-activity lifestyles. For humans in industrialized societies, locomotion necessary for daily activities is often relatively low, so it has been presumed that activity energy expenditure and DEE are lower than in our ancestors. Whether this is true and has contributed to a rise in obesity is controversial. In humans, much attention has centered on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the latter sometimes defined so broadly as to include all energy expended due to activity, exclusive of volitional exercise. Given that most people in Western societies engage in little voluntary exercise, increasing NEAT may be an effective way to maintain DEE and combat overweight and obesity. One way to promote NEAT is to decrease the amount of time spent on sedentary behaviours (e.g. watching television). The effects of voluntary exercise on other components of physical activity are highly variable in humans, partly as a function of age, and have rarely been studied in rodents. However, most rodent studies indicate that food consumption increases in the presence of wheels; therefore, other aspects of physical activity are not reduced enough to compensate for the energetic cost of wheel running. Most rodent studies also show negative effects of wheel access on body fat, especially in males. Sedentary behaviours per se have not been studied in rodents in relation to obesity. Several lines of evidence demonstrate the important role of dopamine, in addition to other neural signaling networks (e.g. the endocannabinoid system), in the control of voluntary exercise. A

  5. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihua Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels

  6. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  7. Obesity Resistance Promotes Mild Contractile Dysfunction Associated with Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, Felipe Gonçalves dos Santos de; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Jacobsen, Bruno Barcellos; Ferron, Artur Junio Togneri; Estevam, Wagner Muller [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Departamento de Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Castardeli, Edson; Cunha, Márcia Regina Holanda da [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Departamento de Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Leopoldo, André Soares, E-mail: andresoaresleopoldo@gmail.com [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Departamento de Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    Diet-induced obesity is frequently used to demonstrate cardiac dysfunction. However, some rats, like humans, are susceptible to developing an obesity phenotype, whereas others are resistant to that. To evaluate the association between obesity resistance and cardiac function, and the impact of obesity resistance on calcium handling. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups, each with 54 animals: control (C; standard diet) and obese (four palatable high-fat diets) for 15 weeks. After the experimental protocol, rats consuming the high-fat diets were classified according to the adiposity index and subdivided into obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR). Nutritional profile, comorbidities, and cardiac remodeling were evaluated. Cardiac function was assessed by papillary muscle evaluation at baseline and after inotropic maneuvers. The high-fat diets promoted increase in body fat and adiposity index in OP rats compared with C and OR rats. Glucose, lipid, and blood pressure profiles remained unchanged in OR rats. In addition, the total heart weight and the weight of the left and right ventricles in OR rats were lower than those in OP rats, but similar to those in C rats. Baseline cardiac muscle data were similar in all rats, but myocardial responsiveness to a post-rest contraction stimulus was compromised in OP and OR rats compared with C rats. Obesity resistance promoted specific changes in the contraction phase without changes in the relaxation phase. This mild abnormality may be related to intracellular Ca2+ handling.

  8. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in expected severity......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...

  9. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinote, I. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Fleming, R. [Imunohaemotherapy Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Filipe, P. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, J.N. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Verissimo, A. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Napoleao, P. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: murmur@itn.pt

    2006-08-15

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  10. Synergy of nature and nurture in the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, B E

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal undernutrition, obesity and diabetes during gestation and lactation can all produce obesity in human offspring. Animal models provide a means of assessing the independent consequences of altering the pre- vs postnatal environments on a variety of metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine functions, which lead to the development of offspring obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the gestational period, maternal malnutrition, obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and psychological and pharmacological stressors can all promote offspring obesity. Normal postnatal nutrition can sometimes reduce the adverse effect of some of these prenatal factors, but may also exacerbate the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring of dams that are malnourished during gestation. The genetic background of the individual is also an important determinant of outcome when the perinatal environment is perturbed. Individuals with an obesity-prone genotype are more likely to be adversely affected by factors such as maternal obesity and high-fat diets. Many perinatal manipulations are associated with reorganization of the central neural pathways which regulate food intake, energy expenditure and storage in ways that enhance the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Both leptin and insulin have strong neurotrophic properties so that an excess or an absence of either of them during the perinatal period may underlie some of these adverse developmental changes. As perinatal manipulations can permanently and adversely alter the systems that regulate energy homeostasis, it behooves us to gain a better understanding of the factors during this period that promote the development of offspring obesity as a means of stemming the tide of the emerging worldwide obesity epidemic.

  11. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  12. Assessing neuromuscular mechanisms in human-exoskeleton interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, N; Bonnet, V; Venture, G; Armande, N; Fraisse, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose to evaluate a 7 DOF exoskeleton in terms of motion control. Using criteria from the human motor control literature, inverse optimization was performed to assess an industrial screwing movement. The results of our study show that the hybrid composition of the free arm movement was accurately determined. At contrary, when wearing the exoskeleton, which produces an arbitrary determined torque compensation, the motion is different from the naturally adopted one. This study is part of the evaluation and comprehension of the complex neuromuscular mechanism resulting in wearing an exoskeleton several hours per day for industrial tasks assistance.

  13. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin

  14. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment.

  15. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease.

  16. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    King, Lauren K.; Lyn March; Ananthila Anandacoomarasamy

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate...

  17. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  18. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique; Marques, Marie A;

    2010-01-01

    to 2 microU/ml), blunted the exercise-induced rise in plasma GH and epinephrine levels in both groups, and enhanced the exercise-induced natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in lean but not in obese subjects. In both groups, octreotide infusion resulted in higher exercise-induced increases in dialysate...... glycerol concentrations in the phentolamine-containing probe while no difference in lipolytic response was found in the aminophylline-containing probe. The results suggest that insulin antilipolytic action plays a role in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise in lean as well as in obese subjects....... The octreotide-induced enhancement of exercise lipolysis in lean subjects was associated with an increased exercise-induced plasma NP response. Adenosine may contribute to the inhibition of basal lipolysis in both subject groups....

  19. Artificial synthesis and cloning of human obese gene%人肥胖(obese)基因的人工合成及克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 吴无畏

    2000-01-01

    根据人肥胖基因的cDNA序列,通过合理的引物设计、链延伸反应、PCR反应以及分子克隆等步骤,成功地合成出编码瘦蛋白(Leptin)的肥胖基因(ob基因)全长片段,并将其克隆至pUC18载体质粒上.序列分析和酶切鉴定显示肥胖基因得到了正确合成和克隆.%According to the known sequence of human ob gene cDNA,the gene coding the leptin was synthesized and cloned into pUC18 vector after reasonable primer designing,DNA strain extending,PCR reaction and molecular cloning.Sequence analysis and RE digest results showed the ob gene was synthesized and cloned correctly.

  20. The influence of obesity on the effects of spirulina supplementation in the human metabolic response of Korean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpo...

  1. Identification of Direct and Indirect Social Network Effects in the Pathophysiology of Insulin Resistance in Obese Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.; Nana Zarnekow; Johannes Hedtrich; Sascha Stark; Kathrin Türk; Matthias Laudes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent different social network mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin-resistance. DESIGN: We used nonparametric and parametric regression models to analyse whether individual BMI and HOMA-IR are determined by social network characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 677 probands (EGO) and 3033 social network partners (ALTER) were included in the study. Data gathered from the probands include ant...

  2. Differences in insula and pre-/frontal responses during reappraisal of food in lean and obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh eKumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions involved in the reappraisal of tasty but unhealthy foods are of special interest for the development of new therapeutic interventions for obesity, such as non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback. Here, we visually presented food items (i.e., high/low caloric to obese and lean individuals during EEG recordings, while they either admitted or regulated their food desire. During admitting the desire for low and high calorie foods, obese as well as lean individuals showed higher activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, whereas the right frontal operculum was involved in the reappraisal of the same foods, suggesting interplay between executive control and gustatory regions. Only in lean participants, we found an interaction between calorie content and the regulate/admit conditions in bilateral anterior insular cortices, suggesting that the anterior insula, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, also underpins higher cognitive processes involved in food choices, such as evaluating the foods’ calorie content for its reappraisal.

  3. Do nutrient-gut-microbiota interactions play a role in human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, M; Blaak, E E; de Vos, W M

    2011-04-01

    The current obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemics have causes beyond changes in eating and exercise habits against a susceptible genetic background. Gut bacteria seem to additionally contribute to the differences in body weight, fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and glucose- and lipid-metabolism. Data, mostly derived from preclinical studies, suggest that gut microbiota play an important role in conditions such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Regulation of energy uptake from the gut, by digesting otherwise indigestible common polysaccharides in our diet, production or activation of signalling molecules involved in host metabolism, modification of gut permeability, the release of gut hormones and inflammation, are among the mechanisms by which gut microbiota may influence the host cardiometabolic phenotype. Recent evidence suggests that quantitative and qualitative differences in gut microbiota exist between lean and obese, and between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may favourably affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are eagerly awaited.

  4. Obese people=Animals? Investigating the implicit “animalization” of obese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating a dehumanization perspective with the literature on stereotyping of obesity, this paper investigated whether obese people are implicitly categorized as animals rather than humans. Sixty participants were asked to complete an Implicit Association Test in which they had to associate images of thin and obese faces with animal or human characteristics. As predicted, people were more likely to categorize images of obese faces as animal-like and this tendency was more acute amongst thinner participants. Implications of our results for future on research on dehumanization and negative stereotyping of obesity are discussed.

  5. Human-specific SNP in obesity genes, adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2, Beta3 (ADRB3, and PPAR γ2 (PPARG, during primate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takenaka

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2 and beta3 (ADRB3 are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP. All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.

  6. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  7. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  8. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS.

  9. Chronobiology and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2013-09-01

    Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD). It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.

  10. Microsatellite Marker Content Mapping of 12 Candidate Genes for Obesity: Assembly of Seven Obesity Screening Panels for Automated Genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Winick, Jeffrey D.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    Twin studies, adoption studies, and studies of familial aggregation indicate that obesity has a genetic component. Whereas, the genetic factors predisposing to obesity have been elucidated for several rare syndromes, the factors responsible for obesity in the general population have remained elusive. Genetic studies of complex traits are often accelerated by the use of candidate genes. To facilitate genetic studies of human obesity, seven multiplex panels of candidate genes for obesity that a...

  11. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  12. Obesity does not promote tumorigenesis of localized patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascui, Natasha; Frydenberg, Mark; Risbridger, Gail P.; Taylor, Renea A.; Watt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    There are established epidemiological links between obesity and the severity of prostate cancer. We directly tested this relationship by assessing tumorigenicity of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of moderate-grade localized prostate cancer in lean and obese severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Mice were rendered obese and insulin resistant by high-fat feeding for 6 weeks prior to transplantation, and PDXs were assessed 10 weeks thereafter. Histological analysis of PDX grafts showed no differences in tumor pathology, prostate-specific antigen, androgen receptor and homeobox protein Nkx-3.1 expression, or proliferation index in lean versus obese mice. Whilst systemic obesity per se did not promote prostate tumorigenicity, we next asked whether the peri-prostatic adipose tissue (PPAT), which covers the prostate anteriorly, plays a role in prostate tumorigenesis. In vitro studies in a cellularized co-culture model of stromal and epithelial cells demonstrated that factors secreted from human PPAT are pro-tumorigenic. Accordingly, we recapitulated the prostate-PPAT spatial relationship by co-grafting human PPAT with prostate cancer in PDX grafts. PDX tissues were harvested 10 weeks after grafting, and histological analysis revealed no evidence of enhanced tumorigenesis with PPAT compared to prostate cancer grafts alone. Altogether, these data demonstrate that prostate cancer tumorigenicity is not accelerated in the setting of diet-induced obesity or in the presence of human PPAT, prompting the need for further work to define the at-risk populations of obesity-driven tumorigenesis and the biological factors linking obesity, adipose tissue and prostate cancer pathogenesis. PMID:27351281

  13. Obesity and Physical Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kokino, Siranuş; Özdemir, Ferda; Zateri, Coşkun

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. It is one of the commonest pathologies in developed countries. In general, obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy obtained by food and energy expended. A sedentary life-style is also associated with obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. The result of childhood obesity is adult obesity, so obesity should be treated early. Obesity is a complex problem and effective treatment will probably require incorporation of different approaches. I...

  14. [Obesity paradox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Datcu, M D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with major cardiovascular diseases and reduced overall survival. This paper reviews the metabolic and vascular consequences of dysfunctional adipocytokines in obesity as well as the pathological effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese population with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis. There are potential explanations offered by literature for these puzzling data. For obese hypertensive patients the paradox is possibly linked to the lower systemic vascular resistance and plasma renin activity. In heart failure the excess body weight may confer some protective effects on mortality, due to a more metabolic reserve, higher levels of arterial pressure compatible with higher doses of cardioprotective medications, and a specific neuroendocrine profile with lower levels of circulating natriuretic atrial peptides, attenuated sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin responses. For coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease the mechanisms are still uncertain. There are discussed a lesser severity of coronary lesions and left ventricular dysfunction, or a reduced prevalence of moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients selected for surgery. On the other hand, the constellation of data which supports purposeful weight reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, induces a controversial position regarding this new concept.

  15. Neprilysin, obesity and the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standeven, Kristina F.; Hess, Katharina; Carter, Angela M.; Rice, Gillian I.; Cordell, Paul A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Lu, Bao; Scott, D. Julian; Turner, Anthony J.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Grant, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Neprilysin (NEP), a zinc metallo-endopeptidase, has a role in blood pressure control and lipid metabolism. The present study tested the hypothesis that NEP is associated with insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a study of 318 healthy human subjects and in murine obesity and investigated NEP production by adipocytes in-vitro. Methods and Results In 318 white European males, plasma NEP was elevated in the MetS and increased progressively with increasing MetS components. Plasma NEP activity correlated with insulin, homeostasis model assessment and body mass index in all subjects (p<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that in human pre-adipocytes NEP expression is upregulated 25-30 fold during differentiation into adipocytes. Microarray analysis of mRNA from differentiated human adipocytes confirmed high NEP expression comparable to adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. In a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance, plasma NEP levels were significantly higher in high fat diet (HFD)-fed compared with normal chow diet (NCD)-fed animals (1642±529 and 820±487 pg/μl, respectively; p<0.01). Tissue NEP was increased in mesenteric fat in HFD compared with NCD-fed mice (p<0.05). NEP knock out mice did not display any changes in insulin resistance, glucose tolerance or body and epididymal fat pad weight compared to wild type mice. Conclusions In humans, NEP activity correlated with body mass index and measures of insulin resistance with increasing levels in subjects with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. NEP protein production in human adipocytes increased during cell differentiation and plasma and adipose tissue levels of NEP were increased in obese insulin resistant mice. Our results indicate that NEP associates with cardio-metabolic risk in the presence of insulin resistance and increases in obesity. PMID:21042321

  16. Preanesthetic assessment data do not influence the time for tracheal intubation with Airtraq(tm video laryngoscope in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Ranieri Jr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: this study investigated the influence of anatomical predictors on difficult laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation in obese patients by comparing Macintosh and Airtraq(tm laryngoscopes. Methods: from 132 bariatric surgery patients (body mass index = 35 kg m-1, cervical perimeter, sternomental distance, interincisor distance, and Mallampati score were recorded. The patients were randomized into two groups according to whether a Macintosh (n = 64 or an Airtraq(tm (n = 68 laryngoscope was used for tracheal intubation. Time required for intubation was the first outcome. Cormack-Lehane score, number of intubation attempts, the Macintosh blade used, any need for external tracheal compression or the use of gum elastic bougie were recorded. Intubation failure and strategies adopted were also registered. Results: intubation failed in two patients in the Macintosh laryngoscope group, and these patients were included as worst cases scenario. The intubation times were 36.9 + 22.8 s and 13.7 + 3.1 s for the Macintosh and Airtraq(tm laryngoscope groups (p < 0.01, respectively. Cormack-Lehane scores were also lower for the Airtraq(tm group. One patient in the Macintosh group with intubation failure was quickly intubated with the Airtraq(tm. Cervical circumference (p < 0.01 and interincisor distance (p < 0.05 influenced the time required for intubation in the Macintosh group but not in the Airtraq(tm group. Conclusion: in obese patients despite increased neck circumference and limited mouth opening, the Airtraq(tm laryngoscope affords faster tracheal intubation than the Macintosh laryngoscope, and it may serve as an alternative when conventional laryngoscopy fails.

  17. An empirical assessment of generational differences in basic human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Sean T; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed generational differences in human values as measured by the Schwartz Value Survey. It was proposed that the two most recent generations, Millennials and Generation Xers, would value Self-enhancement and Openness to Change more than the two older generations, Baby Boomers and Matures, while the two older generations would value Self-transcendence and Conservation more. The hypotheses were tested with a combined sample of Canadian knowledge workers and undergraduate business students (N = 1,194). Two hypotheses were largely supported, although an unexpectedly large difference was observed between Millennials and Generation Xers with respect to Openness to Change and Self-enhancement. The findings suggest that generation is a useful variable in examining differences in social values.

  18. Human factors assessments of innovative technologies: Robotics sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.B. [Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program, Beaver, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded major environmental technology developments over the past several years. One area that received significant attention is robotics, which has resulted in the development of a wide range of unique robotic systems tailored to the many tasks unique to the DOE complex. These systems are often used in highly hazardous environments, which reduces or eliminates worker exposures. The DOE, concurrent with the technology development initiative, also established and funded a 5-yr cooperative agreement intended to interface with the technology development community-with specific attention to the occupational safety and health aspects associated with individual technologies through human factors and hazard assessments. This program is now in its third year.

  19. The intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Samuel J; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been and continues to be an epidemic in the United States. Obesity has been addressed in multiple health initiatives, including Healthy People 2010, with no state meeting the proposed goal of a prevalence of obesity fad diets, incentive-based exercise programs, and gastric bypass surgery; none of which have been optimal. In a murine model, it was shown that the majority of the intestinal microbiome consists of two bacterial phyla, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes, and that the relative abundance of these two phyla differs among lean and obese mice; the obese mouse had a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (50% greater) than the lean mouse. The same results were appreciated in obese humans compared to lean subjects. The postulated explanation for this finding is that Firmicutes produce more complete metabolism of a given energy source than do Bacteroidetes, thus promoting more efficient absorption of calories and subsequent weight gain. Researchers were able to demonstrate that colonizing germ-free mice with the intestinal microbiome from obese mice led to an increased total body fat in the recipient mice despite a lack of change in diet. The converse, that, colonizing germ-free obese mice with the intestinal microbiome of thin mice causing a decreased total body fat in the recipient mice, has not yet been done. Other possible mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects host obesity include induction of low-grade inflammation with lipopolysaccharide, regulation of host genes responsible for energy expenditure and storage, and hormonal communication between the intestinal microbiome and the host. The following review discusses the microbiome-obesity relationship and proposed mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota is hypothesized to influence weight gain.

  20. T-cell receptor gene therapy targeting melanoma-associated antigen-A4 inhibits human tumor growth in non-obese diabetic/SCID/γcnull mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakura, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yukari; Wang, Linan; Imai, Naoko; Amaike, Chisaki; Sato, Eiichi; Ito, Mamoru; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with lymphocytes that have been genetically engineered to express tumor-reactive T-cell receptors (TCR) is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. We have been exploring the development of TCR gene therapy targeting cancer/testis antigens, including melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family antigens, that are ideal targets for adoptive T-cell therapy. The efficacy of TCR gene therapy targeting MAGE family antigens, however, has not yet been evaluated in vivo. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo antitumor activity in immunodeficient non-obese diabetic/SCID/γc(null) (NOG) mice of human lymphocytes genetically engineered to express TCR specific for the MAGE-A4 antigen. Polyclonal T cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transduced with the αβ TCR genes specific for MAGE-A4, then adoptively transferred into NOG mice inoculated with MAGE-A4 expressing human tumor cell lines. The transferred T cells maintained their effector function in vivo, infiltrated into tumors, and inhibited tumor growth in an antigen-specific manner. The combination of adoptive cell therapy with antigen peptide vaccination enhanced antitumor activity, with improved multifunctionality of the transferred cells. These data suggest that TCR gene therapy with MAGE-A4-specific TCR is a promising strategy to treat patients with MAGE-A4-expressing tumors; in addition, the acquisition of multifunctionality in vivo is an important factor to predict the quality of the T-cell response during adoptive therapy with human lymphocytes.

  1. Invariant NKT cells and CD1d(+) cells amass in human omentum and are depleted in patients with cancer and obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia

    2012-02-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d and respond rapidly by killing tumor cells and release cytokines that activate and regulate adaptive immune responses. They are essential for tumor rejection in various mouse models, but clinical trials in humans involving iNKT cells have been less successful, partly due to their rarity in humans compared with mice. Here we describe an accumulation of functional iNKT cells in human omentum, a migratory organ with healing properties. Analysis of 39 omental samples revealed that T cells are the predominant lymphoid cell type and of these, 10% expressed the invariant Valpha24Jalpha18 TCR chain, found on iNKT cells, higher than in any other human organ tested to date. About 15% of omental hematopoietic cells expressed CD1d, compared with 1% in blood (p<0.001). Enriched omental iNKT cells killed CD1d(+) targets and released IFN-gamma and IL-4 upon activation. Omental iNKT-cell frequencies were lower in patients with severe obesity (p=0.005), and with colorectal carcinoma (p=0.004) compared with lean healthy subjects. These data suggest a novel role for the omentum in immune regulation and tumor immunity and identify it as a potential source of iNKT cells for therapeutic use.

  2. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  3. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    of labour intensive processes and a systematic underestimation of environmental impacts has implications for decision-making. A brief review of the evaluation of human labour in ESAs reveals that only Emergy Assessment (EmA) accounts for labour as standard. Focussing on EmA, we find, however......, that there is no agreement on the calculation method for labour. We formalise the calculation of human labour unit emergy values (UEVs) as being the ratio between the emergy resource basis of the labour system and a proxy for labour, with or without allocation to account for different qualities of labour. The formalised...... be transferred to other ESA methodologies. Concerning EmA, we recommend that product UEVs should systematically be calculated with and without labour, and that working hours rather than salary should be used when accounting for labour inputs. We recognise that there is a risk of double counting of environmental...

  4. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer – Assessment of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K.; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case–control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is “specificity.” HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers. PMID:27747193

  5. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Susan G.; Angela L. Witzel; Joseph W. Bartges; Tamberlyn S. Moyers; Claudia A. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was underta...

  6. Errors in Seismic Hazard Assessment are Creating Huge Human Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bela, J.

    2015-12-01

    The current practice of representing earthquake hazards to the public based upon their perceived likelihood or probability of occurrence is proven now by the global record of actual earthquakes to be not only erroneous and unreliable, but also too deadly! Earthquake occurrence is sporadic and therefore assumptions of earthquake frequency and return-period are both not only misleading, but also categorically false. More than 700,000 people have now lost their lives (2000-2011), wherein 11 of the World's Deadliest Earthquakes have occurred in locations where probability-based seismic hazard assessments had predicted only low seismic low hazard. Unless seismic hazard assessment and the setting of minimum earthquake design safety standards for buildings and bridges are based on a more realistic deterministic recognition of "what can happen" rather than on what mathematical models suggest is "most likely to happen" such future huge human losses can only be expected to continue! The actual earthquake events that did occur were at or near the maximum potential-size event that either already had occurred in the past; or were geologically known to be possible. Haiti's M7 earthquake, 2010 (with > 222,000 fatalities) meant the dead could not even be buried with dignity. Japan's catastrophic Tohoku earthquake, 2011; a M9 Megathrust earthquake, unleashed a tsunami that not only obliterated coastal communities along the northern Japanese coast, but also claimed > 20,000 lives. This tsunami flooded nuclear reactors at Fukushima, causing 4 explosions and 3 reactors to melt down. But while this history of huge human losses due to erroneous and misleading seismic hazard estimates, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived; if faced with courage and a more realistic deterministic estimate of "what is possible", it need not be lived again. An objective testing of the results of global probability based seismic hazard maps against real occurrences has never been done by the

  7. Adiposopathy and Obesity Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia and major cardiovascular diseases (CVD. CONTENT: Adiposity may cause adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic and functional abnormalities, termed adiposopathy (adipose-opathy or "sick fat," that result in endocrine and immune derangements. Adiposopathy may directly contribute to CVD through pericardiac and perivascular effects on the myocardium and blood vessels. Adiposopathy may also indirectly contribute to CVD through promoting or worsening major CVD risk factors such as T2DM, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese people with established CVD, including hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease, have a better prognosis compared with nonoverweight/nonobese patients. These paradoxical findings are made less paradoxical when the pathogenic potential of excessive body fat is assessed based on adipose tissue dysfunction rather than simply on increased fat mass alone. SUMMARY: Adiposopathy is defined as pathological adipose tissue function that may be promoted and exacerbated by fat accumulation (adiposity and sedentary lifestyle in genetically susceptible patients. Adiposopathy is a root cause of some of the most common metabolic diseases observed in clinical practice, including T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. KEYWORDS: adiposopathy, adiposity, obesity paradox, adipocyte dysfunction, adipose hypertrophy, adipose hyperplasia.

  8. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD, also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD is the computertechnology used for the design processing and designdocumentation. CAD has now been used extensivelyin many applications such as automotive,shipbuilding, aerospace industries, architectural andindustrial designs, prosthetics, computer animationfor special effects in movies, advertising andtechnical manuals. As a technology, digital humanmodeling (DHM has rapidly emerged as atechnology that creates, manipulates and controlhuman representations and human-machine systemsscenes on computers for interactive ergonomic designproblem solving. DHM promises to profoundlychange how products or systems are designed, howergonomics analysis is performed, how disorders andimpairments are assessed and how therapies andsurgeries are conducted. The imperative andemerging need for the DHM appears to be consistentwith the fact that the past decade has witnessedsignificant growth in both the software systemsoffering DHM capabilities as well as the corporateadapting the technology.The authors shall dwell atlength and deliberate on how research in DHM hasfinally brought about an enhanced HCI, in thecontext of computer-aided ergonomics or humancentricdesign and discuss about future trends in thiscontext.

  9. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  10. Relationships of Adrenoceptor Polymorphisms with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuko Masuo; Lambert, Gavin W.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes are rapidly growing public health problems. Heightened sympathetic nerve activity is a well-established observation in obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Human obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have strong genetic as well as environmental determinants. Reduced energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate are predictive of weight gain, and the sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating energy balance through thermogenesis. The t...

  11. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, B; O'Higgins, A; Daly, N; Farren, M; Turner, M J

    2015-06-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obese women compared with 31.5cm (SD 1.6) in women with a normal BMI (p < 0.001) at 18-22 weeks gestation. In the obese women it increased on average by 1.5cm by 36-40 weeks compared with an increase of 1.6 cm in women with a normal BMI. The antenatal measurement of NC is a simple, inexpensive tool that is potentially useful for screening obese women who may benefit from an antenatal anaesthetic assessment.

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval exercise versus continuous moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial glycemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, Amy E; Wright, Wendi; Manders, Ralph J F

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following day's breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner when compared with control (HIIT = 110 ± 35, CMI = 125 ± 34, control = 162 ± 46 mmol/L × 2 h, p HIIT = 125 ± 53, CMI = 186 ± 55, control = 194 ± 96 mmol/L × 2 h) and the PPG spike (HIIT = Δ2.1 ± 0.9, CMI = Δ3.0 ± 0.9, control = Δ3.0 ± 1.5 mmol/l) following breakfast on the following day were significantly lower following HIIT compared with both CMI and control (p HIIT, CMI, or control for any meal (p > 0.05 for all). We conclude that a single session of HIIT has greater and more lasting effects on reducing incremental PPG when compared with CMI.

  13. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [{sup 11}C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Winter, Karsten [University of Leipzig, Centre for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, Leipzig (Germany); Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Drabe, Mandy [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Regenthal, Ralf [University of Leipzig, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schinke, Christian [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Arelin, Katrin [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Fasshauer, Mathias; Fenske, Wiebke K.; Stumvoll, Michael [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Collaborative Research Centre 1052 Obesity Mechanisms, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [{sup 11}C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m{sup 2}) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m{sup 2}) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BP{sub ND} in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BP{sub ND}. The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  14. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  15. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  16. Performance Assessment of Human and Cattle Associated Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation overview is (1) Single laboratory performance assessment of human- and cattle associated PCR assays and (2) A Field Study: Evaluation of two human fecal waste management practices in Ohio watershed.

  17. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Parra-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P=0.007. Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR=2.66, P=0.01 and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR=2.85, P=0.03. The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied.

  18. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P.; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.

    2013-01-01

    The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P = 0.007). Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR = 2.66, P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR = 2.85, P = 0.03). The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied. PMID:24324491

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Families in the United States—A Systematic Review and Qualitative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yuen Mei; Song, SuJin; Song, Won O.

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity (OW/OB) is a pressing health concern among migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) families in the US. The limited number of previously reported research on MSFW families suggests that their unique sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle predispose them to poor health outcomes including OW/OB. We aimed to synthesize and assess available data on the prevalence and modifiable health determinants of OW/OB in MSFW children and adolescents. Literature search, study selection, data extraction and synthesis, and qualitative assessment of selected studies were performed independently by two authors. Ten cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria: articles or dissertations investigating prevalence and association between health determinants and OW/OB in MSFW children and adolescents (food insecurity, parents’ weight status, parents’ distorted perception of their children’s weight status, and parents’ participation in the federal nutrition assistance program were significantly associated with the children’s and adolescents’ risk of OW/OB. Promotion of culturally relevant public health programs and implementation of a systematic health surveillance plan for MSFWs and their children should be emphasized to combat OW/OB among MSFW children and adolescents. PMID:28245565

  20. Polymorphic human (CTAT)n microsatellite provides a conserved linkage marker for mouse mutants causing cleft palate, vestibular defects, obesity and ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D. [Univ. of MIchigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Twirler mutation (Tw) causing cleft palate {plus_minus} cleft lip, vestibular defects and obesity is located within 0.5 cM of an ataxia locus (ax) on mouse chromosome 18. We identified a transgene-induced insertional mutation with vestibular and craniofacial defects that appears to be a new allele of Twirler. Mouse DNA flanking the transgene insertion site was isolated from a cosmid library. An evolutionarily conserved, zoo blot positive cosmid subclone was used to probe a human {lambda} genomic library. From the sequence of a highly homologous human {lambda} clone, we designed STS primers and screened a human P1 library. DNA from two positive P1 clones was hybridized with simple sequence probes, and a (CTAT){sub 12} repeat was detected. Analysis of 62 CEPH parents with primers flanking the repeat identified six alleles containing 9 to 14 copies of the repeat, at frequencies of 0.17, 0.17, 0.17, 0.27, 0.15 and 0.07, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was 49/62 with a calculated PIC value of 0.76. This polymorphic microsatellite marker, designated Umi3, was mapped to the predicted conserved human linkage group by analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels. The anticipated short distance between Umi3 and the disease genes will facilitate detection of linkage in small families. We would like to type appropriate human pedigrees with Umi3 in order to identify patients with inherited disorders homologous to the mouse mutations Twirler and ataxia.

  1. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases

  2. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kongerslev Thorning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results: The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion: The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most

  3. Fuzzy obesity index (MAFOI for obesity evaluation and bariatric surgery indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyahira Susana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Miyahira-Araujo Fuzzy Obesity Index (MAFOI for being used as an alternative in bariatric surgery indication (BSI is validated in this paper. The search for a more accurate method to evaluate obesity and to indicate a better treatment is important in the world health context. Body mass index (BMI is considered the main criteria for obesity treatment and BSI. Nevertheless, the fat excess related to the percentage of Body Fat (%BF is actually the principal harmful factor in obesity disease that is usually neglected. The aim of this research is to validate a previous fuzzy mechanism by associating BMI with %BF that yields the Miyahira-Araujo Fuzzy Obesity Index (MAFOI for obesity evaluation, classification, analysis, treatment, as well for better indication of surgical treatment. Methods Seventy-two patients were evaluated for both BMI and %BF. The BMI and %BF classes are aggregated yielding a new index (MAFOI. The input linguistic variables are the BMI and %BF, and the output linguistic variable is employed an obesity classification with entirely new types of obesity in the fuzzy context, being used for BSI, as well. Results There is gradual and smooth obesity classification and BSI criteria when using the Miyahira-Araujo Fuzzy Obesity Index (MAFOI, mainly if compared to BMI or %BF alone for dealing with obesity assessment, analysis, and treatment. Conclusion The resulting fuzzy decision support system (MAFOI becomes a feasible alternative for obesity classification and bariatric surgery indication.

  4. Characterization of Evidence for Human System Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Rossi, M.; Riccio, G.; Romero, E.; Francisco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the kinds of evidence available and using the best evidence to answer a question is critical to evidenced-based decision-making, and it requires synthesis of evidence from a variety of sources. Categorization of human system risks in spaceflight, in particular, focuses on how well the integration and interpretation of all available evidence informs the risk statement that describes the relationship between spaceflight hazards and an outcome of interest. A mature understanding and categorization of these risks requires: 1) sufficient characterization of risk, 2) sufficient knowledge to determine an acceptable level of risk (i.e., a standard), 3) development of mitigations to meet the acceptable level of risk, and 4) identification of factors affecting generalizability of the evidence to different design reference missions. In the medical research community, evidence is often ranked by increasing confidence in findings gleaned from observational and experimental research (e.g., "levels of evidence"). However, an approach based solely on aspects of experimental design is problematic in assessing human system risks for spaceflight. For spaceflight, the unique challenges and opportunities include: (1) The independent variables in most evidence are the hazards of spaceflight, such as space radiation or low gravity, which cannot be entirely duplicated in terrestrial (Earth-based) analogs, (2) Evidence is drawn from multiple sources including medical and mission operations, Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH), spaceflight research (LSDA), and relevant environmental & terrestrial databases, (3) Risk metrics based primarily on LSAH data are typically derived from available prevalence or incidence data, which may limit rigorous interpretation, (4) The timeframe for obtaining adequate spaceflight sample size (n) is very long, given the small population, (5) Randomized controlled trials are unattainable in spaceflight, (6) Collection of personal and

  5. Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

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    Min Jung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4 showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0 were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects’ blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood.

  6. Obesity & osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren K; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  7. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K King

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA, a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  8. Endocannabinoids and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxun; Pang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective antiobesity drug is needed to combat the global obesity epidemic. The discovery of cannabinoids from medicinal herbs has revealed the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in animals and humans, which regulates various physiological activities such as feeding, thermogenesis, and body weight (BW). Although cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) antagonists have shown antiobesity efficacies in animal models and in the clinic, they failed to establish as a treatment due to their psychological side effects. Recent studies indicate that CB1 in various peripheral tissues may mediate some of the therapeutic effects of CB1 antagonists, such as improved lipid and glucose homeostasis. It rationalizes the development of compounds with limited brain penetration, for minimizing the side effects while retaining the therapeutic efficacies. A survey of the literature has revealed some controversies about how the ECS affects obesity. This review summarizes the research progresses and discusses some future perspectives.

  9. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  10. Chronobiology and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Garaulet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD. It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.

  11. Expressions of neuropeptide Y and Y1 receptor in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues in normal weight and obese humans and their correlations with clinical parameters and peripheral metabolic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Chatree, Saimai; Churintaraphan, Malika

    2013-08-10

    Recently, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor (Y1R) were found to be expressed and synthesized in adipose tissue. This study aimed to compare NPY and Y1R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues as well as serum NPY in normal weight and obese humans and their correlations with clinical parameters and peripheral metabolic factors. We demonstrated that NPY mRNA expression was higher in obese than in normal weight humans (ptissues and was significantly greater in visceral when compared with subcutaneous fat in overall (ptissue and was statistically greater in subcutaneous when compared to visceral adipose tissue in obese (ptissue was positively correlated with body weight (R=0.586), BMI (R=0.611), waist (R=0.474) and hip (R=0.483) circumferences, insulin levels (R=0.539), and HOMA-IR (R=0.480). As the result, Y1R expression in visceral adipose tissue might be an indicator of increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Further studies about blocking specific Y1R may propose strategies for risk reduction in metabolic syndrome and prevention or treatment of obesity.

  12. Oxazolone and ethanol induce colitis in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2Rγnull mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, T; Zadeh-Khorasani, M; Safarov, O; Rueff, F; Gülberg, V; Herbach, N; Wollenberg, A; Mueller, T; Siebeck, M; Wolf, E; Gropp, R

    2013-01-01

    Oxazolone-induced colitis in mice has become a recognized model to study the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the immunological response underlying the development of inflammatory bowel disease. However, this model cannot be used when therapeutics designed to address human targets do not interact with the respective murine counterpart. In this study, we examined the induction of oxazolone mediated colitis in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2Rγnull (NOD-SCID IL2Rγnull) mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) derived from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy volunteers. NOD-SCID IL2Rγ null mice were engrafted with hPBMC followed by challenge with oxazolone or ethanol vehicle. Mice developed the same symptoms as observed previously in immunocompetent mice. The clinical activity score increased and the colon architecture was characterized by the development of oedema, fibrosis, crypt loss and dense infiltration of predominantly T cells into the lamina propria. Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of lymphocytes in the colon identified natural killer (NK) T cells as a major constituent. In contrast to studies with immunocompetent mice, we observed the same phenotype in the group challenged with ethanol vehicle. The phenotype was most pronounced in mice engrafted with PBMC derived from a patient suffering from UC, suggesting that the immunological history of the donors predisposes the engrafted mice to react to ethanol. The model described here has the potential to study the efficacy of therapeutics targeting human lymphocytes in a model which is more reflective of the human disease. In addition, it might be developed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:23574330

  13. Obese rats exhibit high levels of fat necrosis and isoprostanes in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pereda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a prognostic factor for severity in acute pancreatitis in humans. Our aim was to assess the role of oxidative stress and abdominal fat in the increased severity of acute pancreatitis in obese rats. METHODOLOGY: Taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis was performed in lean and obese Zucker rats. Levels of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, L-cysteine, cystine, and S-adenosylmethionine were measured in pancreas as well as the activities of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and tyrosin phosphatases. Isoprostane, malondialdehyde, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels and lipase activity were measured in plasma and ascites. Lipase activity was measured in white adipose tissue with and without necrosis and confirmed by western blotting. FINDINGS: Under basal conditions obese rats exhibited lower reduced glutathione levels in pancreas and higher triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in plasma than lean rats. S-adenosyl methionine levels were markedly increased in pancreas of obese rats. Acute pancreatitis in obese rats led to glutathione oxidation and lower reduced glutathione levels in pancreas together with decreased activities of redox-sensitive phosphatases PP1, and PP2A. S-adenosyl methionine levels decreased but cystine levels increased markedly in pancreas upon pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis triggered an increase in isoprostane levels in plasma and ascites in obese rats. Free fatty acid levels were extremely high in pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid from obese rats and lipase was bound with great affinity to white adipose tissue, especially to areas of necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that oxidative stress occurs locally and systemically in obese rats with pancreatitis favouring inactivation of protein phosphatases in pancreas, which would promote up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the increase of isoprostanes which might cause powerful pulmonary and renal

  14. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    Most organisms, from cyanobacteria to mammals, are known to use circadian mechanisms to coordinate their activities with the natural 24-hour light/dark cycle and/or interacting socio-ecologic schedules. When the human clock gene was discovered in 1997, it was surprising to see that it was very similar in all earthly life. Recent findings suggest that organisms which evolved on Earth acquired many of the visible and invisible cycles of their habitat and/or of their cosmos. While circadian systems are well documented both time-macroscopically and time-microscopically, the temporal organization of physiological function is much more extensive. Long-term physiological quasi-ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate, among other variables, such as those of the ECG and other tools of the neuroendocrinologic armamentarium, have already yielded information, among others, on circaseptan (about 7-day), transyears and cisyears (with periods slightly longer or shorter tha n one year, respectively), and circadecennian (about 10-year) cycles; the nervous system displays rhythms, chaos and trends, mapped as chronomes. Chronomes are time structures consisting of multifrequency rhythms covering frequencies over 18 orders of magnitude, elements of chaos, trends in chaotic and rhythmic endpoints, and other, as-yet unresolved variability. These resolvable time structures, chronomes, in us have counterparts around us, also consisting of rhythms, trends and chaos, as is increasingly being recognized. In 2000, we began a community-based study, relying on 7-day/24-hour monitoring of blood pressure as a public service. Our goal was the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction and of the decline in cognitive function of the elderly in a community. Chronomic detection of elevated illness-risks aim at the prevention of diseases of individuals, such as myocardial infarctions and strokes, and, equally important, chronomics resolves illness of societies, such as crime and war

  15. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  16. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: The case of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Huffman, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38 percent. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data fro

  17. Assessing Children’s Time-Use in Relation to Physical Fitness and Risks of Obesity and Diabetes: Development of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Guo, J; Santiago-Torres, M; Schoeller, D; Esmond, S; Allen, D; Henderson, M; Rendon, A; Carrel, A

    2016-01-01

    Background This study introduces a novel self-report instrument to measure children’s time-use in physical and sedentary activities and examines the relationships between children’s time-use and physical fitness and risks of obesity and diabetes. Methods The new instrument utilizes a series of timelines, each representing an activity type. 188 children (53% girls) aged 10 to 14 year-old participated in the study. Their time-use data for two weekdays and one weekend day were collected. Anthropometrics and cardiovascular fitness were measured and children’s BMI z-score and PACER z-score were computed. One-time blood draw for fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). Results The reliability assessment of this instrument indicated a moderately reproducible procedure (ICC > 0.6) for six activity types. The validity correlation for motorized travel time was high (r = 0.226, P < 0.05) between self-report instrument and GPS tracks. PACER z-score was positively correlated with time-uses of play (r = 0.159, P < 0.05), and organized sports (r = 0.198, P < 0.05); and was highly inversely correlated with BMI z-score (r = −0.441, P < 0.0001) and HOMAIR (r = −0.472, P < 0.0001). Overall, only 14% of the children had physical activity for more than 60 minutes daily over three observation days. Conclusions This instrument is particularly useful in assessing children’s activity patterns, especially for specific physical activities. The new instrument provides a reproducible measure of children’s perception of their activities. Our results emphasize the temporal context which is critical to formulating effective interventions targeting physical activity increase in children. Further efforts are needed to understand the differences between activity time obtained by the new self-report instrument and GPS tracks.

  18. Interventions for treating obesity in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Hiltje; Baur, Louise; Jansen, Hanneke; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A.; O'Malley, Claire; Stolk, Ronald P.; Summerbell, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly prevalent, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. Objectives To assess the efficacy of lifestyle, drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL o

  19. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  1. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  2. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  3. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  4. The emergence of obesity among indigenous Siberians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, J Josh; Leonard, William R; Sorensen, Mark V; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Alekseev, Vasili P; Krivoshapkin, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Once considered a disease of affluence and confined to industrialized nations, obesity is currently emerging as a major health concern in nearly every country in the world. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of obesity has reached unprecedented levels in most developing countries, and is increasing at a rate that far outpaces that of developed nations. This increase in obesity has also been documented among North American circumpolar populations and is associated with lifestyle changes related to economic development. While obesity has not been well studied among indigenous Siberians, recent anthropological studies indicate that obesity and its associated comorbidities are important health problems.The present study examines recent adult body composition data from four indigenous Siberian populations (Evenki, Ket, Buriat, and Yakut) with two main objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among these groups, and 2) to assess the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the development of excess body fat. The results of this study indicate that obesity has emerged as an important health issue among indigenous Siberians, and especially for women, whose obesity rates are considerably higher than those of men (12% vs. 7%). The present study investigated the association between lifestyle and body composition among the Yakut, and documented substantial sex differences in lifestyle correlates of obesity. Yakut men with higher incomes and who owned more luxury consumer goods were more likely to have excess body fat while, among Yakut women, affluence was not strongly associated with overweight and obesity.

  5. Altered transport and metabolism of phenolic compounds in obesity and diabetes: implications for functional food development and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in application of phenolic compounds from diet or supplements for prevention of chronic diseases has grown significantly, but efficacy of such approaches in humans is largely dependent on the bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds. While food and dietary factors have been the foc...

  6. Rethinking iron regulation and assessment in iron deficiency, the anemia of chronic disease, and obesity: introducing Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins; a vital player in cellular metabolism, and essential to cell growth and differentiation. Tight regulation of iron at the systemic and cytosolic level is necessary bec...

  7. Effects of The Coach Approach Intervention on Adherence to Exercise in Obese Women: Assessing Mediation of Social Cognitive Theory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Unruh, Jennifer L.; Marti, C. Nathan; Gorjala, Srinivasa; Tennant, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The link between physical activity and weight loss has precipitated interest in interventions to foster adherence to exercise. It has been suggested that treatment effects, when significant, should be analyzed to determine theory-based mediators. This research assessed possible mediation of changes in Physical Self-Concept, Exercise Self-Efficacy,…

  8. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment...

  9. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to estimate the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis in Denmark that can be attributed to the occurrence of Salmonella in soy-based animal feed and to assess whether certain serotypes can be considered of less importance to human health. The assessment ...

  10. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends the comment period for 30 days, from Tuesday, September 6, 2011 to Thursday, October 6,...

  11. COL18A1 is highly expressed during human adipocyte differentiation and the SNP c.1136C > T in its "frizzled" motif is associated with obesity in diabetes type 2 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia I.V. Errera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Collagen XVIII can generate two fragments, NC11-728 containing a frizzled motif which possibly acts in Wnt signaling and Endostatin, which is cleaved from the NC1 and is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Collagen XVIII and Wnt signaling have recently been associated with adipogenic differentiation and obesity in some animal models, but not in humans. In the present report, we have shown that COL18A1 expression increases during human adipogenic differentiation. We also tested if polymorphisms in the Frizzled (c.1136C>T; Thr379Met and Endostatin (c.4349G>A; Asp1437Asn regions contribute towards susceptibility to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes (113 obese, BMI =30; 232 non-obese, BMI A and obesity, but we observed a significantly higher frequency of homozygotes c.1136TT in obese (19.5% than in non-obese individuals (10.9% [P = 0.02; OR = 2.0 (95%CI: 1.07-3.73], suggesting that the allele c.1136T is associated to obesity in a recessive model. This genotype, after controlling for cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, was independently associated with obesity (P = 0.048, and increases the chance of obesity in 2.8 times. Therefore, our data suggest the involvement of collagen XVIII in human adipogenesis and susceptibility to obesity.Colágeno XVIII pode gerar dois fragmentos, um correspondendo à região NC11-728 contendo o motivo ''frizzled'', o qual possivelmente atua na sinalização Wnt, e outro correspondendo a Endostatina, que é clivada a partir da região NC1 e é uma potente inibidora de angiogênese. Colágeno XVIII e a via de sinalização Wnt foram recentemente associados à diferenciação adipogênica e obesidade em alguns modelosanimais, porém ainda não em humanos. No presente trabalho, mostramos que os níveis de expressão gênica do COL18A1 aumentam durante o processo de diferenciação adipogênica em humanos. Também testamos se polimorfismos localizados no motivo ''Frizzled'' (c.1136C > T; Thr379Met e na

  12. Gonadal status and outcome of bariatric surgery in obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.O.; Wageningen, B. van; Loves, S.C.; Janssen, I.; Berends, F.; Sweep, F.C.; Boer, H. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity-related hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (OrHH) occurs in over 40% of morbidly obese men. Obesity-related hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism may reduce the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of OrHH on the outcome of bariatric surgery in men. PATIE

  13. Obesity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were

  14. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  15. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2015 Varies Across States and Territories ...

  16. The use of individual cut points from treadmill walking to assess free-living moderate to vigorous physical activity in obese subjects by accelerometry: is it useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadland Eivind

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in counts between subjects at a given speed or work rate are the most important source of error in physical activity (PA measurements with accelerometers. The aim of this study was to explore how the use of individual accelerometer cut points (ICPs affected the analysis of PA field data. Methods We performed a treadmill calibration protocol to determine cut points for moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents and assessed free-living PA in 44 severely obese subjects using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer. We obtained cut points in 42 subjects (11 men, mean (standard deviation of body mass index (BMI 39.8 (5.7, age 43.2 (9.2 years, of whom 35 had valid measurement of free-living PA (minutes of MVPA/day. Linear regression was used to analyze associations with the ICPs and time in MVPA/day. MVPA/day was also compared with values derived using a group cut point (GCP. Results Resting oxygen consumption (partial r = 0.74, p 2 = 14%, p = .023, coefficient of variation = 45.1%. Conclusions The results indicate that the use of ICPs had a strong influence on the PA level. Two thirds of the variation in the ICPs could be explained, however, a certain degree of measurement error will be present. Thus, we are not able to conclude with respect to the most appropriate procedure for analyzing time in MVPA.

  17. Depression and Anxiety in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiologic data suggests an association between obesity and depression. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity who applied to the endocrinology department and to determine the pattern of the depression and anxiety symptom levels in obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis.Materials and Methods: 62 patients with obesity (obesity group and 27 control subjects (control group attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic were included in the study. Body mass index was calculated and diagnostic psychiatric assessment carried out for all patients. All participants were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A].Results: Total scores obtained both from HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in the obesity group than in the control group. The most common psychiatric diagnose among obese patients was depression. Nearly more than half of the obese patients without any psychiatric diagnosis marked one of the HAM-D items which describes depressed mood, guilt feeling, somatic anxiety, work and activity loss and general somatic symptoms as well as the items within the HAM-A scale which describes anxious mood, tension, cognitive difficulties, insomnia, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and autonomic symptoms.Conclusion: Most common psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity was major depressive disorder. Obese patients who have not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder also show certain anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients having any psychiatric disorder may be due to the psychosocial effects of obesity and these symptoms should be followed up in obese patients so that

  18. Periodontal innate immune mechanisms relevant to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, S; Leeman, S

    2013-10-01

    Obesity affects over 35% of the adult population of the USA, and obesity-related illnesses have emerged as the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Obesity's secondary morbidities include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and cancer, in addition to increased occurrence and severity of infections. Sedentary lifestyle and weight gain caused by consumption of a high-fat diet contribute to the development of obesity, with individuals having a body mass index (BMI) score > 30 being considered obese. Genetic models of obesity (ob/ob mice, db/db mice, and fa/fa rats) have been insufficient to study human obesity because of the overall lack of genetic causes for obesity in human populations. To date, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model best serves research studies relevant to human health. Periodontal disease presents with a wide range of clinical variability and severity. Research in the past decade has shed substantial light on both the initiating infectious agents and host immunological responses in periodontal disease. Up to 46% of the general population harbors the microorganism(s) associated with periodontal disease, although many are able to limit the progression of periodontal disease or even clear the organism(s) if infected. In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have found an association between obesity and increased incidence of periodontal disease. This review focuses on exploring the immunological consequences of obesity that exacerbate effects of infection by pathogens, with focus on infection by the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis as a running example.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Overweight and Obesity Among a Multiethnic Population of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L; Lupo, Philip J; Danysh, Heather E; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Kamdar, Kala Y

    2016-08-01

    As previous studies of obesity in survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have primarily been conducted among non-Hispanic white survivors or children treated on older protocols, our objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of overweight status among an ethnically diverse population of pediatric ALL survivors, largely treated with more contemporary therapies. We evaluated the overweight/obesity status of pediatric ALL survivors (n=406) followed in the Texas Children's Cancer Center between 2004 and 2014. Survivors were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese on the basis of their body mass index at their most current follow-up visit. Our results showed that Hispanic ethnicity (39% of the subjects) was associated with being overweight (adjusted odds ratio=1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.14) or obese (adjusted odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-5.06) at follow-up, even after adjusting for cranial radiotherapy (CRT) exposure. Body mass index z-score at diagnosis was also associated with overweight/obesity at follow-up. In addition, there was a statistically significant interaction between younger age at diagnosis and CRT, indicating that younger age at diagnosis was associated with obesity among patients who received CRT. These findings may help identify pediatric ALL patients that are at increased risk of being overweight or obese after treatment.

  20. Human monoclonal antibodies against glucagon receptor improve glucose homeostasis by suppression of hepatic glucose output in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Dong Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Glucagon is an essential regulator of hepatic glucose production (HGP, which provides an alternative therapeutic target for managing type 2 diabetes with glucagon antagonists. We studied the effect of a novel human monoclonal antibody against glucagon receptor (GCGR, NPB112, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. METHODS: The glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of NPB112 were investigated in DIO mice with human GCGR for 11 weeks, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was conducted to measure HGP. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal injection of NPB112 with 5 mg/kg effectively decreased blood glucose levels in DIO mice for 5 days. A significant reduction in blood glucose was observed in DIO mice treated with NPB112 at a dose ≥5 mg/kg for 6 weeks, and its glucose-lowering effect was dose-dependent. Long-term administration of NPB112 also caused a mild 29% elevation in glucagon level, which was returned to the normal range after discontinuation of treatment. The clamp study showed that DIO mice injected with NPB112 at 5 mg/kg were more insulin sensitive than control mice, indicating amelioration of insulin resistance by treatment with NPB112. DIO mice treated with NPB112 showed a significant improvement in the ability of insulin to suppress HGP, showing a 33% suppression (from 8.3 mg/kg/min to 5.6 mg/kg/min compared to the 2% suppression (from 9.8 mg/kg/min to 9.6 mg/kg/min in control mice. In addition, no hypoglycemia or adverse effect was observed during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A novel human monoclonal GCGR antibody, NPB112, effectively lowered the glucose level in diabetic animal models with mild and reversible hyperglucagonemia. Suppression of excess HGP with NPB112 may be a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  1. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) Affects Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation without Systemic Effects in Humans and in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Essen, P. van; Diepen, J.A. van; Jansen, H.J.; Hijmans, A.G.; Matsuguchi, T.; Sparrer, H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Stienstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose ti

  2. Randomized trial on the effects of a 7-d low-glycemic diet and exercise intervention on insulin resistance in older obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R

    2009-01-01

    The optimal combination of diet and exercise that produces the greatest reversal of obesity-related insulin resistance is unknown.......The optimal combination of diet and exercise that produces the greatest reversal of obesity-related insulin resistance is unknown....

  3. Why Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    As Erwin Chargaff observed, "Scientific autobiography belongs to a most awkward literary genre," and mine is no exception. In reviewing my scientific life, I contrast the nutritional influences that would have existed had I been born 100 or 200 years earlier than I actually was. With this background, I trace the influences on my formative years in science beginning in high school and ending as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor E.B. Astwood's laboratory, when my directional sails were set and obesity was the compass heading. With this heading, the need for organized national and international meetings on obesity and the need for a scientific journal dealing with obesity as its subject matter became evident and occupied considerable energy over the next 30 years. The next section of this memoir traces the wanderings of an itinerant academic who moved from Boston to Los Angeles and finally to Baton Rouge. The influence of Sir William Osler's idea that there is a time for education, a time for scholarship, a time for teaching, and time to retire has always been a guide to allocating time ever since I was an intern at Johns Hopkins Hospital. It was in Baton Rouge that the final phase began: I agreed to become the first full-time executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a decision that changed my life. The article ends with a quotation from Tennessee Williams that reflects the theater, which has given me so much pleasure over the years: "There is a time for departure even when there's no certain place to go."

  4. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  6. Central nervous system lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase is correlated with orexigenic neuropeptides, visceral adiposity and markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E; Benrick, A; Behre, C J; Ekman, R; Zetterberg, H; Stenlöf, K; Wallenius, V

    2011-06-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase (L-PGDS) is the main producer of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Animal data suggest effects of central nervous L-PGDS in the regulation of food intake and obesity. No human data are available. We hypothesised that a role for CNS L-PGDS in metabolic function in humans would be reflected by correlations with known orexigenic neuropeptides. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were retrieved from 26 subjects in a weight loss study, comprising a 3-week dietary lead-in followed by 12-weeks of leptin or placebo treatment. At baseline, CSF L-PGDS was positively correlated with neuropeptide Y (NPY) (ρ = 0.695, P obesity by interaction with the neuroendocrine circuits regulating appetite and fat distribution. Further interventional studies will be needed to characterise these interactions in more detail.

  7. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-11-14

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  8. Rai1 haploinsufficiency causes reduced Bdnf expression resulting in hyperphagia, obesity and altered fat distribution in mice and humans with no evidence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brooke; Schmidt, Kristie; Williams, Stephen R; Kim, Sun; Girirajan, Santhosh; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-10-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene. In addition to intellectual disabilities, behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbances, a majority of children with SMS also have significant early-onset obesity. To study the role of RAI1 in obesity, we investigated the growth and obesity phenotype in a mouse model haploinsufficient for Rai1. Data show that Rai1(+/-) mice are hyperphagic, have an impaired satiety response and have altered abdominal and subcutaneous fat distribution, with Rai1(+/-) female mice having a higher proportion of abdominal fat when compared with wild-type female mice. Expression analyses revealed that Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a gene previously associated with hyperphagia and obesity, is downregulated in the Rai1(+/-) mouse hypothalamus, and reporter studies show that RAI1 directly regulates the expression of BDNF. Even though the Rai1(+/-) mice are significantly obese, serum analyses do not reveal any evidence of metabolic syndrome. Supporting these findings, a caregiver survey revealed that even though a high incidence of abdominal obesity is observed in females with SMS, they did not exhibit a higher incidence of indicators of metabolic syndrome above the general population. We conclude that Rai1 haploinsufficiency represents a single-gene model of obesity with hyperphagia, abnormal fat distribution and altered hypothalamic gene expression associated with satiety, food intake, behavior and obesity. Linking RAI1 and BDNF provides a more thorough understanding of the role of Rai1 in growth and obesity and insight into the complex pathogenicity of obesity, behavior and sex-specific differences in adiposity.

  9. Quantitative Methods in Toxicology for Human Dose-Response Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer HJ; Jansen EHJM; Zeilmaker MJ; van Kranen HJ; Kroese ED; TOX; LCM

    1995-01-01

    Het proces van de humane risicoschatting kan verdeeld worden in risico-identificatie, vaststellen van dosis-respons relaties, vaststellen van blootstelling en risico-karakterisering. In de humane risicoschatting worden kwantitatieve methoden en modellen toegepast. Welk model dient te worden toegep

  10. Obesity: the preventive role of the pomegranate (Punica granatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muammar, May Nasser; Khan, Fozia

    2012-06-01

    Obesity represents a rapidly growing threat to the health of populations in an increasing number of countries. Diet intervention has been proposed as one of the strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance. Traditionally, the pomegranate, including its roots, tree bark, fruit juice, leaves, and flowers, has been used to treat some conditions such as diarrhea, hemorrhage, acidosis, and microbial infections. Pomegranate extracts have been found to have strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and even antitumor properties in vivo and in vitro. More recently, positive effects on fat reduction have been shown using the pomegranate and its extracts. Many of the beneficial effects are related to the presence of anthocyanins, tannins, and very high levels of antioxidants, including polyphenols and flavonoids. Many studies have explored the effects of the pomegranate in obesity, and various mechanisms have been proposed as to how these different extracts help in fat reduction. This article provides an overview of the work done addressing the potential benefits of the pomegranate on obesity and assesses the efficacy of intervention by means of the pomegranate and its extracts. Human studies in this field are still limited and need more attention that would help in understanding the preventive and protective roles pomegranate extracts have on obesity.

  11. Assessing the efficacy of the healthy eating and lifestyle programme (HELP compared with enhanced standard care of the obese adolescent in the community: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the foremost UK health priorities. Childhood obesity tracks into adult life and places individuals at considerable risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and other morbidities. There is widespread need for paediatric lifestyle programmes as change may be easier to accomplish in childhood than later in life. Study Design/Method The study will evaluate the management of adolescent obesity by conducting a Medical Research Council complex intervention phase III efficacy randomised clinical trial of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme within primary care. The study tests a community delivered multi-component intervention designed for adolescents developed from best practice as identified by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The hospital based pilot reduced body mass index and improved health-related quality of life. Subjects will be individually randomised to receiving either the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme (12 fortnightly family sessions or enhanced standard care. Baseline and follow up assessments will be undertaken blind to allocation status. A health economic evaluation is also being conducted. 200 obese young people (13-17 years, body mass index > 98th centile for age and sex will be recruited from primary care within the greater London area. The primary hypothesis is that a motivational and solution-focused family-based weight management programme delivered over 6 months is more efficacious in reducing body mass index in obese adolescents identified in the community than enhanced standard care. The primary outcome will be body mass index at the end of the intervention, adjusted for baseline body mass index, age and sex. The secondary hypothesis is that the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme is more efficacious in improving quality of life and psychological function and reducing waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in

  12. Towards Web Documents Quality Assessment for Digital Humanities Scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceolin, D.; Noordegraaf, J.; Aroyo, L.; van Son, C.; Wolfgang, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for assessing the quality of Web documents, and a baseline of three quality dimensions: trustworthiness, objectivity and basic scholarly quality. Assessing Web document quality is a "deep data" problem necessitating approaches to handle both data size and complexity.

  13. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective